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Sample records for kuznetsk basin russia

  1. An approach to development of an information geomechanical structural model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Yushkin, V.F.; Kiril'tseva, N.A.; Izotov, A.S.

    2006-05-15

    The geographic information system designed at the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry for the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and the non-linear geomechanics researches undertaken at the Institute of Mining has served the basis for analyzing the hierarchical structure of geological faults in the Anzherskiy economic district (Kemerovo Region). The analysis is performed by a new canonical scale for structural-hierarchical representations with base root 2, where A and x are the normalized functionally related values. The recommendations are given on how to utilize the geoinformation system of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in order to obtain a graphical-analytical representation and a system analysis of experimental geomechanical data.

  2. Hydrogeological condition patterns of Kuznetsk Basin coalbed methane fields for estimating hydrodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Gridasov; Konstantin, Kuzevanov; Anna, Bogdanova

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the natural regional conditions and key formation factors of groundwater dynamics. Characteristic hydrogeological structure elements for Kuznetsk Basin coal were identified providing parameter-oriented hydrodynamic calculations and hydrogeological models in predicting coalbed methane mining impact on the regional groundwater.

  3. Assessment of the prospects of development of in situ coal gasification in the Kuznetsk Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Myasnikov, A.A.; Lazarenko, S.N.

    1995-07-01

    Under present-day conditions, when the problem of raw material resources is becoming especially acute, when problems of cost reduction, increase of labor productivity, and especially environmental protection have gone beyond the bounds of just mining problems, the development of in situ coal gasification (ICG) is beginning to acquire importance. Any coal grades with almost any ash content can be subjected to in situ gasification. Furthermore, the methane content of hard coal, being a complicating factor in underground mining, is used for increasing the energy efficiency of the ICG process. The unconditional prospects of the in situ coal gasification method is recognized both in this country and abroad. The repeatedly noted great significance of ICG for the Kuznetsk basin (Kuzbas) was not specific, and therefore the time has come to detail the prospects and scale of development of ICG in the Kuzbas. An analysis of the prospects of development of the ICG method in the Kuzbas provides for a study of the given problem in economic, geological and ecological aspects. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness and expediency of developing the ICG method in the Kuzbas presumes first of all a detailed study of the fuel balance of the Kuznetsk basin, a comparison of the coal and gas components of this balance, and determination of the gaseous fuel (which the gas of ICG is) requirement of enterprises of the Kuzbas. The total fuel consumption in the Kemerovo region in 1990 was 19.7 million tons standard fuel, of which coal fuel was 16.7 million tons standard fuel. Retention of the primary use of solid fuel is anticipated in the near future in the fuel balance of Siberia, including in the Kemerovo region.

  4. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mogutcheva, N.K.

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  5. Peculiarities of distribution of gas-dynamic manifestations in mines of the Kuznetsk coal basin by days of the weekly cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Ludzish, V.S.; Kulakov, G.I.; Rudakov, V.A.

    2005-04-01

    The peculiarities of the origin of gas-dynamic events (rock, coal, and gas outbursts, methane ignition) in the Kuznetsk Basin mines in 1988 - 2004 are analyzed. A review is presented for information on recent accident and injury rate caused by disastrous gas-dynamic manifestations. The effect of bimodal frequency distribution of gas-dynamic events generated by explosion and burning of methane is revealed within a generalized weekly cycle.

  6. Signature of Cenozoic orogenic movements in combustion metamorphic rocks: mineralogy and geochronology (example of the Salair-Kuznetsk Basin transition)

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, I.S.; Sokol, E.V.; Travin, A.V.; Novikova, S.A.

    2008-06-15

    Cenozoic combustion metamorphic (CM) complexes produced by fossil natural coal fires are widespread at range-basin junctions worldwide. Large-scale fires accompany the initial orogenic phases as fresh coal-bearing strata become drawn into the aeration zone as a result of crustal deformation. In combustion metamorphism, the protolith melts to different degrees either into ferrous basic paralava or in glassy clinker. The melt rocks have a phase composition favorable for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of ignition coeval with the onset of each episode in Late Cenozoic orogenic events. We suggest an algorithm providing correct Ar-40/Ar-39 age determination of CM rocks followed by well-grounded geological interpretation and test the new approach on melt rocks from the Kuznetsk Coal Basin. Paralava samples were dated by Ar-40/Ar-39 incremental heating and the isotope ratios were corrected for Ca-, Cl-, and K-derived Ar isotopic interferences. The interpretation of age-spectrum results was checked against internal and external criteria. The former were plateau and isochrone ages and the latter included the so-called 'couple criterion' and conventional relative ages inferred from geological and stratigraphic evidence. As a result, we distinguished two groups of dates for combustion metamorphic events bracketed between 1.2 {+-} 0.4 and 0.2 {+-} 0.3 Ma. The older ages represent rocks in the western edge of the Prokopievsk-Kiselevsk block of the Salair zone and the younger dates correspond to those in its eastern edge. The reported dates record the time when the fault boundaries of the blocks were rejuvenated during recent activity and the block accreted to the Salair orogenic area as a submontane step. The suggested approach to the choice of objects, classification of rocks, and interpretation of Ar-40/Ar-39 spectra is universal and can be practiced in any area of combustion metamorphism.

  7. On information-provided monitoring of geodynamic processes in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in the conditions of highly intensive sub-soil usage

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Tanaino, A.S.

    2006-09-15

    It is shown that formation of underground hollows of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin (Kuzbass), induced by opencut and underground mining has reached an intensity of 1.3-1.5 million m{sup 3}/day. In the conditions of high concentration of mines and open-cuts in small areas, a regional monitoring network is required in view of a generated geomechanical space, hazardous in geodynamic manifestations. A developed information support of this network is presented, including information models of a geological environment and database obtained from instrumental observations on geomechanical processes. The equations of connection between structural and strength characteristics of rocks, their metamorphization grade and occurrence depth are given for five geological-tectonic zones of the Kuzbass as a way of prediction of their properties.

  8. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  9. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  10. Basin Modelling of the Laptev Sea Rift, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Gaedicke, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Laptev Sea Rift in the northeastern Arctic shelf area of Russia is a standard example for an oceanic rift system that propagates into a continent and plays an important role in the geodynamic models for the opening of the Eurasia Basin. To better understand the evolution of this rift, a basin modelling study was carried out with the software PetroMod®. The software simulates and analyses the burial history and temperature evolution of a sedimentary basin. It is a dynamic forward simulation based on the finite element method. The modelled section used in this study is based on a depth converted seismic section, acquired by the BGR. The section covers the Anisin Basin and is characterized by listric normal faults. The numerical simulation was supported by tectonic and sedimentological field data sets that were collected in outcrops during the CASE 13 expedition in 2011. Normal faults in outcrops were analysed using fault-slip inversion techniques to derive the paleo-extension direction. The presence of normal faults in relatively unconsolidated Paleogene sediments and in Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks, indicate very young extension in the area of the New Siberian Islands. The conceptual model for the simulation was built on the basis of the seismic data and the properties of the rocks and sediments observed in the outcrops. Initial results show that the present-day temperature field in the area of the Anisin Basin is characterized by seafloor-parallel isotherms. In the central part of the graben structure, the isotherms are slightly bent down and the heat-flow is reduced, probably due to blanketing effects. An extracted geohistory curve is almost linear and implies that subsidence controlled by faults is the dominating mechanism. From the simulation, sedimentation rates are derived that were highest in the early Paleocene phase of graben development and decreased in the late Eocene.

  11. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  12. Basin-centered gas accumulation in the Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Law. B.E. ); Bogatsky, V.; Danileksky, S.; Galkina, L. )

    1996-01-01

    As a consequence of the USAID-funded program between the USGS and ROSCOMNEDRA, a very large basin-centered gas accumulation has been identified in Permian orogenic flysch and molasse rocks in the pre-Ural (Kosyu-Rogov) depression of the Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia. In the Timan-Pechora Basin the Artinskian, Kungurian, and Ufimian (Leonardian-Guadalupian) gas-bearing sequence is as thick as 2,000 in and is composed of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. Sandstone porosity ranges from 3 to 15% and permeability is commonly less than 0.1 md. Drill-stem and production tests indicate that these rocks are gas saturated with little or no producible water. Pore pressures are abnormally high with gradients of about 0.50 to 0.60 psi/ft. The source of the gas is most likely the interbedded coals and other carbonaceous lithologies. The organic carbon content of these rocks, exclusive of coal, ranges from <0.2 to 4.0 weight percent, averaging 1.5%. The top of the gas accumulation is interpreted to cut across structural and stratigraphic boundaries similar to basin-centered gas accumulations in North America. However, south of the Kosyu-Rogov depression, coal-bearing Kungurian rocks have undergone a facies change into evaporates, forming a regional seal that extends southward into the Volga-Ural Province. The southern extent of the gas accumulation below the evaporate seal is unknown, but it may extend far to the south, making it one of the largest gas accumulations in the world.

  13. Basin-centered gas accumulation in the Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Law. B.E.; Bogatsky, V.; Danileksky, S.; Galkina, L.

    1996-12-31

    As a consequence of the USAID-funded program between the USGS and ROSCOMNEDRA, a very large basin-centered gas accumulation has been identified in Permian orogenic flysch and molasse rocks in the pre-Ural (Kosyu-Rogov) depression of the Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia. In the Timan-Pechora Basin the Artinskian, Kungurian, and Ufimian (Leonardian-Guadalupian) gas-bearing sequence is as thick as 2,000 in and is composed of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. Sandstone porosity ranges from 3 to 15% and permeability is commonly less than 0.1 md. Drill-stem and production tests indicate that these rocks are gas saturated with little or no producible water. Pore pressures are abnormally high with gradients of about 0.50 to 0.60 psi/ft. The source of the gas is most likely the interbedded coals and other carbonaceous lithologies. The organic carbon content of these rocks, exclusive of coal, ranges from <0.2 to 4.0 weight percent, averaging 1.5%. The top of the gas accumulation is interpreted to cut across structural and stratigraphic boundaries similar to basin-centered gas accumulations in North America. However, south of the Kosyu-Rogov depression, coal-bearing Kungurian rocks have undergone a facies change into evaporates, forming a regional seal that extends southward into the Volga-Ural Province. The southern extent of the gas accumulation below the evaporate seal is unknown, but it may extend far to the south, making it one of the largest gas accumulations in the world.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  17. Chapter 18: Geology and petroleum potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province represents the northeastern-most cratonic block of Eastern European Russia. More than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered in this basin. Three geological assessment units (AU) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The NW Izhma Depression AU encompasses all potential structures and reservoirs in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, but this part of the basin contains little source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively. The Main Basin Platform AU includes all structures and reservoirs that developed in the central part of the basin where the tectonic evolution and development of petroleum systems were complex. The Foredeep Basins AU includes all potential reservoirs within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins developed during the Permo-Triassic Uralian Orogeny. For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG and 0.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL). For the areas of the AUs north of the Arctic Circle in the Timan- Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG and 0.2 BBNGL. The Pechora Sea was assessed with the South Barents Sea Province and is not included in this assessment. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  19. Permafrost and infrastructure in the usa Basin (Northeast European Russia): possible impacts of global warming.

    PubMed

    Mazhitova, Galina; Karstkarel, Nanka; Oberman, Naum; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Kuhry, Peter

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a high level of urban and industrial development (e.g., towns, coal mines, hydrocarbon extraction sites, railway, pipelines). GIS-analyses indicate that about 60% of all infrastructure is located in the 'high risk' permafrost area, here defined as the zones of isolated to discontinuous permafrost (3-90% coverage) with 'warm' ground temperatures (0 to -2 degrees C). Ground monitoring, aerial photo interpretation, and permafrost modeling suggest a differential response to future global warming. Most of the permafrost-affected terrain will likely start to thaw within a few decades to a century. This forecast poses serious challenges to permafrost engineering and calls for long-term investments in adequate infrastructure that will pay back overtime. PMID:15387061

  20. Permafrost and infrastructure in the usa Basin (Northeast European Russia): possible impacts of global warming.

    PubMed

    Mazhitova, Galina; Karstkarel, Nanka; Oberman, Naum; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Kuhry, Peter

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a high level of urban and industrial development (e.g., towns, coal mines, hydrocarbon extraction sites, railway, pipelines). GIS-analyses indicate that about 60% of all infrastructure is located in the 'high risk' permafrost area, here defined as the zones of isolated to discontinuous permafrost (3-90% coverage) with 'warm' ground temperatures (0 to -2 degrees C). Ground monitoring, aerial photo interpretation, and permafrost modeling suggest a differential response to future global warming. Most of the permafrost-affected terrain will likely start to thaw within a few decades to a century. This forecast poses serious challenges to permafrost engineering and calls for long-term investments in adequate infrastructure that will pay back overtime.

  1. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Dnieper-Donets basin is almost entirely in Ukraine, and it is the principal producer of hydrocarbons in that country. A small southeastern part of the basin is in Russia. The basin is bounded by the Voronezh high of the Russian craton to the northeast and by the Ukrainian shield to the southwest. The basin is principally a Late Devonian rift that is overlain by a Carboniferous to Early Permian postrift sag. The Devonian rift structure extends northwestward into the Pripyat basin of Belarus; the two basins are separated by the Bragin-Loev uplift, which is a Devonian volcanic center. Southeastward, the Dnieper-Donets basin has a gradational boundary with the Donbas foldbelt, which is a structurally inverted and deformed part of the basin. The sedimentary succession of the basin consists of four tectono-stratigraphic sequences. The prerift platform sequence includes Middle Devonian to lower Frasnian, mainly clastic, rocks that were deposited in an extensive intracratonic basin. 1 The Upper Devonian synrift sequence probably is as thick as 4?5 kilometers. It is composed of marine carbonate, clastic, and volcanic rocks and two salt formations, of Frasnian and Famennian age, that are deformed into salt domes and plugs. The postrift sag sequence consists of Carboniferous and Lower Permian clastic marine and alluvial deltaic rocks that are as thick as 11 kilometers in the southeastern part of the basin. The Lower Permian interval includes a salt formation that is an important regional seal for oil and gas fields. The basin was affected by strong compression in Artinskian (Early Permian) time, when southeastern basin areas were uplifted and deeply eroded and the Donbas foldbelt was formed. The postrift platform sequence includes Triassic through Tertiary rocks that were deposited in a shallow platform depression that extended far beyond the Dnieper-Donets basin boundaries. A single total petroleum system encompassing the entire sedimentary succession is identified in

  2. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  3. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  5. Coalbed methane potential of the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Yakutseni, V.P.; Petrova, Y.E. ); Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the more important geologic attributes of coal beds in the coalbed methane producing regions of the United States to Permian coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia indicates a high potential for commercial coalbed methane production. Although the depositional and structural histories, as well as the age, of the coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are different than coal beds in U.S. basins, coal quality attributes are similar. The more prospective part of the coal-bearing sequence is as thick as 1600 m and contains more than 150 coal beds that individually are as thick as 4 m. These coal beds are composed primarily of rank ranges from subbituminous to anthracite (,0.5->2.5% R[sub 0]), with the highest rank coal located near the city of Vorkuta. Published data indicates that the gas content of coals is as high as 28-35 m[sup 3]/ton, with an average value of 18 m[sup 3]/ton. About 700 MMCM of gas per year is emmitted from coal mines. Pore pressures in the coal beds are unknown, however, interbedded sandstones in some parts of the basin are overpressured. The commonly occurring problem, in mid-latitude coalbed methane well, of excessive amounts of water may be alleviated in this high-latitude coal field. We suggest that the wide-spread occurrence of permafrost in the Pechora Coalfield may form an effective barrier to down-dip water flow, thereby facilitating the dewatering state. In summary, the quality of coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are similar to methane producing coal beds in the United States and should, therefore, be favorable for commercial rates of gas production.

  6. Coalbed methane potential of the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Yakutseni, V.P.; Petrova, Y.E.; Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison of the more important geologic attributes of coal beds in the coalbed methane producing regions of the United States to Permian coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia indicates a high potential for commercial coalbed methane production. Although the depositional and structural histories, as well as the age, of the coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are different than coal beds in U.S. basins, coal quality attributes are similar. The more prospective part of the coal-bearing sequence is as thick as 1600 m and contains more than 150 coal beds that individually are as thick as 4 m. These coal beds are composed primarily of rank ranges from subbituminous to anthracite (,0.5->2.5% R{sub 0}), with the highest rank coal located near the city of Vorkuta. Published data indicates that the gas content of coals is as high as 28-35 m{sup 3}/ton, with an average value of 18 m{sup 3}/ton. About 700 MMCM of gas per year is emmitted from coal mines. Pore pressures in the coal beds are unknown, however, interbedded sandstones in some parts of the basin are overpressured. The commonly occurring problem, in mid-latitude coalbed methane well, of excessive amounts of water may be alleviated in this high-latitude coal field. We suggest that the wide-spread occurrence of permafrost in the Pechora Coalfield may form an effective barrier to down-dip water flow, thereby facilitating the dewatering state. In summary, the quality of coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are similar to methane producing coal beds in the United States and should, therefore, be favorable for commercial rates of gas production.

  7. Prospects for use of lean caking coal from the Kuznetsk coalfield for coking

    SciTech Connect

    Sulimov, G.I.; Agafonov, A.A.; Ol'shanetskii, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The coals from the Kuznetsk Coalfield were investigated under laboratory and pilot-plant conditions and compared with coals of various rank from the Anzhero Coalfield. The coals from the South of the Kuzbass have a more favorable petrographic composition than the Anzhero coals; their volatile matter depends on the rank; the caking capacity is low; the plastic layer is not measured, and the swelling index is also low. The lean coal types are coked in charges containing Kuznetsk and Pechora coal. The criterion for evaluation of the coking capacity was the coke mechanical strength indices, obtained during testing in the large grate drum. 1 figure, 4 tables.

  8. Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.

  9. The Timan-Pechora Basin province of northwest Arctic Russia; Domanik, Paleozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Domanik-Paleozoic oil-prone total petroleum system covers most of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province of northwestern Arctic Russia. It contains nearly 20 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (66% oil). West of the province is the early Precambrian Eastern European craton margin. The province itself was the site of periodic Paleozoic tectonic events, culminating with the Hercynian Uralian orogeny along its eastern border. The stratigraphic record is dominated by Paleozoic platform and shelf-edge carbonates succeeded by Upper Permian to Triassic molasse siliciclastics that are locally present in depressions. Upper Devonian (Frasnian), deep marine shale and limestone source rocks ? with typically 5 wt % total organic carbon ? by middle Mesozoic time had generated hydrocarbons that migrated into reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Triassic but most focused in Devonian and Permian rocks. Carboniferous structural inversions of old aulacogen borders, and Hercynian (Permian) to Early Cimmerian (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) orogenic compression not only impacted depositional patterns, but also created and subsequently modified numerous structural traps within the province.

  10. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the

  11. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  12. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules. PMID:27615928

  13. Reconstructing the small river basin sediment budget and associated particle-bound contaminants redistribution (Chern River, European Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Aseeva, Elena; Golosov, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstruction of the basin-scale sediment budget and associated particle-bound pollutants redistribution was carried out within the upper part of the Chern River basin (133 km2). It involved application of integrated approach based on use of several independent techniques. The study river basin is located on the border between the Orel and Kursk Regions of the Central European Russia nearby the Mikhailovskiy opencast iron ore mine and processing plant, which are believed to be the main local sources of air-borne pollutants. In addition, the basin was contaminated by radionuclide fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Combination of geomorphic, geochemical, soil survey and geodetic methods has allowed authors to evaluate dynamics of sediment and contaminants redistribution for the last 50 years (since the beginning of a mining activity) within the upper part of the basin upstream from the reservoir, located in the middle reach of the main valley. Main techniques applied were field description of soil or sediment sections, the 137Cs radioactive tracer (for estimation average soil loss rates from eroding cultivated hillslopes and for reconstruction of accumulation rates and sediment microstratigraphy for deposition locations such as main river floodplain and bottoms of small dry valleys), chemical analysis (content of selected heavy metals and As - both in mobile forms by atomic absorption spectroscopy and total by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, organic C content, pH), geomorphic and detailed geodetic survey of selected key sections of the Chern River floodplain, calculation of average soil erosion rates for cultivated area of the studied part of the basin by the empirical model. In addition, two detailed bottom sediment cores were taken from the reservoir bottom which intercepts practically all the sediment delivered from the upper part of the basin. Integrating the obtained data, it has been found out that substantial changes of the sediment budget took

  14. Technique for the long-term projections of water balance components for northern river basins of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy; Nasonova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present work is a development of a technique for a long-term projection of changes in water resources of northern rivers of Russia caused by climate change. The technique is based on the land surface model SWAP and information on the land surface parameters taken from global data sets. SWAP is a physically-based model. A good accuracy of simulating different characteristics of the water and energy regimes under different conditions and on different spatial scales was confirmed by numerous validation of the model against measured data. As a result, it was concluded that SWAP can be a good tool for simulation of water balance components for various river basins both for the current climatic conditions and for the future ones. The northern river basins of Russia are covered with a sparse network of meteorological stations and poorly provided with land surface parameters. The latter was overcome by application of global data sets on land surface characteristics. Evidently, that direct application of such information leads to a low accuracy of model simulations. To improve the quality of river runoff modeling the main land surface parameters were calibrated using the SCE-UA algorithm and river runoff measurements. Optimization of model parameters has significantly improved the agreement between measured and simulated streamflow of northern rivers. The Nash-Satcliffe efficiency for the modeled daily streamflow varied from 0.70 to 0.85 and the absolute bias values reached 1-10 %. That allowed us to use the SWAP model for hydrological projections. In order to make sure that the land surface parameters, obtained for the modern period, remain valid in projection periods, the following investigation was carried out. For the Northern Dvina River, model transposability in time under contracted climate conditions was analyzed. In so doing, model calibration and validation was performed for contrasted climatic conditions in terms of temperature and precipitation

  15. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

  16. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  17. Creation of of the National GIS system «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia: Spatial Analysis, Assessment and Modeling»

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Oleg; Gilyazov, Albert; Ivanov, Maksim; Kharchenko, Sergei; Maltsev, Kirill; Mozzherin, Vadim; Muharamova, Svetlana; Shynbergenov, Erlan

    2016-04-01

    Problem-oriented geographic information system and geoportal «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia» is proposed to form the base for investigations concerned to assessment and prognosis of geo-ecological state of river basins belonging to the European Russia (approx. 4 million of sq. km. in total). This large part of Russia concentrates the predominant part of country's population, industrial and agricultural potential. Actuality of assessment and prognosis of the environmental state for the chosen territory is caused by the increasing anthropogenic influence onto the basin geosystems of Russia and triggering negative riverbed-erosion processes, shifts of river runoff regimes, and lack of drinking water resources. These problems are demanding for examination of the response of the basin geosystems from various landscape zones to the anthropogenic impact, and the climate change, for understanding, predicting and managing streamflow. Assessment of river basins and changes occurring in them is based on a complex spatial-temporal analysis of long-term monitoring data, the use of remote sensing and maps of state surveys. All available geo-information will be integrated into the multi-function, problem-oriented GIS. Proposed approaches of investigation: cartographic and geoinformational methods, automated procedures of territory zoning, automated procedures of interpretation of remote sensing images, modern statistical methods of analysis (geostatistics, statistical and mathematical models). Study area: the European Part of Russia (except for mountainous areas). Scale studies (level of spatial detail): Regional (corresponding to a scale 1: 1 000 000). The object of study: Geosystems river basins. Subject of study: - The development of GIS; - Analysis of the spatial and temporal relationships of river runoff; - Quantitative assessment of the current geo-ecological state of European Russia river basins. Scientific novelty of

  18. Structural development and petroleum potential of the Dagestan foreland thrust belt, Terek-Caspian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Sobornov, K. )

    1994-07-01

    The Dagestan foreland thrust belt represents a transition zone between the Terek-Caspian basin and Caucasus. Boreholes and seismic data obtained during the last decade in the course of petroleum exploration reveal considerable differences between the surface and subsurface structures of the area. The new data suggest that the allochthonous assemblage of the belt is formed mainly by stacked north-verging thrust sheets made up mostly of Mesozoic carbonates and sandstones bounded at the top and bottom by conjugate detachment surfaces. The thrust sheets are interpreted to be inserted into the clastic section of the Terek-Caspian foredeep along the base of Oligocene-early Miocene mudstones. The interpreted geometry of the thrust-belt front implies a shortening of about 20-50 km. The blind subsurface thrusts have been active since late Miocene and Holocene. The interpreted structural relationships between Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic units imply that principal thrusts were formed due to reactivation and inversion of low-angle normal faults, which were active in the Jurassic - early Miocene. Mechanical weakness and low density of the overpressured Oligocene - lower Miocene Maykop Formation aided subsurface thrusting. The new interpretation of the regional structure offers a petroleum exploration play consisting of structural traps within the buried antiformal stacks. Oil- and gas-bearing Upper Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks involved in thrust sheets are considered primary prospecting targets.

