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Sample records for kvalitetsreform og modernisering

  1. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  2. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  3. Healthcare Assistants: distributional losses as a consequence of NHS modernisation?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian; Thompson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the labour process of Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) at a National Health Service (NHS) hospital trust (TUH) in the context of the NHS modernisation agenda. It determines whether application of the modernisation agenda is formalised at TUH and considers how HCAs are affected. The paper is based upon 60 interviews with HCAs, structured questionnaires completed by all interview respondents, observation of HCAs and interviews with non‐clinical managers. The findings show that elements of the modernisation agenda are informally implemented at TUH to the detriment of HCAs. HCAs experience distributional losses in the form of intensification as nurses deflect duties to HCAs and insulate themselves from adverse effects. HCAs resist, using selective absence when pressures mount. They ameliorate losses by re‐internalising their work as a job with caring elements not a genuine caring role. They rationalise their altered behaviour towards patients by blaming the regime's treatment of them as a subordinated group. PMID:27570359

  4. Modernising medical careers and the British surgeons of the future.

    PubMed

    Chand, Manish; Faruque, Mohammed; Dabbas, Natalie; Nash, Guy F

    2010-05-01

    The Modernising Medical Careers reforms in medical training have led to significant changes in the way junior doctors are trained. However, not all these changes have been welcomed by both trainees and trainers. This article seeks to examine some of the issues regarding training in surgery.

  5. Modernising Education and Training: Mobilising Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attewell, Jill; Savill-Smith, Carol; Douch, Rebecca; Parker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been amazing advances in consumer technology. The Mobile Learning Network (MoLeNET) initiative has enabled colleges and schools to harness some of this technology in order to modernise aspects of teaching, learning and training. The result has been improvements in learner engagement, retention, achievement and…

  6. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qihe; Bauer, Rudolf; Hendry, Bruce M; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Duez, Pierre; Simmonds, Monique S J; Witt, Claudia M; Lu, Aiping; Robinson, Nicola; Guo, De-an; Hylands, Peter J

    2013-06-13

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow's medicine.

  7. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836

  8. Emirati Women's Higher Educational Leadership Formation under Globalisation: Culture, Religion, Politics, and the Dialectics of Modernisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie

    2015-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a small state transitioning from traditional communities into a modern society. This is a complex process: it involves instilling a national identity over tribal structures; modernising and technologising while retaining Islam; ensuring a high level of security while allowing for a liberal and relatively free…

  9. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  10. Appropriating Professionalism: Restructuring the Official Knowledge Base of England's "Modernised" Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines efforts by government and government agencies in England to prescribe and control the knowledge base of a teaching profession that has, under successive New Labour administrations since 1997, been subjected to "modernisation". A theoretical framework drawn from aspects of the work of Basil Bernstein, and of Rob…

  11. Modernising the higher surgical training in trauma and orthopaedic surgery in Ireland: taking the middle path approach.

    PubMed

    Sayana, M K; Ashraf, M; O'Byrne, J

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the UK and Ireland have followed the same postgraduate surgical training of orthopaedic surgeons. Modernising medical careers (MMC) and European Working Time Directive (EWTD) have radically changed the way surgical training is delivered in the UK. In Ireland, however, the traditional structure of surgical training system continues with an emphasis to modernise the training with more objective assessment tools. The aim of this review is to highlight the current differences in the higher surgical training in Orthopaedics in the UK and Ireland.

  12. [18 months law for the modernisation of the SHI--review and prospects].

    PubMed

    Steinbronn, R

    2005-01-01

    Balance of the law for the modernisation of the statutory health insurance (SHI) (GKV-Modernisierungsgesetz-GMG) is contradictory as measured by the original objectives. Although the legislators curtailed benefits and raised the co-payments, those insured could not profit from lower contributions. The anticipated lowering of the ancillary wage costs was missing thereby. However, many SHI funds could settle debts, but the expenditures rose again in 2005. The financial situation of most SHI funds is still strained. The new federal government will have to tackle a further and sustainable reform of the statutory health insurance soon.

  13. Creating an integrated public sector? Labour's plans for the modernisation of the English health care system

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The current Labour Government has embarked on radical public sector reform in England. A so-called ‘Modernisation Agenda’ has been developed that is encapsulated in the NHS Plan—a document that details a long-term vision for health care. This plan involves a five-fold strategy: investment through greater public funding; quality assurance; improving access; service integration and inter-professional working; and providing a public health focus. The principles of Labour's vision have been broadly supported. However, achieving its aims appears reliant on two key factors. First, appropriate resources are required to create capacity, particularly management capacity, to enable new functions to develop. Second, promoting access and service integration requires the development of significant co-ordination, collaboration and networking between agencies and individuals. This is particularly important for health and social care professionals. Their historically separate professions suggest that a significant period of change management is required to allow new roles and partnerships to evolve. In an attempt to secure delivery of its goals, however, the Government has placed the emphasis on further organisational restructuring. In doing so, the Government may have missed the key challenges faced in delivering its NHS Plan. As this paper argues, cultural and behavioural change is probably a far more appropriate and important requirement for success than a centrally directed approach that emphasises the rearrangement of structural furniture. PMID:16896369

  14. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  15. The impact of general practice attachments on foundation doctors: achieving the goals of Modernising Medical Careers.

    PubMed

    Firth, Adam; Wass, Val

    2011-09-01

    Modernising Medical Careers saw the introduction of four-month attachments in primary care during the second Foundation Year, to foster a broader understanding of healthcare settings. The North West Deanery offered this opportunity to virtually all trainees. Previous work had captured poor impressions of undergraduate experience in general practice. This study aimed to explore Foundation Doctors' perceptions of Foundation primary care attachments before and after the experience. Qualitative methodology was used. Two focus groups were held with 12 trainees at the end of their first Foundation Year to explore their expectations of pending rotation in general practice. Eighteen individual interviews were conducted with Foundation Doctors after the attachment. Themed analysis of transcripts revealed a striking contrast between trainees' perceptions of general practice before and after undertaking F2 rotations. Undergraduate exposure and secondary care bias in training had a significant negative impact on trainees' perceptions of general practice. The one-to-one opportunities for educational supervision, the range of patients seen and the opportunity to understand communication at the primary/secondary interface dispelled these concerns. The findings highlighted the beneficial impact of foundation posts in general practice for training, career planning in general and, as outlined in the initial goals of the programme, the interaction between primary and secondary care.

  16. Technology, Implementation and Policy Issues for the Modernisation of GPS and its Role in a GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith D.

    1998-09-01

    This and the following six papers were selected from the many papers presented at the 9th World Congress of the International Association of Institutes of Navigation (IAIN) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 17-21 November 1997.During the past several years, a number of important investigations, policy initiatives and national commitments relating to the future of GPS, GLONASS and their augmentations have occurred. Substantive and on-going studies of the character and configuration of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) have also been evaluated worldwide, especially by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These efforts have been principally directed toward the definition of near- and far-term GNSS implementations that meet the needs and concerns of the international community. This paper briefly reviews some of the investigations and addresses, in particular, the concerns and requirements that may affect the future capabilities and the dual (civil/military) character of GPS. The main issues relating to the modernisation of GPS and its subsequent transition to a component of a GNSS with a viable international character are presented. These include a discussion of new signal structure options, certain changes in operating frequencies, increased signal power levels, other system alternatives and their potential impact on system performance. International issues are briefly addressed, including future performance capabilities, assurance of service, economic participation and benefit, reasonable cost, standards and international participation.

  17. Modernisation, smoking and chronic disease: Of temporality and spatiality in global health.

    PubMed

    Reubi, David

    2016-05-01

    This article explores the spatio-temporal logics at work in global health. Influenced by ideas of time-space compression, the global health literature argues that the world is characterised by a convergence of disease patterns and biomedical knowledge. While not denying the influence of these temporalities and spatialities of globalisation within the global health and chronic disease field, the article argues that they sit alongside other, often-conflicting notions of time and space. To do so, it explores the spatio-temporal logics that underpin a highly influential epidemiological model of the smoking epidemic. Unlike the temporalities and spatialities of sameness described in much of the global health literature, the article shows that this model is articulated around temporalities and spatialities of difference. This is not the difference celebrated by postmoderns, but the difference of modernisation theorists built around nations, sequential stages and progress. Indeed, the model, in stark contrast to the 'one world, one time, one health' globalisation mantra, divides the world into nation-states and orders them along epidemiological, geographical and development lines.

  18. [Aims of the health system modernisation act (GMG) from a medical point of view].

    PubMed

    Richter-Reichhelm, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Like all its predecessors the Health System Modernisation Act (GMG) means to preserve solidarity-based statutory health insurance and to ensure a sufficient, appropriate and efficient treatment of all patients. The instruments are higher co-payments from patients (such as practice fees), cost containment through exclusion of certain services, and more competition. Competition is supposed to be encouraged through new forms of care. In particular, ambulatory healthcare centres are meant to centralise specialist healthcare services and release profitability reserves. Integrated care is to promote co-operation across various sectors and disciplines facilitated by knock-on financing and an extensive freedom of contract. Decoupling integrated care involves the real danger of drying out regular care and defragmenting the healthcare landscape. GP-based care and disease management programmes are supposed to provide better and more structure to patient care. Extra premiums create an incentive for the insured to largely accept the loss of his right to freely choose his doctors. It remains to be evaluated whether the improvement of patient care and cost reductions can be achieved this way. Competition can only work if equal opportunities are ensured for all providers, which requires abolition of dual hospital funding, implementation of equal quality requirements and reimbursement systems and budgets so that prices may follow performance.

  19. Autonomy and modernisation: the management of change in an English primary care trust.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Recent New Labour policy for the 'modernisation' of Government places a good deal of emphasis on decentralisation. This emphasis is particularly marked in relation to the organisation of primary care. However, like hospitals and other National Health Service institutions, primary care trusts (PCTs) are subject to a substantial raft of centrally established performance targets and indicators, including those which contribute to the public award of between zero and three performance 'stars'. This raises questions about the extent to which employees can exercise autonomy in the context of rigid top-down directives. This paper presents findings from a study using participant observation and interviews to examine the impact of a training course aimed ostensibly at increasing employee autonomy in an English PCT. The suggestion is that attempts to make employees more autonomous can be seen as a strategy for increasing central control based upon the internalisation by the employees of centrally promulgated values. The attraction of such strategies is that they may be potentially more effective and less costly than alternative strategies of direct control. However, the study suggests that the outcome of attempts by such methods as programmes to increase employee autonomy may be very different from those intended.

  20. Regulating medical bodies? The consequences of the 'modernisation' of the NHS and the disembodiment of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Burrows, Roger; Watt, Ian

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the consequences of modernisation and regulatory processes for the everyday lives of doctors working the UK National Health Service. We do this by reporting on interview data generated as part of a qualitative investigation into the working lives of 47 doctors. The analysis of the empirical findings is informed by two literatures: that which has sought to theorise the contemporary thrust of regulation and audit and that which has developed a sociology of embodiment. Doctors' views are presented in relation to four areas of work which hav--in the loosest sense of the word--been subject to regulation. Drawing on work from the sociology of embodiment we argue that changes in the institutional and cultural context of medical work could be altering both the 'field' and the 'habitus'--to use Bourdieu's terms--of medicine, with a consequence that medical knowledge is becoming less embodied.

  1. What Children Have Lost by the Modernisation of Education: A Comparison of Experiences in Western Europe and Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The discovery of the proper value of childhood during the 18th century in Europe was an important break-through. People began to respect childhood as a sacred world that should not be judged from the standpoint of adults. However, in today' world many children are subjected to all kinds of physical and mental pain, including the so-called examination hell in some Asian countries. Children now live in a paradoxical situation. Theoretically they have obtained the right to enjoy their own world, approved and protected by adults, but in practice they cannot adapt themselves smoothly to the world mainly ruled by the logic of grown-ups. This paper argues that it is time to re-evaluate what has been lost under the slogan of modernisation. The solution is not simply to return to the pre-modern situation but rather to consider what elements from the past could be re-activated to the benefit of children today.

  2. Impact of Modernising Medical Careers on basic surgical training and experience of oral and maxillofacial higher surgical trainees.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Jagtar; Opie, Niel; Webster, Keith; Tanday, Ajit; Mumtaz, Shadaab; Visram, Semina

    2011-01-01

    Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a programme for change that aims to improve the quality of patients' care through improvement in postgraduate medical education and training. Its introduction had far reaching affects and many shortcoming due to its failure to take into account the craft specialties. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the impact of MMC on oral and maxillofacial surgical (OMFS) training. An online questionnaire was distributed to OMFS trainees, and data were gathered about current position, year of training, duration and specialties worked during basic surgical training, stage of completion of examinations and courses, and overall satisfaction with training. Comparisons were made between those who had been trained before and after MMC was introduced. Ninety-five trainees (68%) responded. Of these 66 (69%) had basic surgical training before the introduction of MMC and 29 (31%) afterwards. MMC shortened overall time spent on basic surgical training of OMFS trainees by half, to only 1 year. There were similarities between the two groups in terms of the range of specialties experienced. MMC also resulted in more trainees starting higher surgical training without their Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons. There was greater satisfaction with BST for the pre-MMC group than the post-MMC group. It is hoped that the recent changes to training that were implemented after this study will address some of the shortcomings that we have identified.

  3. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940–73

    PubMed Central

    Nott, John

    2016-01-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda’s dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  4. The Effect of Modernising Medical Careers on Foundation Doctor Career Orientation in the Northern Ireland Foundation School

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnnell, ME; Noad, R; Boohan, M; Carragher, A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) emerged in response to acknowledged problems in training in the Senior House Officer grade. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the Foundation Year 2 (F2) training programme on career orientation in the Northern Ireland Deanery. Methods A prospective survey-based study was conducted for all F2 doctors participating in the Northern Ireland Foundation Programme. Career orientation was investigated using the Specialty Choice Inventory 45 (SCI45) at the start (Q1) and end (Q2) of the F2 year. Specialty choice was collated after the outcome of specialty recruitment in 2008. Results There were 231 F2 doctors in programme during the first F2 year in 2006–2007. 147 (M=65, F=82) and 106 (M=55, F=51) completed questionnaires at Q1 and Q2. Male F2 doctors scored significantly higher in the action orientation (54.0 vs. 50.0, p<0.001) and need for assertiveness (53.0 vs. 48.0, p=0.005) subscales at both time points as well as Q1 detail is crucial (57.0 vs. 51.0, p=0.014) and Q2 independent specialty (53.0 vs. 46.0, p=0.016). Female F2 doctors scored significantly higher in the educating patients subscale at both time-points (44.0 vs. 46.0, p=0.009 and 46.0 vs. 47.0, p=0.03). Analysis of SCI45 subscale scores suggested that males tended to favour the surgical specialties while females favoured the care of the elderly and paediatric specialties. Overall only 29% of doctors were successfully appointed to a specialty in which they had expressed an interest at Q1 whilst 47.8% were selected to specialist training for their declared specialty interest at Q2. Conclusions Despite introducing MMC with a coordinated UK wide specialty application process (MTAS), a detrimental effect on their career orientation was not evident. Pragmatic career choices based on lifestyle may be the reason why female doctors expressed a preference for care of the elderly and paediatrics while their male colleagues favoured acute, more

  5. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  6. Pharmacology and therapeutics education in EU needs harmonisation and modernisation: A cross-sectional survey among 185 medical schools in 27 countries.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, D J; Tichelaar, J; Okorie, M; Bissell, L; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Mačiulaitis, R; Costa, J; Sanz, E J; Tamba, B I; Maxwell, S R; Richir, M C; van Agtmael, M A