  19. Assessment of hydrological extremes in the basins of Shilka and Argun rivers (Far East of Russia) in changing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Daria; Semenova, Olga; Vinogradova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Transbaikal region of Russia is formed by the basins of the Argun and Shilka Rivers (the upreaches of the Amur River). This region is simultaneously under the flood and drought hazard threat due to the combination of dry continental climate and monsoon impacts. Observed intensification of extreme hazard events in the region requires the scientific base of development of adaptation and mitigation measures. The aim of the study is the analysis of long-term variability of hydrological characteristics of the region by the means of mathematical statistics and projection of hydrological extremes in changing conditions of climate and landscapes based on hydrological modelling. Our research consisted of two stages. Firstly, we developed the database of observed daily hydrographs for about 50 runoff gauges of the region with average continuous period of observations 50 years (up to 2013) and areas from 12.3 to 200000 km2. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted and the trends of changes were assessed and analyzed. At the second stage we selected four river watersheds as the objects of modelling, namely, the gauging stations at the rivers Zun-Cooka, Gazipur, Borzya and Mogoytuy, ranging in size from 100 to 4000 km2. The basins are characterized by the variety of runoff conditions. Average elevation is about 650 m, hilly plateaus dominate the relief. The landscapes are taiga and forest-steppe with discontinuous permafrost. The climate is continental, annual precipitation varies within the range 200-450 mm, runoff - from 30 to 100 mm. The objectives of modelling stage were 1) the estimation of the hydrological model's parameters and its validation at historical data, 2) development of conceptual scenarios of changes of climate and landscapes, 3) running the model in projection mode to assess the implications of possible changes in hydrological regime. High variability of climate and hydrological regime do not allow for conventional modelling procedures to be

  20. Lake level dynamics of the Terekhol Lake (Upper Yenisei River Basin, Russia): reconstructions by the dendrochronological and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, E.; Kozlov, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Terekhol Lake is located in Russia, Tuva republic, Southern Siberia (50°36'54" N, 97°23'07"E) in the upper catchment of the Yenisei River. It occupies the bottom of Terekhol Basin of Sangilen Mountains. There is a territory with extreme continental climate (severe and little snow winter, dry and hot summer, mean annual temperature -6.7°, average annual precipitation 323 mm). The climate and hydrological regime of the lake were studied by the methods of dendrochronology and remote sensing. The reconstructions of lake level during the last 250 years were realized. The studies are based on follow materials: cores and disks of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) sampled in sites located on two levels of lake terraces influenced by groundwater and in the sites on the watershed area without such influence; CRU 2.1. climate data for 1901-2002; high resolution imageries for 1957 (aerial 1:25 000), 1970 (Corona KH-4B), 2007 (QuickBird). The obtained results show that dynamics of tree ring growth in the Terekhol depression depends on variations in precipitation. According to our data the precipitation in the last 100 years demonstrated decadal-scale variability: increased humidity in the middle 20th century with the highest lake levels during 1947-1954 (30-40 cm higher then today), and sharp drop of moistening since 1970. Decreasing of the lake level in 1970 was a reason of permafrost process activation, degradation of permafrost relief and drying of trees on the first lake terrace. The last 200 years are characterized by repeated oscillation of moistening with different duration and amplitude. In periods with high humidity (years: 1790, 1816, 1830, 1875, 1950) a rise of the lake level by 30-100 cm was reconstructed that accomplished by death of trees on the first terrace and improvement of tree growth conditions on the second terrace. In periods with low precipitation (years: 1773, 1775, 1807, 1834, 1865, 1893, 1907, 1970) the lake level were sank and was close to its

  1. Late Precambrian OIB magmatism in the Kuznetsk Alatau, Siberia: Geochemical features of the Kulbyurstyug Formation volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Kotelnikov, A. D.; Krupchatnikov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Basaltoids of the Vendian-Cambrian Kulbyurstyug volcanic complex in the eastern part of Kuznetsk Alatau have a high content of titanium (TiO2 3-4 wt %). They are relatively enriched with LILE and HFSE (Ba 360-900, Zr 160-726, Nb 66-101, ΣREE up to 225-329 ppm), and demonstrate a fractionated spectrum of REEs (La/Yb ˜ 13-17), high Nb/U (44-66), and low Th/Ta and Th/Nb. These features are comparable with derivatives of OIB (Ocean Island Basalts) magmatism. The rock geochemistry suggests the possible formation of an initial mafic melt in the garnet-bearing peridotite mantle with 2-4% degree of melting and the presence of a small amount of spinel. By the age and composition, the studied volcanics are correlated with the OIB magmatism products, occurring in the adjacent Gorny Altai and also considered to be derivatives of intraplate magmatism of Riphean-Early Cambrian age. This magmatism was caused by plume activity during formation of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  3. Redescription of larva, pupa and imago male of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer from the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Russia), its karyotype and ecology.

    PubMed

    Orel Zorina, Oksana V; Istomina, Albina G; Kiknadze, Iya I; Zinchenko, Tatiana D; Golovatyuk, Larisa V

    2014-07-29

    Cytology and ecology of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer, 1915 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Volgograd region, Russia). Larvae of salinarius-type were identified as C. salinarius on the basis of their karyotype. The species is redescribed on the basis of all metamorphic stages. The reared imago and karyotype were obtained from larvae of the same population. The karyotype of C. salinarius, detailed mapping of the 5 chromosome arms A, C, D, E, F and characteristics of chromosome polymorphism are provided. Information on distribution and ecology of C. salinarius from the saline rivers (total mineralization 6.8-31.6 g l-1) of the Lake Elton basin is also given. Chironomus salinarius is a common in the saline rivers and occurs in sediments with high silt content. On the basis of recent samplings C. salinarius appears to be very abundant in saline, mesotrophic as well as in eutrophic rivers. Chironomus salinarius accounted for 49-66% of total abundance of zoobenthos in water with salinity up to 13-31.6 g l-1.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  5. Products of micritization: evidences of microbial activity at and below the seafloor of the Upper Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Thin sections of the Upper Moscovian shallow-marine limestones of central European Russia exhibit various products of synsedimentary and earliest diagenetic degradation of carbonate allochems. Micritized grains and related features (microcrystalline overgrowths, oncoids, and endolithic borings) are very similar to modern micritized grains forming on the shallow protected seafloors of warm-water carbonate basins. Surface-sediment micritization in the late Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia is expressed in microendolithic destruction, micrite-minimicrite precipitation in intraskeletal voids, and non-selective replacements of the original skeletal structures. Most conspicuous products of surface-sediment micritization are peloidized large foraminifers (fusulinoids and palaeotextulariids), micritic-minimicritic envelopes on brachiopod and echinoderm bioclasts, and internal micritization in echinoderm stereomal pores. The last feature is structurally controlled and where not related to other surface-sediment alterations, may be attributed to intrasedimentary degradation. Surface-sediment micritization was produced by a syntrophic microbial community that must have included phototrophic cyanobacteria and/or chlorophytes and heterotrophic bacteria and fungae responsible for the intragranular microcrystalline recrystallization and internal cementation. Microborings are diverse, include microbial and metazoan varieties. Microendolithic destruction and subsequent microcrystalline occlusion of borings was locally important in micritizing processes, although cinder-like peripheral replacements in massive bioclasts and persistence of test walls in deeply peloidized foraminifers suggest that recrystallization and internal cementation was equally or more important. Many skeletal packstones, wackestones, mudstones, and tempestites irrespectible of their inferred paleobathymetric position exhibit the signs of selective intrasedimentary degradation: peripheral

  6. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia.

    PubMed

    Walker, T R; Crittenden, P D; Young, S D

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g(-1) at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g(-1) at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha(-1) at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO42-, Ca2+, K+) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K+:Mg2+ and K+: (Mg2++Ca2+) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 micromol l(-1) at remote sites to ca. 19 micromol l(-1) near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 micromol l(-1)) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources.

  7. A combined-water-system approach for tackling water scarcity: application to the Permilovo groundwater basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena A.; Baldenkov, Mikhail G.

    2016-03-01

    The suitability of a combined water system (CWS) is assessed for meeting drinking-water demand for the city of Arkhangelsk (northwestern Russian Federation), instead of using the polluted surface water of the Northern Dvina River. An appropriate aquifer system (Permilovo groundwater basin) was found and explored in the 1980s, and there were plans then to operate an abstraction scheme using traditional pumping methods. However, the 1980s planned water system was abandoned due to projected impermissible stream depletion such that complete interception of the cone of depression with the riverbed would cause the riverbed to become dry. The design of a CWS is now offered as an approach to addressing this environmental problem. Several sets of major pumping wells associated with the CWS are located on the banks of Vaymuga River and induce infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons is compensated for by pumping from aquifer storage. A numerical model was constructed using MODFLOW-2000. The results of the simulation showed the efficiency of the compensation pumping. The streamflow depletion caused by the CWS is equal to the minimum permissible stream flow and is lower than the depletion projected by the abandoned plan. Application of the CWS in the Permilovo groundwater basin makes it possible to meet water demands during water-limited periods and to avoid environmental problems.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Erunakovo region of the Kuznetsk Basin in the context of coal methane formation and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsev, S.L.; Khryukin, V.T.; Domrocheva, E.V.; Kuzevanov, K.I.; Rasskazov, N.M.; Popova, T.S.; Lepokurova, O.E.; Shvachko, E.V.

    2006-07-01

    Detailed study was given to the hydrogeology of the coal methane-promising Erunakovo region. We have established that all aquifers there are mutually related and form a single aquifer complex consisting of a series of microbeds of different water transmissivities and permeabilities. Two zones have been recognized in the Erunakovo region - of intense and slow water exchange (fresh- and brackish-water, respectively). Fresh waters with mineralization of up to 1 g/l and pH = 7 - 8 occur at depths down to about 300 m or, seldom, 500 m. Brackish waters have mineralization of 1 - 13 g/l and pH reaching 10.1. The higher mineralization is due to the higher contents of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and Na and, sometimes, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, produced through sulfide oxidation, and Cl{sup -}, concentrated as a result of evaporation. In the study region, CO{sub 2} is not of mantle genesis but is the product of coal metamorphism.

  9. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  10. Economical Comporison PC and CFB Boilers for Retrofit and New Power Plants in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, G. A.

    determining for the wide use of CFB technology in Russia. The block is designed for combustion of the Anthracite culm, Kuznetsk lean coals and coal slurry and should be established in 2011 year.

  11. Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. Behavior therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, D G; Tsytsarev, S V; Kassinove, H

    1995-06-01

    The development of behavior therapy in Russia is discussed within the context of the evolution of Russian psychology. The pre-revolutionary contributions of Sechenov, Grot, Pavlov, and Bekhterev to the conceptual foundation of behaviorism in Russia are examined. This is followed by a discussion of the marked impact of social and political influences on the development of therapeutic methods from 1917 onward. Major milestones in the development of behavior therapy are examined. Finally, it is noted that the current period of openness provides an expanded opportunity to teach behavior therapy which has so far been limited to major Russian cities.

  13. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  14. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  15. Rehabilitation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, the disability community in Russia has battled for its rights. In 1995, a disability rights law was passed that covered multiple areas, such as environmental access, education, and work. This article focuses on Russian rehabilitation philosophy and practice. It is written from a mixture of perspectives?personal experience,…

  16. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  17. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  18. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  19. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.
DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.
MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.
CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.


Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  20. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Nursing and health in Russia.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    There are over one million nurses in Russia, and they work in a crippled healthcare system facing a dramatic increase in infectious diseases. But nurses are valiantly coping with the country's health crisis and becoming a recognized profession. PMID:9638513

  2. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  5. [Has Russia gotten worse?].

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    During a 1995 conference on AIDS prevention organized by the U.S. Agency for International Development, undersecretary of state Tim Wirth spoke of the connection between international drug trafficking and the spread of HIV infection. The drug traffickers with their private armies and growing power are a menace to democracy in several countries, not just Latin American nations like Colombia whose problems are known, but others such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Russia. In 1987, most of the countries of the former Soviet Union adopted an AIDS control policy similar to that of Cuba, with universal obligatory screening and identification and location of sexual contacts. Counseling, medical care, and respect for confidentiality were nonexistent. A small number of cases were diagnosed in each country. Most of the countries have discontinued these costly and authoritarian measures. The replacement programs, based on individual initiative, are poorly financed. The drugs available to them are largely limited to AZT, which is locally produced. The unemployment, declining incomes, and arrival of traffickers of all kinds in these countries since the fall of the Soviet Union appear to present ideal conditions for the propagation of AIDS. Drug use and prostitution, increasingly involving men and children as well as women, have flourished. Rates of HIV infection under the circumstances are unlikely to remain low. The division of individuals into groups at risk is unrealistic, because drug users become prostitutes and prostitutes use drugs. The most effective campaign against AIDS in these countries may therefore depend on a merciless campaign against drug trafficking. PMID:12179248

  6. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  7. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  8. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  9. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  10. Tidal power plants in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bernshtein, L.B. )

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

  11. Experiential Perestroika: The Russia Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proudman, Bill; Pavlova, Alona

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, an educational exchange program sponsored by the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) sent six educators from North America to Russia to conduct workshops for students and teachers on concepts of experiential learning. As a result of this cooperative exchange, Altai Regional Educational Center (Siberia) was created to coordinate…

  12. The North Sakhalin Neogene total petroleum system of eastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The North Sakhalin Basin Province of eastern Russia contains one Total Petroleum System (TPS) ? North Sakhalin Neogene ? with more than 6 BBOE known, ultimately recoverable petroleum (61% gas, 36% oil, 3% condensate). Tertiary rocks in the basin were deposited by the prograding paleo-Amur River system. Marine to continental, Middle to Upper Miocene shale to coaly shale source rocks charged marine to continental Middle Miocene to Pliocene sandstone reservoir rocks in Late Miocene to Pliocene time. Fractured, self-sourced, Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene siliceous shales also produce hydrocarbons. Geologic history is that of a Mesozoic Asian passive continental margin that was transformed into an active accretionary Tertiary margin and Cenozoic fold belt by the collision of India with Eurasia and by the subduction of Pacific Ocean crustal plates under the Asian continent. The area is characterized by extensional, compressional and wrench structural features that comprise most known traps.

  13. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  14. Tectonic and sediment supply control of deep rift lake turbidite systems: Lake Baikal, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Karabanov, E.B.; Colman, Steven M.; Escutia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Tectonically influenced half-graben morphology controls the amount and type of sediment supply and consequent type of late Quaternary turbidite systems developed in the active rift basins of Lake Baikal, Russia. Steep border fault slopes (footwall) on the northwest sides of half-graben basins provide a limited supply of coarser grained clastic material to multiple small fan deltas. These multiple sediment sources in turn laterally feed small (65 km) axially fed elongate mud-rich fans sourced by regional exterior drainage of the Selenga River that supplies large quantities of silt. Basin plain turbidites in the center of the linear basins and axial channels that are controlled by rift-parallel faults are fed from, and interfinger with, aprons and fans. The predictability of the turbidite systems in Lake Baikal provides the best example yet studied of how tectonics and sediment supply interact to control the development of a wide variety of coeval turbidite systems on a single basin floor.

  15. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  16. Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

  17. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. The carbon balance of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

    2013-04-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  19. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some ... however, in that such fires can heat the lower atmosphere layers sufficient to create "bubbles" of hot air. As these bubbles rise, they ...

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  1. [Priest-doctors in Russia].

    PubMed

    Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited. PMID:23923338

  2. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    PubMed

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries. PMID:12322045

  4. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  5. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  6. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  7. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  8. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  9. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  10. Abortion and infertility in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I

    1995-03-01

    The exceptionally high rate of induced abortion in Russia (204/100 live births in 1991) and of abortion-related genital tract infection and infertility implies an urgent need for both the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and less invasive abortion techniques. Vacuum aspiration is gradually replacing curettage as the abortion method of choice for first-trimester abortions, and research is being conducted on pharmacologic abortion involving prostaglandins in combination with RU-486. Infertility, which affects 10-15% of married Russian couples, accounts for 50% of visits to the largest gynecologic hospitals. 92% of women and 49% of men in couples with impaired fertility exhibit pathology of the reproductive system, primarily prior inflammatory morbidity of the genitalia. The use of surgery to correct these impairments is largely unsuccessful, especially when there has been prior treatment with the hydroturbation method. The Federal Family Planning Program for 1993-97 reflects increased awareness of the problem; among its goals are the creation of state and social structures for a family planning service, mass media campaigns, the preparation of educational materials on the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy, and staff training in sex education and family planning.

  11. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  12. Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

    The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

    The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in

  13. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  14. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  15. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  16. [The problem of immigration in Russia].

    PubMed

    Slater, W

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the threefold immigration problem currently facing Russia: the influx of refugees from the developing world who hope eventually to reach the West, and the large numbers of non-Russians and ethnic Russians entering the country from the other former Soviet republics. The institutions established recently to tackle immigration are insufficiently funded and often find themselves in conflict with other agencies, both Russian and international. Legislation on the status of immigrants is also confused. The most pressing issue, however, is that of Russian immigration into Russia. This has implications for domestic policies: the immigrants are regarded as a potential solution to the problem of rural depopulation and are prevented from entering densely populated regions. The exodus of ethnic Russians from the other former Soviet republic may also affect Russia's relations with these countries, which it has accused of discriminating against their Russian populations." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  18. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  19. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  20. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  1. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  2. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  3. [Ecologically tolerable levels of abiotic factors. Study of freshwater bodies in Asiatic part of Russia and Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, V N; Abakumov, V A; Bulgakov, N G; Levich, A P; Terekhin, A T

    2002-01-01

    Ecologically tolerable levels (ETL) of environmental factors have been determined for freshwater ecosystems in Asiatic part of Russia and neighboring countries (basins of Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, and Syr-Darya rivers). Inobservance of ecologically tolerable levels degrades ecological status of the ecosystems manifested as deviation from normal saprobic indices of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and periphyton as well as biotic indices of zoobenthos. The basins were compared by the calculated ETL values for over 40 physicochemical indices. The revealed ecologically tolerable levels were compared with the standard maximum tolerable concentrations.

  4. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have

  5. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  6. Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachikian, Arthur

    For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

  7. Education and Society in the New Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet…

  8. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  9. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  10. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  11. Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

  12. Education in the Fate of Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

  13. Display technologies in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, William J.; Cladis, Patricia E.; Curtin, Christopher; Larimer, James; Slusarczuk, Marko; Talbot, Jan B.; Yaniv, Ziv

    1994-12-01

    This report is a review of advanced display research, development, and manufacturing activity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Topics covered include: liquid crystal display materials and related technologies; liquid crystal and other non-emissive displays; vacuum fluorescent, electroluminescent, field emission, and other emissive displays; and phosphors and other emissive materials. Also included is a review of infrastructure and business issues related to the display industry in the former Soviet Union. The panel found promising technologies in projection systems (e.g., the 'quantoscope' - utilizing an e-beam pumped laser), Supertwisted Nematic (STN) Liquid Cristal Displays (LCD) manufacturing at several locations in Russia and Belarus, developing capabilities and plans for future Active Matrix Liquid Cristal Display (AMLCD) production in all three countries, and a strong vacuum-fluorescent production capability in Saratov, Russia. Most significantly, the panel found many advanced concepts under development at basic research laboratories throughout the three countries visited; these research efforts are now in jeopardy due to insufficient funding, an uncertain business climate and deteriorating infrastructure. Nevertheless, there are many promising opportunities for foreign investment in display technology and manufacturing in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  14. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  15. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  16. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  17. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  18. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  19. Russia clamps downs on data release

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

  20. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  1. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia.

  2. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  3. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements.

  4. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  5. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

  6. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  7. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  8. A People-to-People Environmental Program in Russia: Experiential Service Learning in Novgorod, Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcox, Harry C.; Sweeney, Shawn

    1993-01-01

    Describes a joint American and Russian environmental service project in which 26 American secondary students, teachers, and environmentalists set up an environmental learning center in Novgorod (Russia) and provided training in the use of environmental laboratory equipment. Discusses the interpersonal connections and culture conflict experienced…

  9. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  10. "Russia and Europe"--The Fundamental Problem of Courses in the History of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul'fson, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Russia is witnessing an unprecedented explosion of interest in its history. This is entirely understandable. In the Russians' desire to understand the profound changes going on in different areas of their lives they are attempting to look at the past with new eyes, because the past has merged with the present and to a large extent determines its…

  11. Prison health in Russia: the larger picture.

    PubMed

    Bobrik, Alexey; Danishevski, Kirill; Eroshina, Ksenia; McKee, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Russia, despite recent legal reforms, still has one of the highest rates of imprisonment in the world. There are many reports of the adverse conditions in Russian prisons, often highlighting the consequences for health, in particular, risks of HIV, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. However, there are no reviews of the broader health issues in the Russian penal system. This paper reviews the available information on the health of the imprisoned population in Russia and the factors underlying it. It was undertaken by means of a search of Russian and international literature, including unpublished sources, supplemented by in-depth interviews with 27 key informants from the Ministry of Justice, prison administration, and non-governmental organizations. Published and unpublished data from the ministries of health and justice were used to describe the demographic characteristics of the imprisoned population and compare it with the general population. Although convicts are drawn disproportionately from disadvantaged groups in society and are detained in adverse physical conditions, the standardized mortality ratio from all causes is slightly over one-third of that in the overall Russian male population. This is mainly explained by an eight-fold lower mortality from external causes and a more than two-fold lower mortality from cardiovascular disease. These far outweigh the increased mortality from infectious diseases. The chances of survival of young men in Russia may actually be improved by being in prison, highlighting the need for policies that reduce the overall level of violence and other external risks, such as dangerous driving habits, in Russian society. Yet while conditions are improving in Russian prisons, with death rates falling, there are still many avoidable deaths and high levels of mental illness and infectious disease. There is also much that is not known about the health of Russian convicts, with what is available reflecting what is measured

  12. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  13. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  14. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. PMID:21598869

  15. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  16. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  17. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  18. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  19. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  20. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  1. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  2. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  3. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  4. Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronin, Iu. M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

  5. Educational Changes in Russia. Bulletin, 1919, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Theresa

    1919-01-01

    In the press reports bearing upon conditions in Russia since the outbreak or the revolution in March, 1917, little mention has been made of the tremendous changes that have shaken the entire educational system in that country. One needs only read "Vyestnik Vremennavo Pravitelstva" ("Messenger of the Provisional Government"), Russia's official…

  6. In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

  7. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  8. New archeomagnetic intensity data from Western Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnaya, Natasha; Gallet, Yves; Akimova, Stanislava; Antipov, Ilya; Glazunova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    We recently started a new archeomagnetism research program for Western Russia. The main objective of this project is to recover the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Russia over the past two millennia, in order to compare these variations with those already known from Western and Eastern Europe. We sampled several ensembles of baked brick fragments precisely dated by historical constraints between the XIIth and XIVth centuries AD from the archeological site of Novgorod, south of St Petersburg, and between the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries AD from the Monastery of New Jerusalem located close to Moscow. Most fragments, with a magnetic mineralogy dominated by magnetite, are suitable for archeointensity experiments. For some fragments from Novgorod, the magnetization is carried by a mixture of magnetite and another mineral of high coercivity and low unblocking temperature. The unblocking temperatures are close to 200°C. This mineral, most probably a form of hematite with Al substitutions, is therefore similar to that previously reported from archeological fired-clay artifacts originating from Europe and South America. Archeointensity experiments were conducted using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. We will present our first archeointensity results and a preliminary comparison with available European results, mostly from France and Bulgaria.

  9. Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

  10. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

  11. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  12. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  13. The resurgence of tuberculosis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shilova, M V; Dye, C

    2001-07-29

    This paper documents and attempts to explain the epidemic spread of tuberculosis (TB) in Russia during the 1990s. After several decades of decline, the notification rate of all new TB cases among permanent residents increased by 7.5% per year from 1991-1999 and the death rate by 11% per year. Growth was quickest from 1993-1995 but increased again after the economic crisis of August 1998. Approximately 120 000 new cases and 30 000 deaths were reported in 1999. Case detection and cure rates have fallen in Russia since the mid-1980s; the fall has been accompanied by a higher frequency of severe disease among cases, and higher death and case fatality rates. With a mathematical model describing the deterioration in case finding and cure rates we could replicate the average rate of increase in incidence 1991-1999 but not the precise timing of the observed changes. Other factors that probably helped to shape the observed rise in caseload include enhanced transmission due to the mixing of prison and civilian populations, an increase in susceptibility to disease, and changes in the proportion of cases detected by surveillance. Although our explanation for the resurgence of TB is incomplete, we have identified a set of measures that can be implemented now to cut transmission, incidence and deaths. PMID:11516384

  14. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  15. New family planning priorities in Russia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, F

    1994-01-01

    October 1991 to May 1994 in Russia was a period of significant political, social, and economic change. Over this period, however, administrators recognized the importance of sexual health issues in the health and fertility of women and decided to encourage family planning. Family planning services are organized at the city level by the Ministry of Health and are generally managed by gynecologists. Doctors are taught by lecture. Further, contraceptive supplies are extremely limited in many areas. The first priority of the country's family planning program is to improve the availability of reliable, safe contraceptives. Sex education must then be provided to young people and adults, the media should be used to disseminate information, the role of nurses in family planning should be expanded, and practitioners should be made more aware of methods of postcoital birth control. Much has been achieved over the three years. Donors and foreign advisors must continue to provide support in training and ideas, share experiences, and provide necessary supplies until Russia's contraception production capacity and industry can go it alone.

  16. Mesozoic tectonics of the Arctic: New constraints from provenance studies,Taimyr, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is important for understanding global tectonics and the framework of petroleum and mineral resources in the Arctic area. The Eurasia and Amerasia basins are the principal physiographic domains of the Arctic Ocean. The Eurasia Basin is known to be the result of slow seafloor spreading; the origin of the Amerasia Basin however remains controversial. Lack of information on the timing, structure, and geochemistry of geological units around the Amerasia Basin limits our ability to understand its development. The Taimyr Peninsula where Mesozoic deformation is well-developed provides a natural laboratory to investigate the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Provenance studies of Taimyr constrain the source areas of Mesozoic sediments in the region and thus identify affinities between them. Detrital zircons from six samples of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone from Southern Taimyr were dated using LA-ICP-MS to test existing models for the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Triassic samples present great similarity in detrital zircon population with Triassic sandstone from the paleo-Taimyr river system, including Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands. These samples all contain Permo-Triassic (236 - 250 Ma), Permo-Carboniferous (260 - 330 Ma), Devonian (340 - 390 Ma) late Precambrian-Silurian (420 - 580 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (620 - 1000 Ma) zircons. These detrital zircon ages suggest Triassic sediments in these locations may have been derived from Siberia Trap, Taimyr and the Ural Mountains of Arctic Russia. It is therefore likely that Taimyr, Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands which are separated at present were close to each other or belonged to the same large drainage system before the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Middle Jurassic samples and two Upper Jurassic samples from Taimyr have dominant Permo-Triassic peaks (246 - 260 Ma) suggesting a proximal source

  17. Age constraints from northwest Russia on the global accumulation of carbon during the Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Condon, D. J.; Prave, A. R.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event records significant organic-carbon accumulation in sediments correlated between the type-locality in northwest Russia's Onega Basin, the Francevillian series of Gabon, and Indian Palaeoproterozoic sections. The estimated burial of >25 x 10E +10 tonnes of C in the Shunga event is significant and hypotheses have suggested this accumulation as one causal mechanism to the large positive Lomagundi-Jatuli positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of marine carbonates. Conversely, is has been suggested that the Shunga event post-dates the termination (at c. 2060 Ma) of the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE and the two are not overlapping in time. Discrimination between these competing theories requires precise and accurate chronologies for the stratigraphic successions hosting the proxy records. We present new age constraints from a combination of primary volcanic rocks and sedimentary units recording the Shunga event, from the well preserved Palaeoproterozoic sections in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt (Kola craton) and Onega Paleo Basin (Karelia craton) northwest Russia, to further elucidate the unresolved question of timing between the Shunga event and the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE. Carbon accumulations of the Shunga event are recorded in the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks, and mafic pyroclastic rocks, in the Pilgujärvi Volcanic Formation overlying the Pilgujärvi sediments yield zircons with concordant U-Pb ages between c. 1970 and 1903 Ma. In the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation detrital zircons yield a minimum age of c. 1922 Ma, equivalent to a minimum c. 1915 Ma age of detrital zircons in the underlying Kolosjoki Sedimentary Formation. Thrust over the main units of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt is a tectonic melange known as the South Pechenga Zone where zircons from an intermediate volcanic rock yield the first age from this zone at c. 1930 Ma. Samples from the Onega Basin are

  18. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Russia. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschtyb, Nina

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Russia was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) engaged in adult education for Russia's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy…

  19. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  20. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  1. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J

    1998-05-01

    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  2. Sexuality education moves forward in Russia.

    PubMed

    Popova, V J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts in the late-1980s to provide sex education to young people in Russia were interrupted, temporarily, by peristroika and the need to focus on political and economic concerns. In the early 1990s, several public family planning associations emerged with support from foreign funds and began limited condom distribution programs. Beginning in 1996, a sex and family life education curriculum developed by the Russian Sexological Association will be taught to students in grades 5-11. The curriculum moves from basic facts on reproduction to a consideration, in the higher grades, of the family, the psychological aspects of sexual relationships, and interpersonal communication and conflict resolution. Although the comprehensive nature of the curriculum has been commended, there is a shortage of educators with the social-psychological background required to present the material.

  3. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  4. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  5. Training of clinical laboratory professionals in Russia.

    PubMed

    Morozova, V T; Dolgov, V V; Malakhov, V N

    1994-12-31

    In Russia, specialized education of clinical laboratory physicians who work in the positions of medical technologists, head of laboratory or one of its divisions is conducted in various forms of postgraduate training, namely internship, primary specialization courses, advanced study courses, graduate clinical studies and postgraduate fellowship. Such education is offered at 14 Departments for Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, which are located within the Institutes for Advanced Medical Studies or at Faculties for Advanced Medical Studies in Medical Institutes. Until the present, the primary specialization courses and the advanced study courses have been the most prevalent forms of training clinical laboratory professionals. These two types of courses offer formal lectures, seminars as well as practical classes, and the course contents are regulated by a uniform curriculum promulgated by the Ministry of Health. Training in these courses is the necessary prerequisite to obtain degree of advanced qualification as an expert in clinical laboratory diagnostics, which in turn provides access to better remunerated positions.

  6. Mineral resources of high-tech metals in Russia: State of the art and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Seven main ore-forming systems—porphyry and epithermal; orogenic related to granitic intrusions; magmatic ultramafic; volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and volcanic-sedimentary; sedimentary basins; related to alkaline magmatic activity; and placers and weathering mantles—are sources of high-tech critical metals. The following promising types of ore deposits containing high-tech critical metals as by-products are recognized: Cu-Mo porphyry, Fe-Cu-Au and Pb-Zn skarn, base-metal epithermal, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, base-metal stratiform, various tin deposits, and placers containing rare metals including REE. The mineral resources of critical metals in Russia are compared with those known in other countries. The contents of high-tech critical metals in ores of some noble-metal deposits of the Russian Northeast are reported. It is shown that the subsurface of Russia possesses considerable mineral resource potential for hightech critical metals, which allows new enterprises to be created or production of operating enterprises to increase.

  7. New System of Food Control in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  8. Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears to be close to the claimed performance. The claimed performance was a specific impulse of 16,000 m/s, an overall efficiency of 50 percent, and an input power of 1.35 kW, and is superior to the performance of western electric thrusters at this specific impulse. The unique performance capabilities of the stationary plasma thruster, along with claims that more than fifty of the 660-W thrusters have been flown in space on Russian spacecraft, attracted the interest of western spacecraft propulsion specialists. A two-phase program was initiated to evaluate the stationary plasma thruster performance and technology. The first phase of this program, to experimentally evaluate the performance of the thruster with U.S. instrumentation in Russia, is described in this report. The second phase objective is to determine the suitability of the stationary plasma thruster technology for use on western spacecraft. This will be accomplished by bringing stationary plasma thrusters to the U.S. for quantification of thruster erosion rates, measurements of the performance variation as a function of long-duration operation, quantification of the exhaust beam divergence angle, and determination of the non-propellant efflux from the thruster. These issues require quantification in order to maximize the probability for user application of the SPT technology and significantly increase the propulsion capabilities of U.S. spacecraft.

  9. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature. PMID:11440056

  10. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.

  11. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  12. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  13. Special education in Russia: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Malofeev, N N

    1998-01-01

    Tracing the history of special education services in Russia from its beginnings in the early nineteenth century through the rapid expansion of both private and government-supported programs and institutions until the restrictive Soviet period provides both understanding and appreciation of current Russian special education services and institutions. Theoretical principles guiding special education formulated by L. Vygotsky, and sources outside the USSR, were officially suppressed, as were testing and statistical data on handicapped individuals. Official mandates to bring students with handicaps up to state-approved standards resulted in the development of creative, effective approaches. The framework of special education changed little until the breakdown of the USSR. The new Russian Federation ratified UN resolutions protecting the rights of children. Categorical language is a recent development, and terms such as defective, retarded and pedologist are gradually being replaced. The final decade of this century is witnessing rapid change at the initiation of the Ministry of Education that is beginning to produce needed reform. One of the major initiatives is to provide LD specialists in all schools so that students will not need to be a great distance from home to receive needed services. PMID:9529788

  14. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF.

  15. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

  16. The terminal Permian in European Russia: Vyaznikovian Horizon, Nedubrovo Member, and Permian-Triassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovsky, V. R.; Balabanov, Yu. P.; Karasev, E. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Yaroshenko, O. P.

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive analysis of the data obtained on terrestrial vertebrata, ostracods, entomologic fauna, megaflora, and microflora in deposits of the Vyaznikovian Horizon and Nedubrovo Member, as well as the paleomagnetic data measured in enclosing rocks, confirms heterogeneity of these deposits. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish these two stratons in the terminal Permian of the East European Platform. The combined sequence of Triassic-Permian boundary deposits in the Moscow Syneclise, which is considered to be the most complete sequence in the East European Platform, is as follows (from bottom upward): Vyatkian deposits; Vyaznikovian Horizon, including Sokovka and Zhukovo members; Nedubrovo Member (Upper Permian); Astashikha and Ryabi members of the Vokhmian Horizon (Lower Triassic). None of the sequences of Permian-Triassic boundary deposits known in the area of study characterizes this sequence in full volume. In the north, the Triassic deposits are underlain by the Nedubrovo Member; in the south (the Klyazma River basin), the sections are underlain by the Vyaznikovian Horizon. The Permian-Triassic boundary adopted in the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia for continental deposits of the East European platform (the lower boundary of the Astashikha Member) is more ancient than the one adopted in the International Stratigraphic Chart. The same geological situation is observed in the German Basin and other localities where Triassic continental deposits are developed. The ways of solving this problem are discussed in this article.

  17. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  18. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  19. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Michael J.; Shishkin, Mikhail A.; Unwin, David M.; Kurochkin, Evgenii N.

    2003-12-01

    The former Soviet Union covers a vast area of land, and over the last 200 years, many dozens of extraordinary dinosaurs and other fossil amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have been found in Mesozoic rocks in its territories. The Permo-Triassic of the Ural Mountains of Russia have produced hundreds of superb specimens, and many of the dinosaurs from Mongolia are unique. This is the first compilation in any Western language of this large body of Russian research and the first time so much of this research, previously unexplored by the West, has been introduced in English. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia is written by a unique mix of Russian and Western palaeontologists, and provides an entrée to a range of fossil faunas, in particular reptiles, that have been little known outside Russia. It will undoubtedly become a major reference work for all vertebrate palaeontologists.

  20. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: the case of Russia.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Sonya K; Rizov, Marian

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38%. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1994 and 2004. We find a strong positive effect of diet/caloric intake and a strong negative effect of smoking on weight and BMI. Gender, education, and income are other major determinants of obesity. Our analysis provides information on dietary patterns and other determinants of obesity in Russia which is essential for formulation and implementation of effective policies designed to reduce the problem and improve the health of the population.

  1. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times.

  2. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082.

  3. Russia`s crumbling tactical nuclear weapons complex: An opportunity for arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.P.; Miller, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    As politicians and policy makers trumpet the successes of strategic reductions and the achievements of the START agreements, Russia has increasingly focused on a rhetorical and doctrinal campaign to enhance the credibility of nuclear war fighting threats by legitimizing theater or tactical nuclear systems. The Russian Federation is convinced that its security rests upon these weapons, and it has therefore attempted to shield both the personnel and the hardware from the effects of the military rollback. The notion that the two largest possessors of nuclear weapons could speedily draw down their arsenals to under 2000 warheads, as a START 3 regime suggests, is misguided. This ignores the thousands of so-called tactical nuclear weapons possessed by both states. The arms control proposal presented in this paper incorporates a regime calling for the elimination of air delivered tactical nuclear weapons that may prove to be a useful model for reinvigorating the stalled process of nuclear arms reductions.

  4. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  5. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

  6. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  7. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  8. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  9. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  10. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  11. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  12. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  13. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  14. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  15. A Survey of Biofuel Production potentials in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykova, Natalya; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Due to the abundance of fossil fuel resources in Russia, the development of the renewable energy market there was delayed. Recent technological advancement has led to an increasing interest in biofuel production. The aim of research was to evaluate how biofuels are introduced into the current energy scheme of the country. The potential production of biofuels was estimated based on sustainable approaches which provide solution for carbon emission reduction and environmental benefits. Russia still requires biofuel policy to make biofuels compatible with traditional fossil fuels.

  16. Health care in the new Russia: a western perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallen, A J; Cammuso, B S

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and establishment of relations with Russia, the opportunity for nurses to meet their Russian colleagues is now available. The authors, with an international group of nurses, visited Russia to learn about their healthcare system and nursing practice. The authors found Russian healthcare system severely lacking in the technology and resources available in other industraialized nations. Within this system, the nurse's role is significantly different from nursing in the American healthcare system. Nurses practice within a system of severe shortages and provide nursing care dependent upon physicians. PMID:9362879

  17. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.

  18. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  19. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  20. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  1. 78 FR 33064 - Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (68 FR 14578). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (73 FR 40848). The Commission is now conducting a second...) The Subject Country in this review is Russia. (3) The Domestic Like Product is the...

  2. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  3. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to

  4. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  5. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  6. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  7. Teaching History in Russia after the Collapse of the USSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volodina, Tatyana

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic conflicts and ideological changes occurred in Russia during the past decade. They inevitably influenced Russian education, particularly history teaching. A number of problems that have arisen in history education have been identified, including the emergence of new ideological symbols, and inequalities between schools for the rich and…

  8. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  9. [Actual problems of inpatient psychiatric care in Russia].

    PubMed

    Iastrebov, V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Shevchenko, L S; Tvorogova, N A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of inpatient psychiatric care in Russia and some other countries is presented. A systematic analysis of the performance of psychiatric hospitals is conducted. The process of the deinstitutionalization in Russian psychiatry is highlighted. A range of problems hindering a reform of inpatient psychiatric service of the country is singled out. PMID:24300798

  10. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  11. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  12. Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinovskiy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses research on social inequality and access to higher education in Russia. It argues that the myth about equality of life chances, as with certain other myths, was an important part of the Soviet ideology. However, children from privileged groups traditionally received the education and professional training which were most…

  13. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  14. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  15. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  16. The New Universities of Russia: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiroi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Russian universities do poorly in international rankings, and this will hurt Russia's ability to compete successfully in the global market. One way in which to try to improve this situation is to create new universities by merging institutions and organize them in innovative ways to become more efficient and effective. [This article was translated…

  17. The Modernization of Russia and Base Centers for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riabov, V. V.; Rakitov, A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The modernization of Russia requires people to be trained for a modern economy, for technological development, and for the sphere of state, regional, and corporate management. Accomplishing this complex task has been assigned to the "New School" policy, approved in 2010. The present article examines ways of dealing with problems that arise in this…

  18. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary

    1999-01-01

    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  19. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

  20. Children and Young People Are the Future of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a country's population as the carrier of its intellectual potential increases greatly in a postindustrial country, where the nation's intelligence, comprised of an aggregate of the intelligence of individuals, becomes the true engine and decisive factor of progress. Any loss of human resources in Russia, without regard to age and…

  1. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  2. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  3. In Russia, a Model Program Reunites Research and Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research has traditionally been left to professionals in Russia. Here, though, graduates and undergraduates work alongside established scientists from different fields, on modern equipment. Some even earn enough money to support themselves. The students have been given this chance under a joint program of the United States and Russia…

  4. Indigenous Minority Languages of Russia: A Bibliographical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Kazuto, Ed.

    This publication is a printed version of 54 Web documents as they were at the end of March 2002. It includes selected lists of school textbooks, dictionaries, grammars, grammatical descriptions, and folklore collections in and on 54 indigenous minority languages of Russia, many of which are endangered. The 54 languages are arranged in the…

  5. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozov, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational institutions ought to develop as…

  6. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (75 FR 9252) and determined on June 4, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 35086, June 21... 10, 2010 (75 FR 48360). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 7, 2010, and all persons... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  7. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... magnesium (also known as magnesium metal) from China and Russia (70 FR 19928-19931). The Commission is... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  8. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  9. Responses to Agrarian Reforms in Russia: Evidence from Novosibirsk Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydova, Irina; Franks, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with Directors of restructured collective farms, private farmers, Rural Development Officers, and Agricultural specialists in the Administration from Suzun raion, Novosibirsk oblast, central Russia revealed a regional response to recent agrarian reforms. Distinct differences emerged between the objectives of the restructured collective…

  10. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  11. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB. PMID:26488585

  12. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Volchenkov, Grigory V.; Kaminski, Dorothy A.; Somova, Tatiana R.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A.; Kaunetis, Natalia V.; Cegielski, J. Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB. PMID:26488585

  13. Traditions and Innovations: English Language Teaching in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G.

    2005-01-01

    The English language in Russia: a brief survey. It includes a historical perspective, the traditions of the past and the new challenges of the present-day situation. The history is simple: it is based on a deep love of foreign languages in general and English in particular. Love against all odds, for better, for worse, for richer and for poorer.…

  14. Russian Language Course for Peace Corps Trainees in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobov, Valery A.; And Others

    This guide is designed for Russian language training of Peace Corps workers in Russia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of seven instructional units. An introductory section gives an overview of the Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, phonology, and morphology. The first instructional unit is intended as a…

  15. Business Education and Change in Russia and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Fred J.; Birch, Nancy J.

    1995-01-01

    Business and economics students in Russia (n=69), Poland (n=184), Yugoslavia (n=81), Bulgaria (n=32) and two Western countries (France--n=129, United States--n=140) responded to a survey. Western students were significantly more satisfied with their education (23% to 7.5%). Only 22% of Eastern Europeans considered faculty very knowledgeable; 52%…

  16. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  17. [Gerontostomatology's topical issues in Russia at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Samsonov, V V; Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Lobeĭko, V V; Ryzhak, G A

    2013-01-01

    Gerontostomatology is one of the most important interdisciplinary sections of the medicine, studying mechanisms of aging of the chewing device of a person, and also carrying-out search of decisions in treatment of stomatologic diseases in persons of the senior age groups, at the same time increasing quality of their life. The article covers actual problems of modern gerontostomatology in Russia. PMID:24640707

  18. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Shitikov, Egor A.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Ilina, Elena N.; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Vinokurova, Nataliya V.; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of M. bovis strain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  20. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  1. Household Childcare Choices and Women's Work Behavior in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokshin, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A model of a household demand for childcare, mothers' labor force participation and mothers' working hours in Russia is presented. The simulations presented show that family allowance transfers intended as a means of reducing poverty do not have a significant effect on a household's choice of childcare arrangements.

  2. Human Resource Development Practices in Russia: A Structured Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review aimed to investigate the literature on HRD in Russian enterprises, U.S. firms in Russia, or U.S.-Russian joint ventures to determine the role and function of HRD practitioners in creating a successful economic transition. Thirty-three articles were selected through a database search and examined using content analysis. Three…

  3. [Occupational risk according to occupational traumatism parameters in Russia].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Churanova, A N; Gorchakova, T Iu

    2012-01-01

    The article covers analysis of occupational traumatism in Russia over 2009 in concern with economic activity types, with small enterprises accent. Based on method adapted to national information sources and assessing statistics reliability in countries with imperfect accounting, the authors demonstrated that with various hypotheses occupational accidents risk in Russian Federation is considerably higher than the registered one.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of voluntary HIV screening in Russia.

    PubMed

    Tole, S P; Sanders, G D; Bayoumi, A M; Galvin, C M; Vinichenko, T N; Brandeau, M L; Owens, D K

    2009-01-01

    Russia has one of the world's fastest growing HIV epidemics, and HIV screening has been widespread. Whether such screening is an effective use of resources is unclear. We used epidemiologic and economic data from Russia to develop a Markov model to estimate costs, quality of life and survival associated with a voluntary HIV screening programme compared with no screening in Russia. We measured discounted lifetime health-care costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. We varied our inputs in sensitivity analysis. Early identification of HIV through screening provided a substantial benefit to persons with HIV, increasing life expectancy by 2.1 years and 1.7 QALYs. At a base-case prevalence of 1.2%, once-per-lifetime screening cost $13,396 per QALY gained, exclusive of benefit from reduced transmission. Cost-effectiveness of screening remained favourable until prevalence dropped below 0.04%. When HIV-transmission-related costs and benefits were included, once-per-lifetime screening cost $6910 per QALY gained and screening every two years cost $27,696 per QALY gained. An important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of screening was effectiveness of counselling about risk reduction. Early identification of HIV infection through screening in Russia is effective and cost-effective in all but the lowest prevalence groups.

  5. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB.

  6. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... disposable income ($4,830) and GDP ($15,200) were the highest among the BRIC countries. Prior to the global economic crisis, during which 2009 GDP declined 7.9%, Russia had a nine-year run of continuous rapid economic expansion, with GDP growing approximately 7% annually. Most domestic and international...

  7. Indicators of the Education Potential of the Population of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhomirov, N. P.; Ushchev, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The steady tendencies toward the decline in the size of Russia's population in the twenty-first century, owing to the effect of global political, social, and economic factors, are giving rise to a number of fundamental problems that have to do with the erosion of the conditions that are essential not only for the stable development of society, but…

  8. Subrecent spore-pollen spectra from the Lower Kolyma River basin and their importance for the reconstruction of the Quaternary paleogeography of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.

    2016-03-01

    Spore-pollen spectra of surface samples characterizing different plant associations in the Lower Kolyma River basin are studied. The formation features of the studied spore-pollen spectra are determined, as well as their potential for past vegetation reconstruction, paleogeographic constructions, and stratigraphic correlation of Quaternary deposits in Northeastern Russia.