    2017-03-15

    Effective teaching in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) is necessary to make medical students competent prescribers. However, the current structure, delivery and assessment of CPT education in the European Union (EU) is unknown. We sent an online questionnaire to teachers with overall responsibility for CPT education in EU medical schools. Questions focused on undergraduate teaching and assessment of CPT, and students' preparedness for prescribing. 185 medical schools (64%) from 27 EU countries responded. Traditional learning methods were mainly used. The majority of respondents did not provide students with the opportunity to practise real-life prescribing and believed that their students were not well prepared for prescribing. There is a marked difference in the quality and quantity of CPT education within and between EU countries, suggesting that there is considerable scope for improvement. A collaborative approach should be adopted to harmonise and modernise the undergraduate CPT education across the EU. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Unmeasured improvement work: the lack of routinely collected, service-related data in NHS endoscopy units in England involved in "modernisation"

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Kymberley; Hutchings, Hayley A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Background The availability of routinely collected service-related endoscopy data from NHS endoscopy units has never been quantified. Methods This retrospective observational study asked 19 endoscopy units to submit copies of all in-house, service-related endoscopy data that had been routinely collected by the unit – Referral numbers, Activity, Number of patients waiting and Number of lost slots. Nine of the endoscopy units had previously participated in the Modernising Endoscopy Services (MES) project during 2003 to redesign their endoscopy services. These MES sites had access to additional funding and data collection software. The other ten (Control sites) had modernised independently. All data was requested in two phases and corresponded to eight specific time points between January 2003 and April 2006. Results Only eight of 19 endoscopy units submitted routinely collected, service-related data. Another site's data was collected specifically for the study. A further two units claimed to routinely collect service-related data but did not submit any to the study. The remaining eight did not collect any service-related endoscopy data routinely and liaised with their Trust for data. Of the eight sites submitting service-related data, only three were MES project sites. Of these three, the data variables collected were limited and none collected the complete set of endoscopy data variables requested. Of the other five sites, two collected all four endoscopy data types. Data for the three MES project sites went back as far as January 2003, whilst the five Control sites were only able to submit data from December 2003 onwards. Conclusion There was a lack of service-related endoscopy data routinely collected by the study sites, especially those who had participated in the MES project. Without this data, NHS endoscopy services cannot have a true understanding of their services, cannot identify problems and cannot measure the impact of any changes. With the increasing

  8. Consultant medical trainers, modernising medical careers (MMC) and the European time directive (EWTD): tensions and challenges in a changing medical education context

    PubMed Central

    Tsouroufli, Maria; Payne, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Background We analysed the learning and professional development narratives of Hospital Consultants training junior staff ('Consultant Trainers') in order to identify impediments to successful postgraduate medical training in the UK, in the context of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Methods Qualitative study. Learning and continuing professional development (CPD), were discussed in the context of Consultant Trainers' personal biographies, organisational culture and medical education practices. We conducted life story interviews with 20 Hospital Consultants in six NHS Trusts in Wales in 2005. Results Consultant Trainers felt that new working patterns resulting from the EWTD and MMC have changed the nature of medical education. Loss of continuity of care, reduced clinical exposure of medical trainees and loss of the popular apprenticeship model were seen as detrimental for the quality of medical training and patient care. Consultant Trainers' perceptions of medical education were embedded in a traditional medical education culture, which expected long hours' availability, personal sacrifices and learning without formal educational support and supervision. Over-reliance on apprenticeship in combination with lack of organisational support for Consultant Trainers' new responsibilities, resulting from the introduction of MMC, and lack of interest in pursuing training in teaching, supervision and assessment represent potentially significant barriers to progress. Conclusion This study identifies issues with significant implications for the implementation of MMC within the context of EWTD. Postgraduate Deaneries, NHS Trusts and the new body; NHS: Medical Education England should deal with the deficiencies of MMC and challenges of ETWD and aspire to excellence. Further research is needed to investigate the views and educational practices of Consultant Medical Trainers and medical trainees. PMID:18492261

  9. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  10. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Datta, Abhijit

    2017-03-01

    The dengue envelope β-OG pocket is a crucial hinge for mediating virus-host fusion via conformational changes in the envelope to the fusion-competent form. The β-OG pocket is a small molecule target site for inhibition of virus-host fusion. As of date, the only structure of the β-OG pocket known is of serotype 2. Studies of β-OG inhibition by small molecules primarily target viral serotype 2. Envelope and β-OG sequence alignments, reveal dissimilarities across serotypes. In light of protein sequence-structure-function correlation, sequence variations suggest serotypic variations in β-OG druggability. This, together with the fact that dengue viral proteins do have serotype-specific variations of structure and function, lead to the study of the serotype-specificity of the dengue β-OG ligand binding behaviour. β-OG druggability was compared using comparative models of envelope proteins containing the β-OG pocket in four serotypes of the dengue virus. β-OG ligand binding was found to vary with respect to hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions with ligands and tightness of the binding site. The study also reports serotype-specific virtual leads identified from a library of 9175 alkaloids, using a consensus docking and scoring approach. The docking algorithms of Glide SP and XP, together with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm were employed for consensus docking. For consensus scoring, the Glide empirical score was employed along with the scoring function of AutoDock. A multi-dimensional lead optimisation approach was performed for optimising affinity, ligand efficiency, lipophilic ligand efficiency, ADMET and molecular torsional strains. The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor.

  11. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  12. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  13. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  14. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  15. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  16. Modernising Education: International Dialogue and Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orekhova, Elena; Polunina, Liudmila

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the internationalization of higher education and its consequences both for education policy and educational practice in Russia. The internationalization is considered to be not only a political and social process but also a cultural phenomenon having a considerable impact on the modernization of education. Within this context…

  17. The Modernisation of Higher Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Roberto Rodriguez

    1999-01-01

    Higher education reform in Mexico since World War II is examined at both the institutional and national level. Changes have included updating the curriculum; overhauling administrative, managerial, and planning mechanisms; changing the components of the system; shifting the territorial distribution of access to education; and revising resource…

  18. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  19. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  20. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  1. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  2. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  3. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  4. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  5. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  6. Performance Ecologies, Biotic Rights and Retro-Modernisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Baz

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a paper first presented at the Performance Studies international annual conference on Performing Rights at Queen Mary, University of London, 2006. It has been rewritten specially for this themed issue of "RiDE" in light of my research following publication of "Theatre Ecology: Environments and Performance…

  7. Modernised Learning: An Emerging Lifelong Agenda by British Trade Unions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith P.

    2001-01-01

    British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  8. Quality Risk Management. Modernising the Architecture of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raban, Colin; Turner, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Although the world is changing, quality management remains an area of relative calm. Many institutions continue to use elaborated versions of a model that is developed by the Council of Academic Awards and conceived at a time when higher education was not so exposed to market forces, when the policy and regulatory environment was relatively…

  9. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  10. Doctors in China: improving quality through modernisation of residency education.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiming; Li, Wenkai; Chen, Lincoln

    2016-10-15

    There is growing recognition that the ultimate success of China's ambitious health reform (enacted in 2009) and higher education reform (1998) depends on well educated health professionals who have the clinical, ethical, and human competencies necessary for the provision of quality services. In this Review, we describe and analyse graduate education of doctors in China by discussing the country's health workforce and their clinical residency education. China has launched a new system called the 5 + 3 (5 year undergraduate and 3 year residency [standardised residency training]), which aims to set national quality standards. To improve understanding for the Chinese model, we present a comparative perspective with systems from the UK and USA. To succeed, the 5 + 3 model will need to overcome major challenges of accreditation and certification, alternative education pathways, and China's unique degree and credentialing system. We conclude by reviewing the challenges of clinical competencies in China, especially the complementarity of specialist training and general practitioner training, which are essential for the quality and equity of China's health-care system.

  11. CN-18RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DOSE INTENSITY, TOXICITY, AND OUTCOME IN OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS (OG) TREATED WITH PCV REGIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Reyes-Botero, German; Dehais, Caroline; Daros, Marine; Barrie, Maryline; Matta, Mona; Petrirena, Gregorio; Autran, Didier; Duran, Alberto; Boucard, Celine; Delattre, Jean Yves; Chinot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In grade II and codeleted grade III gliomas, the procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV) combination increase survival when added to radiotherapy as first line treatment, despite the important toxicity of this treatment schedule. Our objective was to analyze the tolerance, feasibility and impact of dose intensity of the PCV regimen on outcome for patients with OG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all grade III OG patients receiving PCV (CCNU:110mg/m2) who were referred to our two institutions. The total dose and dose adaptation, cycle delay, dose intensity, toxicity and premature discontinuation of CCNU were analyzed. Impact of these factors on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 89 patients received PCV. Only 37% completed 6 cycles, whereas 13.4% prematurely discontinued PCV because of toxicity. Cycle delay and dose reduction were observed for 62% and 70% patients, respectively. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 38% and 8% patients, respectively. Among patients who did not progress under PCV regimen, by multivariate analysis, premature discontinuation for toxicity was significantly correlated with poor PFS (p = 0.023, Hazard ratio (HR):2.354) and OS (p = 0.021, HR:5.093). By univariate analyses, absence of CCNU dose adaptation was correlated to poor PFS (p = 0.032). For OS, pejorative factors were high total CCNU dose (p = 0.029), absence of cycle delay (p = 0.009), absence of CCNU dose adaptation (p = 0.020) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.013). High CCNU dose-intensity tended to poorly impact PFS (p = 0.053) and OS (p = 0.112). By multivariate analysis, absence of CCNU dose adaptation remained significant for PFS (p = 0.001), while OS was negatively impacted by the absence of cycle delay (p = 0.049) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Despite the efficacy of the PCV regimen, significant toxicity is associated with this schedule, which appears to impact its feasibility and efficacy. The optimal PCV

  12. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  13. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  14. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  15. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  16. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  17. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements. A case study for the element Og (Z=118)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118) to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  18. Mining Hazards Analysis with Simultaneous Mining Copper Ores and Salt Deposits in LGOM (Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt) Mines with Regard to Dynamic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłeczek, Zdzisław; Niedojadło, Zygmunt; Popiołek, Edward; Skobliński, Wojciech; Sopata, Paweł; Stoch, Tomasz; Wójcik, Artur; Zeljaś, Dagmara

    2016-09-01

    In the case of locating two bedded deposits of different mineral resources in a small vertical distance, additional or increased mining hazards can occur (deformations of the rock mass, crumps and mining shocks, hazards to the land surface). This paper has thoroughly examined the impact of exploitation of the lower-located deposit of copper ore on the higher-located deposit of salt as well as the reverse situation as regards the dynamic phenomena, being the greatest lithospheric hazard in LGOM. At the same time theoretical models of processes were applied, verified by previous observations in situ in mines of Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt.

  19. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  20. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  1. The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiaoBo; Zhao, XiaoHui; Zhang, JianPing; Li, LiangBi; Kuang, TingYun

    2007-08-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b(6)f complexes from different sources ( approximately 200 and approximately 600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b(6)f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b(6)f dissolved in beta-OG, the Cyt b(6)f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, approximately 200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b(6)f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  2. Differences in the carriage and the ability to utilize the serotype associated virulence plasmid in strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium investigated by use of a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669.

    PubMed

    Olsen, John E; Brown, Derek J; Thomsen, Line E; Platt, David J; Chadfield, Mark S

    2004-06-01

    Most strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhimurium (S. typhimurium) naturally harbour a virulence plasmid which carries the salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) genes. However, isolates belonging to certain phage types are generally found without the plasmid. We have utilized a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669 to investigate the effect of introduction of spv genes into strains of such phage types. The use of the co-integrate plasmid, pOG669, was validated on a diverse collection of strains. pOG669 was transferred into strains of serotypes that are normally associated with the possession of virulence plasmids. All strains maintained the wild type level of virulence in a mouse model, except that introduction of pOG669 restored normal virulence levels in an avirulent, plasmid free strain of S. dublin and resulted in a decrease in virulence in a strain of S. dublin from clonal line Du3. S. gallinarum did not become virulent in mice, but pOG669 was functionally interchangeable with the wild type plasmid when strains were tested in a chicken model. Strains of serotypes not normally associated with the carriage of a virulence plasmid did not increase in virulence upon the introduction of pOG669. An IncX plasmid pOG670 that was included as control was incompatible with the virulence plasmid in a strain of S. dublin, demonstrating that the common virulence plasmid of this serotype is of a different incompatibility group than other virulence plasmids. Strains of S. typhimurium from phage types that do not normally carry a virulence plasmid responded differently to attempts to introduce pOG669. No transconjugants were observed with the strains of DT5 and DT21. The introduction of pOG669 did not alter the virulence of JEO3942(DT10), DT35 and JEO3949(DT66) significantly, while DT1 and DT27 became more virulent. DT27 became as virulent as wild type C5, while logVC(10) of DT1 only increased from 4.1 to 5.7. The ability to express spv-genes was

  3. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A patient (OG) with Glanzmann thrombasthenia became refractory to platelet transfusion after the production of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) isoantibody (Ab1) specific for the integrin subunit beta 3. To determine the frequency at which the OG idiotype is found in the general population and in immune-mediated disease states, we developed a rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab2) specific for affinity-purified OG anti-beta 3 Fab. The binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is inhibited by purified alpha IIb beta 3. Ab2 als binds to IgG specific for alpha IIb beta 3 obtained from one nonrelated Glanzmann thrombasthenia patient ES who has developed isoantibodies of similar specificity. On the other hand, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies produced by two Glanzmann thrombasthenia patients, AF and LUC, who have developed isoantibodies with specificities distinct from that of the OG isoantibody. Moreover, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies developed by three representative patients with (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura or six representative patients with alloimmune thrombocytopenias, nor does it bind to IgG from any of 13 nonimmunized individuals. We have found that Ab2 also binds to selected protein ligands of alpha IIb beta 3 namely, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but not to other protein ligands or control proteins, such a fibronectin, type I collagen, and albumin. The epitope(s) recognized by Ab2 on each adhesive protein are either very similar or identical since each protein can inhibit the binding of Ab2 to any of the other proteins. The epitope on fibrinogen recognized by Ab2 resides in the B beta chain, and is likely contained within the first 42 amino acids from the NH2 terminus. Since OG IgG inhibits fibrinogen binding to alpha IIb beta 3, the specificity of the OG idiotype defines a novel binding motif for the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 that is shared by fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but

  4. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.

  5. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells.

  6. Applying the General Regression Neural Network to Ground Motion Prediction Equations of Induced Events in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiszniowski, Jan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the nonlinear estimation of the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) using neural networks. The general regression neural network (GRNN) was chosen for its high learning rate. A separate GRNN was tested as well as a GRNN in cascade connection with linear regression (LR). Measurements of induced seismicity in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District were used in this study. Various sets of input variables were tested. The basic variables used in every case were seismic energy and epicentral distance, while the additional variables were the location of the epicenter, the location of the seismic station, and the direction towards the epicenter. The GRNN improves the GMPE. The best results were obtained when the epicenter location was used as an additional input. The GRNN model was analysed for how it can improve the GMPE with respect to LR. The bootstrap re-sampling method was used for this purpose. It proved the statistical significance of the improvement of the GMPE. Additionally, this method allows the determination of smoothness parameters for the GRNN. Parameters derived through this method have better generalisation capabilities than the smoothness parameters estimated using the holdout method.

  7. Meet Jon Billings, the man charged with modernising the NMC's image.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Sally

    2014-08-26

    For the past year and a half the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has been a hive of activity as it tries to repair its tarnished reputation. Barely a month goes by without nurses being consulted on some proposed change, a requirement under the NMC's governing legislation.