  9. Ethnic and gender divisions in the work force of Russia.

    PubMed

    Sacks, M P

    1995-01-01

    Like the former Soviet Union, Russia is home to many ethnic groups. The Russian Federal Treaty of March 1992 was signed by 18 ethnically-based republics and 17 non-Russian ethnic districts. Ethnic groups within Russia vary considerably in levels of socioeconomic achievement, with groups having had unequal access to political resources and differing in their ability to take advantage of economic opportunities. The author analyzed newly available occupational data from the 1989 census in his study of ethnic and gender differences in the work force of Russia. Measurements are presented showing differences between the occupations of Russians and the next largest 11 ethnic groups, producing a clear hierarchy of groups. The extent of occupational gender differences within each ethnic group is measured and contrasted with the level of differences between ethnic groups. These data are important for showing potential sources of group conflict and for providing a baseline to measure changing forms of inequality which have been promoted by post-Soviet developments. Preliminary findings point to the existence of highly significant differences between Russia's ethnic groups, with the level of the differences closely paralleling measures of socioeconomic achievement. To determine more precisely the significance of group differences in employment, detailed occupational categories must be examined more closely. Currently available data, however, do not permit more rigorous measurements of discrimination. It is nonetheless clear that ethnicity in contemporary Russia is strongly related to occupational differences. The aggregate segregation of men from women was found to be very stable despite the substantial socioeconomic and cultural differences between ethnic groups. As a group, Jews were found to have extremely high levels of educational and occupational achievement and a comparatively far older age structure.

  10. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  11. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  12. Estimation of individual age and season of death in woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), from Sakha-Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Irina V.; Shidlovskiy, Fedor K.

    2010-11-01

    A unique find of a woolly rhinoceros skull bearing both nasal and frontal horns is described from a thermokarst lake of the Bol'shaya Chukoch'ya River basin in north-eastern Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. Based on counts of cementum layers of the maxillary first molar and dark and transverse bands of the nasal and frontal horns a correlation of individual age records within these structures is established. Both estimations of individual age are agreed as well as three other age estimation criteria followed from cranial characteristics, general aspects of dentition and tooth wear pattern. Thus, the number of horn bands, which is equal to 30 or 31, does express the individual age at the moment when the woolly rhinoceros died. The tooth cementum and both horns are proved to be recording structures of woolly rhinoceroses which can be used as precise individual age estimation criteria. The season in which death occurred is also discussed.

  13. Winter and summer-autumn flash floods as "drivers" of drought and seasonal flood characteristics (case study of European Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Rets, Ekaterina; Ezerova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The presence of occasional flood periods on rivers is a typical feature of the hydrological regime of European Russia. Despite the fact that the main high-water phase of a hydrological year here is related to spring, flash floods in other seasons play an equally important role. For example, increased water content during autumn determines soil moisture content that determines the loss of runoff during spring flood. Winter floods caused by thaws result in a significant drawdown of a snow pack. And when it is followed by a return of cold weather an ice crust is formed on the surface of snowpack that significantly reduces rates of melt water filtration process.In recent decades, most of the rivers in the European part of Russia have experienced a significant increase of occasional flood flow share in total annual runoff. For example, in the Don basin this parameter has increased by almost 2 times, in the basin of Oka by 1.5. Though less intense, these trends can be traced in the eastern part of the region - in the basins of Kama and Vyatka. The increase here can is approximately 15-20%. In the north of the Eastern Plain (North Dvina, etc.) this tendency isn't observed. The number of flood waves has several times increased. Until 1970s 1-3 occasional floods a year were generally observed on the rivers of Central and Southern Russia. In the past three decades almost every year there are from 4 to 8 or more periods of high water. They are superimposed on each other, as well as the phase of the spring flood and low flow period. The ratio of the maximum discharge of occasional flood to maximum discharge of seasonal flood has increased several times. Now some outstanding floods can be compared with the spring flood wave or even exceed it.Thus, through winter floods an "interception" of spring flood runoff occurs. Spring floods have a lower height and volume and as a result they don't fully recharge a basin. Dry period in this case begins much earlier and though the moisture

  14. Kasimovian Stage in marine sequence of the Later Pennsylvanian of Russia and definition of lower boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goreva, Natalia; Alekseev, Alexander; Isakova, Tatiana; Kossovaya, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The Kasimovian Stage constitutes the Upper Pennsylvanian Series of the Carboniferous System, but a biostratigraphic marker and GSSP for it have not yet been designated. The biogeography differences during this interval led to provincialism and high degree of endemism of the fossils group, therefore, problems of definition and global correlation of the Moscovian/Kasimovian boundary is still uncertain. The Kasimovian stage was established in the early 1920s in the Moscow Basin of Russia not far from Moscow. It spite of its name, type area, for the lower part, is in the vicinity of Voskresensk alone the lower extent of the Moscow River and, for the upper part, the Moscow city region. In the southern Moscow Basin, the Kasimovian succession averages about 45-50 m in thickness, and is composed of distinctly alternating, sparsely fossiliferous fine-grained limestones, and variegated marls and shales with thin interbeds limestone. According to the unified Carboniferous stratigraphic chart of the Russian platform (1990), the Kasimovian Stage includes three regional substages: Krevyakinian, Khamovnikian, and Dorogomilovian. The great progress in the biostratigraphy of Kasimovian stage in type and references sections was achieved during the last two decades. Each substages corresponds to one provincial or local fusulinid zone, or to several conodont zones (Goreva and Alekseev, 2010). The distinguishing of the Global Stratotype Section and GSSP for the Kasimovian stage is the crucial concept of the investigation in the network of the problem of the creation of the International Chronostratigraphic Scale of the Carboniferous System. The Task Group to establish a GSSP close to the existing Moscovian-Kasimovian boundary suggested several potential markers among foraminifers and conodonts. The most promising marker for the establishment of the boundary appears to be the FAD of conodont Idiognathodus turbatus. Biostratigraphical analysis of the Moscovian-Kasimovian transition was

  15. Variability of extreme climate events in the territory and water area of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Kostianoy, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    (depending on the parameters) in the territory and water area of Russia for determining and mapping of the observed characteristics and trends in the extreme climate events and statistical forecast of these events for the next decades. Determination of a frequency, intensity and duration of extreme climate events in the territory and water area of Russia was done for the first time. It was found that the interannual-scale dynamics of ENSO is actually reflected in the climate features of different regions of the Earth, including the Russian Arctic. In particular, when the boreal winter season coincides with an El Niño event it is indicative by a negative anomaly of near-surface temperature (about -1°C) and a positive anomaly of sea level pressure over the Russian Western Arctic Basin. In contrary, significant (about +1°C) positive anomaly of near-surface temperature along with reduced sea level pressure over the regions of the Barents, White and Kara Seas is typical for any La Niña event (up to 95% significance of Student's t-test). The study was carried out with a support of the Russian Science Foundation Grant (Project N 14-50-00095).

  16. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.

    PubMed

    Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

    2004-11-01

    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores.

  17. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.

    PubMed

    Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

    2004-11-01

    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores. PMID:15525988

  18. Extensive mapping of ice marginal landforms in northern Russia (25°E - 112°E); new precise constraints on ice sheet limits of the Eurasian ice sheets in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredin, O.; Rubensdotter, L.; van Welden, A.; Larsen, E.; Lyså, A.; Jensen, M.

    2009-12-01

    relatively little mapped ice marginal deposits on relative highs in the terrain, indicating less ice movement slightly higher up in the topography. We have also mapped large zones of hummocky moraine, tentatively correlated to an early-/mid-Weichselian Barents Sea advance, indicating down-wasting in a stagnant fashion. We regard the mapping as robust, and expect it to reliably depict major ice marginal zones in Russia. The current mapping conforms well with, and, expands upon previous remote sensing efforts in NW Russia. Important results from this study show that the Scandivian LGM ice sheet extended significantly further southeast (~150 km) than previously thought in the Severnaya Dvina and Vychegda river basins. Furthermore many previously unknown ice marginal moraines have been mapped in great detail all the way east into the Taymyr region. We have only tentatively correlated the mapped moraines to known glacial stages, but we are confident that the new mapping effort is a big step forward in understanding the geometry of former ice extent in Russia.

  19. Women Physicists in Russia After 20 Years of Reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2009-04-01

    The process of globalization and reforms in Russia resulted in great changes in the human resources of Russian science. Feminization and stratification of Russian scientific community has occurred in physics and all sciences. Active women physicists ages 35-50 years are part of a new group of "new Russian scientists," whose expertise is in demand in Russia and abroad. But the social conditions for young mothers are not satisfactory as yet, so young women physicists with small children have great problems in their career building, though there are lots of grants for young scientists (Russian and international). The percentage of female in physics and mathematics on average is about 40%. We show the present situation for women in physics and the activities of organizations of women physicists.

  20. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  1. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill. PMID:24779543

  2. Interview: Tatyana Lipovskaya, Sisters Sexual Assault Recovery Centre, Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    The Sisters' Sexual Assault Recovery Center was established in Moscow, Russia, in 1993, to address the needs of victims of sexual violence. The Center's help-line received 4029 crisis calls in 1994-97. Most clients are seeking information about medical services or legal aid. Others call about employment, HIV/AIDS, alcoholism, and drug abuse. Services are available without regard to age, sex, occupation, or sexual orientation. Program funding has come entirely from Western foundations and organizations. Although Russia has not passed a law on domestic violence, the post-Communism government is reluctantly starting to acknowledge that rape and domestic violence are serious social problems. The Center runs an educational program for law enforcement officers to increase their sensitivity and create an environment of safety for women who report sexual violence. PMID:12294414

  3. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    PubMed

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled.

  4. Agrogeochemical cycles of plant nutrients in the territory of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarov, V. N.; Semenov, V. M.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of mineral fertilization to the agrogeochemical cycles of major nutrients (N, P, K) was estimated. The agrogeochemical budgets of major nutrients (NPK) in the territory of Russia are unfavorable for agricultural production for the present and the nearest future. The removal of major nutrients with crops significantly exceeds their input to the soil with fertilizers and other sources. The nutritional degradation of arable soils increases, which can result in irreversible catastrophic consequences within 20-30 years.

  5. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  6. Rejecting the evidence: Russia's drug dependence treatment system.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Diederik

    2008-12-01

    In at least three regions of Russia, the drug treatment system fails to respond to the needs of injection drug users seeking treatment for their addiction. In this article, based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Diederik Lohman describes the results of research conducted by Human Rights Watch (HRW). The author explains that the Russian medical establishment ignores overwhelming scientific evidence that treatment substitution programs are both safe and effective.

  7. US and Russia broadly expand science and technology cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, R.

    1994-07-11

    The US and Russia agreed late last month to spur cooperation in a broad variety of science- and technology-related programs. The two countries signed agreements boosting collaboration in such areas as basic sciences and engineering, space, biomedical research, environmental protection, nuclear disarmament, energy, and geosciences during a visit to the US by Russian Prime Minister Viktor S. Chernomyrdin. The accords were signed in Washington, DC, at the third meeting of the US-Russian Joint Commission on Economic Technological Cooperation.

  8. Maternity Care in Russia: Issues, Achievements, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Shuvalova, Marina P; Yarotskaya, Ekaterina L; Pismenskaya, Tatiana V; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Baibarina, Elena N; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide basic facts about maternity care services within the health care system in Russia. We give a short overview of such key aspects as the demographic situation, reproductive behaviour, regulatory framework for providing health care for women and children, maternal and perinatal mortality, and the availability of medical personnel. In 2012, Russia began registration of births in accordance with the WHO recommendations (births with weight ≥ 500 g at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation). Introduction of this new registration system increased the completeness and quality of the collected information and expanded possibilities for future international comparative assessments. A three-level system of specialized medical care has been introduced in Russia for women and newborns during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In 2014, the system included 1942 state (public) maternity hospitals providing 20 obstetric beds per 10 000 women aged 15 to 49 years. More than 100 perinatal centres (level III) are currently functioning in the country, with 32 new perinatal centres planned to open by 2016. The total number of obstetrician-gynaecologists in Russia is approximately 44 000, providing a ratio of 5.7 specialists per 10 000 women. The total number of midwives is 62 000, providing a ratio of 8.1 midwives per 10 000 women. In recent years we have succeeded in optimizing the maternity care system by increasing its accessibility and quality. This was achieved through qualitative and quantitative progress in the training of neonatologists, the development of intensive care technologies and neonatal critical care, capacity building of medical-genetic services and counselling, prenatal diagnosis, and the standardization of health care with data collection. PMID:26606698

  9. The third harmonic in the Russia-Finland DC interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Kazachkov, Yu. ); Boyarsky, A.; Kraichik, Yu. )

    1994-10-01

    During 12 years of operation of the DC back-to-back tie between Russia and Finland some undesirable phenomena at frequencies close to the third harmonic have been noticed. They may become more severe after the planned upgrading of the converter station. Steady state and transient processes with dominant third harmonic and their improvement by means of filters in the power and control circuits have been studied. Recordings of steady states with noticeable third harmonic are included.

  10. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  11. Did Catherine the Great of Russia have syphilis?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1991-01-01

    Catherine the Great (1729-96) ruled Russia for the last 34 years of her life. She pursued many reforms with energy, intelligence and political shrewdness. Not least amongst her activities was a serious interest in matters of public health which extended to personal involvement in the care of the venereally infected. This paper suggests that perhaps her zeal in this last was based on more than social awareness. Images PMID:1774056

  12. Maternity Care in Russia: Issues, Achievements, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Shuvalova, Marina P; Yarotskaya, Ekaterina L; Pismenskaya, Tatiana V; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Baibarina, Elena N; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide basic facts about maternity care services within the health care system in Russia. We give a short overview of such key aspects as the demographic situation, reproductive behaviour, regulatory framework for providing health care for women and children, maternal and perinatal mortality, and the availability of medical personnel. In 2012, Russia began registration of births in accordance with the WHO recommendations (births with weight ≥ 500 g at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation). Introduction of this new registration system increased the completeness and quality of the collected information and expanded possibilities for future international comparative assessments. A three-level system of specialized medical care has been introduced in Russia for women and newborns during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In 2014, the system included 1942 state (public) maternity hospitals providing 20 obstetric beds per 10 000 women aged 15 to 49 years. More than 100 perinatal centres (level III) are currently functioning in the country, with 32 new perinatal centres planned to open by 2016. The total number of obstetrician-gynaecologists in Russia is approximately 44 000, providing a ratio of 5.7 specialists per 10 000 women. The total number of midwives is 62 000, providing a ratio of 8.1 midwives per 10 000 women. In recent years we have succeeded in optimizing the maternity care system by increasing its accessibility and quality. This was achieved through qualitative and quantitative progress in the training of neonatologists, the development of intensive care technologies and neonatal critical care, capacity building of medical-genetic services and counselling, prenatal diagnosis, and the standardization of health care with data collection.

  13. Petrography and the REE-composition of apatite in the Paleoproterozoic Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation, Pechenga Greenstone Belt, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kreitsmann, Timmu; Üpraus, Kärt; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Paiste, Päärn; Martin, Adam P.; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2016-08-01

    The first globally significant phosphorous-rich deposits appear in the Paleoproterozoic at around 2 Ga, however, the specific triggers leading to apatite precipitation are debated. We examine phosphorous-rich rocks (up to 8 wt% P2O5) in 1.98-1.92 Ga old Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation, Pechenga Greenstone Belt, Russia. Phosphates in these rocks occur as locally derived and resedimented sand-to-gravel/pebble sized grains consisting of apatite-cemented muddy sediments. Phosphatic grains can be subdivided into four petrographic types (A-D), each has a distinct REE signature reflecting different early-to-late diagenetic conditions and/or metamorphic overprint. Pyrite containing petrographic type D, which typically has a flat REE pattern, negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu anomaly, is the best preserved of the four types and best records conditions present during apatite precipitation. Type D phosphatic grains precipitated under (sub)oxic basinal conditions with a significant hydrothermal influence. These characteristics are similar to Zaonega Formation phosphates of NW Russia's Onega Basin, and consistent with phosphogenesis triggered by the development of anoxic(sulfidic)-(sub)oxic redoxclines at shallow sediment depth during the Paleoproterozoic.

  14. Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

  15. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  16. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  17. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features.

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  19. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  20. How (much) do food prices contribute to obesity in Russia?

    PubMed

    Staudigel, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    High BMI and obesity contribute to the Russian health crisis. Previous studies have shown that weight status varies along socioeconomic lines but remains largely unaffected by economic shocks over time. This study is the first that explicitly analyses the impact of food prices on adult BMI and obesity in the Russian Federation. Using panel data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 1994 to 2005, that included 10,551 urban respondents over 18 years, a reduced form weight demand function is estimated. Controlling for individual heterogeneity by a fixed-effects model, price-weight elasticities are derived. The main result is that food prices are not the essential determinants of BMI and obesity in Russia. Elasticities of BMI with respect to single food prices are low and show absolute values smaller than 0.01. However, some products like chicken meat, milk, onions and butter show significant price effects on body mass. A 20% increase in the price of chicken meat would cause a reduction in body weight of 112 g on average. In contrast to the United States, it is mainly high-income households that show significant weight reactions to food prices in Russia. Separate regressions by gender showed significant effects of milk and butter prices on male BMI and of onion prices on female BMI. The risk of being obese is even less affected by price.

  1. The Spacebridge to Russia Project: internet-based telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Angood, P B; Doarn, C R; Holaday, L; Nicogossian, A E; Merrell, R C

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a pioneer in telemedicine since the beginning of the human spaceflight program in the early 1960s. With the rapid evolution in computer technology and equally rapid development of computer networks, NASA and the Department of Surgery in Yale University's School of Medicine created a telemedicine testbed with the Russia Space Agency, the Spacebridge to Russia Project, using multimedia computers connected via the Internet. Clinical consultations were evaluated in a store-and-forward mode using a variety of electronic media, packaged as digital files, and transmitted using Internet and World Wide Web tools. These systems allow real-time Internet video teleconferencing between remotely located users over computer systems. This report describes the project and the evaluation methods utilized for monitoring effectiveness of the communications. The Spacebridge to Russia Project is a testbed for Internet-based telemedicine. The Internet and current computer technologies (hardware and software) make telemedicine readily accessible and affordable for most health care providers. Internet-based telemedicine is a communication tool that should become integral to global health care.

  2. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children.

  3. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  4. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A

    2007-01-01

    Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally

  5. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  6. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  7. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  8. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  9. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  10. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  11. The petroleum system of the lower Palaeozoic strata in the central part of the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2013-04-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intra-cratonic sedimentary basin with conspicuous Early Palaeozoic sections. In terms of hydrocarbon prospectively, the it has been perceived as a classical oil basin with several tens of relatively small oil and gas fields occur there over a wide stratigraphic interval, ranging from the crystalline basement through the entire Lower Palaeozoic succession. Until now conventional oil has been predominantly produced in the basin, i.e. only few conventional gas accumulations have been found in the Polish Baltic Sea offshore. Petroleum potential within the basin also is associated with Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups. New organic geochemistry data as well revealed the potential for shale gas/oil in the basin. The analysis of the composition of the organic matter and crude oils from Kaliningrad region (Russia) and Lithuanian revealed genesis and the general trends of the migration of hydrocarbons in the Baltic Basin. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition and represents typical marine type II, showing considerable variations of the maturity thought the basin: ranging from immature in the eastern Lithuania and Kaliningrad region of Russia to oil window to the south-west. In some places the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Oils of the Baltic Basin have low densities (< 31,1 API; 790.5-870.0 kg/m3), and low asphaltene (<2.2%) and sulphur (<0.44%) contents. The saturated hydrocarbon content varies from 35.3 to 77.8%, and the ratio of saturate to aromatic hydrocarbons ranges in 2.1-5.2, indicating long-distance hydrocarbons migration or high thermal maturities. Oils of the Baltic Basin are not biodegraded, despite their early emplacement (e.g. by the Lower Palaeozoic age) and the relatively low present reservoir temperatures. Results of biomarker and

  12. 40Ar/39Ar dates from the West Siberian Basin: Siberian flood basalt province doubled.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Marc K; Saunders, Andrew D; White, Rosalind V; Pringle, Malcolm S; Al'Mukhamedov, Alexander I; Medvedev, Alexander I; Kirda, Nikolay P

    2002-06-01

    Widespread basaltic volcanism occurred in the region of the West Siberian Basin in central Russia during Permo-Triassic times. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on plagioclase grains from deep boreholes in the basin reveal that the basalts were erupted 249.4 +/- 0.5 million years ago. This is synchronous with the bulk of the Siberian Traps, erupted further east on the Siberian Platform. The age and geochemical data confirm that the West Siberian Basin basalts are part of the Siberian Traps and at least double the confirmed area of the volcanic province as a whole. The larger area of volcanism strengthens the link between the volcanism and the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:12052954

  13. Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the δ13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and δ13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of δ13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea

  14. Self-rated health and occupational conditions in Russia.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, I

    2000-11-01

    A low level of health promotion and disease prevention awareness in Russia, such as disregard for personal health during periods of well-being or illness, have contributed to a decline in general population health over the past decade. The relationship of working conditions and health awareness was explored among a sample of adults in Russia. This research project was conducted, July-August, 1998, in the city of Kazan. Data was collected by probability sampling of addresses and personal interview. Working conditions influence general public and family health. The occupation of the spouse contributed significantly to family conflicts, and financial problems ranked first as the cause of marital conflict. Due to lack of material resources, one-third of respondents, even though employed, reported being dissatisfied with the quality of their nutritional status and one-fifth with the lack of leisure time. Although more than two-thirds were satisfied with their work, every fifth did not consider their wages sufficient, every fourth wanted to change occupations, and every third was afraid of being fired. The majority of employed respondents reported low salaries, worked a full 8-hour day at their primary occupations and one-fifth had a second job. Younger people were especially prone to disregard their health with intensive work schedules. About half of respondents reported being exposed to toxic health hazards in their past or current jobs. Almost one-fifth agreed to work at hazardous occupations because of higher salaries. Social status, indicated by a higher education, was associated with having the opportunity to chose work in more favourable circumstances, and consequently with less health risks. In summary, the research demonstrated that health was an instrumental value in Russia, exploited as a economic resource not only during periods of well-being but also during illness, by individuals not seeking preventive or timely health care because of the fear of losing

  15. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. METHODS Data were from nine rounds (1994-2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and 'other' reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for 'other' reasons in 2004. RESULTS After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for 'other' reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. CONCLUSIONS Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of affordability

  16. Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov. (Collembola, Symphypleona) from Russia.

    PubMed

    Vargovitsh, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    A new springtail species of the family Arrhopalitidae, Arrhopalites potapovi sp. nov., is described. It belongs to the caecus species group characterized by 3,2,1,1,1 anterior setae on dens and separates from Arrhopalites caecus (Tullberg) and other congeners by strongly differentiated cuticular spines on sixth abdominal segment, shape of female subanal appendages and foot complex. It was found under the loose bark of trees from two localities along Lake Baikal and it is the second representative of the genus Arrhopalites Börner sensu stricto in Russia. PMID:25947839

  17. Tuberculosis in Russia. Its history and its status today.

    PubMed

    Yablonskii, Peter K; Vizel, Alexandr A; Galkin, Vladimir B; Shulgina, Marina V

    2015-02-15

    The history of the Russian tuberculosis (TB) program, dating from the second part of the 19th century until today, is presented, and its achievements and failures are analyzed. The epidemiology of TB is described, and the effects of the TB program initiatives are described and analyzed. Multidrug-resistant TB and HIV coinfection represent severe threats to TB control effectiveness in Russia. New TB control strategies in the present-day epidemiological climate call for important shifts in TB facilities' networking, diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

  18. STS-112 crew with President of Ajara in Georgia (Russia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Aslan Abashidze, President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia) shakes hands with STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, Ph.D., (right) a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency. Yurchikhin is at Kennedy Space Center awaiting his launch aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-112 to the International Space Station. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  19. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. START II and the politics of arms control in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lepingwell, J.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

  1. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  2. U.S./Russia to merge space efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan, Bush

    The United States and Russia have put years of cold war rivalry in space behind them and agreed to merge some of their space programs. The joint statements on space, aeronautics, and scientific cooperation were signed on September 2 by Vice President Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin. NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin is optimistic that this new agreement will mark the beginning of a new era of peace and cooperation among nations. “Our ability to study the Earth, to improve our talents as space explorers, and to ply the sea of space is improved dramatically by this new cooperative adventure,” he said.