  8. Liberalisation, Privatisation, Modernisation, and Schooling in India: An Interview with Krishna Kumar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDousa, Chaise

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, India's Congress Party wrested control of parliament from the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party. I present below an interview conducted with Professor Krishna Kumar, Delhi University, the new Government's choice for Director of the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Professor Kumar discusses the ways that…

  9. The modernisation of general practice in the UK: 1980 to 1995 and beyond. Part I.

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK is unusual in providing universal free healthcare in which access to specialists is largely controlled by general practitioners with 24-hour responsibility, throughout the year, for a defined list of patients of all ages. It is generally considered that this gatekeeper function has contributed to the relatively low cost of the National Health Service, but major changes in the organisation and clinical role of general practitioners have occurred, culminating in a new contract that aims to re-orientate general practice towards health promotion, disease prevention and the management of chronic disease. The implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:8733525

  10. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Latvia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latvian National Observatory, Riga.

    The Latvian economy has undergone major changes during transition to a market economy after regaining independence in 1991. The unfavorable world economic situation has caused its growth to fall below potential. The vocational education and training (VET) system has traditionally been school-based. There are 120 VET institutions with a large…

  11. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgarian National Observatory on Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market, Sofia.

    This report provides an overview of the state of vocational education and training systems in Bulgaria, in the context of the history and the present economic development of the country. The report is organized in nine sections that cover the following topics: (1) political and socioeconomic background information, including economic development,…

  12. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in the Czech Republic. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory, Prague (Czech Republic).

    This report provides an overview of the state of vocational education and training systems in the Czech Republic, in the context of the history and the present economic development of the country. The report is organized in nine sections that cover the following topics: (1) political and socioeconomic background information, including economic…

  13. Medical Refugees and the Modernisation of British Medicine, 1930–1960

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reappraises the position of medical refugees in Britain between the 1930s and 1950s. Advocates of reforming British medicine in terms of its knowledge base and social provision emerged as strongly supportive of the medical refugees. By way of contrast, an élite in the British Medical Association attempted to exercise a controlling regime through the Home Office Advisory Committee. The effects of these divisions are gauged by reconstructing the complete spectrum of refugees as a total population. Applying this methodology of population reconstruction provides a corrective to the notion of a cohesive ‘medical establishment’ exercising rigid and discriminatory controls. PMID:26166948

  14. Germany's System of Vocational Education and Training: Challenges and Modernisation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The German education system has recently come under fire with the publication of various international studies on student performance (OECD 2000; 2003). And in the first national "Education Report" (Bildungsbericht) published in October 2003 (Avenarius et al. 2003), the German ministers of education point out serious deficiencies in the…

  15. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and '70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT's historic buildings, especially after Poland's accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the `modern' and the `traditional'.

  16. New Capitalism, Educational Modernisation and the New Role of the Professional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsarika, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Current times are witnessing multiple challenges in the economic, political and social domain, which modern citizens and professionals are required to address with an enterprising mindset. Young people have not been left intact by the spirit of new capitalism. In the face of ongoing educational changes on a European level, being a student…

  17. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  18. Frederik Kaiser (1808-1872) and the Modernisation of Dutch Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Petra

    Frederik Kaiser was the director of Leiden Observatory from 1837 until his death in 1872. Educated by his German-born uncle Johan Frederik Keyser (1766-1823), who was a proficient amateur astronomer, Kaiser proved to be a real observational talent. Despite the poor conditions in which he worked, his observations soon rivalled with the best in the world. Kaiser's contributions to astronomical practice include the foundation of a new, completely up-to-date observatory building in Leiden, and the introduction of statistics and precision measurements in daily practice at the observatory. Moreover he was the author of several bestselling books on popular astronomy. Kaiser had an extensive correspondence with colleagues all over Europe, mostly in Germany. Correpondents include Airy, Argelander, Von Auwers, Bessel, Encke, John Herschel, LeVerrier, Von Littrow, Schumacher, Otto W. Struve, as well as several geodesists and instrument makers. Preliminary research indicates that Frederik Kaiser played a crucial role in the revival of Dutch astronomy in the second half of the 19th century. This project aims at analysing and explaining Kaiser's activities in science, institutionalisation and popularisation, in the context of national and international developments in 19th-century astronomy and scientific culture.

  19. Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Funding and the Social Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Dalferth, Simon; Kerpanova, Viera; Parveva, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address the social dimension of higher education more forcefully and coherently, particularly in view of the economic downturn across Europe. This is the conclusion of the new Eurydice report, which looks at national policies on access to higher education, funding and student support. The report, covering EU Member…

  20. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

  1. Radical Policies, Progressive Modernisation and Deepening Democracy: The Academies Programme in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the tricky things we have to wrestle at present is whether or not we should believe what often sounds like good policy, policy that trumpets the involvement of those who are to be affected by it. Is "engaging with the local" to be taken seriously or not? Is the language of participation a linguistic sleight of hand or an indicator of a…

  2. Current Problems and Developments of VET in Germany--The Educational Case for Modernisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Germany's Dual System of apprenticeship and training has been criticized for obsolescence and social segmentation. Some advocate a more flexible approach to improve training programs. Although new types of training are emerging, the lower end of the qualifications ladder is being neglected. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  3. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the complex relationship of capital accumulation, external debt, and food supply in Brazil, a country which has simultaneously increased its food exports and its unsatisfied demand for food imports in the context of the world economic crisis. In Brazil, the substitution of export cash crops for subsistence crops has been accompanied by a profound but incomplete restructuring of the basic food supply and model of consumption, a restructuring made possible by declining real cost of the new foods. The gap between the extremely rapid evolution of consumption, especially in the urban areas, and the possibilities of concomitant transformation of production is the characteristic feature of the change occuring in Brazil. The current diet of the developed countries evolved over a relatively long period and was based on the declining real cost of basic foodstuffs made possible by increasing labor productivity. Between 1800-1900, the real cost of a kilo of bread was halved, while that of meat remained stable. In France and the US respectively, 80 and 90% of the principal cereals are consumed by animals, while in developing countries most grains are directly consumed. Numerous indices suggest that Brazil has begun to differentiate its food regime in the direction of decreased consumption of cereals, tubers, and legumes, and increased consumption of animal products, with grains increasingly consumed indirectly by animals. Since the early 1970s, Brazil has developed a powerful processed food industry which supports intensive breeding of poultry and, to a lesser extent, pork and milk cattle. However, low income population groups have been forced to reduce their consumption of traditional foodstuffs, whose real prices have undergone relative increases, without achieving a satisfactory level of consumption of the new products. Brazilian food problems result not from insufficient production of food but from the choice of a strongly internationalist model of development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  4. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  5. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  6. Extension and modernisation of the system of municipal heat distribution networks and elimination of emission in the remaining sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ciurlik, L.

    1995-12-31

    After a preliminary conference held in November 1992, the MPEC SA made contact with 6 US companies so as to prepare offers and the implementation of joint projects. According to their assumptions, those tasks had been picked up and prepared in order to be useful in solving a part of problems related with technology and organization which would be encountered by the MPEC SA of that time. Those decisions were well-aimed, yet the long time that had elapsed till the moment of their implementation did affect them in part. The development of free market economy in Poland was taking place without influencing the program assumptions. The MPEC SA was then interested in the enterprises which presented their activity.

  7. Post-Fordism, Curriculum Modernisers and Radical Practice: The Case of Vocational Education and Training in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    1993-01-01

    Post-Fordism, a high-skills/high-trust economy/society, has transformative and emancipatory possibilities. However, exploitation and oppression are conveniently ignored. Education that focuses on critical and collective intelligence celebrates human potential. (SK)

  8. Energy Sources for Soldier Modernisation Programme Systems (Overzicht van Ontwikkelingen op het Gebied van Draagbare Energieopslag en Energieopwekking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    34* Combustion engines/generator "* Fuel cells "* Microturbine /generator "• Thermophotovoltafc generator 3. Human powered systems "* Active tags...342 december 1999 7300 AH Apeldoorn Telefoon: 055 549 34 93 Auteur(s) Fax: 055 541 9837 Ir . J.W. Raadschelders DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT AInternet www...mep.tno.nI Dr.ir. D. Schmal Approved for Public Release ProjctnumerDistribution Unlimited 30255 ThO-DO opdrachtnummer A99/KL/1 58 Trefwoorden WNIJ -i~ lM

  9. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching…

  10. The Modernisation of European Universities: Cross-National Academic Perspectives. Higher Education Research and Policy. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek, Ed.; Kurkiewicz, Andrzej, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The recent decade brought about new ways of thinking about universities. European-level educational policies became increasingly influential as the agenda of university reforms was viewed as part of greater Lisbon strategy reforms. National governments adopted the economic concept of the university consistently developed in subsequent official…

  11. Communist Education as Modernisation Strategy? the Swings of the Globalisation Pendulum in Eastern Europe (1947-1989)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincu, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the influence of Soviet educational models and Western European contacts, mediated by historical institutional and cultural legacies in producing specifically Eastern educational variants. A first level of analysis will identify the reasons behind the emergence of these variations. A second and higher level of analysis…

  12. Educational Reform and Modernisation in Europe: The Role of National Contexts in Mediating the New Public Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Gunter, Helen M; Møller, Jorunn; Serpieri, Roberto; Skedsmo, Guri

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spread of new public management (NPM) across European education systems as it has traversed national boundaries. While recognising the transnational dimensions of the spread of NPM, the authors offer new insights into the importance of national contexts in mediating this development in educational settings by focusing…

  13. Modernisation of a test rig for determination of vehicle shock absorber characteristics by considering vehicle suspension elements and unsprung masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniowski, M.; Para, S.; Knapczyk, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a modernization approach of a standard test bench for determination of damping characteristics of automotive shock absorbers. It is known that the real-life work conditions of wheel-suspension dampers are not easy to reproduce in laboratory conditions, for example considering a high frequency damper response or a noise emission. The proposed test bench consists of many elements from a real vehicle suspension. Namely, an original tyre-wheel with additional unsprung mass, a suspension spring, an elastic top mount, damper bushings and a simplified wheel guiding mechanism. Each component was tested separately in order to identify its mechanical characteristics. The measured data serve as input parameters for a numerical simulation of the test bench behaviour by using a vibratory model with 3 degrees of freedom. Study on the simulation results and the measurements are needed for further development of the proposed test bench.

  14. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  15. Austerity and Modernisation, One Nation Labour--Localism, the Economy and Vocational Education and Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses national and global questions concerned with neoliberalism, social democracy and social justice. It explores a number of themes that arise from the British Labour Party's policy review and its rebranding as One Nation Labour (ONL). In particular it addresses ONL's approach to the economy, localism and vocational education and…

  16. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  17. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  18. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  19. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  20. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  1. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  2. Probing DNA by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    TET-mediated 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) oxidation acts in epigenetic regulation, stem cell development, and cancer. Hu et al. now determine the crystal structure of the TET2 catalytic domain bound to DNA, shedding light on 5mC-DNA substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism of 5mC oxidation. PMID:24360270

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  4. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-07-19

    This fourth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Work done this quarter has been primarily devoted to improving the apparatus and data collection system. This includes a totally new optical setup, continued development of a new imaging spectrometer, and software improvements. Additionally, interest from other mining operations has arisen and sample of titanium and talc have now been obtained for preliminary analysis. Work is ongoing with coal samples, although it appears a more diverse sampling may be required. With the improvements now being made in the system, much faster and more user-friendly data collection and analysis will result in faster and better turn-around for sample analysis.

  5. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  6. Role of O.G. Gazenko in formation and advancement of space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-05-01

    Oleg G. Gazenko belongs to the noble cohort of pupils of well-known Russian physiologist L.A. Orbeli. He was one of the fathers of space biology and medicine, discipline in which he displayed his brilliant talents of experimenter and thinker. He was acknowledged for the investigations of spaceflight effects on living systems, the concept of medical operations system to support long-term piloted missions and implementation of biological researches that fostered the advance of space and gravitational biology. The analytical works of Oleg G. Gazenko are of imperishable significance for future researches to the benefit of space biomedicine.

  7. Cardiovascular adaptation to O-G (Experiment 294) - Instrumentation for invasive and noninvasive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Moore, Willie E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Many astronauts returning from space have difficulties regulating blood pressure, some to the point of fainting during quiet standing. Experiment 294 was designed to study this and other cardiovascular effects of adaptation to microgravity and to understand the mechanisms behind it. To accomplish this several cardiovascular variables had to be measured accurately. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output (blood pumped by the heart each minute), stroke volume (blood pumped by the heart with each beat), limb flow, limb compliance, heart size and central venous pressure all had to been recorded during various stresses to understand fully the adaptation to space and the readaptation to earth's gravity. Numerous pieces of equipment were used. Some were purpose-built for the Spacelab mission and others were derived from commercial hardware. Developing spaceflight hardware is challenging and costly, but can lead to significant new information in the unique environment of space.

  8. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  9. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  10. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  11. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  12. Ostéogénèse imparfaite létale: diagnostic antenatal

    PubMed Central

    El Mhabrech, Houda; Zrig, Ahmed; Mazhoud, Ines; Njim, Leila; Hajjeji, Aouatef; Faleh, Raja; Hafsa, Ch

    2016-01-01

    L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) est un groupe hétérogène de maladies affectant le collagène de type I et caractérisées par une fragilité osseuse. Les formes létales sont rares et se caractérisent par une micromélie avec déformation des membres. Un diagnostic anténatal d'OI létale a été fait dans deux cas, par échographie à 17 et à 25 semaines d'aménorrhée, complélées par un scanner du squelette fœtal dans un cas. Une interruption thérapeutique de grossesse a été indiquée dans les deux cas. PMID:28292051

  13. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  14. The "Great Refusal"? A Marcusian Response to the Bright Blue Vision of Education in the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The modernisation of education and other public services remains a major political objective of the current Coalition government in the UK. This paper focuses on "Tory Modernisation 2.0," a blueprint for the second stage of the public sector reform produced by the Conservative pressure group, Bright Blue. From the critical theory…

  15. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  16. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination.

    PubMed

    Etchegaray, Augusto; Coutte, François; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Dos Santos, Ramon H Z; Leclère, Valérie; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g·L(-1)) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased ∼10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding ∼70 mg·g(-1) cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.

  17. Évolution paléogéographique de la Tunisie saharienne et atlasique au cours du Jurassique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, Fékri; Peybernès, Bernard; Fauré, Philippe

    1999-04-01

    By means of palaeontologic data, the differert Jurassic formations of Tunisia are correlated along a north-south transect, from the Saharan Platform to the Northern Atlas, across the successive steps of the South-Tethyan stable palaeomargin. A palaeogeographic synthesis of the country is herein proposed, based on 11 maps established for the most important stages of this preoceanic rifting phase which is characterized by particularly active transtensional tectonics.

  18. Emergency care toolkits.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Emergency care services are the focus of a series of toolkits developed by the NHS National electronic Library for Health to provide resources for emergency care leads and others involved in modernising emergency care, writes Steven Black.

  19. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  20. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  1. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow.

  2. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  3. Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

  4. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs.

  5. Octyl gallate: An antioxidant demonstrating selective and sensitive fluorescent property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongkui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-15

    Octyl gallate (OG) is an internationally recognized antioxidant that demonstrates selective and sensitive fluorescent property. The fluorescence of OG can be selectively enhanced in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The specific structures of HSA and BSA provided the basic conditions for fluorescence enhancement. OG yielded approximately 49- and 11-fold increments in emission intensity in the presence of HSA and BSA at a molar ratio of 1:1, respectively. The lifetimes of HSA and BSA correspondingly decreased. A Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurred during interaction between OG and HSA or BSA. Our in-depth investigation of OG-HSA interaction showed that formation of a stable complex was an important prerequisite to efficiently enhance the fluorescence of OG. The selective and sensitive fluorescent property of OG can possibly be used to determine OG concentration via the standard addition method, which must be performed under certain conditions.

  6. Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Oligogalacturonide Elicitors.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Mattei, Benedetta; Pontiggia, Daniela; Salvi, Gianni; Savatin, Daniel Valentin; Ferrari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments derived from the partial degradation of homogalacturonan in the plant cell wall and able to elicit plant defence responses. Recent methodological advances in the isolation of OGs from plant tissues and their characterization have confirmed their role as bona fide plant Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. Here, we describe the methods for the isolation of OGs from Arabidopsis leaf tissues and for the characterization of OG structure and biological activity.

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-23

    nafi ogly Zeynally, Candidate of Physical Mathematical Sciences Amirulla Mamedali ogly Mamedov , Candidate of Physical Mathematical Sciences Sharif...Planning, and Design Institute of the Technology of Electrical Machine Building, Nazim Samed ogly Muradov, head of a division of the Baku Affiliate of...imeni 50-letiya komsomola of the Azere- lektromash Production Association,, Nazim Nadir ogly Guseynov, adjuster of a stamping shop of the Baku

  8. High Performance School Buildings in Portugal: A Life Cycle Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Graca Fonseca; da Costa, Marta Marques

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Portuguese government launched a major school modernisation programme, and has taken steps to ensure the long-term sustainability of facilities. A specially created state-owned company, Parque Escolar (PE) has already completed 104 schools; 70 are work-in-progress and an additional 39 are under design or tender. Parque Escolar is…

  9. Ideological Tensions in the Educational Choice Practices of Modern Greek Cypriot Parents: The Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony; Vryonides, Marios

    2005-01-01

    The rapid modernisation process of Greek Cypriot society has created a cultural environment with an amalgam of traditionalist and modernist ethical attitudes, and antagonisms between them concerning, among other things, social advancement. These have implications for the way individuals and families develop various strategies of choice-making for…

  10. E-Portfolios and Digital Identity: Some Issues for Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Mhairi

    2005-01-01

    As awarding bodies modernise their procedures and incorporate elements of e-assessment into their qualifications, e-portfolios are emerging as a popular method of allowing candidates to display their abilities. All major United Kingdom awarding bodies now accept evidence from e-portfolio products for at least some of their qualifications. Although…

  11. The Evolution of University-Based Knowledge Transfer Structures. The EUIMA Collaborative Research Project Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueman, Stephen; Borrell-Damian, Lidia; Smith, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The modernisation process of universities has historically highlighted the necessity of providing support structures to facilitate contacts and relationships between research groups and the outside environment, with the objective of increasing the quantity and improving the quality of collaborative research activity. The first steps in this…

  12. The Latest Progress Report on ICT Application in Chinese Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jingtao, Zhang; Yuanyuan, Fang; Xiaoling, Ma

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating educational modernisation through information and communication technology (ICT) application in education is an important strategic measure taken by the Chinese government on the requirement of educational reform and development. After briefly introducing the status quo of Chinese basic education, this paper elaborates the significant…

  13. Sociological Theories and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.; Schwartz, Karl

    1973-01-01

    Essay review of Education and Modernisation,'' by M. D. Shipman. London: Faber and Faber, 1971 and Social Conflict and Educational Change in England and France, 1789-1848,'' by Michalina Vaughan and Margaret Scotford Archer. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1971. (CB)

  14. Ugandan Mathematics: An Unsolvable Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This author is on a journey--hoping that his expertise might have some small local impact. He shares his experiences that might relate to those who are thinking about volunteering abroad, or trying to modernise a system that is cemented in place. Creating change, developing teaching styles, and working for a charity are some of the challenges he…

  15. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  16. A Historical Analysis of Language Policy and Language Ideology in the Early Twentieth Asia: A Case of "Joseon," 1910-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinsuk

    2017-01-01

    Using media texts from a Korean newspaper archive, this article describes the process through which the state took up the ideology of linguistic nationalism during the period of Japanese colonisation of Korea (1910-1945). This was particularly aimed at a modernisation project in order for the legacy of the Joseon dynasty, which had ruled Korea for…

  17. Madrasa Education in South Asia and Southeast Asia: Current Issues and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jaddon; Niyozov, Sarfaroz

    2008-01-01

    Madaris (plural of madrasa) face a multitude of challenges in preparing students for life in rapidly modernising societies and emerging globalised knowledge economies. The complexity of the role and tasks of madaris, which are caught in the interface of modernity and tradition, the challenges they face, and the strategies they develop to address…

  18. Overview of the Programme TEMPUS IV, 2007-2013: Information for Future Applicants and Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Union, 2010

    2010-01-01

    TEMPUS is a European Union funded Programme which supports the modernisation of higher education in the Partner Countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region, mainly through university cooperation projects. It also aims to promote the voluntary convergence of the higher education systems in the Partner…

  19. Relative-Change Theory: Examining the Impact of Patriarchy, Paternalism, and Poverty on the Education of Women in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five years have passed since Kenya gained independence and almost 30 years since the feminist revolution ushered in a global gender and development agenda. While Kenya's development agenda had a functionalist orientation aimed at modernisation, the outcome of efforts to promote education development cannot be understood without an…

  20. Educational Biographies in Germany: From Secondary School General Education to Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebel, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the change in the transitional process from secondary school general education to gainful employment within the framework of societal modernisation processes in Germany. We analyse the relationship between the options for and restrictions upon individual educational mobility under the conditions imposed by the various…

  1. The Effects of a Free School Choice Policy on Parents' School Choice Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Bacher, Johann; Beham, Martina; Nagy, Gertrud; Wetzelhutter, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Recently, European school systems have seen various attempts to "modernise" their governance. Market and competition oriented reforms have not been central to governance innovation strategies in German speaking countries, however, their number and relevance is rising in recent years. A free school choice policy which abolishes…

  2. An Interactive Approach to Learning and Teaching in Visual Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomljenovic, Zlata

    2015-01-01

    The present research focuses on modernising the approach to learning and teaching the visual arts in teaching practice, as well as examining the performance of an interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts classes with the use of a combination of general and specific (visual arts) teaching methods. The study uses quantitative…

  3. European Teacher Education: A Fractal Perspective Tackling Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesa; Margiotta, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    This article takes stock of the complex scenario of the European education space in its past, present and future developments, which highlights the priorities of the modernisation, improvement and convergence of the goals for education and training systems in the knowledge and learning society. The critical case of teacher education is then…

  4. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  5. The Concept of "Educational Campus" and Its Application in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2010-01-01

    A university campus should reflect a commitment to quality and be dedicated to the intellectual, psychological and social development of its students. The "Educational Campus" is an innovative concept which espouses this concept and is designed to stimulate a process of modernisation in universities and contribute to their excellence.…

  6. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  7. The Democratisation of the Education System in France after the Second World War: A Neo-Weberian Glocal Approach to Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The structural reforms of the education system in France (1959, 1963, and 1975) were part both of a global process of democratisation of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernisation project in which knowledge producers (experts, scholars and consultants) played a crucial role. Instead of a national approach or a…

  8. "A Diploma and a Descendant!" Premarital Sexuality, Education and Politics among Dani University Students in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, the notion of "study first" ("kuliah dulu") pressures young adults to refrain from sex and delay marriage until they finish tertiary education. Recent scholarship has viewed choices to abstain from sex as evidence of the potency of values of modernisation, Islamic culture and the contemporary importance of moral…

  9. Professional Development of Russian HEIs' Management and Faculty in CDIO Standards Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuchalin, Alexander; Malmqvist, Johan; Tayurskaya, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the approach to complex training of managers and faculty staff for system modernisation of Russian engineering education. As a methodological basis of design and implementation of the faculty development programme, the CDIO (Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate) Approach was chosen due to compliance of its concept to the purposes…

  10. The Effect of the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies on Training in the Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrillon, Isabel Dieguez; Cantorna, Ana I. Sinde

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel-training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study provides empirical evidence from a sector with high rates of technological modernisation. Design/methodology/approach: "Ad hoc" survey of 90…

  11. Linking Exploration and Exploitation: How a Think Tank Triggers a Managerial Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jetta; Vogel, Rick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we focus on think tanks as intermediaries between exploration and exploitation. To underpin our theoretical arguments on their linking function between both domains, we conducted a case study. The object of investigation is a think tank which has played a decisive role in the modernisation of the German public sector. The…

  12. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  13. Transforming Pedagogical Ethos into an Effective Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldbaek, Jens; Vinkel, Hanna Bohn; Broens, Mie Guldbaek

    2011-01-01

    The world has been changing so fast that educational systems have not had time to keep pace. We therefore need to rethink, renew and modernise our schools, as well as develop a new educational experience for children. In order to do this, it is crucial that we devise a new approach to developing our educational systems. This article proposes a…

  14. Disability and the Open City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Brendan

    2001-01-01

    Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…

  15. The Public and Its University: Beyond Learning for Civic Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Instead of asking how universities can contribute to active citizenship and democratic participation (and seeking for ways to improve their contribution), this article asks what it is that universities, due to their specific mission, have to offer. After describing the transition of the historical university (and its focus on modernisation) to the…

  16. The reflective elective: using the elective to develop medical students' skills in career planning.

    PubMed

    Elton, Caroline; Newport, Melanie

    2008-07-01

    The Tooke inquiry into Modernising Medical Careers highlighted the need for medical schools to become more actively involved in preparing their students for the critical career decisions that they will make during the foundation programme. Incorporating a reflective careers assignment into the elective module may be a useful way of encouraging students to become more highly skilled in self-assessment and career exploration.

  17. Teacher Agency and School-Based Curriculum in China's Non-Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has been embarking on a nation-wide education reform as part of its modernisation project for the past few decades. A relatively under-researched topic is teacher agency in non-elite schools where educators critically shape their reactions to new situations brought about by the reform. Focussing on the introduction of school-based…

  18. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the…

  19. Making Sense of the Educational Present: Problematising the "Merit Turn" in the Italian Eduscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Barzano, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises the recent "merit turn" in the Italian education system. It addresses the analysis of how the global idea of "merit as lever for modernisation" and its related technologies have flowed into a regional education space through a set of four policy trajectories. It explores how these have partially…

  20. Peer Pressure: Comments on the European Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesner, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the growing influence of informal and not democratically legitimised authority within the educational field in Europe. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework are discussed as instances of neoliberal strategies of modernisation that change the…

  1. Personal Integration Resources of Mentally Handicapped Teenagers into Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konovalova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…

  2. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  3. The Rationalisation of the Body: Physical Education in Hungary in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadas, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how "turnen", the modernised form of earlier gymnastic exercises, emerged in Hungary in the second part of the nineteenth century. It is argued that although the advocates of the "turnen" movement are gradually squeezed from the spheres of modern competitive sports, their strategies of expansion are…

  4. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  5. Getting Education Right for Long-term Growth in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 497

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Widening the skills base and improving labour-market efficiency requires the support of good education. This paper describes the structure of the education system, identifies weaknesses and considers ways to improve performance in light of the ongoing rapidly expanding demand for tertiary level education. The paper discusses ways to modernise the…

  6. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  7. What Is the Public Role of the University? A Proposal for a Public Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert; Kwiek, Marek; Locke, Grahame; Martins, Herminio; Masschelein, Jan; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Simons, Maarten; Zgaga, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    With a view to meeting the demands of the knowledge economy and taking up a leading role in its further development, Europe and its member states are urging universities and institutions for higher education more generally to innovate and modernise themselves. Organisational structures, governance and management systems, curricula and teaching…

  8. The Importance of Workplace Learning for Trade Unions: A Study of the Steel Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between trade unions and learning in the workplace, particularly in relation to the enhancement of worker employability profiles. With the restructuring and modernising of the European steel industry as its context, this paper argues that the organisational and structural features of a sector have a…

  9. Popular Education and Social Movements in India: State Responses to Constructive Resistance for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2004-01-01

    The process of globalisation and modernisation of the south through "the development project" continues to "invite" resistance to ecological destruction and displacement of rural and forest-based communities. Post-developmentalist critics emphasise the significance of social movements in ushering in a new partnership for social…

  10. Developing International Campuses of Excellence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubiralta, Marius; Delgado, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Secretary General of Universities (SGU) of the Spanish Ministry of Education launched a new programme to foster the modernisation and internationalisation of Spanish university campuses. This initiative focused on teaching, research and aspects of technology transfer, but also developing the campus into an integral social model which…

  11. The Identity of Educated Women in India: Confluence or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri

    2008-01-01

    Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…

  12. Promoting Health in Hospitals: The Role of Beacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Watson, Jonathan; Hennessy, Sue

    2004-01-01

    "Best practice" is currently being used to enable modernisation within the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. One element of this is the Beacon programme where examples of hospitals that exemplify local "best practice" are supported to develop and disseminate learning across the wider NHS. The aims of this…

  13. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  14. Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defence Applications "The Ruthless Pursuit of COTS" (l’Utilisation des produits vendus sur etageres dans les applications militaires de defense "l’Exploitation sans merci des produits commerciaux")

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    militaires. Le programme du symposium a comporté deux discours d’ouverture et six sessions techniques, qui ont permis la présentation de vingt...Interopérabilité et migration des logiciels 5) Obsolescence et politiques de modernisation 6) Intégration dans des systèmes existants 7) Interopérabilité

  15. Competitiveness, Diversification and the International Higher Education Cash Flow: The EU's Higher Education Discourse amidst the Challenges of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the EU discourse on Higher Education and analyses this discourse within the context of globalisation. Importance is attached to the issues of lifelong learning, competitiveness, diversification, entrepreneurship, access, knowledge society, modernisation, quality assurance, innovation and creativity, governance and business-HE…

  16. Shaping Lifelong Learning: Making the Most of European Tools and Principles. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As rapid change threatens to outpace the skills of an ageing workforce and Europe developed towards a knowledge based society, the European Union, other European countries and the social partners have worked together to establish a policy framework for modernising education and training. In vocational education and training (VET), the EU has…

  17. Widening Access to University Education in Anglophone Africa: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire; Oduaran, Choja

    2007-01-01

    Widening access to university-level education in Anglophone Africa has been moving away gradually from rhetorical optimism into the realm of political actualisation of collective intentions of community modernisation and growth. This is because university education is being deconstructed to embrace the welfare, self-actualisation and…

  18. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Eastern Europe. A Tempus Study. Issue 04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  19. New Labour and the Logic of Practice in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…

  20. Music Education Curriculum and Social Change: A Study of Popular Music in Secondary Schools in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese society over the last two decades, modernisation and globalisation, together with the transition to a market economy, have created new imperatives and challenges for the school music curriculum. As a result, the 2011 reform of the Curriculum Standards for Primary Education and Junior Secondary Education marks the first time that the…

  1. The Concept of Greater China in Higher Education: Adoptions, Dynamics and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting modernisation and globalisation in East Asia as processes of Westernisation creates confusion and discomfort among some academics from the region. To illustrate why such discomfort occurs, this article explores the changes in the higher education systems of Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China in terms of their "Chineseness"…

  2. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  3. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  4. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  5. "Quality Revolution" in Post-Soviet Education in Russia: From Control to Assurance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minina, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Employing the analytical framework of a discourse-driven social change, this paper unpacks the neoliberal concept of "educational quality" in the course of Russian education modernisation reform from 1991 to 2013. Since the early 1990s, the global neoliberal discourse has served as the backbone for post-Soviet educational ideology.…

  6. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  7. Demography, Social Structure and Learning through Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, Ruud

    2010-01-01

    The modernisation of the Western world during the last two centuries has been a mix of industrialisation/computerisation and urbanisation. Consequently, reports on the future of adult learning and adult education have been a mix on the one hand of the learning requirements that follow from industrialisation/computerisation and on the other hand,…

  8. Itineraries of the Discourses on Development and Education in Spain and Latin America (circa 1950-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossenbach, Gabriela; Martinez Boom, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The rise during the 1950s of a discourse centred on "development," together with the elaboration of the concept of "human capital," led to an altogether new paradigm of economic modernisation. The expansion of education and professional training was now viewed as a key strategy for those countries wishing to join the developed…

  9. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  10. Digital Technologies and English Instruction in China's Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Lianli

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of a new mandatory policy for the teaching of English at the higher education level in China, College English Curriculum Requirements (CECR, published in 2004), had the intention of modernising and improving the quality of English teaching at the tertiary level in China. The policy had a focus on student-centred approaches to…

  11. So Many Strategies, so Little Time... Making Universities Modern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the modernisation of universities in the U.K., arguing that heterogeneous policy objectives and strategies have become condensed in the construction of higher education as a governable system and the university as a corporate enterprise. It argues that managerialism has displaced and subordinated professional and…

  12. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  13. Four Basic Dilemmas in University Governance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild M.; Maassen, Peter; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, modernising university governance has been a constant item on the political agenda of most countries, often followed by reforms attempting to change how universities are managed and led. However, when considering the effects of the many initiatives taken, a rather complex picture appears with respect to the scope and depths of…

  14. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  15. Getting "Foolishly Hot and Bothered"? Parents and Teachers and Sex Education in the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Hera

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…

  16. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  17. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  18. Effects of yellow, orange and red filter glasses on the thresholds of a dark-adapted human eye.