  3. [Tuberculosis in Russia in the late 20th century].

    PubMed

    Shilova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present tuberculosis epidemic situation in Russia is marked by an increasing role of exogenous infection. The peak deteriorated epidemic situation was observed in 1993 and 1999. There was a considerable deterioration of the epidemic situation in 1999 due to the economic crisis in August 1998, which caused a drastic fall in living conditions. Trends for an epidemic process changed in the 1990s. Spread of tuberculous infection occurs by the same mechanisms as did in the early 20th century. The official incidence of tuberculosis does not completely reflect actual morbidity (nearly by 15%) due to the fact that patients with tuberculosis have not been detected. PMID:11588973

  4. [Russia: sex, drugs, AIDS and the Doctors Without Borders].

    PubMed

    Veeken, H

    1998-05-16

    Russia faces a serious crisis and finds it difficult to look after all its citizens. Alcoholics, homeless and elderly fight to survive. A recent problem is the rapid increase in the number of injecting drug users. In Moscow an estimated 100,000 users form an important core group for HIV transmission. With the health system collapsed and sexually transmitted diseases on the rise, all ingredients for a HIV epidemic are present. By the turn of the century the Ministry of Health forecasts 800,000 HIV positives. Médecins sans Frontières in co-operation with the government started a HIV prevention campaign. PMID:9623240

  5. Analogue Study of Actinide Transport at Sites in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, A P; Simmons, A M; Halsey, W G

    2003-02-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are engaged in a three-year cooperative study to observe the behavior of actinides in the natural environment at selected disposal sites and/or contamination sites in Russia. The purpose is to develop experimental data and models for actinide speciation, mobilization and transport processes in support of geologic repository design, safety and performance analyses. Currently at the mid-point of the study, the accomplishments to date include: evaluation of existing data and data needs, site screening and selection, initial data acquisition, and development of preliminary conceptual models.

  6. Geochemical features of Kulunda plain lakes (Altay region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakova, M. N.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Borzenko, S. V.; Isupov, V. P.; Shatskaya, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    Geochemical specifics of lake water of the Kulunda Steppe territory (Altay region, Russia) are studied. The results show that in the territory mainly chloride and less soda lakes with sodium compound are developed. It is presented that calcite and soda saturation indexes (SI) of lake water increase with growth of pH, but decrease in such minerals as gypsum and barite. The opposite situation is typical for SI depending on the salinity. It is revealed that evaporation, secondary mineral formation and various biological processes have the greatest impact on accumulation of elements in solution.

  7. The Situation of Children and the Quality of the Human Potential in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    From 1992 through 2001, Russia lost more than 7 million people as a result of natural population loss or, with the positive migration balance taken into account, 4.7 million. These statistics show that the size of Russia's population is diminishing steadily. This article reports the findings of a study examining the factors that account for the…

  8. Conflict or harmony? Clinical research and the medical press in Russia.

    PubMed

    Lichterman, Boleslav

    2002-07-01

    The author relates conditions for conducting clinical trials in Russia, current experiences of ethics committees, areas where conflicts of interest can occur regarding publishing the results of clinical trials in medical journals and the state of medical journalism in Russia today.

  9. Russian Studies: Teaching American Elementary-Middle School Children about Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne

    By distinguishing between the Soviet government and the Russian people in Soviet studies, teachers can assist students in forming positive but realistic attitudes about Russia. Geography, music, art, and literature offer a wealth of information about Russia. A good starting point is a discussion of Russian children: the age at which they enter…

  10. From Russia with Love: Unique Sources of Electronic Information on the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbrun, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the recent increase in information access to Russia and other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Russia, the area's only English language database, Internet resources, discussion groups, bulletin boards, electronic mail, and other information resources are described; and information on how to connect to network resources…

  11. The Germans from Russia: Documenting the Immigrant Experience in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Sidney Heitman Germans from Russia Collection at the Colorado State University Libraries is named in honor of the late Dr. Heitman's years of research and teaching about Colorado's second largest ethnic group. Created to support his Germans from Russia in Colorado Study Project, active at the university in the late 1970s, the collection's…

  12. Madrasahs as Vocational Educational Institutions in the Regions of Pre-Revolutionary Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Aminov, Takhir M.; Yesnazarova, Ulzhalgas A.

    2016-01-01

    The importance is determined by insufficient knowledge of the problem while undergoing serious changes in the system of Muslim education not only in Russia but all over the world. Hence, the purpose of this article is to identify the experience of madrasahs--professional Muslim educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia, as its…

  13. The Importance of the System of Primary Professional Education for Russia's Innovative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medvedeva, E. I.; Kroshilin, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in educational policy in Russia will affect the proportion of young people who obtain their occupational qualifications in a university and in secondary-level professional training schools. There is currently a shortage of skilled blue-collar workers in Russia, and more needs to be done to ensure high-quality training for this sector of…

  14. Russia on the Road to Integration in the European System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onokoi, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    A pilot survey was carried out on current problems in the emergence of open education in Russia. Participants were students (n=300) and instructors (n=100) from higher educational institutions of humanities and technical profile in Moscow. Findings suggest certain tendencies and problems in the development of open education in Russia.

  15. Continuity in the Development of Education in Prerevolutionary and Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    As is well known, in the mid-twentieth century education in Russia experienced a powerful upsurge, rising to a position of leadership in the world. Interpreting this extraordinary phenomenon is vital in order to both understand the characteristics of Russia's social and historical development and to map out a strategy for the nation's long-term…

  16. Russia as a Returning Donor--Four Roles in Development Assistance to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli; Takala, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the role of Russia in development assistance to education in light of the changing architecture of development assistance--the variety of positions identified with both "new" and "old" donor countries. We shed light on Russia's aims and agenda in the field of development assistance in general and…

  17. Education of Children with Disabilities in Russia: On the Way to Integration and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreshkina, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current situation with integration and inclusion in Russia. It explores the challenges of special education and legislation. It provides some examples of integration and inclusion initiatives and discusses them as examples of social transformations in post-Soviet Russia. The study concludes that the world…

  18. 77 FR 77032 - Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia, June 3-7, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Setting Russia is one of the world's fastest growing economies and its healthcare system is evolving... medical technologies around the world and expect the same types of treatment in Russia. In addition to... development of the medical industry through 2020. With continued growth in this sector, World...

  19. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  20. 76 FR 58778 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... trends continue, most experts project Russia will be the largest automotive market in Europe in the next... in Russia; and establish research and development activities. In addition to Ford and GM, major... partisan political activities (including political contributions) will be removed from an...

  1. Species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Russia: new stands and overall distribution.

    PubMed

    Potekhin, Alexey; Przyboś, Ewa; Nekrasova, Irina; Yashchenko, Varvara; Rautian, Maria

    2010-01-01

    New stands of Paramecium biaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. tetraurelia, P. pentaurelia, P. novaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were recorded in Russia. Especially interesting is the record of P. novaurelia in Vladivostok, Russian Far East, as it is a very rare species outside of Europe. The distribution of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Eurasia with emphasis on findings in Russia is discussed.

  2. The Commercialization of Higher Education: A Threat to the National Security of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesnikov, V. N.; Kucher, I. V.; Turchenko, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    The crisis of education is one of the most pressing problems in the world today. Russia's crisis in this sphere has taken on the character of an emergency owing to the unprecedented wholesale cutbacks in budget funding. In this article, the authors discuss the commercialization of Russia's higher education, leading to its degradation and threat to…

  3. Experiential Environmental Education in Russia: A Study in Community Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcox, Harry C.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, 26 high school students and environmentalists left United States to participate in community service/experimental learning environmental project in Russia. Focus was environmental monitoring of Novgorod, Russia. Both U.S. and Russian students gained in scientific knowledge; Russian teens felt more empowered about community service.…

  4. The Internet and Political Involvement in Russia (Based on the Data of Mass Surveys)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Attention to virtual space is growing in Russia. Russian politicians have an interest in the Internet: the president has his own blog and reads Twitter, and the United Russia Party is starting to work with the iPad on a mass scale. Opposition leaders and movements are not lagging behind either. Online surveys of various Internet resources are…

  5. 77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 63 (April 2, 2012). This notice serves as a correction to... International Trade Administration Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request... of the antidumping duty orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR...

  6. The marine Eemian of the Baltic: new pollen and diatom data from Peski, Russia, and Põhja-Uhtju, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Rinne, Katja; Haila, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Hannu; Eronen, Matti; Delusina, Irina; Kadastik, Ene; Kalm, Volli; Gibbard, Philip

    2002-05-01

    Several relatively well-preserved last interglacial (Eemian, marine oxygen isotope substage 5e; ca. 130-116 ka) deposits containing marine diatom flora have been found in Finland. In addition to these Finnish sites, more numerous Eemian (Mikulino) marine deposits are known from the northwestern part of Russia and from Estonia.Two new clayey and silty deposits covered by till, one at Peski, Russia, and the other Põhja-Uhtju, Estonia, were studied for pollen and diatom content. At Peski, the deposit representing the Eemian interglacial is 3.8 m thick. The polyhalobous diatom flora in the Corylus and Carpinus zones indicates the maximum of the marine transgression during the climatic optimum. Later, the increasing proportion of brackish water diatom flora indicates a lowering in the relative sea-level, and finally, during a very late phase of the Eemian, the sharply increasing proportion of freshwater species indicates the isolation of the sedimentary basin from the Eemian Sea.At Põhja-Uhtju, according to the pollen, the Eemian deposit is 3.5 m thick. Diatoms occur only in a layer 1.6 m thick, which represents the period of Corylus and Carpinus zones, and thus the period of the climatic optimum. The brackish-marine diatom flora consists mainly of littoral, shallow-water species.Although Peski is situated at a higher altitude than Põhja-Uhtju at present, the diatom stratigraphy at Peski indicates deeper and more saline conditions than at Põhja-Uhtju during the Eemian. This probably is the result of variations in glacio-isostatic rebound between these sites, which can be accounted for by differences of the ice load during the final phase of the Saalian glaciation.

  7. Synoptical situations and meteorological conditions associated to floods in the mouth of rivers in the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Tatiana; Gushchina, Daria

    2013-04-01

    The synoptical situations associated to the various type of floods in the mouth of rivers in European part of Russia are described. The storm surges, water flows and ice-jams are considered for Baltic, Barents sea, White sea, Azov sea, Black sea and Caspian sea regions. It is shown that the specific types of flood may be associated to various synoptical situations. Therefore it is unlikely to introduce the classification of synoptical regimes resulting in specific type of floods. However for each zone under consideration and for each specific flood type it is possible to determine the potential predictors of inundation: i.e. meteorological parameters which are characteristics of all cases of specific flood. There are: • for storm surges - long term wind forcing resulting in seiches in the sea, strong wind speed (the threshold varies in dependence on region), the wind direction orthogonal to the flow of river and strong baric gradient; • for water flows - the abundant precipitation, usually associate with the intensive frontal zone, the sudden change of air temperature resulting in snow melting in spring time; • for ice-jams - the strong temperature gradient extended in north-south direction resulting in negative temperature in the river mouth and positive temperature in the other basin. The probability of occurrence of predictors mentioned above was estimated for modern climate and global warming conditions using the outputs of ECHAM5/MPI-OM model. It is shown that the occurrence of intensive frontal zone and rainfall in the South of Russia will increase (decrease) in summer (winter) under warmer climate conditions which may contribute to the increase of water flows in this region. Maximum of floods occurs during the warm period, we can conclude that global warming increases the risk of floods in Black Sea coast.

  8. Multy-proxy reconstruction of climate and environment on the Karelian Isthmus, northwestern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrykh, Ludmila; Nazarova, Larisa; Frolova, Larissa; Drosenko, Dmitry; Subetto, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The Karelian Isthmus is the approximately 45-110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in the Northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21'N, 59°46'N and 27°42'E, 31°08'E). Its northwestern boundary is the relatively narrow area between the Bay of Vyborg and Lake Ladoga. The Karelian Isthmus, can be divided into three landscape units: the lowland area in the north with more than 800 lakes; the central highland, which reaches up to 203 m a.s.l.; and the Neva Lowland (15-25 m a.s.l.) in the south, which is characterized by numerous Holocene terraces. The region has a maritime climate, with mean January temperatures of -9°C, mean July temperatures of +16°C and a mean annual temperature of +3°C. Precipitation is around 600 mm yr-1. Sediments were retrieved from the Lake Medvedevskoye (60°13'N; 29°54'E), Karelian Isthmus, and were subject to multy-ptoxy analysis. For the first time quantitative reconstruction of T July was performed, using chironomid-based inference model (Nazarova et al., 2014). The studied lake basin formed before 12,650 cal. yrs BP, possibly due to melting of stagnant glacier ice (Subetto et al., 2002, 2003). Although the chronology of this early part of the record is too uncertain to attribute an exact age to the beginning of minerogenic sedimentation in the basins, it is likely that the sediments accumulated fairly rapidly. Shrub, herb and grass communities ('steppe-tundra') and cold and dry climatic conditions dominated in the area until about 11 000 cal. yrs BP. The rapid environmental response to warming at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, which is evident in many North Atlantic records at c. 11 500 cal. yrs BP, is not very prominent in our two data sets from the Karelian Isthmus about 10000 cal. yrs BP when climate became distinctly warmer and more humid. High organic productivity in the lakes indicates that soils around the lakes were stable. The delayed response of the

  9. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  10. Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Lee-Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Fan, Lei; Li, Junjie; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Liedke, Pedro E R; Pramesh, C S; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Sheikine, Yuri; Chen, Zhu; Qiao, You-lin; Shao, Zhiming; Wu, Yi-Long; Fan, Daiming; Chow, Louis W C; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Qiong; Yu, Shiying; Shen, Gordon; He, Jie; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard; Badwe, Rajendra; Banavali, Shripad D; Nair, Reena; Kumar, Lalit; Parikh, Purvish; Subramanian, Somasundarum; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Iyer, Subramania; Shastri, Surendra Srinivas; Digumarti, Raghunadhrao; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Adilbay, Dauren; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Orlov, Sergey; Kaidarova, Dilyara; Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Tatishchev, Sergei; Danishevskiy, Kirill D; Hurlbert, Marc; Vail, Caroline; St Louis, Jessica; Chan, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specific issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, affordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, effects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.

  11. Joint US/Russia TU-144 Engine Ground Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Waldo A.; Balser, Jeffrey S.; McCartney, Timothy P.; Richter, Charles A.; Woike, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Two engine research experiments were recently completed in Moscow, Russia using an engine from the Tu-144 supersonic transport airplane. This was a joint project between the United States and Russia. Personnel from the NASA Lewis Research Center, General Electric Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, the Tupolev Design Bureau, and EBP Aircraft LTD worked together as a team to overcome the many technical and cultural challenges. The objective was to obtain large scale inlet data that could be used in the development of a supersonic inlet system for a future High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The-first experiment studied the impact of typical inlet structures that have trailing edges in close proximity to the inlet/engine interface plane on the flow characteristics at that plane. The inlet structure simulated the subsonic diffuser of a supersonic inlet using a bifurcated splitter design. The centerbody maximum diameter was designed to permit choking and slightly supercritical operation. The second experiment measured the reflective characteristics of the engine face to incoming perturbations of pressure amplitude. The basic test rig from the first experiment was used with a longer spacer equipped with fast actuated doors. All the objectives set forth at the beginning of the project were met.

  12. Deep geodynamics and uranium giants of southeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. G.; Boriskina, N. G.

    2014-10-01

    The southeast of Russia with hydrothermal and hydrogenic U deposits is one of the largest provinces in the world with the unique U-bearing El'kon (South Yakutia) and Urulyungui (Transbaikalia) regions with similar geological, magmatic, petrological-geochemical characteristics and resources and commonly accepted formation from mantle derivatives. The seismotomographic data of the region indicate the presence of an oceanic slab that stagnated in its transit zone (410-670 km). The Pt-bearing alkaline-ultramafic massifs of the Inagli-Konder-Feklistovskii belt and the superlarge U-bearing regions are located along the east-northeastern flank and western frontal zone of the slab, respectively. The formation of the U-bearing regions, as well as the Pt-bearing massifs with dunitic core, is caused by involvement of derivatives of the lower mantle into the upper mantle plumes that was accompanied by the melting of the lithosphere. The acceptance of the influence of the deep geodynamics of the southeast of Russia on formation of the U-bearing regions allows us to outline the areas of further detailed studies along the frontal zone of the slab.

  13. Climate change impact on peatland and forest ecosystems of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrasheva, N.Yu.; Kobak, K.I.; Turchinovich, I.Ye.

    1996-12-31

    Paleoclimatic and paleobotanic reconstructions allow a conclusion that ecosystems and natural zones significantly changed due to climate fluctuations. The average long-term carbon accumulation in peatlands of Russia was estimated as 45.6 mln tons of carbon per year. During the Holocene the rate of peat accumulation changed. During the Subboreal period the rate of peat accumulation gradually decreased to 17 gC/m2 yr, reaching its lowest value in the Subatlantic period. Apparently, the rate of peat accumulation decreased in Subboreal period due to sharp cooling and precipitation decrease. Future rates of peat accumulation might be higher than the present one. Forest ecosystems of north-western Russia also significantly changed during the Holocene. In Atlantic time the boundary between middle and south taiga was located 500 km northward compared to the present and broad-leaved forest occupied large areas. According to their forecast, a mean global air temperature increase by 1.4 C is expected to result in a considerable decrease in coniferous forest area and an increase in mixed and broad-leaved forest area.

  14. Toxic and harmful algae in the coastal waters of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinin, A. O.; Orlova, T. Yu.

    2008-08-01

    Toxic algal species of marine and brackish-water plankton, as well as nontoxic microalgae, which are capable of initiating harmful blooms, cause a detriment to human health (seafood poisoning) and often lead to a total crisis of coastal water ecosystems. The Russian coastal waters are inhabited by dozens of toxic and bloom-causing algal species, their toxins are accumulated in the tissues of edible mollusks, and there have been incidents of human poisonings and marine fauna mortality due to these blooms. An analysis of the current situation concerning the problem of toxic algae and harmful blooms of nontoxic species in the seas of Russia provides evidence that it is necessary to create a system of compulsory governmental monitoring of the exploited marine areas to serve as the basis of ecological safety control in the exploitation of the biological resources of the Russian Federation, as well to introduce compulsory sanitary control of diarrheic, paralytic, and amnesic phycotoxins. The compiled summary of algal toxic and potentially toxic species met in the European and Far Eastern seas of Russia is given with notes on their toxicity type and its manifestations.

  15. Beverage-Specific Alcohol Sale and Cardiovascular Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia. PMID:21318145

  16. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  17. Russia: update on animal experiments and alternatives in education.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Progress continues in Russia with growing awareness and implementation of alternatives in education. Further outreach visits and negotiations for replacement have been made by InterNICHE campaigners. Russian language information resources have been complemented by the distribution of translated freeware physiology and pharmacology alternatives; and the InterNICHE Alternatives Loan Systems continue to provide valuable hands-on access to a range of learning tools. Donations of computers and alternatives have established exemplary multimedia laboratories, with software having directly replaced the annual use of several thousand animals. New agreements have been made with institutes to abandon animal experiments for teaching purposes. Work to consolidate the successes is being done, and Russian teachers have begun to present at conferences to share their experiences of implementation. Further development and implementation of alternatives is being achieved through grant funding from the InterNICHE Humane Education Award. Using a different approach, cases of determined conscientious objection have included a campaign against the use of stolen companion animals for surgery practice in the Russian Far East, and a continuing legal challenge to experiments at Moscow State University. This multi-pronged, decentralised and culturally appropriate campaigning strategy has proved to be an effective approach to achieving sustainable change in Russia.

  18. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market.

  19. [Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].

    PubMed

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified.

  20. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  1. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  2. New paleoreconstruction of transgressive stages in the northern part of Lake Ladoga, NW Russia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, Anton; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the largest lakes in the world and the largest in Europe. The watershed of lake Ladoga covers the North-Western part of European Russia and the Eastern Finland. Lake basin is on the border between the Baltic shield and the East European Platform. The most consistent paleoreconstructions of Lake Ladoga history are based on bottom sediments of smaller lakes, which used to be a part of Ladoga in the past. The stages of Ladoga evolution are directly connected with the history of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) and of the Ancylus Lake. Water level of these lakes was significant higher than nowadays level. Lake Ladoga in its present limits used to be an Eastern gulf of BIL and Ancylus Lake. The preceding paleoreconstructions of Ladoga water level oscillations were undertaken by G. de Geer, J. Ailio, E. Hyyppä, K. Markov, D. Kvasov, D. Malakhovskiy, M. Ekman, G. Lak, N. Davydova, M. Saarnisto, D. Subetto and others. The new data on multivariate analysis of bottom sediments of lakes which used to belong to Ladoga, collected in the last few years, allows to create several maps of Ladoga transgressive stages in Late Glacial period and post-glacial time. A series of maps showing the extent of Ladoga transgression was created based on lake sediments multivariate analysis and a GIS-modeling using the digital elevation data with an accuracy of several meters and an open-source software (QGIS and SAGA). Due to post-glacial rebound of the lake watershed territory, GIS-modeling should comprise the extent of the glacioisostatic uplift, so the chart of a present-day uplift velocity for Fennoscandia of Ekman and Mäkinen was used. The new digital elevation models were calculated for several moments in the past, corresponding to the most probable dates of smaller lakes isolation from Lake Ladoga. Then, the basin of Ladoga was "filled" with water into GIS program to the levels sufficient for the smaller lakes to join and to split-off. The modern coastlines of Ladoga and

  3. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  4. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  5. Russia's views on cruise missiles in the context of START III

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y

    2000-10-30

    The abysmal state of Russia's conventional forces has caused Russia to rely on nuclear weapons to ensure its security. This reliance was formalized in Russia's military doctrine which states that nuclear weapons can be used ''in situations critical to the national security of the RF and its allies.'' In fact, most Russian security analysts believe that this dependence on nuclear weapons will remain for the foreseeable future because the economy will have to improve significantly before a conventional force build up can be contemplated. Yet, despite Russia's need to rely on nuclear weapons, even this may be problematic because its economic plight may create difficulties in maintaining its current level of nuclear forces. Thus, Russia has a keen interest in negotiating a treaty to reduce Strategic Nuclear Forces below START II levels and would prefer to go even beyond the 2,000-2,500 numbers agreed to by Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton in Helsinki in 1997. Sergei Rogov, an influential defense analyst, believes that Russia's strategic nuclear forces will fall below 1,000 warheads by 2010 irrespective of arms control agreements. Accordingly, Russia is keen to ensure rough parity with the US. To retain a credible deterrent posture at these lower levels, Russia believes that it is important to restrain US sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCM)--forces that have heretofore not been captured as strategic weapons in the START treaties. Russian officials reason that once strategic nuclear forces go to very low levels, SLCM capabilities become strategically significant. In fact, according to two well-known Russian security analysts, Anatoli Diakov and Pavel Podvig, Russia's current START III negotiating position calls for the complete elimination of all SLCMs, both nuclear and conventional. Prior to assessing Russia's position regarding cruise missiles and START III, I will examine Russia's overall view of its security position vis-a-vis the US in order to provide background for

  6. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Background Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. Methods Data were from nine rounds (1994–2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and ‘other’ reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for ‘other’ reasons in 2004. Results After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for ‘other’ reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. Conclusions Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  9. Russians to seek exploration in difficult Far East basins

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Local governments and associations in Russia hope to encourage exploration interest in lightly explored, mostly nonproducing offshore basins in the Far East. Adjacent onshore areas have experienced recurring shortages of natural gas and petroleum products. Russian authorities have been attempting to license blocks in far eastern waters for much of the 1990s, but political, bureaucratic, fiscal, and tax uncertainties have frustrated most efforts. Approval of the Russian Parliament is needed for tender offers, and no one can predict when such approvals might be forthcoming. Dalwave is offering a package of more than 40,000 km of 24--48 fold regional 2D seismic data on nearly 400 lines in the Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea. The package is being made available to give geoscientists a head start at regional evaluation outside the Sakhalin Island area. The paper describes Russian`s Far East resources, exploration prospects, and other considerations.