    PubMed

    Aarnisalo, E; Pehkonen, P

    1990-04-01

    Effects of 13 different yellow, orange and red (Schott) longpass filter glasses on the extrafoveal thresholds obtained by 3 normal subjects after dark-adaptation were measured using a Goldman-Weekers adaptometer. When filters GG400, GG420, GG435, GG455, GG475, GG495, OG515 and OG530 (cutting off radiation up to 527 nm) were used there was no significant change in the threshold value. However, significantly higher threshold values were obtained with the use of the filters OG550, OG570, OG590, RG610 and RG630.

  19. Activated carbon fiber for heterogeneous activation of persulfate: implication for the decolorization of azo dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Hong, Wei; Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Wenwei; Wang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used as a green catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for oxidative decolorization of azo dye. ACF demonstrated a higher activity than activated carbon (AC) to activate PS to decolorize Orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency of OG increased as ACF loading, PS dosage, and temperature increased. OG decolorization followed a pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was 40.902 kJ/mol. pH had no apparent effect on OG decolorization. Radical quenching experiments with various radical scavengers (e.g., alcohols, phenol) showed that radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO4 (·-) and HO· were responsible for OG decolorization. The impact of inorganic salts was also evaluated because they are important compositions of dye wastewater. Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) exhibited a promoting effect on OG decolorization, and the accelerating rate increased with elevating dosage of ions. Addition of Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) could increase the adsorption of OG on ACF surface, thus favorable for OG decolorization caused by the surface-bound SO4 (·-) and HO·. Conversely, HCO3 (-) and humic acid (HA) slightly inhibited OG decolorization. The azo band and naphthalene ring on OG were remarkably destructed to other intermediates and finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O.

  20. Social baggrund, intellektuelt niveau og placering i skolesystemet (The Relationship between Social Background, the Intellectual Level of Pupils, and Their Situation in the School System at the Age of 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orum, Bente

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report whose aim was to investigate the relationship between intellectual level, social background, and the personal circumstances of the pupil within the school system at the age of 14. Their parents answered a questionnaire, and this, coupled with IQ tests given to…

  1. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  2. EbpR Is Important for Biofilm Formation by Activating Expression of the Endocarditis and Biofilm-Associated Pilus Operon (ebpABC) of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF▿

    PubMed Central

    Bourgogne, Agathe; Singh, Kavindra V.; Fox, Kristina A.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Murray, Barbara E.; Garsin, Danielle A.

    2007-01-01

    We identify ef1090 (renamed ebpR) and show its importance for the transcriptional regulation of expression of the Enterococcus faecalis pilus operon, ebpABC. An ebpR deletion (ΔebpR) mutant was found to have reduced ebpABC expression with loss of pilus production and a defect in primary adherence with, as a consequence, reduced biofilm formation. PMID:17586623

  3. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) as a marker for oligodendroglial changes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Höftberger, Romana; Fink, Stephanie; Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Botond, Gergö; Olah, Judit; Berki, Timea; Ovadi, Judit; Lassmann, Hans; Budka, Herbert; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2010-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with variable extent of remyelination. Remyelination originates from oligodendrocyte (OG) precursor cells, which migrate and differentiate into mature OG. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) is located in mature OG and aggregates in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. We developed a novel monoclonal anti-TPPP/p25 antibody to quantify OG in different subtypes and disease stages of MS, and possible degenerative changes in OG. We evaluated autopsy material from 25 MS cases, including acute, primary progressive, secondary progressive, relapsing remitting MS, and five controls. Demyelinated lesions revealed loss of TPPP/p25-positive OG within the plaques. In remyelination, TPPP/p25 was first expressed in OG cytoplasms and later became positive in myelin sheaths. We observed increased numbers of TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS patients. In MS cases, the cytoplasmic area of TPPP/p25 immunoreactivity in the OG was higher in the periplaque area when compared with NAWM and the plaque, and TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG cytoplasmic area inversely correlated with the disease duration. There was a lack of phospho-TDP-43, phospho-tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin immunoreactivity in OG with enlarged cytoplasm. Our data suggest impaired differentiation, migration, and activation capacity of OG in later disease stages of MS. Upregulation of TPPP/p25 in the periplaque white matter OG without evidence for inclusion body formation might reflect an activation state. Distinct and increased expression of TPPP/p25 in MS renders it a potential prognostic and diagnostic marker of MS.

  4. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  5. Radioactive waste policy and legislation: 50 years on from the 1960 Act.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Over the past 50 years a comprehensive regulatory framework for radioactive substances in the UK has been progressively introduced, important initial milestones being the white paper Cmnd 884 and the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. During the 1970s and 1980s there were a succession of enquiries and white papers which developed from the growing awareness of the problems of the nuclear waste legacy. This was followed by a comprehensive policy white paper in 1995: Cm 2919. In 1990, 1993, 1995 and 2005 some aspects of the 1960 Act were updated. The most recent, and most radical, modernisation took place in 2010, when the Act was incorporated into the Environmental Permitting Regulations, in England and Wales. Currently a major review of the exemption orders and exclusion criteria under the radioactive substances legislation is close to completion, which will complete the current phase of modernisation of the regulatory framework.

  6. Vessels of progressivism? Tasmanian state girls and eugenics, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Parry, N

    2001-01-01

    In the early twentieth century the notion of state children as a "burden on the state", born of a liberal bourgeois philanthropic tradition, was gradually replaced in Tasmania by a modernising notion of intervention in the name of national efficiency. Eugenic principles can be shown to have influenced child welfare ideas and laws, notably the Tasmanian Mental Deficiency Act (1920). However, despite public debate and legislative changes, the bureaucrats in charge of state children maintained their liberal philanthropic practices. In many cases the Children of the State Department clashed with the Mental Deficiency Board. State direction of children was also frustrated by children's agency. Girls were the target of many eugenicist (and liberal evangelical) reforms, but they resisted attempts to control their sexuality and make them "useful". In Tasmania, the modernising impetus of progressive arguments was offset by bureaucratic stasis, and the agency of the subjects.

  7. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Force (D. R. Kneen, D. 0’Sullivan; PARATUS, Nov 86) 50 Unit Color for Combat School (PARATUS, Nov 86) 53 Troop Morale in Namibia Seen as High ...million ($2.6 million) commercial loan is to go on rehabilitation and modernisation of the Changalume clinker plant, near Zomba in the south, and on...supposed to marry any of the female warriors who fight 10 alongside them ... until tue war is over. Morale is high , although the standard of

  9. Methods and Models for Life Cycle Costing (Methodes et Modeles D’Evaluation du cout de Possession)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    government approval. For discussion purposes, this programme arbitrarily is assumed to be a mobility programme. A first step in the programmes...that. Similar funding streams for other acquisition programmes in the same mission area (in this example, mobility ) also would be included. Figure 2-13...nearing approval is labelled “ Mobility MDAP #3.” Funding also is shown for the other modernisation programmes in the same mission area, consisting of

  10. Biomass energy use in developing countries: An African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karekezi, S.; Ewagata, E.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass forms the bulk of the energy supply of the developing world with the largest share consumed in the household sector as either fuelwood or charcoal for cooking, lighting and space heating. However there are a number of constraints facing the use of biomass if it is to be sustainable. Stephen Karekezi and Esther Ewagata of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) outline these constraints and discuss the modernisation of the traditional technologies now underway.

  11. Implementing groupwork in primary care to meet client need.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Teresa; Gledstone, Pam

    Hertsmere health visitors are successfully using groupwork to target patient groups who may not traditionally access services. This includes working with clients in environments such as a homeless family hostel and an English as a second language group. The health visitors have incorporated national service framework targets and important health promotion advice into sessions, and work with a range of other professionals. The result is a modernised, family-centred public health role.

  12. Developing critical mass and growing our own academics.

    PubMed

    Winyard, P J D; Cass, H D; Stephenson, T J; Wilkinson, A R; Olver, R E

    2006-12-01

    Academic paediatrics is an exciting and rewarding career path but is not immune to the problems of recruitment and retention currently affecting most branches of medicine. The Modernising Medical Careers initiative, with its explicit academic training path, offers an unparalleled opportunity to develop novel schemes that promote recruitment and retention. Coordinated action is required to define, publicise and support the new academic training programmes and to attract the best trainees into them.

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in Government [AL-SIYASAH 23 Jan] 32 Engineers’ Union Unhappy With Government Strike Settlement [AL-USBU’ 20 Jan] 33 Columnist Encourages Libyan...by realising joint projects with the UAE and with other members of the GCC, to procure identical requirements, it will be possible to modernise our...after investing heavily in real estate portfolios and suffering losses due to the subsequent fall in real estate value . The Finance Ministry stepped in

  14. Physical Protection: the State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    twee typen : keramische monolieten die zijn gecoat met een koolstof laagje en monolieten die volledig uit koolstof bestaan. Monolithische structuren...worden nieuwe typen actieve kolen ontwikkeld zoals kooldoek ’charcoal cloth’ en kooldraad ’charcoal fibre’, veelal gemaakt van polymeren. Tevens...8217, ontwikkeld in het kader van het ’Soldier Modernisation Program’, kan een manier zijn om de ergonomische, fysieke en psychologische belasting te verlagen. Op

  15. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  16. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  17. [Henri-Léonard Bertin and the development of agriculture in the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Pédro, Georges

    2012-05-01

    This meeting of the Committee on the History of Science and Epistemology takes place as we celebrate the 250th anniversary of the creation of the world's first veterinary schools, a major event among all those that, in the wake of the Physiocrat movement initiated by Quesnay and DuPont de Nemours, shaped the modernisation of agriculture in France during the 18th century. Henri-Léonard Bertin (1720-1792) was the impetus to the restructuring process. He was well aware that farming should not remain an activity that solely provides a livelihood for the population, but that it needed to be modernised, i.e. it should produce more, and better. His view was that agriculture could become a great source of riches for France and therefore, a true economic and even political force. He used the various official positions he occupied during that period (Intendant of Lyon (1754-1757), Controller General of Finances (1759-1763), Minister-Secretary of State for Agriculture (1763-1780) to initiate a number of reforms that brought about the modernisation of the kingdom's agricultural world.

  18. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  19. Effect of oligochitosan and oligo-β-glucan supplementation on growth, innate immunity, and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Van Dang, Phu; Le, Anh Quoc; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Pham, Duy Hai; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2016-06-01

    Oligochitosan (COS) and oligo-β-glucan (βOG) were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of chitosan/H2 O2 and β-glucan/H2 O2 solutions. The striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed diets containing 0-200 mg COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG per kg feed for 45 days, and then challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacterium. The effects of supplemented COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG on immune stimulation and growth performance in striped catfish were investigated. The results indicated that when striped catfish fed with 100-200 mg COS or βOG/kg feed the growth performance was significantly improved and the mortality was considerably decreased. Furthermore, striped catfish fed with supplementation of 50 mg COS + 50 mg βOG/kg feed was the best for increasing weight gain (∼26%) and for decreasing mortality (∼38%) compared with the control group. Moreover, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity of fish were enhanced by feeding diet-supplemented COS and/or βOG. Thus, COS and/or βOG can be potentially utilized as the immunostimulants and growth promoters for aquaculture.

  20. Removal of hydantoin products of 8-oxoguanine oxidation by the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme, FPG.

    PubMed

    Leipold, M D; Muller, J G; Burrows, C J; David, S S

    2000-12-05

    An intriguing feature of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) is that it is highly reactive toward further oxidation. Indeed, OG has been shown to be a "hot spot" for oxidative damage and susceptible to oxidation by a variety of cellular oxidants. Recent work has identified two new DNA lesions, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), resulting from one-electron oxidation of OG. The presence of Gh and Sp lesions in DNA templates has been shown to result in misinsertion of G and A by DNA polymerases, and therefore, both are potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. The base excision repair (BER) glycosylases Fpg and MutY serve to prevent mutations associated with OG in Escherichia coli, and therefore, we have investigated the ability of these two enzymes to process DNA duplex substrates containing the further oxidized OG lesions, Gh and Sp. The Fpg protein, which removes OG and a variety of other oxidized purine base lesions, was found to remove Gh and Sp efficiently opposite all four of the natural DNA bases. The intrinsic rate of damaged base excision by Fpg was measured under single-turnover conditions and was found to be highly dependent upon the identity of the base opposite the OG, Gh, or Sp lesion; as expected, OG is removed more readily from an OG:C- than an OG:A-containing substrate. However, when adenine is paired with Gh or Sp, the rate of removal of these damaged lesions by Fpg was significantly increased relative to the rate of removal of OG from an OG:A mismatch. The adenine glycosylase MutY, which removes misincorporated A residues from OG:A mismatches, is unable to remove A paired with Gh or Sp. Thus, the activity of Fpg on Gh and Sp lesions may dramatically influence their mutagenic potential. This work suggests that, in addition to OG, oxidative products resulting from further oxidation of OG should be considered when evaluating oxidative DNA damage and its associated effects on DNA mutagenesis.

  1. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  2. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    α-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  3. Efficacy of Fast ForWord Training on Facilitating Acquisition of Reading Skills by Children with Reading Difficulties--A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Pamela E.; Macaruso, Paul; Jones, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    A study found children (ages 7-12) with difficulties in phonemic awareness and word identification who received Fast ForWord (FFW) training (n=11) and Orton Gillingham (OG) training (n=9) made similar gains in phonemic awareness. Unlike children who received FFW, children who received OG training made significant gains in word attack. (Contains…

  4. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  7. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  8. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Wagner L.; Martins, Auxiliadora O.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs. PMID:25360142

  9. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  10. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-04

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  11. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  12. Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Glass States of 3He-A in Stretched Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Yudin, A. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present results of pulse NMR investigations of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in stretched aerogel. In this case we have anisotropic orbital glass (OG) with two possible types of ordering in spin space—ordered spin nematic (OG-SN) or disordered spin glass (OG-SG) states. It was found that longitudinal relaxation of magnetization is non-exponential in both states and depends on temperature and on inhomogeneity of external steady magnetic field. At the same conditions the relaxation in OG-SG state is more rapid than in OG-SN state. For transverse orientation of the magnetic field relative to anisotropy axis the duration of free induction decay signal was longer than in normal phase. It may be explained by formation of coherently precessing spin state.

  13. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B J; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae.