  10. Very High Resolution Climate Modelling in Northern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, M.; Christensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations with global climate models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes for the Arctic can be expected during the 21st century. Already now, there are substantial changes in sea-ice extent and thickness and a considerable increase in air temperature in several regions. Contemporary GCMs are unable to give a realistic representation of the climate and climate change in regions with steep orography, due to their coarse resolution. But even relatively high resolution regional climate models (RCMs) fail in this respect. We have therefore conducted a transient simulation with the newest version of the HIRHAM RCM, covering the period 1958-2001 over a region in northeast European Russia, including the Ural Mountains, with the unprecedented horizontal resolution of 4 km. For this simulation, a double downscaling procedure was applied. Average and extreme values will be discussed, and a comparison of subsurface temperatures to a set of observations from the region will be presented.

  11. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  12. STS-112 crew with President of Ajara in Georgia (Russia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, Aslan Abashidze (left), President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia), STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, Ph.D., a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency; and Georgi Abashidze, Mayor of Batumi (Yurchikhin's hometown), pose for a portrait. Yurchikhin and the other members of the STS-112 crew are awaiting launch to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  13. STS-112 crew with President of Ajara in Georgia (Russia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, Aslan Abashidze (right), President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia), visits with the STS-112 crew. From left, they are Mission Specialist Piers J. Sellers; Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy; Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency; Mission Specialist Sandra H. Magnus; and CommanderJeffrey S. Ashby. Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, not pictured, is also a member of the crew. The crew is awaiting launch on mission STS-112 to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  14. [Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in southern Russia].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 20th--the beginning of the 21st century activation of a natural focus of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in southern Russia was noted. As a consequence, in 2002 outbreaks and sporadic cases of this disease were registered on the territory of 6 out of 13 administrative units of the Southern Federal District. To minimize the epidemiological consequences of the aggravating epidemiological situation considerable efforts and means were required from health care organs and institutions of the state sanitary and epidemiological service, including essential financial expenditures. The results of natural foci of CCHF survey, obtained by 2002, as well as main trends of prophylactic and antiepidemic interventions are presented. Scientific research and practical observations made it possible to work out a number of methodological regulations concerning the diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis of CCHF.

  15. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  16. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  17. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  18. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    PubMed

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  19. Russia's [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] hawks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I. )

    1993-06-01

    Since the beginning of the [open quotes]Gorbachev years,[close quotes] there has been a remarkable democratization in Russia, but there has also been a sharpening of internal contradictions. These years have led to a coalition of [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] groups -- the most reactionary elements of society -- Stalinists, extremely aggressive members of the military-industrial complex, self-styled [open quotes]protectors of the Russian Empire,[close quotes] national patriotic unions, and groups with their own storm troops. These have also been years of economic decline and the withering of research in the fundamental sciences. This article describes the anger of Soviet nuclear specialists at vanishing funds and prestige. The desire of the neo-fascist groups for arms and power is addressed. The development of these groups is reviewed. Implications of political unrest for nuclear proliferation and the future of Russian nuclear specialists are discussed. Possibilities for government reorganization are proposed. 8 refs.

  20. Congress Examines NASA Budget, Space Station, and Relations With Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about recent Russian activities related to Ukraine loomed over an 8 April congressional hearing focusing on NASA's fiscal year (FY) 2015 budget request. Rep. Frank Wolf (R-Va.), chair of the House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, and several other committee members questioned NASA administrator Charles Bolden about the agency's contingency plans if tensions between Russia and the United States cause key joint scientific endeavors between the two countries to break off. That concern is particularly critical given the countries' longtime partnership on the International Space Station (ISS) and with the United States currently relying on Russian transport to and from the station until U.S. commercial vehicles are ready to transport astronauts back and forth.

  1. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON RADIOLOGICAL THREAT REDUCTION PROGRAMS IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, Christopher C.; Tatyrek, Aaron P.

    2009-10-07

    Since its inception in 2004, the United States Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has provided the Russian Federation with significant financial and technical assistance to secure its highly vulnerable and dangerous radiological material. The three program areas of this assistance are the removal of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), the physical protection of vulnerable in-use radiological material of concern, and the recovery of disused or abandoned radiological material of concern. Despite the many successes of the GTRI program in Russia, however, there is still a need for increased international cooperation in these efforts. Furthermore, concerns exist over how the Russian government will ensure that the security of its radiological materials provided through GTRI will be sustained. This paper addresses these issues and highlights the successes of GTRI efforts and ongoing activities.

  3. Snowstorm Along the China-Mongolia-Russia Borders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Heavy snowfall on March 12, 2004, across north China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Mongolia and Russia, caused train and highway traffic to stop for several days along the Russia-China border. This pair of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlights the snow and surface properties across the region on March 13. The left-hand image is a multi-spectral false-color view made from the near-infrared, red, and green bands of MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The right-hand image is a multi-angle false-color view made from the red band data of the 46-degree aftward camera, the nadir camera, and the 46-degree forward camera.

    About midway between the frozen expanse of China's Hulun Nur Lake (along the right-hand edge of the images) and Russia's Torey Lakes (above image center) is a dark linear feature that corresponds with the China-Mongolia border. In the upper portion of the images, many small plumes of black smoke rise from coal and wood fires and blow toward the southeast over the frozen lakes and snow-covered grasslands. Along the upper left-hand portion of the images, in Russia's Yablonovyy mountain range and the Onon River Valley, the terrain becomes more hilly and forested. In the nadir image, vegetation appears in shades of red, owing to its high near-infrared reflectivity. In the multi-angle composite, open-canopy forested areas are indicated by green hues. Since this is a multi-angle composite, the green color arises not from the color of the leaves but from the architecture of the surface cover. The green areas appear brighter at the nadir angle than at the oblique angles because more of the snow-covered surface in the gaps between the trees is visible. Color variations in the multi-angle composite also indicate angular reflectance properties for areas covered by snow and ice. The light blue color of the frozen lakes is due to the increased forward scattering of smooth ice, and light orange colors indicate

  4. Future Biome Projections in Alaska and East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, A.; Saito, K.; Bigelow, N. H.; Walsh, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We projected Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. BIOME4, which produces an equilibrium vegetation distribution under a given climate condition, was forced by CMIP5/PMIP3 climate data considered in IPCC AR5. We are exploring vegetation and permafrost distributions during the last 21,000 years and future projections (2100 C.E.) to gain an understanding of the effects of climate shifts on this complex subsystem. When forced with the baseline climatology, compiled from the University of Delaware temperature and precipitation climatology and ERA-40 sunshine data, our biome simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region. The biomes in this region are mostly evergreen and deciduous taiga capped by shrub and graminoid tundras to the north. The more noticeable differences were the tree line simulated north of the Brooks Range in Alaska and evergreen taiga in southwest Alaska where we know these biomes do not exist today. The projected changes in climate conditions in the region under a RCP8.5 climate scenario (significant warming upwards of 10°C by some models, an increase in precipitation by as much as 40%, and carbon dioxide concentration reaching approximately 940 ppm) drive shifts in Arctic biomes. The tree line shifts northward while shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions decrease significantly. An intrusion of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60° north, especially in southwest Alaska, were marked and were not modeled for present day. Across eastern Russia, deciduous taiga begins to overtake evergreen taiga, except along the coastal regions where evergreen taiga remains the favored biome. The implications of vegetation shifts in the Arctic are vast and include effects on snow cover, soil properties, permafrost distribution, and albedo, not to mention impacts on local fauna and people of the Artic.

  5. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in Russia.

    PubMed

    Garanina, S B; Platonov, A E; Zhuravlev, V I; Murashkina, A N; Yakimenko, V V; Korneev, A G; Shipulin, G A

    2009-08-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is the most prevalent zoonotic disease in Russia. It is caused by several hantavirus species hosted by small rodents. We describe spatial and temporal patterns of HFRS incidence in the Russian Federation, and the geographic distribution of prevalent hantavirus species: Puumala (PUUV) and Dobrava (DOBV). Partial sequencing of nucleocapsid and glycoprotein genes of 117 PUUV strains and 78 DOBV strains revealed several distinct genetic subgroups. The RNA of Volga PUUV subgroup was detected in patients with HFRS and bank voles Myodes glareolus in the Volga Federal District, where the highest HFRS incidence rate has been registered yearly. The RNA of Siberian PUUV subgroup was found in M. glareolus in the trans-Ural Tyumen and Omsk Provinces, where human HFRS cases have been rare. During an HFRS outbreak in 2007 in the Central Federal District, when more than 1000 patients were affected, specific subgroups of DOBV were discovered in patients and rodents, mainly in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius. DOBV strains might have 8–9% of nucleotide difference although they were collected at places separated by 30–100 km. The RNA of a unique DOBV subgroup was discovered in the southern semi-desert Astrakhan Province, mainly in A. agrarius and tamarisk jird Meriones tamariscinus. No human HFRS cases were diagnosed in this province. Russian PUUV and DOBV strains have no close homologues among European strains. Our DOBV strains might be genetically grouped together with Central European DOBV strains isolated from A. agrarius, but not from Apodemus flavicollis. The Volga PUUV subgroup is to some extent similar to Baltic PUUV strain, and Finnish PUUV strains resemble the strains from the Siberian PUUV subgroup. Thus, PCRbased monitoring and typing provided the opportunity to delineate and expand the area of hantaviruses in Russia and to identify their new genetic variants. PMID:19486318

  6. Carbon cost of collective farming collapse in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kurganova, Irina; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Six, Johan; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-03-01

    The collapse of collective farming in Russia after 1990 and the subsequent economic crisis led to the abandonment of more than 45 million ha of arable lands (23% of the agricultural area). This was the most widespread and abrupt land use change in the 20th century in the northern hemisphere. The withdrawal of land area from cultivation led to several benefits including carbon (C) sequestration. Here, we provide a geographically complete and spatially detailed analysis of C sequestered in these abandoned lands. The average C accumulation rate in the upper 20 cm of mineral soil was 0.96 ± 0.08 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) for the first 20 years after abandonment and 0.19 ± 0.10 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) during the next 30 years of postagrogenic evolution and natural vegetation establishment. The amount of C sequestered over the period 1990-2009 accounts to 42.6 ± 3.8 Tg C per year. This C sequestration rate is equivalent to ca. 10% of the annual C sink in all Russian forests. Furthermore, it compensates all fire and postfire CO2 emissions in Russia and covers about 4% of the global CO2 release due to deforestation and other land use changes. Our assessment shows a significant mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2 by prolonged C accumulation in Russian soils caused by collective farming collapse.

  7. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  8. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  9. Economic Study of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Reprocessing Practices in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    C. E. Singer; G. H. Miley

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a study of nuclear power economics in Russia. It addresses political and institutional background factors which constrain Russia's energy choices in the short and intermediate run. In the approach developed here, political and institutional factors might dominate short-term decisions, but the comparative costs of Russia's fuel-cycle options are likely to constrain her long-term energy strategy. To this end, the authors have also formulated a set of policy questions which should be addressed using a quantitative decision modeling which analyzes economic costs for all major components of different fuel cycle options, including the evolution of uranium prices.

  10. Prospects of and Problems in Using Natural Gas for Motor Transport in RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikishev, E.; Ivanov, A.; Anisimov, I.; Chainikov, D.

    2016-08-01

    This article is devoted to increasing the use of natural gas in Russia as a measure to decrease the negative influence of motor transport on the environment. A brief analysis of the global fleet of natural gas vehicles is provided above. The documents accepted in Russia to promote public awareness of compressed natural gas in transport are submitted. The basic reasons keeping the growth of natural gas vehicle fleets in Russia consist of weak branching of refuelling stations; difficulty in determining the actual amount of compressed natural gas required; and control methods of the consumption of gas fuel. The offers promoting the growth of the fleet of natural gas vehicles are given.

  11. Professor Yakov Yulievich Bardakh (1857-1929): pioneer of bacteriological research in Russia and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav A

    2014-08-01

    Odessa physician Yakov Bardakh had an unusually high number of bacteriological 'firsts' to his credit: in 1886, while working at the Odessa Bacteriological Station, he was the first to test Louis Pasteur's anti-rabies vaccine on himself in order to demonstrate its safety. In the 1890s, in addition to conducting pioneering research on diphtheria, he created the first extensive course in bacteriology at the Novorossiya University--the first such course in Russia--and established the first university laboratory in Russia to specialize in bacteriology. In 1903 he created the first Medical Emergency Service in Russia.

  12. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  13. Case study on aid in district heating energy efficiency and gas transportation leakages in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsevich, I.

    1997-12-31

    Russia makes one of the greatest contribution to GHG emissions in the world and is listed in the FCCC as a country with economy in transition committed to return by the end of the present decade to its GHG emissions level in 1990. Russia has accumulated a significant reserve for carbon credit as a result of production decline: GHG emissions fell down by 25% in 1995/1990, and one of the greatest energy efficiency potentials (more than 480 mln tce). Russia is interested in international cooperation, for instance, in the form of JI projects.

  14. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  15. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  16. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  17. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  18. Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Habeck, Joachim Otto; Karjalainen, Timo P; Virtanen, Tarmo; Solovieva, Nadia; Jones, Viv; Kuhry, Peter; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari; Patova, Elena; Crittenden, Peter D; Young, Scott D; Ingold, Tim

    2006-08-01

    Using interdisciplinary field research in the Usa Basin, northeast European Russia, we compared local inhabitants' perception of environmental problems with chemical and remote-sensing signatures of environmental pollution and their local impacts. Extensive coal mining since the 1930s around Inta and Vorkuta has left a legacy of pollution, detected by measuring snowpack, topsoil, and lichen chemistry, together with remote-sensing techniques and analysis of lake water and sediments. Vorkuta and its environs suffered the worst impacts, with significant metal loading and alkalization in lakes and topsoils, elevated metals and cations in terricolous (reindeer) lichens, and changes in vegetation communities. Although the coal industry has declined recently, the area boasts a booming oil and gas industry, based around Usinsk. Local perceptions and concerns of environmental pollution and protection were higher in Usinsk, as a result of increased awareness after a major oil spill in 1994, compared with Vorkuta's inhabitants, who perceived air pollution as the primary environmental threat. Our studies indicate that the principal sources of atmospheric emissions and local deposition within 25 to 40 km of Vorkuta were coal combustion from power and heating plants, coal mines, and a cement factory. Local people evaluated air pollution from direct observations and personal experiences, such as discoloration of snow and respiratory problems, whereas scientific knowledge played a minor role in shaping these perceptions. PMID:16989506

  19. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  20. Differing Views of Educational Leadership in Russia and America: Implications for an Ongoing Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Compares Russian and United States definitions and content of educational leadership and management. Draws implications for collaboration between the United States and Russia in the area of educational leadership preparation and practice. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  1. The Development of the Institution of School Counselors in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurianova, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Two decades of experience with the use of school counselors in rural areas of Russia has demonstrated their necessity in supporting students, but their further development and increasing effectiveness requires a significant increase in resources provided to them.

  2. 76 FR 78888 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... From Russia AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On September 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated the third...

  3. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  4. Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Cheskidov, V.I.

    2007-07-15

    The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

  5. Assessing Russia's space cooperation with China and India—Opportunities and challenges for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Russia is a strategic partner for Europe, in particular in its space endeavour. However, in the past decade the Russian partner has significantly changed. Strengthened by a better economic situation, Russia is now reasserting strong ambitions, and its leadership aims to reaffirm the country's position on the international scene. As a result, Russia's international partnerships in the space field have evolved and the country has recently intensified relationships with China and India. This development has the potential to strongly impact Europe, its space activities and the relations between all those actors. This paper investigates the relations between Russia, India and China, their possible evolution and the consequences for Europe. It evaluates the potential impact on Europe's space activities and on its cooperation with the Russian partner. It concludes with recommended actions to be taken by European decision-makers in order to maximise opportunities and minimise risks in this changing environment.

  6. The current state of knowledge of ecosystems and ecosystem services in Russia: A status report.

    PubMed

    Bukvareva, Elena N; Grunewald, Karsten; Bobylev, Sergey N; Zamolodchikov, Dimitry G; Zimenko, Alexey V; Bastian, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    This paper focusses on a conceptual overview of ways to address a comprehensive analysis of ecosystem services (ES) in a country as large and heterogeneous as Russia. As a first step, a methodology for assessing the services for the federal subjects of Russia was chosen, i.e., its constituent provinces and similar entities, in physical terms. Russia harbors a great diversity of natural conditions and ecosystems which are suppliers of ES, and likewise a variety of the socio-economic conditions that shape the demand for these services and their consumption. The methodological approach described permits several important tasks to be addressed: the evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of people's needs for ES, the identification of ecological donor and acceptor regions, and zoning of the country's territory for ES assessment. The next step is to prepare a prototype of a National Report on ES in Russia, for which we are presenting the planned structure.

  7. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G.; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A.

    2015-03-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential.

  8. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets Basin, Ukraine).

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Abels, Hemmo A; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A

    2015-01-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential. PMID:25791400

  9. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets Basin, Ukraine).

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Abels, Hemmo A; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A

    2015-03-20

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential.

  10. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine)

    PubMed Central

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G.; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential. PMID:25791400

  11. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  12. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2015-01-01

    Background Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. Methods The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Results Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015–2055. Conclusions SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. PMID:23853252

  13. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  14. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  15. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  16. Production of medical radionuclides in Russia: status and future--a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuikov, B L

    2014-02-01

    We present a review of reactor and accelerator centers in Russia that produce medical isotopes, the majority of which are exported. In the near future, we anticipate increased isotope production for use in nuclear medicine in Russia. The existing linear accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow-Troitsk) and several prospective installations are considered to be particularly capable of providing mass production of radionuclides that can substitute, to a certain extent, for the traditional medical isotopes. PMID:24315977

  17. Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Petrenya, Natalya; Konoplev, Alexei; Bojko, Evgeny; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Background The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community. Methods During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals. Results PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p′-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p′-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p′-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p′-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study

  18. A new species of Chleuastochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sukuan; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, is known for its abundant and well-preserved fossils. Here a new species, Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the upper Miocene deposits of the Linxia Basin, distinguishable from C. stehlini by the relatively long facial region, more anteromedial-posterolaterally compressed upper canine and more complicated cheek teeth. A cladistics analysis placed Chleuastochoerus in the subfamily Hyotheriinae, being one of the basal taxa of this subfamily. Chleuastochoerus linxiaensis and C. stehlini are considered to have diverged before MN 10. C. tuvensis from Russia represents a separate lineage of Chleuastochoerus, which may have a closer relationship to C. stehlini but bears more progressive P4/p4 and M3. PMID:25544095

  19. Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia) Ekaterina Maksimova Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Applied Ecology, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation Institute of Ecology of Volga basin, Togljatty city, Russian Federation Soils, affected by catastrophic wildfires in 2010, were investigated in pine woods of Togljatty city, Samara region with the special reference to soil biological parameters. The analysis of microbial community of pine wood soils was carried out. It was revealed that wildfires have a negative impact on structure and functional activity of the microbial community postpyrogenic soils. In particular, they influence on values of eukaryotes-prokaryotes ratios, on CO2 emission intensity and on microorganisms functional state (as it was determined by microbial metabolic quotient) after wildfires. It has been revealed that microbial biomass values and basal respiration rate shows the trend to decrease in case of postfire sites compared with control (in 6.5 and 3.4 times respectively). The microbial biomass and basal respiration values have annual natural variability that testifies to a correlation of this process with soil hydrothermal conditions. However, it was also noted that wildfires don't affect on measured microbiological parameters in layers situated deeper than top 10 cm of soil. An increasing of the values, mentioned above, was observed 2-3 years after wildfires. Zone of microorganisms' activity has been moved to the lowermost soil layers. A disturbance of soil microbial communities' ecophysiological status after the fire is diagnosed by an increase of microbial metabolic quotient value. The metabolic activity of the microbial community decreases in a row: control→crown fire→ground fire. That testifies to certain intensive changes in the microbial community. High-temperature influence on microbial community has a significant effect on a total amount of bacteria, on a length of actinomycetes

  20. Preliminary Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, T. A.; Miller, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Wrangel Island is part of a regional structural high that forms the continuation of the offshore Herald Arch and Chukchi Platform of Alaska. It is flanked on the north by the deep North Chukchi Basin, which in addition to Paleozoic strata, is inferred to contain up to 12 km of Beaufortian and Brookian (Late Jurassic to Tertiary) sediments (Dinkelman et al., 2008). To the south, ~E-W trending faults bound the Longa Basin that separates Wrangel from mainland Chukotka. This basin lies along strike of the early Tertiary Hope Basin in the Alaskan offshore. Wrangel Island itself exposes a broad, doubly-plunging anticlinorium-like structure cored by Neoproterozoic basement and flanked by Paleozoic shelf successions and a thick section of Triassic turbidites, representing about 5-7 km of structural section. The structural geology of Wrangel Island has been interpreted to represent a north-vergent Mesozoic fold and thrust belt linked by seismic reflection to the Herald Arch and then to the Lisburne Hills and the Brooks Range foreland fold and thrust belt (e.g. Kos’ko et al., 1993). However, deformation differs considerably from typical foreland fold-thrust structures of the Brooks Range as it is penetrative, involves large strains, and occurred under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. Parts of the sequence exhibit mylonitic fabrics. Apatite fission track thermochronology of rocks from Wrangel Island can establishes the age of cooling to temperatures below ~ 100° C, providing temporal constraints on the uplift and erosional history of rocks that form this regional structural high. We analyzed seven fission track samples from a 9-km long N-S transect along the Kishchnikov River, from Triassic strata on the southern flank of the anticlinal structure to Devonian(?)-Mississippian feldspathic grits, conglomerates, and underlying Neoproterozoic igneous basement rocks in its core. All samples yielded statistically indistinguishable fission track ages averaging about 95

  1. At home among strangers: Alfred Russel Wallace in Russia.

    PubMed

    Levit, Georgy S; Polatayko, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) was an influential figure within Russian pre-Synthetic evolutionary biology, i.e. the time period before the Synthetic Theory of Evolution was established (ca. 1880-1930s). His major works were translated into Russian and his general ideas were read and discussed by both insiders and outsiders of scientific evolutionism. At the same time, Wallace played a controversial role in the growth of Darwinism in Russia, and Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) has eclipsed Wallace in his influence on Russian evolutionary thinking. In this paper we briefly outline Wallace’s impact on Russian pre-Synthetic scientific evolutionism and its general intellectual climate. We demonstrate that both Russian pro-Darwinian evolutionists and anti-Darwinians (scientific anti-Darwinians as well as creationists) were fully aware of Wallace’s contributions to the development of evolutionary theory. Yet, Wallace’s radical selectionism, as well as his controversial arguments for “design in nature”, predetermined his special place within the Russian intellectual landscape.

  2. An exploratory study on attitudes toward inclusive education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Martz, Erin

    2005-06-01

    This exploratory study examined the attitudes toward inclusive education among Russian teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities (n=176). The results indicated that while there were no significant differences among teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities on overall attitudes toward inclusive education, there were significant differences in perspectives about the possible time-frame for implementing inclusive education. Generally speaking, school administrators and teachers tended to express the belief that inclusive education could be a reality even today, though many of this group thought that it might be a question of the near future or undefined future. Both groups of parents tended to think that inclusive education could occur in an undefined future. There were significant differences among the three groups about perceptions of responsibility for implementing inclusive education. Administrators, teachers and parents of students with disabilities viewed it as a responsibility of the school, while parents of students without disabilities viewed it as the government's duty. Further, the majority of respondents reported the lack of necessary conditions in schools and the lack of government policies and finances as the main barriers to inclusive education. These findings suggest two areas of intervention to promote the implementation of inclusive education in Russia: physical accessibility of schools and government support.