  14. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  15. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  16. A comparison of surgical procedures and postoperative cares for minimally invasive laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Na; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has assumed an ever-expanding role in gastric cancer treatment. Accumulating data so far seem to suggest that LG is at least a viable alternative of conventional open gastrectomy (OG) in different contexts. However, even though reviews and meta-analyses have compared the advantages and limitations of each option, it is still controversial whether LG is a better alternative to OG, especially in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The major goal of this study is to evaluate the readouts of LG, in comparison with OG. A literature search was performed for studies published from 2009 to 2013. Medical records of 20868 gastric cancer patients from 32 independent studies were reviewed and analyzed. All 32 studies concluded that LG is at least comparable with OG. LG is superior to OG in offering less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of complications, although LG is probably inferior in operative time, and not different from OG in mortality. Considering the merits and the potential future technical improvement, it is reasonable to speculate that LG may eventually replace OG in most clinical contexts. PMID:26379823

  17. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase.

  18. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  19. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  20. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  1. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  2. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  3. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  4. Unnatural substrates reveal the importance of 8-oxoguanine for in vivo mismatch repair by MutY

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Alison L.; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Kim, Taewoo; Kool, Eric T.; David, Sheila S.

    2009-01-01

    Escherchia coli MutY plays an important role in preventing mutations associated with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by excising adenines from OG:A mismatches as the first step of base excision repair. To determine the importance of specific steps in the base pair recognition and base removal process of MutY, we have evaluated the effects of modifications of the OG:A substrate on the kinetics of base removal, mismatch affinity and repair to G:C in an Escherchia coli-based assay. Surprisingly, adenine modification was tolerated in the cellular assay, while modification of OG results in minimal cellular repair. High affinity for the mismatch and efficient base removal require the presence of OG. Taken together, these results suggest that the presence of OG is a critical feature for MutY to locate OG:A mismatches and select the appropriate adenines for excision to initiate repair in vivo prior to replication. PMID:18026095

  5. [Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis].

    PubMed

    Edinger, H; Miller, I; Stanek, C; Gemeiner, M

    1992-10-01

    The spectrum of serum proteins was evaluated in 46 horses affected with spontaneous laminitis and correlations between the severity of the disease and changes of the protein pattern were analyzed. The investigation was made in two groups; group A consisted of 21 horses of various breeds (warmblood, thoroughbred, standardbred) and group B of 25 ponys. Each group was subdivided according to the severity of the disease, using the OBEL-grade (OG) classification system. Serum proteins were separated by different one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods. Sera analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fraction between OG II and OG IV affected horses. An increasing severity of the disease was correlated with a decrease of the alpha 1-globulins. The other protein fractions didn't show a uniform tendency. In group B there was a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fractions of OG II and OG III and in the beta 2-globulin fractions of OG I and OG II affected ponys. The acute phase proteins C3c, C4, Hp and fibronectin could be determined in a preliminary study in horse serum using the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the homologous human proteins.

  6. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  7. Neurosciences intensive care medicine in initial neurosurgical training.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Madder, H; Millo, J; Kearns, C F

    2009-04-01

    The authors describe a novel 4-month clinical placement in neurosciences intensive care medicine (NICM) undertaken in the first specialty registrar (ST1) year of neurosurgical training as part of a clinical neurosciences themed training year. Neurosurgery is unique among British surgical specialties in having pioneered themed early years in run-through training to replace basic surgical training in general surgical specialties as part of Modernising Medical Careers. After describing events leading to the new neurosurgical training, the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in NICM are highlighted alongside discussion of logistic aspects and future directions from an inaugural experience.

  8. Transnational History of Medicine after 1950: Framing and Interrogation from Psychiatric Journals

    PubMed Central

    BURNHAM, JOHN C.

    2011-01-01

    Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation. PMID:23752862

  9. Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2014-05-30

    A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ∼10{sup 8}. (lasers)

  10. Knowledge for Healthcare: the future of health librarianship.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sue Lacey; Stewart, David; Goswami, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Many people are still not receiving the right care. It is imperative for health care librarians to come together around a common vision to achieve Knowledge for Healthcare so that the right knowledge and evidence is used at the right time in the right place. The authors describe five workstreams within a modernisation programme: Service Transformation, Workforce Planning and Development, Quality and Impact, Resource Discovery and Optimising Investment. Communications, engagement and partnership working are central to success. The development framework sets out principles on which to base decisions, and design criteria for transforming services.

  11. The doctor's medicine and the ambiguity of amulets: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London – an interview study – 1

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in London demonstrated simultaneous trust in psychiatrists as well as in the widespread use of healing amulets. At the same time, local Islamic clerics and traditional healers were seen by many with some degree of suspicion. The authors offer an interpretation in which local healers and their methods are regarded ambivalently: the more distant biomedical framework fits with the newer modernising ‘High’ Islam (literate, scripturalist, puritanical, unitarian, urban, clerical, perhaps masculinist), as opposed to Hindu-inflected traditional Sufi Islam in Bangladesh (peasant, popular, syncretic, saintly, magical, ecstatic and possibly more sympathetic to women's experience). PMID:23998259

  12. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváček, David

    2014-03-01

    The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  13. The doctor's medicine and the ambiguity of amulets: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study--1.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in London demonstrated simultaneous trust in psychiatrists as well as in the widespread use of healing amulets. At the same time, local Islamic clerics and traditional healers were seen by many with some degree of suspicion. The authors offer an interpretation in which local healers and their methods are regarded ambivalently: the more distant biomedical framework fits with the newer modernising 'High' Islam (literate, scripturalist, puritanical, unitarian, urban, clerical, perhaps masculinist), as opposed to Hindu-inflected traditional Sufi Islam in Bangladesh (peasant, popular, syncretic, saintly, magical, ecstatic and possibly more sympathetic to women's experience).

  14. Efficacy of Ceftobiprole Medocaril against Enterococcus faecalis in a Murine Urinary Tract Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF (with and without the β-lactamase [Bla] plasmid pBEM10) in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model. Ceftobiprole was equally effective for Bla+ and Bla− OG1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against Bla+ than Bla− OG1 strains. These data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of Bla production by E. faecalis and the stability and efficacy of ceftobiprole in experimental UTI. PMID:22450988

  15. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  16. Evaluation of Skin-Spar Joint Resistance to Hydrodynamic Ram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight Division Air Armament Center, Air Force...43 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 780th Test Squadron (780th TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM ...MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM(S) AFRL-WS-WP 780th Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety

  17. Aircraft Survivability: Vulnerability Reduction, Spring 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Wing (TW) 46 Operations Group (OG)/Munitions Test Division ( OGM )/ Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight’s (AOL-AC), with actual testing...testing, scheduled to occur during FY06, is again being managed by 46OG/ OGM /OL-AC and conducted by ARL-SLAD. This tri-service program has greatly...Test Wing’s 46 Operations Group/Munitions Test Division/Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC). Design efforts focused on

  18. SURVIAC Bulletin: Fire Suppression Technology Applied to Chemical/Biological Warfare Protection, Volume 17, Issue 2 - 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Technical Representative (COTR) for the Center is Mr. Martin L. Lentz, 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC, 2700 D Street, Bldg. 1661, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433...publication may be addressed to: 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7605 Com: (937) 255-4840, DSN...iac.dtic.mil/surviac SURVIAC 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7605 PRSRT STD US POSTAGE PAID

  19. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  20. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  1. Les manifestations tectoniques synsédimentaires associées à la compression éocène en Tunisie : implications paléogéographiques et structurales sur la marge Nord-AfricaineThe synsedimentary tectonic activity associated to Eocene shortening in Tunisia: implication in the palaeogeographic and structural evolution of the North African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghali, Abdessalem; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Bobier, Claude; Zargouni, Fouad; Krima, Anis

    2003-09-01

    In central Tunisia, a synsedimentary tectonic episode has been pointed out through the tectonic movements affecting the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene successions. This tectonic episode has controlled, to a large extent, the palaeogeographic setting of the area during that period and confirmed the important effect induced by the Pyrenean shortening phase on the edge of the African plate, which obviously has witnessed a common history with the southern part of the European plate. To cite this article: A. El Ghali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  2. Mise en évidence d'une nappe de charriage à deux unités paléogènes au plateau de Lansarine (Tunisie du Nord) : définition d'un nouvel élément structural de l'Atlas tunisien et réévaluation du calendrier des serrages tertiaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Vila, Jean-Marie; Zargouni, Fouad

    2007-05-01

    The Palaeogene plateau of the Lansarine area (northern Tunisia) is a thrust nappe formed by two Eocene limestone units, overlapping the marine Miocene series. The stacking of these two units and the coverage of the Neogene series are noticeable in several localities within the study area. The cartography permits the measurement of a NW-SE overthrust amplitude of 10 km with respect to the nearest southern overlapping of the Mateur peel thrusts, which are displaced themselves. The measured overthrust represents a minimal estimation based on the present erosion limits. These results indicate that the region has been exposed, at least, to two Tertiary compressive phases. The first one took place during the Late Eocene. This phase, which was characterized by a moderate folding, corresponds to the Atlasic phase. The second major phase, which has been dated to the Tortonian age, is responsible for the tangentially carrying of the Palaeogene series. These new data have allowed the recognition of a new tectonic unit in the Tunisian Atlas, which is the thrust nappe of the Jebel Lansarine.

  3. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  4. Digital Atlas and Evaluation of the Influence of Inter-Annual Variability on Climate Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Abstracts, Institute Nationale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale-OGS, Trieste, Italy 2001 р. 65 Unesco 1993: Manual of quality control procedures for validation of oceanographic data, IOC UNESCO, pp.436. 995

  5. How Is Angina Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may recommend coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-ra-fee) if he or she suspects you have CHD. ... Computed Tomography Angiography Computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) angiography (CTA) uses dye and special x rays ...

  6. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  7. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coronary Angiography Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test that uses dye and special ... Scan A cardiac computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scan, or cardiac CT scan , is a painless ...

  8. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors can use computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scans, or CT scans, to look for blood ... Pulmonary Angiography Pulmonary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is another test used to diagnose PE. This ...

  9. Synthesis of disperse graphene-like materials and their structural and electrochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleeva, E. A.; Tarasevich, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Graphene-like materials of oxidized graphite (OG) were obtained by boiling in ethylene glycol, microwave treatment of a suspension of OG in ethylene glycol, and microwave treatment of dry OG without using solvents. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, elemental analysis, and electrochemical measurements. Microwave treatment of dry OG gave the most disperse material (˜400 m2/g) with an oxygen content of no more than 20%. Treatment in 0.5 M H2SO4 for 50 h at 60°C in oxygen did not lead to oxidation and was accompanied by an increase in the dispersity of this material.

  10. Observation of penning ionization in Zr-Ne discharge by optogalvanic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, R.; Saini, V. K.; Shrivastava, V. K.; Nundy, U.

    2010-02-01

    The pulsed optogalvanic (OG) effect is used to observe Penning ionization in a Zr-Ne hollow-cathode discharge, which was axially irradiated by a pulsed dye laser pumped by copper vapor laser. The effect of discharge current on the temporal evolution of the OG signal is studied at 588.2, 594.5, 597.6 and 614.3 nm. The double humped temporal profile of the OG signals, corresponding to transitions of neon, and closeness of energy levels between that level of neon (Ne) and excited levels of zirconium (Zr) ions confirmed that Penning type of ionizing energy transfer collisions were taking place in the Zr-Ne discharge at lower discharge currents (≤5 mA). The disappearance of the double humped feature in the temporal profile of the OG signals indicated that the Penning contribution became negligible at higher discharge currents (≥10 mA).

  11. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  12. Technology Evaluation for an Advanced Individual Protection System (AIPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    from CO2 Using Electrolysis........................ 21 3.1.4.3 OG from Water Vapor Electrolysis (WVE).................. 22 3.1.4.4 OG from Plant/ Algae ...Dioxide Water (vapor) Electrolysis Plant/ Algae Bioregenerative Support System Respirat$ Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen Generation Oxygen$ Surrogate Lungs...bioregernerative support -’ from Plant/ Algae system to generate oxygen, supply fresh food, Growth and remove CO2. - Impractical Artificial Gills Water flowing

  13. On-The-Move Nutrient Delivery System (NDS): User Acceptability of Rotary Flow Control Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Baker-Fulco CJ. Overview of dietary intakes during military exercises. In: Not Eating Enough, edited by Marriot SM. Washington, DC: National Academy...Fat Cholesterol Sodium 440mg Potassium Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber Sugars Protein Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium lron Phosphorus 260 o Og Og Omg 18...to fucilitatc fluid and on-the-move nutrient intake . Soldier feedback (n"ඛ) was captured regarding acceplability of NDS fonn and function, and their

  14. Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs by Stephen C. Hansen Naval Postgraduate School These discussion comments reflect the private...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... contractors . Let Fseg = 1 if a company is a Federal Focus Firm. l ( SGAit ) L ( Revenueit ) og ’ =a0+a1 og ’ SGAi,t-1 Revenuei,t- 1 ( Revenue· t

  15. Evolution of NATO in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    digital-internacional. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S. Hernández, 25 Nov. 1996. Internet address: http://www.elpais.es 13 Ministerio de Defensa...Udvalg. Dansk og Europæisk Sikkerhed. Copenhagen, Det Sikkerheds- og Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg, 1995. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S

  16. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  17. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  18. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  19. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  20. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  1. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  2. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  3. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  4. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  5. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  6. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  7. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  8. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  9. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...

  10. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  11. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  12. Comparative and sociological perspectives on Third World development and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkin, Keith

    1981-12-01

    Insofar as there has been any coherent theoretical basis for orthodox comparative education during the 1970's, it has derived from American modernisation theories of the 1960's. The weak explanatory power of these theories and the inability of most Third World countries to solve their educational problems have led to a growing pessimism about educational planning and increasing attention to nonformal, lifelong and distance education programs concerned with literacy and rural development. New intellectual currents during the 1970's created several alternatives to orthodox comparative education. The most important of these, based on dependency theory, has partly reduced the ethnocentrism of comparative research, but national traditions are still strongly entrenched. Comparative education based on either modernisation or dependency theories is still ill-equipped to provide Third World countries with either an understanding of the international context of their educational problems or an appropriate set of guidelines for educational planning. Both orthodox and radical varieties of comparative education are forms of cultural imperialism, against which Third World countries need to develop their own, more appropriate, traditions of comparative research.

  13. Healthcare reforms: implications for the education and training of acute and critical care nurses

    PubMed Central

    Glen, S

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers a wide ranging analysis of the drivers that resulted in scrutiny of medical, nursing, and healthcare professional roles. It suggests that what is needed is a coherent vision of the future shape of the health workforce. This requires moving beyond the presumption that reforming working practices primarily involves "delegating doctors" responsibilities to nurses. The paper argues that it is self evident that the implications of changes in healthcare roles and the ability of existing professionals to function effectively in the future will require education, training, and human resource investment supportive of the changes. It suggests a clear definition of competence and a national standard to practice is essential for nurses working in acute and acute critical settings. There should therefore be a correlation between levels of practice, levels of education, and remuneration. Furthermore, education programmes for senior nurses should sit coherently alongside the education programmes required by Modernising Medical Careers. Finally, the realisation of the government's service and modernisation agenda will require a culture change within higher education institutions, postgraduate deaneries, professional organisations, workforce development confederations, and NHS trusts. PMID:15579609

  14. Explaining health marginalisation of the lower educated: the role of cross-national variations in health expenditure and labour market conditions.

    PubMed

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have shown ample cross-national variation in the risk that lower educated people run to be in poor health. However, explanations for this cross-national variation are still scarce. In this article we aim at filling this lacuna by investigating to what extent cross-national variation in the health gap between the lower and higher educated in Europe is explained by governmental health expenditure, namely, how much governments contribute to a country's total healthcare costs, and labour market conditions, that is, unemployment rates and modernisation of the labour market. We used information from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2008 on more than 90,000 individuals in 32 European nations, and estimated hierarchical models with cross-level interactions to test our expectations. Our results show that the relative risk of being in poor health of lower educated individuals is smaller in countries where the government spends much on healthcare and with a highly modernised labour market.