  3. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  4. New role for space station—Enhanced cooperation with Russia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The Clinton administration's recent discussions with Russia on enhanced space cooperation and a possible joint space station prompted a two-part hearing by the House Science Subcommittee on Space, held on October 6 and 14. Subcommittee members, citing rumors and news stories about a joint station, questioned Presidential Science Advisor Jack Gibbons and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin on the status of the proposed cooperation and heard from additional witnesses regarding the feasibility of and support for the concept.Gibbons reassured subcommittee members that no decision has yet been made on Russian cooperation, and that Congress would be consulted in the process. He explained that, after the Vancouver Summit, establishment of a Joint Commission headed by Vice President Gore and Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin provided an opportunity for enhanced cooperation in space, as well as in such other areas as energy, nuclear safety, the environment, business development, science and technology, and defense diversification. Gibbons testified that the study of a cooperative station program took place concurrently with NASA's work on defining the redesigned U.S. space station, now being referred to as “Alpha.” He affirmed that while Alpha's modular design made it adaptable to a joint effort, it could “be built independent of any Russian participation.”

  5. At home among strangers: Alfred Russel Wallace in Russia.

    PubMed

    Levit, Georgy S; Polatayko, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) was an influential figure within Russian pre-Synthetic evolutionary biology, i.e. the time period before the Synthetic Theory of Evolution was established (ca. 1880-1930s). His major works were translated into Russian and his general ideas were read and discussed by both insiders and outsiders of scientific evolutionism. At the same time, Wallace played a controversial role in the growth of Darwinism in Russia, and Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) has eclipsed Wallace in his influence on Russian evolutionary thinking. In this paper we briefly outline Wallace’s impact on Russian pre-Synthetic scientific evolutionism and its general intellectual climate. We demonstrate that both Russian pro-Darwinian evolutionists and anti-Darwinians (scientific anti-Darwinians as well as creationists) were fully aware of Wallace’s contributions to the development of evolutionary theory. Yet, Wallace’s radical selectionism, as well as his controversial arguments for “design in nature”, predetermined his special place within the Russian intellectual landscape. PMID:24022180

  6. Dynamical Cognitive Models of Social Issues in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitina, Olga; Abraham, Fred; Petrenko, Victor

    We examine and model dynamics in three areas of social cognition: (1) political transformations within Russia, (2) evaluation of political trends in other countries by Russians, and (3) evaluation of Russian stereotypes concerning women. We try to represent consciousness as vectorfields and trajectories in a cognitive state space. We use psychosemantic techniques that allow definition of the state space and the systematic construction of these vectorfields and trajectories and their portrait from research data. Then we construct models to fit them, using multiple regression methods to obtain linear differential equations. These dynamical models of social cognition fit the data quite well. (1) The political transformations were modeled by a spiral repellor in a two-dimensional space of a democratic-totalitarian factor and social depression-optimism factor. (2) The evaluation of alien political trends included a flow away from a saddle toward more stable and moderate political regimes in a 2D space, of democratic-totalitarian and unstable-stable cognitive dimensions. (3) The gender study showed expectations (attractors) for more liberated, emancipated roles for women in the future.

  7. Russia's imperial blood: was Rasputin not the healer of legend?

    PubMed

    Kendrick, John M L

    2004-09-01

    The only son of Russia's last Tsar, a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, continues to be used as the favorite example of the X-linked inheritance of hemophilia, in spite of the fact that this popular historical diathesis has never been confirmed by any form of modern medical laboratory testing. Certain to be controversial, a new study of the symptoms that were witnessed by those who were closest to the teenaged Russian heir now raises the possibility that his blood disorder might well have been something other than hemophilia. The key to discovering Tsarevich Alexei's true diagnosis is found in those now legendary allegations that the infamous "Mad Monk", Grigory Rasputin, had possessed a power of healing that was somehow responsible for the young boy's mysterious history of spontaneous recoveries. If we are to accept the popular diagnosis of history and call it a clotting factor deficiency, then the boy's now famous sudden recoveries will remain a complete mystery. The so-called "Mad Monk" Rasputin, as a direct result of the revolutionary propaganda of the time, is then overblown into a larger-than-life legend. If, however, we are to change the diagnosis and call it a platelet disorder, then the air is let out of the legend, and Rasputin is revealed to have been nothing more than a very ordinary middle-aged Siberian hippie who did not possess any healing powers at all.

  8. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kartashev, Vladimir; Batashova, Irina; Kartashov, Sergey; Ermakov, Alexey; Mironova, Anna; Kuleshova, Yulia; Ilyasov, Boris; Kolodiy, Irina; Klyuchnikov, Alexander; Ryabikina, Elena; Babicheva, Marina; Levchenko, Yulia; Pavlova, Raisa; Pantchev, Nicola; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia) are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3%) and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%), while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009) revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region. PMID:21253482

  9. Hypolactasia in Saami subpopulations of Russia and Finland.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A; Lisitsyn, D

    1997-12-01

    Primary hypolactasia is a gene attributed condition of the inability of adult individuals to consume whole milk. Subpopulations of the Russia (Kildin) and Finland Saami are characterized by a large variability of the LAC*R (lactase restriction) gene frequencies (0.50-0.77). The distribution of primary hypolactasia among the Saami is ranging from 25% to 60%. The intensive reindeer breeding was developed by the Saami only 300-400 years ago. Reindeer milk is poor in lactose (2.4%) and is consumed by the Saami in small amounts. Thus, "milk behaviour" connected with reindeer breeding could not have influenced the trait evolution too much. The large between-group differences of the LAC*R gene frequencies in the Saami seem to reflect the level of genetic influence of neighbouring non-Saami populations. The role of gene inflow in reducing the level of primary hypolactasia in various Saami subpopulations is confirmed by historic data of various ethnoterritorial groups as well as by the reduction of the number of traditional family name bearers and the change of the AB0 blood group gene frequencies among the Kildin Saami in the last 30 years.

  10. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life.

  11. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  12. Open Education as a Way for Space Education in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Karp, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    low level of state financial support. As a result there is a decreasing education quality. Scientific research was always an integral part of education and an alternative way for education financial support. But today the level of such support is too low as well. High experience of Russian space education system is not useful completely. This paper shows, that at present an open education could be a new step of space education in Russia. discussed in the paper. of students per one professor and also the number of students, which pay for education. New technology based on Internet technology would provide high methodology and technical level of education. The open education guarantees training in different areas and specialties on international standard level. education process, new education technology, new equipment of education system, new ways of financial support, international cooperation in education process, new professors and staffs in education system, increasing the level of salary for staff and comfortable conditions for students are discussed at the first. free education period, both traditional and new education methods are very important on the other side. about 4-5 years. The necessity of international educational system integration has to be taken into account. The international standard request, educational courses in different languages and free market conditions have to be under consideration. The partially ready open space education is discussed also. That system can be started even today.

  13. Paleointensity determinations from Middle Miocene volcanic rocks, Far East, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Shcherbakova, Valentina; Zhidkov, Grigoriy; Bretstein, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleointensity studies of a representative collection of Middle Miocene volcanic rocks of (12.4-10.0) Ma age from Far East, Russia were carried out. A comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been performed in order to determine the mineralogy of magnetic fraction and to identify the origin of NRM. Successful Thellier palaeointensity determinations with pTRM checks were obtained for 4 sites (33 samples). The Thellier experiments were complimented by the Wilson's express method. Values of the VDMs range from 3.1 to 7.5 (10^22 Am^2) with the mean VDM = 5.5×10^22 Am^2. A total 88 Thellier-type palaeointensity determinations were found in the World Paleointensity database for the 5-23 Ma period with the overall mean VDM = 5×10^22 Am^2. The VDM distribution is characterized by high variance from 1.5 to 12 (10^22 Am^2). No significant difference between the VDM distributions for the normal and reverse polarity intervals was revealed.

  14. Hypolactasia in Saami subpopulations of Russia and Finland.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A; Lisitsyn, D

    1997-12-01

    Primary hypolactasia is a gene attributed condition of the inability of adult individuals to consume whole milk. Subpopulations of the Russia (Kildin) and Finland Saami are characterized by a large variability of the LAC*R (lactase restriction) gene frequencies (0.50-0.77). The distribution of primary hypolactasia among the Saami is ranging from 25% to 60%. The intensive reindeer breeding was developed by the Saami only 300-400 years ago. Reindeer milk is poor in lactose (2.4%) and is consumed by the Saami in small amounts. Thus, "milk behaviour" connected with reindeer breeding could not have influenced the trait evolution too much. The large between-group differences of the LAC*R gene frequencies in the Saami seem to reflect the level of genetic influence of neighbouring non-Saami populations. The role of gene inflow in reducing the level of primary hypolactasia in various Saami subpopulations is confirmed by historic data of various ethnoterritorial groups as well as by the reduction of the number of traditional family name bearers and the change of the AB0 blood group gene frequencies among the Kildin Saami in the last 30 years. PMID:9468755

  15. Disability incidence and official health status transitions in Russia.

    PubMed

    Becker, Charles M; Merkuryeva, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of being disabled in Russia, along with the probability of moving from one disability status to another, using data from 1994 through 2005 from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Results from multinomial probit regressions indicate that disability risk rises sharply with age, declines with income and self-reported good health, and is lower for women. Neither smoking nor drinking alcohol increases either the risk of being or becoming disabled. Recovery--health status improvement--improves with household size. Misclassification or measurement error is important: a surprisingly large proportion of "incurably" disabled Russians do in fact recover. This study has been funded in part by National Institute of Aging grant #2P30 AG17248-02 through the Population Aging Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We are grateful to Aleksandr Andreev for outstanding research assistance. Jeanine Braithwaite, John Komlos, Cem Mete, Mieke Meurs, Daniel Mont, Frank Sloan, and five anonymous referees contributed valuable comments. We acknowledge our appreciation without implicating them in remaining errors and misinterpretations.

  16. Sedimentary basins and crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Davy, P.; Gapais, D.; Rossello, E. A.; Sadybakasov, E.; Thomas, J. C.; Tondji Biyo, J. J.; de Urreiztieta, M.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the development of sedimentary basins in a tectonic context dominated by horizontal shortening and vertical thickening of the crust. Well-known examples are foreland basins; others are ramp basins and buckle basins. We have reproduced various styles of compressional basins in experiments, properly scaled for gravity. A multilayered model lithosphere, with brittle and ductile layers, floats on a model asthenosphere. A computer-driven piston provides shortening and thickening, synchronous with erosion and sedimentation. After a first stage of lithospheric buckling, thrust faults appear, mainly at inflection points. Slip on an isolated reverse fault is accompanied by flexure. Footwall flexure results in a foreland basin and becomes accentuated by sedimentation. Hangingwall flexure is less marked, but may become accentuated by erosion. Motion on a fault leads to hangingwall collapse at the surface. Either footwall sedimentation or hangingwall erosion tends to prolong the active life of a reverse fault. Slip on any pair of closely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a ramp basin. Simultaneous slip produces a symmetric ramp basin, whereas alternating slip results in a butterfly-shaped basin, with superposed foredeeps. Some well-developed ramp basins become pushed down, until bounding faults meet at the surface and the basin disappears from view. At this stage, the basin depth is equivalent to 15 km or more. Slip on any pair of widely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a pronounced central anticline, between two distinct foredeeps. In Central Asia and in Western Europe, Cenozoic crustal thickening is due to continental collision. For Central Asia (Western China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), we have compiled a regional structure-contour map on the base of the Tertiary, as well as 4 regional sections. Foreland basins and ramp basins are numerous and associated with Cenozoic thrusts. Large basins (Tarim, Junggar

  17. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  18. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  19. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  20. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  1. [AIDS in Russia. It is still possible to stop the epidemic. Interview with Dr. A.P. Koslov].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, P

    1996-01-01

    According to A.P. Koslov, president of the Fourth International Conference on AIDS, Cancer, and Associated Diseases held in Russia in 1996, the conference represents the first high level discussion of AIDS risk management in Russia. Russia has a strong potential for development of a vaccine, having been a key player in the smallpox eradication program in the late 1950s. Conditions are difficult at present, but it is possible that Russia will be able to develop a practical vaccine for distribution in the Third World. Efforts to develop an HIV vaccine underway in different countries have been examined, and a list has been compiled of Russian institutions able to participate in HIV vaccine development. International assistance for vaccine development in Russia would help both the medical establishment in Russia, which has suffered because of the economic and social crisis, and the international community. A meeting is planned for December 1996 in St. Petersburg to organize an AIDS control organization for all of Russia. Mobilization of support for AIDS prevention activities is necessary but very difficult. If nothing is done, the epidemic in Ukraine will soon spread to Russia. But Russia and China are among the few countries where an HIV epidemic could still be prevented or stopped. The association in St. Petersburg cooperates with other former Soviet republics in AIDS control activities, although attendance at international meetings and conferences is frequently curtailed for financial reasons.

  2. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  3. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic

  4. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  5. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  6. Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

    2013-04-01

    The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend

  7. Silicon Taiga: SEZ in Russia, Problems and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmenkulova, I.; Zhitov, E.

    2005-12-01

    Russian economy is known to be oil and gas dependent nowadays. Good educational system and high-quality diplomas of some schools together with bad living conditions and poor social security cause brain-drain and therefore make the country economy less competitive and even more resource dependent. To change the situation and to use intellectual resources properly Russian Government approved the law concerning setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in about 10 regions. SEZ can be defined as a territory of Russian Federation, an attractive for business offshore zone, having tax privileges and open to investments. Both residents and non-residents can do business there. The choice of the zone location is based on free competition. Such regions as Novosibirsk, Moscow, Sanct Petersburg, Tomsk and some Far East regions approved their intention to participate in the Project. 10 SEZ are expected to appear in 2006. Russian Government decided to create an IT center in Novosibirsk Scientific Center (Academgorodok), a place where more than 30 scientific institutions and Novosibirsk State University are located. Academgorodok is known by its intellectual potential not only in Russia but all over the world. The IT center Project includes the construction of a business center and several university buildings. This zone will be very attractive for investments and business. The concept of `continuous education' is used in Academgorodok. This means that young `geostars' are `nourished' from the middle school age, then continue their education at Novosibirsk State University (NSU). The NSU graduates work not only in Russian companies, but in such companies as Schlumberger, Shell, Halliburton, and others. Thus Novosibirsk Scientific Center (Academgorodok) can be very attractive for domestic and foreign investments because of its intellectual resources and educational policy, as well as a future SEZ. Several international geo-companies have already opened their offices there.

  8. Factors affecting the selenium intake of people in Transbaikalian Russia.

    PubMed

    Aro, A; Kumpulainen, J; Alfthan, G; Voshchenko, A V; Ivanov, V N

    1994-03-01

    The selenium concentration in foods grown and consumed and in plasma, red blood cells, and toenails of people living in the district of Chita in the transbaikalian part of Russia were studied in August 1991. Preliminary results from the area have suggested low selenium intakes and the possible occurrence of cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) in the population. A low selenium concentration in foods grown locally was found: mean selenium concentration in wheat grains was 1, 5, and 28 micrograms/kg, respectively, in three villages studied, that of oats was between 3-6 micrograms/kg, and of cow's milk 10-27 micrograms/kg dry matter. The selenium concentration of bread was considerably higher, between 87-337 micrograms/kg dry wt, presumably because wheat imported from the US had been used for baking. Occasional samples of pork, beef, and mutton contained between 32-218 micrograms selenium/kg dry wt. Low selenium concentrations were observed in samples of soil and river water. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 52 persons was 1.02 mumol/L, including 33 children and 19 adult subjects. The selenium concentrations in red blood cells and toenails were 1.95 mumol/L and 0.61 mg/kg, respectively. No symptoms of heart disease caused by selenium deficiency were observed. It is concluded that the selenium status of people was fairly good thanks to the contribution to dietary intake of imported wheat with a high selenium content. As the selenium concentration was very low in foods grown in the area, the selenium intake of the population will be reduced to a very low level if only locally produced foods are consumed.

  9. The urgent need for quality improvement in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ruevekamp, D

    1994-01-01

    to be done in Russia about family planning, including involving men in matters of sexual behavior and birth control.

  10. Medical Support for ISS Crewmember Training in Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chough, Natacha; Pattarini, James; Cole, Richard; Patlach, Robert; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Medical support of spaceflight training operations across international lines is a unique circumstance with potential applications to other aerospace medicine support scenarios. KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) has fulfilled this role since the Mir-Shuttle era, with extensive experience and updates to share with the greater AsMA community. OVERVIEW: The current Soyuz training flow for assigned ISS crewmembers takes place in Star City, Russia. Soyuz training flow involves numerous activities that pose potential physical and occupational risks to crewmembers, including centrifuge runs and pressurized suit simulations at ambient and hypobaric pressures. In addition, Star City is a relatively remote location in a host nation with variable access to reliable, Western-standard medical care. For these reasons, NASA's Human Health & Performance contract allocates full-time physician support to assigned ISS crewmembers training in Star City. The Star City physician also treats minor injuries and illnesses as needed for both long- and short-term NASA support personnel traveling in the area, while working to develop and maintain relationships with local health care resources in the event of more serious medical issues that cannot be treated on-site. The specifics of this unique scope of practice will be discussed. SIGNIFICANCE: ISS crewmembers training in Star City are at potential physical and occupational risk of trauma or dysbarism during nominal Soyuz training flow, requiring medical support from an on-duty aerospace medicine specialist. This support maintains human health and performance by preserving crewmember safety and well-being for mission success; sharing information regarding this operational model may contribute to advances in other areas of international, military, and civilian operational aerospace medicine.

  11. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  12. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  13. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  14. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  15. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  16. Large-scale monitoring and assessment of metal contamination in surface water of the Selenga River Basin (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Nadmitov, Bulat; Hong, Seongjin; In Kang, Sang; Chu, Jang Min; Gomboev, Bair; Janchivdorj, Lunten; Lee, Chang-Hee; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-02-01

    An extensive and year-round survey was conducted to assess metal pollution in vast watershed areas of the Selenga River Basin (2007-2009), which provided baseline heavy metal database for the future management. Sources and environmental hazard and risk indices associated with metal pollution were evidenced across the countries of Mongolia and Russia (Buryatia Republic). In general, the concentrations of heavy metals in river water of Mongolia were greater than those of Russia, expect for the upstream of the Dzhida River in Russia. The spatial distribution generally indicated that metal pollution in the Selenga River was mainly associated with the activities in the Mongolian upstream regions. Similar pollution sources of metals between river water and wastewater associated with surrounding activities were found across the industrial and mining areas. Compositional patterns of metals suggested their sources were independent of each other, with hot spots in certain sites. Our measurements indicated that about 63 % of the locations surveyed (48 of 76) exceeded the critical heavy metal pollution index of 100, identifying possible harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems through metal pollution. Zinc was found to be the chemical of priority concern, as more than half of the locations exceeded the corresponding water quality guideline. Other metals including Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu, and As might be problematic in the Selenga River Basin considering the occurrence and their concentrations. Results of our extensive survey during the period of 3 years indicated that urgent action would be necessary in timely manner to improve water quality and mitigate the impact of heavy metals on aquatic environment of the Selenga River Basin. PMID:25217283

  17. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  18. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  19. From separations to reconstitution - a short history of Plutonium in the U.S. and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W

    1999-04-15

    During the cold war plutonium was produced in reactors in both the US and Russia. It was then separated from the residual uranium and fission products by a variety of precipitation processes, such as Bismuth Phosphate, Redox, Butex, Purex, etc. in the US and uranium acetate and Purex in Russia. After a period of time in the field, plutonium weapons were recycled and the plutonium re-purified and returned to weapons. purification was accomplished by a variety of aqueous and molten salt processes, such as nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution followed by anion exchange, Purex modifications, molten salt extraction, electrorefining, etc. in the US and nitric acid dissolution or sodium hydroxide fusion followed by anion exchange in Russia. At the end of the Cold War, plutonium production of weapons-grade plutonium was cut off in the US and is expected to be cut off in Russia shortly after the turn of the century. Now both countries are looking at methods to reconstitute plutonium with fission products to render it no longer useful for nuclear weapons. These methods include immobilization in a ceramic matrix and then encasement in fission product laden glass, irradiation of MOX fuel, and disposal as waste in WIPP in the US and irradiation of MOX fuel in Russia. This paper details the contrast between the treatment of plutonium during the cold war and after the cold war was over.

  20. Building state capacity in Russia: A case study of energy sector reform, 1992--1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younkyoo

    This study seeks an explanation for the neglect of state building in Russia. The major hypothesis is that dependence on external rent leads to the weakness of the state. Three intervening variables---transaction costs, bargaining power of the state, and discount rates---are posited to explain variance on the dependent variable, the weakness of the state. Based on the exploration of three dimensions of energy sector reform, the dissertation argues that in the short run resource rents may be the only reliable and adequate source of finance for the Russian government. The division of resource rents among the many claimants (state vs. business, state vs. society, Moscow vs. regions, and Russia vs. foreign companies), it submits, will pose a stringent test of the viability of democratic governance in Russia. The dissertation concludes that some evidence indicates that Russia has in fact met the characteristics of the rentier state. The greater reliance on a large resource sector for revenue has led to high transaction costs of tax collection, weak bargaining power of the state, and high discount rates of government officials in Russia.

  1. Reconstruction of the White Sea Basin during the late Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A. H.; Lunkka, J. P.; Putkinen, N. O.

    2012-04-01

    The palaeoenvironments of the White Sea Basin in Northwestern Russia during the late Younger Dryas are poorly understood and partly controversial. To shed light to this problem the glaciofluvial plains and shorelines in the Kalevala End Moraine, west of the White Sea, were studied using geomorphological, sedimentological and ground penetrating radar survey methods. Using these data, the shoreline gradient for the area was determined. The gradient was then used to numerically reconstruct the palaeotopography and the volume and the area of the White Sea Basin during the late Younger Dryas ca. 11500 years ago. The results indicate that at three sites out of four the glaciofluvial plains represent Gilbert type deltaic sedimentation. These deltas, located several kilometres from each other, formed during the same water level. The numerical reconstruction shows that using the shoreline gradient 0,42 m/km the water body in the White Sea Basin was extensive and relatively deep. The currently onshore areas on the western side of the White Sea and Arkhangelsk area were flooded during the late Younger Dryas. The ice margin terminated partly in the White Sea and partly on dry land. According to the reconstruction the White Sea was connected to the Barents Sea via the Gorlo Strait and separated from the Baltic Basin.

  2. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  3. Planned LLR station in Russia and its impact on the lunar ephemeris accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, M.; Yagudina, E.; Torre, J.-M.; Feraudy, D.

    2015-08-01

    Precise modern Lunar Ephemerides (DE/LE, USA; INPOP series, France and EPM-ERA IAA, Russia) are based only on LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) observations obtained at sixth LLR ground stations during 1969-2013 years. At present there are only four stations active: Grasse (Cerga), McDonald, Apache Point (Apollo) and Matera (Italy). To improve the accuracy of lunar ephemerides the new stations are necessary. Now exist two projects of new LLR stations: Altay (Russia) and Hartebeesthoek in South Africa (1m telescope). La Silla (Chilli) station is very promising but now only under theoretical consideration. In the paper, the impact of a installation of new LLR device on the 3.12 m telescope at Altay station Siberia, Russia is considered. To check the actuality of the project it should be shown, in particular, that the accuracy of the lunar ephemeris will visibly increase. The only way to prove that fact now is the numerical simulation.

  4. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia.