  15. Simulation of the introduction of new technologies in air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernisation of large infrastructure problems. This is especially true in the modernisation of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behaviour due to complex human/machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviours. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behaviour coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead, we introduce an alternate approach. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behaviour with relatively simple goal-directed agents. In this model, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the high-level behaviour of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method is capable of reflecting the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology. Finally, we show how these high-level simulated behaviours compare to actual deployed air traffic control mechanisms in use today.

  16. Two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki D; Ishii, Akiko; Mikami, Kaori; Katayama, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Ryoko; Minami, Syota; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Yukari

    2017-04-05

    Wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". Although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. One reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. Two strains of roof rats (Sj and Og strains) were established from wild roof rats caught in Shinjuku, Tokyo and one of the Ogasawara Islands, respectively, by a Japanese pest control company. Based on the rat caregivers' informal observations, we conducted behavioral and anatomical tests to assess the validity of Sj and Og strains for the analyses of new-object reaction. In Experiment 1, the Sj strain showed reduced food consumption compared with the Og strain when food was provided in a novel way, suggesting that the Sj strain had a stronger avoidance of novel objects compared with the Og strain. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the basolateral complex of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in experimental Sj rats had a larger percentage area compared with that of experimental Og rats, indicating these nuclei might be involved in the difference observed in avoidance of novel objects between the strains. Taken together, the present study suggests that Sj and Og strains are effective experimental animals for assessing new-object reaction.

  17. PubMed

    Pimenta, Manoela Siqueira; Lobo, Nayana Santiago Guedis; Vieira, Virna Castelo; Costa, Ângela Maria Alves da; Costa, Flávio Nogueira da; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) by in vivo investigation. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind clinical study, using a 3-day partial-mouth plaque accumulation model. The participants abolished any method of mechanical oral hygiene and they were randomly assigned to initially use just the following mouthrinses: distilled water (DW solution), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX solution) or 10% Og (Og solution). The plaque index (PLI) was recorded in all mandibular teeth at the end of the trial and the Kruskal-Wallis (α=0.05) and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05) tests were used to estimate the difference among groups. The clinical results showed statistically significant difference among the groups (p<0.05), favoring the CLX solution and Og solution, but the first was more effective (p<0.05). The mouthrinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% Og were able to inhibit plaque re-growth, however Og showed more limited results in comparison to CLX.

  18. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  19. Identification of chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic agent from Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in a biomonitoring in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; da Silva, Daniel; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Camargo, Luiza Maria de Magalhães; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2014-03-01

    Ocimum gratissimum L. is popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic activity of this medicinal species has been confirmed by in vivo studies. The present study conducted a chemical investigation of a leaf decoction (10% p/v) of O. gratissimum monitored by in vivo hypoglycemic activity assays. Four phenolic substances were identified: L-caftaric acid (1), L-chicoric acid (2), eugenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and vicenin-2 (4). The acute hypoglycemic activity of the O. gratissimum decoction fractions Og1-S (300 mg/kg), Og1-A (240 mg/kg) and Og1-B (80 mg/kg) was evaluated intraperitoneally in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. They reduced glycemia by 63%, 76% and 60% (in 120 min), respectively, in the diabetic mice. Subfractions of Og1-A were also evaluated under the same conditions: Og1-AS (200 mg/kg) and Og1-AP (40 mg/kg) produced a decrease of only 37% and 39%, respectively. Among the major phenolic substances, only chicoric acid (2; 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the glycemic levels of diabetic mice by 53%, 120 min after treatment. This is the first study describing the hypoglycemic activity of chicoric acid in an animal model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest that there may be other substances contributing to this activity. Thus, for the first time, a correlation is established between the hypoglycemic activity of O. gratissimum and its chemical composition.

  20. Oral collagen-derived dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline and hydroxyprolyl-glycine, ameliorate skin barrier dysfunction and alter gene expression profiles in the skin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Jun; Asami, Naoto; Kataoka, Aya; Sugihara, Fumihito; Inoue, Naoki; Kimira, Yoshifumi; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-09

    Oral supplementation with collagen hydrolysate (CH) has been shown to improve the condition of the skin in humans and experimental animals. Several hydroxyproline-containing oligo-peptides were previously detected in human peripheral blood after the ingestion of CH, and the two dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline (PO) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (OG), have been proposed to have beneficial effects on human health. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a HR-AD diet, which lacked magnesium and zinc, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased and water content of stratum corneum decreased. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary PO and OG on skin barrier dysfunction in HR-1 hairless mice. Mice were fed a HR-AD diet with or without PO (0.15%) and OG (0.15%) for 35 consecutive days. The administration of PO and OG significantly decreased TEWL, and significantly increased water content of stratum corneum. A DNA microarray analysis of the dorsal skin revealed differences in gene expression between the group administered PO and OG and the control group. We also identified muscle-related Gene Ontology as a result of analyzing the up-regulated genes. These results suggested that the administration of PO and OG improved skin barrier dysfunction and altered muscle-related gene expression.

  1. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  2. Single-turnover and pre-steady-state kinetics of the reaction of the adenine glycosylase MutY with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Porello, S L; Leyes, A E; David, S S

    1998-10-20

    The DNA repair enzyme MutY plays an important role in the prevention of DNA mutations resulting from the presence of the oxidatively damaged lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by the removal of misincorporated adenine residues in OG:A mispairs. MutY also exhibits adenine glycosylase activity toward adenine in G:A and C:A mismatches, although the importance of this activity in vivo has not been established. We have investigated the kinetic properties of MutY's glycosylase activity with OG:A and G:A containing DNA duplexes. Our results indicate that MutY's processing of these two substrates is distinctly different. By using single-turnover experiments, the intrinsic rate for adenine removal by MutY from an OG:A substrate was found to be at least 6-fold faster than that from the corresponding G:A substrate. However, under conditions where [MutY] < [DNA], OG:A substrates are not quantitatively converted to product due to the inefficient turnover resulting from slow product release. In contrast, with a G:A substrate MutY's dissociation from the corresponding product is more facile, such that complete conversion of the substrate to product can be achieved under similar conditions. The kinetic results illustrate that the glycosylase reaction catalyzed by MutY has significant differences depending on the characteristics of the substrate. The lingering of MutY with the product of its reaction with OG:A mispairs may be biologically significant to prevent premature removal of OG. Thus, this approach is providing insight into factors that may be influencing the repair of damaged and mismatched DNA in vivo by base-excision repair glycosylases.

  3. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products.

  4. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  5. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  6. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  7. Benchmark Theoretical and Experimental Study on (15)N NMR Shifts of Oxidatively Damaged Guanine.

    PubMed

    Dračínský, Martin; Šála, Michal; Klepetářová, Blanka; Šebera, Jakub; Fukal, Jiří; Holečková, Veronika; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nencka, Radim; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2016-02-11

    The (15)N NMR shifts of 9-ethyl-8-oxoguanine (OG) were calculated and measured in liquid DMSO and in crystal. The OG molecule is a model for oxidatively damaged 2'-deoxyguanosine that occurs owing to oxidative stress in cell. The DNA lesion is repaired with human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) base-excision repair enzyme, however, the exact mechanism of excision of damaged nucleobase with hOGG1 is currently unknown. This benchmark study on (15)N NMR shifts of OG aims their accurate structural interpretation and calibration of the calculation protocol utilizable in future studies on mechanism of hOGG1 enzyme. The effects of NMR reference, DFT functional, basis set, solvent, structure, and dynamics on calculated (15)N NMR shifts were first evaluated for OG in crystal to calibrate the best performing calculation method. The effect of large-amplitude motions on (15)N NMR shifts of OG in liquid was calculated employing molecular dynamics. The B3LYP method with Iglo-III basis used for B3LYP optimized geometry with 6-311++G(d,p) basis and including effects of solvent and molecular dynamic was the calculation protocol used for calculation of (15)N NMR shifts of OG. The NMR shift of N9 nitrogen of OG was particularly studied because the atom is involved in an N-glycosidic bond that is cleaved with hOGG1. The change of N9 NMR shift owing to oxidation of 9-ethylguanine (G) measured in liquid was -27.1 ppm. The calculated N9 NMR shift of OG deviated from experiment in crystal and in liquid by 0.45 and 0.65 ppm, respectively. The calculated change of N9 NMR shift owing to notable N9-pyramidalization of OG in one previously found polymorph was 20.53 ppm. We therefore assume that the pyramidal geometry of N9 nitrogen that could occur for damaged DNA within hOGG1 catalytic site might be detectable with (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The calculation protocol can be used for accurate structural interpretation of (15)N NMR shifts of oxidatively damaged guanine DNA residue.

  8. Structural context effects in the oxidation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine to hydantoin products: electrostatics, base stacking, and base pairing.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Aaron M; Muller, James G; Dlouhy, Adrienne C; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2012-09-12

    8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) is the most common base damage found in cells, where it resides in many structural contexts, including the nucleotide pool, single-stranded DNA at transcription forks and replication bubbles, and duplex DNA base-paired with either adenine (A) or cytosine (C). OG is prone to further oxidation to the highly mutagenic hydantoin products spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in a sharply pH-dependent fashion within nucleosides. In the present work, studies were conducted to determine how the structural context affects OG oxidation to the hydantoins. These studies revealed a trend in which the Sp yield was greatest in unencumbered contexts, such as nucleosides, while the Gh yield increased in oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) contexts or at reduced pH. Oxidation of oligomers containing hydrogen-bond modulators (2,6-diaminopurine, N(4)-ethylcytidine) or alteration of the reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and salt) identify base stacking, electrostatics, and base pairing as the drivers of the key intermediate 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (5-HO-OG) partitioning along the two hydantoin pathways, allowing us to propose a mechanism for the observed base-pairing effects. Moreover, these structural effects cause an increase in the effective pK(a) of 5-HO-OG, following an increasing trend from 5.7 in nucleosides to 7.7 in a duplex bearing an OG·C base pair, which supports the context-dependent product yields. The high yield of Gh in ODNs underscores the importance of further study on this lesion. The structural context of OG also determined its relative reactivity toward oxidation, for which the OG·A base pair is ~2.5-fold more reactive than an OG·C base pair, and with the weak one-electron oxidant ferricyanide, the OG nucleoside reactivity is >6000-fold greater than that of OG·C in a duplex, leading to the conclusion that OG in the nucleoside pool should act as a protective agent for OG in the genome.

  9. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  10. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Islam

    2017-01-01

    Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. PMID:28299204

  11. Obstetricians/Gynecologists' Problems in Sickness Certification Consultations: Two Nationwide Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hinas, Elin; Ljungquist, Therese; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore experiences by physicians working in obstetrics, gynecology, or maternal healthcare (O/Gs) of problems in sickness certification consultations and differences between two years. Material and Methods. Answers by O/Gs to two Swedish nationwide surveys, in 2008 (n = 1037) and 2012 (n = 992), were analyzed for frequencies and severity of problems and organizational support in sickness certification consultations. Results. One-third of O/Gs found sickness certifications problematic every week. The most frequent problem was patients requesting sick notes for reasons other than work incapacity due to disease/injury (2008: 21%; 2012: 16%). The most problematic were assessing work capacity (2008 and 2012: 52%) and having different opinion from that of the patient about need for sick leave (2008: 51%; 2012: 46%). In 2012, 27% used the national sickness certification guidelines weekly, compared to 9% in 2008. A larger proportion in 2012 than 2008 reported that the guidelines facilitated contacts with patients and different stakeholders. Conclusions. Although O/Gs perceived sickness certification as problematic, there was less perceived severity of problems in 2012 compared to 2008, possibly because interventions regarding sickness certification have been introduced in Sweden recent years. Still, more organizational support, for example, time and supervision, are needed to enhance O/Gs' sickness certification practices. PMID:27980537

  12. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  13. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection.

  14. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  15. Oxidative DNA damage is epigenetic by regulating gene transcription via base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Aaron M.; Ding, Yun; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important cellular-signaling agents for cellular survival. Herein, we demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidation of DNA to yield 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in gene promoters is a signaling agent for gene activation. Enhanced gene expression occurs when OG is formed in guanine-rich, potential G-quadruplex–forming sequences (PQS) in promoter-coding strands, initiating base excision repair (BER) by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), yielding an abasic site (AP). The AP enables melting of the duplex to unmask the PQS, adopting a G-quadruplex fold in which apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) binds, but inefficiently cleaves, the AP for activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or endonuclease III-like protein 1 (NTHL1) genes. These details were mapped via synthesis of OG and AP analogs at single-nucleotide precision within the promoter of a luciferase reporter system. The reporters were analyzed in human and mouse cells while selectively knocking out or down critical BER proteins to identify the impact on luciferase expression. Identification of the oxidatively modified DNA base OG to guide BER activity in a gene promoter and impact cellular phenotype ascribes an epigenetic role to OG. PMID:28143930

  16. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Pauly, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  17. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  18. Characterization of the effects of an rpoC mutation that confers resistance to the Fst peptide toxin-antitoxin system toxin.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Cassandra L; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J; Weaver, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β' subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters.

  19. Sorbitan ester organogels for transdermal delivery of sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Kamal K; Tiwari, Chandraprabha; Khopade, Ajay J; Bohidar, Himadri B; Jain, Sanjay K

    2007-06-01

    The partial phase behavior, rheological, and drug release characteristics of an organogel (OG) composed of water, isooctane and sorbitan esters, sorbitan monopalmitate (Span-40) and poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monostearate (Polysorbate-60) were studied. Phase diagrams showed decreasing areas of optically isotropic organogel region depending on the surfactant ratio, Kw and drug incorporation. The nonbirefringent, clear isotropic solution suggested the reverse micellar/microemulsion nature of the organogel without any molecular ordering. The increase in drug concentration in OGs leads to increase in the viscosity and sol-gel transition temperature (Tg). Fractal dimension (df) values calculated for different compositions suggested that the density of the tubular network increases with increasing drug concentration in OGs. The release rate of the drug from OGs was found to be non-Fickian through the dialysis membrane. The permeation rate of sumatriptan from pig skin was 0.231 mg/h/cm2 (781.9 nmol/h/cm2). The study indicates potential of OG as a reservoir system for transdermal drug delivery.

  20. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  1. Catalytic contributions of key residues in the adenine glycosylase MutY revealed by pH dependent kinetics and cellular repair assays

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer, Megan K.; Pope, Mary Ann Miles; David, Sheila S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary MutY enzymes prevent mutations in DNA associated with 8-oxoguanine (OG) by catalyzing the removal of adenines opposite OG. pH dependence analyses of the adenine glycosylase activity establish that Asp 138 of MutY must be deprotonated for maximal catalytic activity consistent with the role of this residue in stabilizing the oxacarbenium ion transition state in an SN1 mechanism. Use of a cellular OG:A repair assay allowed further validation of the critical role of Asp 138. Conservative substitutions of the catalytic residues Asp 138 and Glu 37 resulted in enzymes with a range of activity that were used to correlate the efficiency of adenine excision with overall OG:A repair and suppression of DNA mutations in vivo. The results indicate that MutY variations that reduce glycosylase activity as a consequence of reduced mismatch affinity result in more dramatic reductions in cellular OG:A repair than those that only compromise adenine excision catalysis. PMID:22365610

  2. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  3. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R.; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T.

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) – overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses. PMID:28066496

  4. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  5. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses.

    PubMed

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) - overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses.