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N; Chestnut, Tara; Brunner, Jesse L; Charles, Kaylene; Nebergall, Emily E; Olson, Deanna H

    2014-08-11

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  5. The peculiarities of water acidification in European Russia and Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Gashkina, N. A.; Dinu, M. I.; Kremleva, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies have proven the anthropogenic acidification of waters developing over the spacious territories of European Russia and West Siberia. The acidification is exhibited by the waters of small lakes characterized by bedrock consisting of granite and quartz formations. The acidified lakes of high water transparency, pH values below 6, and the prevalence of strong acids in the anion composition account for 4.4% of 201 lakes of European Russia and 8.2% of 166 explored lakes in the taiga and tundra regions of western Siberia. The main factor causing the development of acidification over the European Russia is the emission of technogenic sulfur by metallurgical smelteries. As for western Siberia, this is the combustion of associated gas at oil-producing enterprises. These processes combined with natural factors determine the complicated mechanism of anthropogenic acidification of waters.

  6. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  7. Geohistorical analysis of Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, L.D.

    1985-05-01

    The Paradox basin is an elongate sedimentary basin, asymmetric in profile, extending across common corners of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Subsidence of the basin began in Desmoinesian time and was coincident with the development of the ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Uncompahgre uplift formed the northeast boundary of the basin during Pennsylvanian and Permian times. Formation thickness and lithologies were obtained from lithologic and radioactivity logs from various parts of the basin. The stratigraphic column at each well, restored through the Upper Cretaceous, was back-stripped and decompacted to reconstruct its depositional history. Decompacted geohistory diagrams and residual (tectonic) subsidence curves were then generated for each well. The Mobil 1 McCormick well, drilled in 1977, penetrates Pennsylvanian strata beneath reverse-faulted granitic basement; this indicates that the basin was flexed down in response to pennsylvanian and Permian thrust faulting along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift. However, close correspondence of the residual subsidence curves to theoretical thermal subsidence curves indicates that the basin formed by crustal extension. Consequently, development of the basin may have involved crustal stretching (transtensional.) beneath the basin floor, followed by thrusting (transpressional.) along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift.

  8. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  9. Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of its capability to retrieve cloud-top elevations, stereoscopic observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can discriminate clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May 28, 2002.

    The left-hand image is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. On the right is a height field retrieved using automated computer processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Although both clouds and ice appear white in the natural color view, the stereoscopic retrievals are able to identify elevated clouds based on the geometric parallax which results when they are observed from different angles. Owing to their elevation above sea level, clouds are mapped as green and yellow areas, whereas land, sea ice, and very low clouds appear blue and purple. Purple, in particular, denotes elevations very close to sea level. The island of Novaya Sibir is located in the lower left of the images. It can be identified in the natural color view as the dark area surrounded by an expanse of fast ice. In the stereo map the island appears as a blue region indicating its elevation of less than 100 meters above sea level. Areas where the automated stereo processing failed due to lack of sufficient spatial contrast are shown in dark gray. The northern edge of the Siberian mainland can be found at the very bottom of the panels, and is located a little over 250 kilometers south of Novaya Sibir. Pack ice containing numerous fragmented ice floes surrounds the fast ice, and narrow areas of open ocean are visible.

    The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is very scant. Despite continuous sunlight from the end of April until the middle of August, the ice between the island and the

  10. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there

  11. Half a century of SETI in the USSR and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindilis, Lev; Gurvits, Leonid

    SETI studies in the USSR ascend back to the beginning of the 1960s. The stage for these studies have been set by the publication of the first edition of the book “The Universe, Life and Intelligence” by I.S. Shklovsky in 1962. Important milestones of early decades of the studies were the First All-Union Conference on extraterrestrial civilisations (Byurakan, 1964), the First International Symposium on CETI (Byurakan, 1971), the Zelenchukskaya Workshop (1975), Tallinn (1981) and Vilnius (1987) symposia, the Decennial US-USSR Conference on SETI (Santa Cruz, CA, 1991). The studies discussed at these forums ranged from developing criteria of “artificiality” of signals, analysing possible strategies of communication and broadcasting of messages on cosmic distances, methodology of search for artificial signals in various domains of the electro-magnetic spectrum, optimisation of frequency bands for search of and communication with ETI. A number of exploratory search projects have been conducted in radio and optical domains in the 1960s-80s. Theoretical studies were focused at developing optimal techniques for coding and decoding of interstellar messages, evaluation of astro-engineering dimension of the extraterrestrial intelligent activities, advancing philosophical aspects of the SETI problem. Later, in the 1990s and first decade of the third millennium, despite of general difficulties confronting scientific activities in Russia, SETI-oriented studies continued in the area of surveys of sun-like stars in Milky Way, search for Dyson spheres and optical signals with indications on artificiality. Several programmes of cosmic broadcasting were conducted too, including radio transmission toward selected stars. Serious re-thinking was given to incentives for passive and active involvement in SETI and CETI by cosmic civilisations. In our presentation, we will give a brief review of the past activities mentioned above and offer an outlook for further steps in advancing

  12. Stimulating Innovation in Russia: The Role of Institutions and Policies. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 539

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianella, Christian; Tompson, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of innovation policy in enhancing long-term productivity growth in Russia. It begins by exploring the role of framework conditions for business in encouraging innovative activities, particularly with respect to intellectual property rights and competition. Realising Russia's innovation potential will also…

  13. The Potential of the Modernization of Higher Education in Russia: The Communications of Competences of College Professors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovsiannikov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Research data cast doubt on the assumption that the best universities in Russia are of a high quality and are graduating students who are well educated and ready to contribute to the development of the Russian economy and society. The dominance of Moscow in Russian higher education is not providing the benefits for Russia that it should be…

  14. 76 FR 23835 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...)(5) of the Act should proceed (76 FR 15339, March 21, 2011). A record of the Commissioners' votes... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International...

  15. 76 FR 79214 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... FR 54490, September 1, 2011) were adequate. A record of the Commissioners' votes, the Commission's... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review... and nitrided vanadium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  16. The TIMSS Study: The Quality of Education in Mathematics and Natural Sciences in Russia Exceeds Average International Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovaleva, G.

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the quality of the teaching of mathematics and the natural sciences, Russia's school students in the fourth and eighth grades rank among the top ten countries out of the fifty-nine countries taking part in the TIMSS-2007 study. For Russia, TIMSS [Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study] is the first international…

  17. 78 FR 42041 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia, October 21-25, 2013; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Federal Register of December 4, 2012, in 78 FR 32369 on page 32369, title, note a top of page, correct the... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia, October 21-25, 2013; Correction... Trade Mission to Russia, October 21-25, 2013. This mission has been cancelled. Please update...

  18. 76 FR 38694 - Uranium From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... uranium from Russia (65 FR 50958 and 65 FR 52407 (corrected)). Following second five-year reviews by... investigation on imports of uranium from Russia (71 FR 46191). The Commission is now conducting a third review... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if...

  19. The Changing Status of the Ph.D. Degree in Russia: An Academic Attribute in the Nonacademic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In Russia there is a system of two advanced academic degrees: candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Historically, in imperial Russia there was a system of academic regulations and degrees based on European, mostly German patterns. Then in the Soviet period from 1918, the degrees of master's and doctor of sciences, which had existed for…

  20. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  1. [European Foundation for Education in Anesthesiology (FEEA): the first steps in Russia].

    PubMed

    Scherperel, F; Lebedinskiĭ, K M; Gordeev, V I; Obolenskiĭ, S V; Pogorel'chuk, V V; Aleksandrovich, Iu S; Koriachkin, V A; Glushchenko, V A

    2007-01-01

    The mission, structure, and working schedule of the Foundation for European Education in Anesthesiology (FEEA), an international non-profitable organization with 70 centers being located in Europe, Central and South Americas, Africa, and Asia, are described in the article. The first FEEA seminars in Russia were organized in St. Petersburg in 2006-2007 by the Association and Society of Anesthesiologists and by all the anesthesiology departments of the city. Today's geography of FEEA seminars dedicated to European Society of Anesthesiology diploma exam training is expanding in Russia.

  2. [Effectiveness analysis established in Russia and hygienic standards for the use of food dyes].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the income of diet and frequency of use of food additives--dyes in food production showed that established in Russia hygienic standards provide compliance with acceptable doses of these substances. For the first time in Russia an assessment of dietary intake of several food dyes, possessing biological activity is conducted. The average daily intake by using such substances can reach (as % of physiological needs of the adult population): riboflavin--180%, curcumin--60%, beta-carotene--25%, anthocyanins--10%, canthaxanthin (lutein, lycopene)--5%. PMID:21692348

  3. Integration of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the close integration of the civil and military nuclear fuel cycles in Russia. Individual processing facilities, as well as the flow of nuclear material, are described as they existed in the 1980s and as they exist today. The end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union weakened the ties between the two nuclear fuel cycles, but did not separate them. Separation of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles would facilitate Russia's integration into the world's nuclear fuel cycle and its participation in international non-proliferation regimes.

  4. Potential for alcohol policy to decrease the mortality crisis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria A; Korotayev, Andrey V

    2008-09-01

    Post-Soviet Russia experiences among the world's highest prevalence of alcohol-related problems, which contributes to high mortality rates in this region. Reduction in alcohol-related problems in Russia can have strong effects on mortality decline. This article considers the plausibility of application of general principles of alcohol policy translated in the Russian Federation. We conclude that alcohol policy approaches could be implemented in the same ways as they have been in other countries. In addition, there should be special attention to decreasing distilled spirits consumption, illegal alcohol production, nonbeverage alcohol consumption, and enforcement of current governmental regulations. PMID:18662923

  5. Immobilization of Pu-containing wastes into glass and ceramics: Results of US-Russia collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. B.; Aloy, A. S.; Burakov, B. E.; Jardine, L. J.

    2000-07-01

    This continuing collaboration between the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) in St. Petersberg, Russia, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the United States was initiated in 1997. The collaboration is focused on plutonium immobilization to support the disposition of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia. Our work consists primarily of laboratory-scale experiments and studies of borosilicate and phosphate Pu-doped glasses and zircon/zirconia, mono-zirconia, and pyrochlore ceramics. The results were used to compare and evaluate the use of these various materials in Pu immobilization.

  6. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  7. Some remarks on preparations for Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli's journey to Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    The present paper deals with the outline of some circumstances of the visit of Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli to the Nicolai Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russia. There are some scan-copies of official letters displayed which belong to the collection from the diplomatic correspondence between the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, and the Diplomatic Service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The correspondence had been triggered by the application of Schiaparelli for his trip to the Pulkovo Observatory with the aim of perfection in Astronomy and Geodesy. The corresponding facsimile as well as its English translation is given

  8. Detection of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes koreicus in the Area of Sochi, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ganushkina, Ludmila A; Patraman, Ivan V; Rezza, Giovanni; Migliorini, Luigi; Litvinov, Serguei K; Sergiev, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Following the identification of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti in the Sochi area in Russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus. These findings highlight Russia as being the only country in the World Health Organization European Region with a documented presence of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the Black Sea. Control measures are needed to reduce the possible risks of importing exotic vector-borne infections, such as dengue and chikungunya.

  9. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    PubMed

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  10. [STAGES OF OPIOID THERAPY OF CHRONIC PAIN IN RUSSIA: ANCIENT AND COMING].

    PubMed

    Osipova, N A; Novikov, G A; Vajsman, M A; Palehov, A V; Rudoj, S V; Prohorov, B M; Isakova, M E

    2015-01-01

    There is history of the introduction and development of systemic and invasive opioid treatment of chronic cancer pain in Russia presented by the authors--experts with experience in thisfield over 30 years. The earliest researchers are no more among us, but their memory is still alive in the publications of the early 1980's. Along with the analysis of accumulated by Russian specialists positive clinical experience of opioids using, authors discuss main problems of organization and availability of adequate opioid therapy of chronic pain in Russia. Ways of further development ofpalliative care and pain management in oncology is discussed as well as.

  11. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  12. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  13. Goals, technique and equipment of meteor study in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, A.; Bagrov, A. V.; Bolgova, G. T.; Kruchkov, S. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Mazurov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Institute of Astronomy RAS is one of the science institutes in the Russian Federation providing systematic optical meteor observations and supervises several meteor groups in our country. The main tasks of our investigations are dedicated to study meteoroid nature as well as meteoroid streams and meteoroid population in the Solar System. In the XXI century we in Russia carry out the reconstruction of our meteor astronomy due to possibilities of new meteor observation equipment (more powerful than were used before as visual and photographic methods) had made possible to select more interesting goals. First of our task is investigation of meteoroid streams crossing the Earth's orbit, and character of meteoroid distributions along of them. The multi stations meteor monitoring from located in the both hemispheres of the Earth can help in this study. According to the analysis of the evolution of meteor orbits, the compact and long lived meteoroid streams consist mainly from large particles. The observation equipment (cheap TV-cameras) with low limiting magnitude we use for gathering observational data. On the other hand, the observations of weak meteors are needed for new meteor shower indication (or confirmation of known meteor shower). The more effective way to do it is comparison of individual meteor orbits parameters (then calculation of radiants of meteor showers). The observations of space debris (as the meteors with low velocity - less 11.2 km/s) can be taking up within this task. The combination of high sensitive TV-cameras WATEC and super-fast lenses COMPUTAR are widely used for meteor TV-monitoring. The TVsystems for round-year meteor observations are fixed and are permanently oriented to the zenith area (the patrol camera - PatrolCa). The mobile TV-cameras (MobileCa) are used for double station observations (if it is possible) and located not far from main cameras PatrolCa (20-30 km). The mobile TVcameras observe 90% of main PatrolCa cameras FOV at altitudes

  14. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  15. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  16. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton control on organic and inorganic carbon cycle in stratified and non-stratified lakes of NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, Liudmila; Vorobjeva, Taissia; Zabelina, Svetlana; Moreva, Olga; Klimov, Sergey; Shorina, Natalja; Chupakov, Artem; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Audry, Stephan; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    Lakes of boreal zone regulate the fate of dissolved carbon, nutrients and trace metals during their transport from the watershed to the ocean. Study of primary production - mineralization processes in the context of carbon biogeochemical cycle allows determination of the rate and mechanisms of phytoplankton biomass production and its degradation via aquatic heterotrophic bacteria. In particular, comparative study of vertical distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in stratified and non-stratified lakes allows establishing the link between biological and chemical aspects of the carbon cycle which, in turns, determines an environmental stability and recovering potential of the entire ecosystem. In order to better understand the biogeochemical mechanisms that control dissolved organic and inorganic carbon migration in surface boreal waters, we studied in 2007-2009 two strongly stratified lakes (15-20 m deep) and two shallow lakes (2-4 m deep) in the Arkhangelsk region (NW Russia, White Sea basin). We conducted natural experiments of the lake water incubation for measurements of the intensity of production/mineralization processes and we determined vertical concentration of DOC during four basic hydrological seasons (winter and summer stratification, and spring and autumn lake overturn). Our seasonal studies of production/mineralization processes demonstrated high intensity of organic matter formation during summer period and significant retard of these processes during winter stagnation. During spring period, there is a strong increase of bacterial destruction of the allochtonous organic matter that is being delivered to the lake via terrigenous input. During autumn overturn, there is a decrease of the activity of phytoplankton, and the degradation of dead biomass by active bacterial community. Organic matter destruction processes are the most active in Svyatoe lake, whereas in the Beloe lake, the rate of organic matter production is significantly higher than

  17. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  18. Foreland basins and fold belts

    SciTech Connect

    Macqueen, R.W.; Leckie, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this book describe six foreland basins and fold belts in terms of their regional setting, stratigraphy, tectonics, and structure, and their oil and gas systems. All of the basins show general similarities, but each differs significantly in detail from the others, posing something of a problem in terms of arriving at a 'typical' foreland basin and fold belt. Some are major hydrocarbon producers; others are not. The major characteristics of the six foreland basins and fold belts are summarized in Tables 1 through 5, which provide a convenient means of comparing and contrasting these basins and their hydrocarbon resources. The Western Canada foreland basin and fold belt serves as the type example for several reasons. These include: its setting and clear relationship to a major orogene of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age; the fact that it is uncomplicated by later overprinting, segmentation, or cover rocks unlike the Ouachita, Eastern Venezuela, and U.S. Rocky Mountain foreland basins and fold belts); the fact that there is a large volume of publicly available data on the basin and an active exploration and research community; and the fact that it has reasonable oil and gas reserves in a well-defined stratigraphic framework.

  19. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  20. Ichnofabric and basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J. ); Droser, M.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Utilization of ichnofabric indices for measuring recorded extent of bioturbation allows comparative studies of ichnofabric between different facies. In vertical sequences, measurements of ichnofabric indices can be normalized to percent of the total thickness measured for each ichnofabric index. These data can be presented as histograms, or ichnograms, when measurements are from strata deposited in a single genetically-defined sedimentary environment. Ichnograms can be used in conjunction with ichnofacies analysis to present a more complete summary of bioturbation in a sedimentary unit. Using a knowledge of the factors which contribute towards producing ichnofabric in different sedimentary environments, the range of possible ichnograms for any environment can be modeled. In addition to ichnograms, an average ichnofabric index also can be calculated as a useful summary characterization of the extent of bioturbation recorded in a sedimentary unit. Through measurement of ichnofabric indices, construction of ichnograms, and calculation of average ichnofabric index, broad-scale summary data are produced that can allow a more complete understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of sedimentary basins, especially when employed in conjunction with other basin analysis approaches.

  1. New Maturin basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    The Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela is an outstanding example of the historical logic of exploration concepts progressively woven into large-scale commercial development. Exploitation of natural asphalt in the basin started with the end of the 19th century. Geological reconnaissance in a systematic way started in 1911; first oil field, Guanoco, was discovered August 15, 1913; first seismic survey was shot in 1934; first giant oil field, Quiriquire, was discovered June 1, 1928. A well completed January 6, 1936, went through a very heavy and viscous tar interval, non-exploitable at the time, the first in the Orinoco Belt field; the preliminary geological evaluation of the 13,000 km{sup 2} accumulation started in 1967, but was done in earnest during 1979-1983. Only one well had been drilled deeper than 5,200 m in 1985, but then for the contrast, the El Furrial trend with many deep giant light crude oil fields was discovered in 1986.

  2. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  3. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  4. Thermal history of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.

    1984-02-01

    The elevated organic maturity observed in shallowly buried units from the Michigan basin implies that higher temperatures and thicker overburdens once existed in the basin. Evidence from sediment-accumulation rates, regional dips, and maturity of Pennsylvanian-age coals suggests that up to 1,000 m of sediment were removed by erosion prior to the Late Jurassic, when the basin became stable. Geothermal gradients during Paleozoic basin subsidence probably ranged from 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ C/ km in contrast to the average present value of 25/sup 0/ C/km. Depths to the top of the oil window ranged from 1,900 to 2,300 m during the Paleozoic. Post-Pennsylvanian erosional uplift and further thermal maturation of the basin have combined to raise the top of the oil window to its present level of 500 m.

  5. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  6. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  7. Methane dynamics in warming tundra of Northeast European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, M. E.; Friborg, T.; Biasi, C.; Herbst, M.; Johansson, T.; Kiepe, I.; Liimatainen, M.; Lind, S. E.; Martikainen, P. J.; Virtanen, T.; Soegaard, H.; Shurpali, N. J.

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) fluxes were investigated in a subarctic Russian tundra site in a multi-approach study combining plot scale data, ecosystem scale eddy covariance (EC) measurements and fine resolution land cover classification scheme for regional upscaling. The flux data as measured by the two independent techniques resulted in a seasonal (May-October 2008) cumulative CH4 emission of 2.4 (EC) and 3.7 g CH4 m-2 (manual chambers) for the source area representative of the footprint of the EC instruments. Upon upscaling for the entire study region of 98.6 km2, the chamber measured flux data yielded a regional flux estimate of 6.7 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. Our upscaling efforts accounted for the large spatial variability in the distribution of the various land cover types (LCTs) predominant at our study site. In particular, wetlands with emissions ranging from 34 to 53 g CH4 m-2 yr-1 were the most dominant CH4 emitting surfaces. Emissions from thermokarst lakes were an order of magnitude lower, while the rest of the landscape (mineral tundra) was a weak sink for atmospheric methane. Vascular plant cover was a key factor in explaining the spatial variability of CH4 emissions among wetland types, as indicated by the positive correlation of emissions with the leaf area index (LAI). As elucidated through a stable isotope analysis, the plant transport was the dominant CH4 release pathway that discriminates against heavier δ13C-CH4. The methane released from wetlands was lighter than that in the surface porewater and δ13C in the emitted CH4 correlated with the vascular plant cover (LAI) implying that the plant-mediated CH4 release dominates. A mean value of δ13C obtained here for the emitted CH4, -68.2 ± 2.0 ‰, is within the range of values from other wetlands, thus reinforcing the use of inverse modeling tools to better constrain the CH4 budget. Based on the IPCC A1B emission scenario, a temperature increase of 7 °C has been predicted for the tundra region of European Russia by the

  8. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  9. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  10. Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation-Building and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the discourses framing citizenship education in Ukraine and Russia from "perestroika" to the present and assesses the role of the Council of Europe in promoting democratic citizenship in both countries. We argue that there is a tension between the discourses of active citizenship, strongly disseminated by international agencies…

  11. Immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus Region: Differential Drug Use, Infectious Disease, and Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Rawson, Richard A.; Hasson, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined drug use patterns, HIV/AIDS, and related outcomes among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus mountain region in Israel who reported heroin use. A total of 253 FSU heroin users were interviewed from 2002 to 2007 as part of a large drug use surveillance study in Israel. Individuals were…

  12. Social Support Networks and Loneliness among Elderly Jews in Russia and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Barasch, Miriam; Mirsky, Julia; Kaufman, Roni; Avgar, Amos; Kolfogelson, Aliza

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union had devastating consequences for the lives of its population, especially for older adults, many of whom became impoverished and were left with no social support. Using data from a survey of 2,579 elderly Jews in two of the largest countries of the former Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine, we examine variables that…

  13. Russia's Unwanted Children: A Cultural Anthropological Study of Marginalized Children in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creuziger, Clementine G. K.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the plight of marginalized children in urban Russia, including orphans, children with some family ties living in group homes, and street children. Found that changing public views toward these groups since WWII have led to a deterioration in lifestyle for these children, further contributing to criminal activity and poverty in urban areas.…

  14. The Ranking of Higher Education Institutions in Russia: Some Methodological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filinov, Nikolay B.; Ruchkina, Svetlana

    2002-01-01

    The ranking of higher education institutions in Russia is examined from two points of view: as a social phenomenon and as a multi-criteria decision-making problem. The first point of view introduces the idea of interested and involved parties; the second introduces certain principles on which a rational ranking methodology should be based.…

  15. Features of Application of Classroom Response System at the Lectures in Russia and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starichenko, Boris E.; Egorov, Artem N.; Yavich, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of teaching opportunities of classroom response systems (?RS) and the conditions for their effective use in the teaching process. In the course of research more than 260 students of Ural State Pedagogical University (Russia, Yekaterinburg) and Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel, Ariel) were surveyed to…

  16. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Nelly F; Adgamov, Ruslan R; Popov, Alexander F; Psareva, Ekaterina K; Sobyanin, Konstantin A; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Ermolaeva, Svetlana A

    2016-03-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

  17. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  18. Thoughts on Three Fish in a Tank (Russia, United States, and China)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticktin, Harold

    1970-01-01

    The analogy between superstates (Russia, China, Western powers) and three sticklebacks suggests that, for men to survive, Lorenz's generalization that no individual member of a species ever attacks an equal-sized enemy of the same species" must be applied in international relations.(AL)

  19. Back in the USSR: Path Dependence Effects in Student Representation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor; Gruzdev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current state of student representation in Russia as deeply rooted in the institutional structure of the Soviet higher education system. The study traces the origins of existing institutional arrangements for student representation at the level of university governance and analyses how representation practices have been…

  20. The Dynamics of the Level of Education of the Population of Russia in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes three basic periods in the development of the level of education of the population of Russia over the span of a hundred years. The first period runs from 1897, when a nationwide census was carried out for the first time, to 1917. The second period, the Soviet era, runs from 1917 to the late 1980s. The third period started with…