  6. Découverte de l'Éocène continental autour de l'archipel de Kasserine, aux Jebels Rhéouis, Boudinar et Chamsi en Tunisie centro-méridionale : nouvelles implications paléogéographiquesEocene continental facies discovery around the Kasserine archipelago in Rheouis, Boudinar and Chamsi Jebels in the central-meridional Tunisia: new palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamoussi, Fakher; Abbès, Chedly; Fakhfakh, Emna; Bédir, Mourad; Kharbachi, Samir; Soussi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad; López-Galindo, Alberto

    2001-09-01

    The Rhéouis and Boudinar Eocene outcrops located along the Tunisian 'north-south axis' show continental deposits similar to those already described in the west-central and meridional Atlas in the Jebel Chaambi and Chebket Bouloufa. The field investigations of these levels conduct to the discovery of Bulimes' terrestrial Gastropods known in the Mediterranean domain. The presence of palygorskite in the clay minerals confirms the emerged tendency of these deposits. The continental palaeogeography might have been induced by the Triassic halokinetic movements along the Atlasic anticlines.

  7. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  8. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  9. Attracting and retaining nurses in primary care.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari; Andrews, Sarah; Sidhu, Rajinder; Peacock, Richard

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing demand for nurses to work in primary care. This is driven in part by the need to retain current levels but also by the modernisation plans for primary care services, which require new roles for nurses, new ways of working and more nurses in primary care settings. While campaigns for increased recruitment of hospital nurses and doctors has been largely successful in recent years, primary care has still to see the impact. This article reports on a Department of Health (England) funded project that aimed to identify strategies and exemplars to assist primary care trusts (PCTs) and the workforce development confederations (WDCs) in strategic health authorities in attracting and retaining nurses to primary care at registered nurse level. It reports on the range of initiatives identified, the perceived benefits and challenges. It concludes by proposing a strategic model for planning for the recruitment and retention of primary care nurses.

  10. The evolution of teaching and learning medical microbiology and infectious diseases at NUS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M B; Chow, V T K

    2005-07-01

    Infectious diseases were rife during the early years of the Singapore Medical College, which was established in 1905. The current Department of Microbiology in the National University of Singapore (NUS) has its historical roots in the Departments of Bacteriology and Parasitology, which were established in 1925 and 1950 respectively. With the achievements since its inception, and with its present research focus on Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, it is poised to face the microbiological challenges of the 21st century. Over the decades, the structure of the medical microbiology course in NUS has modernised, culminating in the current emphasis on its practical utility in clinical practice. Coordinated by the Department of Microbiology, the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases module and the Immunology module both adopt integrated multidisciplinary approaches that aim to introduce students to the language and fundamental concepts in microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology.

  11. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sue

    2008-12-01

    The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions.

  12. `Science to the Glory of God'. The Popular Science Magazine Ibérica and its Coverage of Radioactivity, 1914-1936

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herran, Néstor

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a first approach to the history of Ibérica, one of the most important popular science magazines published in Spain before the Civil War. Founded in 1914 by members of the Society of Jesus based at the Ebro Observatory, Ibérica reached a weekly circulation of about 10,000 in the mid 1920s, and was instrumental in extending science education in Jesuit education facilities and in developing a "reactionary modernist" culture that embraced Catholicism and modernisation. By focusing on its coverage of radioactivity and the radium industry, the article aims to examine the magazine's popularising style and ideology, and to determine its role in the debates regarding the cultural value of science in the first decades of twentieth century Spain.

  13. "We make a big effort to bring out the ladies": visual representations of women in the modern American stadium.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    Modern stadiums were constructed across the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, usually to replace old baseball parks that were run-down, inaccessible by automobile, and located near African American neighbourhoods. Sports promoters coveted affluent, white, consumption-oriented customers who had recently moved to the suburbs. To attract these customers, promoters attempted to imaginatively reconstitute stadium space - from urban, old, dirty, rambunctious, masculine places to suburban, new, clean, orderly, female-friendly spaces. The attraction of women - as signifiers of an affluent and domesticated postwar social order - was central to this strategy. Visual representations of women in new stadium spaces were essential to the imaginative reconfiguration and modernisation of stadium space. This essay examines their use, particularly in the Houston Astrodome. Stadium publications and local newspapers used photographs and illustrations of women to conceptually reinvent the stadium, extending a distinctively post-war, modern ideology privileging comfort, consumption and respectable behaviour into stadium space.

  14. Leadership scheme targets new nurse and midwifery graduates.

    PubMed

    Rae, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The Modernising Nursing Careers initiative offers development opportunities to recently registered nurses and midwives. The initiative has included a pilot for early clinical career fellowships, which has been running since 2007. Lessons from the pilot and from a national evaluation have led to an enhanced model of leadership development. The fellowship scheme has a rigorous selection process, an effective support infrastructure and requires candidates to study for a clinically relevant master's degree. Indicators from the pilot suggest fellows are appointed to higher grade posts early in their careers, suggesting that investing in nurses and midwives near the start of their working lives can bring forth a new generation of clinical leaders. A follow-up longitudinal study will use pilot findings to inform developments.

  15. Quality reforms in Danish home care - balancing between standardisation and individualisation.

    PubMed

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-05-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed a strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s. This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation programme of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management principles, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around the conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision. This approach has succeeded in increasing the political and administrative control over home help at the expense of the control by users, care workers and case managers.

  16. Adolescent-parent conflict in the age of social media: Case reports from India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchita; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Anoop Krishna; Sen, Mahadev Singh

    2016-10-01

    Social media activities have gained popularity amongst children and adolescents as a means of communication; giving them the opportunity for independence and social development as well as rendering them vulnerable to negative influences. In traditionally collectivistic societies like India, moving rapidly towards modernisation, not only is there a divide between parents and adolescents over the endorsement of these sites, but also regarding value systems related to autonomy and dating that are facilitated by such activities. We present cases of two adolescent girls to highlight adolescent parent conflict that arises in the age of social media in a cultural context. Further, the cases underscore that value systems and culture play an important role in resolution of such conflict.

  17. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  18. Meeting the non-clinical education and training needs of new consultants.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R; Gallen, D; Whiteman, S

    2005-08-01

    This review highlights the non-clinical training needs of new consultants, identifying strategies for meeting these needs. Non-clinical activities are integral to the consultant's role and senior clinicians need training in these areas. Concerns over the quantity and quality of current provision are compounded by changes the European Working Time Directive and Modernising Medical Careers initiative will bring. Accelerated progression to senior level and reduction in time for training suggest a pressing need to respond to the needs of new consultants. Ad hoc initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts offer examples of how training needs may be met, including mentoring and continuing professional development schemes. A multi-professional strategy, incorporating elements of higher professional education in general practice and other NHS initiatives (particularly management/leadership training), may offer an appropriate framework within which to capitalise on existing opportunities. There are, however, resource implications that need to be addressed.

  19. Worldwide epidemiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, T B

    1994-01-01

    Average body mass index values and prevalence data for overweight show complex patterns varying with sex, age, socioeconomic circumstances, race, geography, and over time. Differences in the predominant lifestyles and developmental status of nations and regions also influence weight patterns. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity in developed countries vary depending on the definitions used. For example, one recent survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity in the US is 15%, while another survey has found it to be 26%. It appears that overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent worldwide, not only in developed nations, but also in the populations of developing countries, possibly as a result of urbanisation, migration, new eating habits and recent affluence. Since modernisation appears to be an inevitable process throughout the world, there is every reason to expect that the epidemic of overweight and obesity will extend globally in the future.

  20. Can 'distant water … quench the instant thirst'? The renegotiation of familial support in rural China in the face of extensive out migration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joanne; Liu, Jieyu

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses debates on modernisation, ageing and intergenerational support in developing/emerging economies. By examining the impact of rural to urban migration on elder support in Chinese rural families, it examines how support is being renegotiated and the implications this holds for experiences of growing older. It is positioned critically within the Chinese rural families literature, both drawing on research that reveals the continued influence of familial culture (Silverstein 2009; Lin and Yi 2011, 2013; Guo, Chi and Silverstein 2011) while arguing that this research has under-examined the strain this places on rural families, emerging conflicts and the potentially negative implications for gender and ageing. A gendered intergenerational lens is adopted to examine how generations experience and interpret these changes in the form and delivery of intergenerational support. The article focuses on the experiences and lives of the older parents, and older women in particular, to address some of the oversights in existing literature.

  1. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  2. Meeting the non-clinical education and training needs of new consultants

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Gallen, D; Whiteman, S

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights the non-clinical training needs of new consultants, identifying strategies for meeting these needs. Non-clinical activities are integral to the consultant's role and senior clinicians need training in these areas. Concerns over the quantity and quality of current provision are compounded by changes the European Working Time Directive and Modernising Medical Careers initiative will bring. Accelerated progression to senior level and reduction in time for training suggest a pressing need to respond to the needs of new consultants. Ad hoc initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts offer examples of how training needs may be met, including mentoring and continuing professional development schemes. A multi-professional strategy, incorporating elements of higher professional education in general practice and other NHS initiatives (particularly management/leadership training), may offer an appropriate framework within which to capitalise on existing opportunities. There are, however, resource implications that need to be addressed. PMID:16085744

  3. Sustainability, Social Learning and the Democratic Imperative: Lessons from the Australian Landcare Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhill, Jim

    Drawing on the experience of community based land conservation in Australia, this chapter examines the deeper structural and institutional causes of the unsustainability of modern industrialised society. Social learning is presented as a potential paradigm for engaging with these broader institutional dilemmas. Such a perspective locates the concept of social learning at the heart of current debates about the tensions between sustainable development, democracy and free market ideology. The chapter introduces the themes of risk society and reflexive modernisation as a perspective that can help explain why modern institutions are structurally biased against the ideals of sustainable development. This provides a brief political economic context for then outlining a perspective on social learning that gives particular attention to questions of how to facilitate the design of institutions more supportive of sustainable development.

  4. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  5. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  6. Implementation team activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, F.

    2002-12-01

    The implementation Team (IT) is a body reporting to the SCSB,. It has been assigned the task of preparing and harmonising policy, standards and specification proposals for evaluation, qualification and quality control, thus enabling a coherent and cost-effective ESCC Specification System for the procurement of EEE space components. Among the 10 recommendations issued by the SCAHC, 7 have been studied under the auspices of the Implementation Team. Its main activities have been the updating and modernising of the ESA/SCC system in order to meet user needs and to be compatible with market trends. In particular it updated the technical aspects of generic specifications for the different component families and introduced the QML concept into the SCC system. It has also studied and discussed other topics such as procurement standards, a reliability system, mutual recognition, databases and the preferred parts list. A summary of the progress made in all these fields will be presented below.

  7. Focus awards 2002.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi

    2003-03-22

    The dental team at Zetland House Clinic are a particularly innovative group. As a result of their parent hospital being the first to complete a whole organization clinical governance programme run by the NHS Modernization Agency, they were consequently the first dental team to do so. Now the clinic is a better place to work where the staff are proud of their clinic and the work that they do. The changes that resulted through their experiences of the program have benefited the patients and staff alike, and was such a success story that they have been taken as an example for the Modernisation Agency website to illustrate good practice in clinical governance. These changes and the way they approached their involvement in the program also earned the Zetland House team a place on the finalist list of the 2002 Focus Awards.

  8. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s.

  9. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  10. ROOT6: a Quest for Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piparo, Danilo

    2015-12-01

    The sixth release cycle of ROOT is characterised by a radical modernisation in the core software technologies the too kit relies on: language standard, interpreter, hardware exploitation mechanisms. If on the one hand, the change offered the opportunity of consolidating the existing code base, in presence of such innovations, maintaining the balance between full backward compatibility and software performance was not easy. In this contribution we review the challenges and the solutions identified and implemented in the area of CPU and memory consumption as well as I/O capabilities in terms of patterns. Moreover, we present some of the new ROOT components which are offered to the users to improve the performance of third party applications.

  11. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  12. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  13. Decolorization of an azo dye Orange G in microbial fuel cells using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Da-Wei; Ruan, Min; Li, Xiang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    This study constructed a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate as the cathode solutions to decolorize Orange G (OG) and harvest electricity simultaneously. Chelated Fe(2+) could activate persulfate to generate sulfate free radicals (SO(4)(-)) which with high oxidation potential (E(0)=2.6 V) can degrade azo dyes. The influence of some important factors such as pH value of cathode solutions, dosages of K(2)S(2)O(8), Fe(2+) and EDTA were investigated in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell. Under an optimal condition, the maximum power density achieved 91.1 mW m(-2), the OG removal rate was 97.4% and the K(2)S(2)O(8) remaining rate was 47.3% after 12 h. The OG degradation by Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate was found to follow the second-order kinetic model.

  14. Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

    2006-02-01

    One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  15. Positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian and ABJM amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-09-01

    A novel understanding of scattering amplitudes in terms of on-shell diagrams and positive Grassmannian has been recently established for four dimensional Yang-Mills theories and three dimensional Chern-Simons theories of ABJM type. We give a detailed construction of the positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian relevant for ABJM amplitudes. On-shell diagrams are classified by pairing of external particles. We introduce a combinatorial aid called `OG tableaux' and map each equivalence class of on-shell diagrams to a unique tableau. The on-shell diagrams related to each other through BCFW bridging are naturally grouped by the OG tableaux. Introducing suitably ordered BCFW bridges and positive coordinates, we construct the complete coordinate charts to cover the entire positive orthogonal Grassmannian for arbitrary number of external particles. The graded counting of OG tableaux suggests that the positive orthogonal Grassmannian constitutes a combinatorial polytope.

  16. Orbital glass and spin glass states of 3He-A in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Volovik, G. E.; Yudin, A. N.

    2010-06-01

    Glass states of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in aerogel induced by random orientations of aerogel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. In anisotropic aerogel with stretching deformation two glass phases are observed. Both phases represent the anisotropic glass of the orbital ferromagnetic vector Ηthe orbital glass (OG). The phases differ by the spin structure: the spin nematic vector hat d can be either in the ordered spin nematic (SN) state or in the disordered spin-glass (SG) state. The first phase (OG-SN) is formed under conventional cooling from normal 3He. The second phase (OG-SG) is metastable, being obtained by cooling through the superfluid transition temperature, when large enough resonant continuous radio-frequency excitation is applied. NMR signature of different phases allows us to measure the parameter of the global anisotropy of the orbital glass induced by deformation.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  18. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors.

  19. Structure-Guided Reprogramming of a Hydroxylase To Halogenate Its Small Molecule Substrate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Bergman, Jonathan A; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Wei-Chen; Liu, Xinyu; Boal, Amie K

    2017-01-24

    Enzymatic installation of chlorine/bromine into unactivated carbon centers provides a versatile, selective, and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical halogenation. Iron(II) and 2-(oxo)-glutarate (Fe(II)/2OG)-dependent halogenases are powerful biocatalysts that are capable of cleaving aliphatic C-H bonds to introduce useful functional groups, including halogens. Using the structure of the Fe/2OG halogenase, WelO5, in complex with its small molecule substrate, we identified a similar N-acyl amino acid hydroxylase, SadA, and reprogrammed it to halogenate its substrate, thereby generating a new chiral haloalkyl center. The work highlights the potential of Fe(II)/2OG enzymes as platforms for development of novel stereospecific catalysts for late-stage C-H functionalization.

  20. A Bombyx mandarina mutant exhibiting translucent larval skin is controlled by the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Ozaki, Masataka; Masamoto, Takaaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Abe, Hiroaki; Shimada, Toru

    2009-04-01

    During the maintenance of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, a mutant phenotype exhibiting translucent skin was identified. Based on the crossing experiments with the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, we found that the mutant was controlled by molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MoCoS) gene. We designated the mutant ''Ozaki's translucent'' (og(Z)). We found a 2.1-kb deletion containing the transcription initiation site, exons 1 and 2, and the 5' end of exon 3 of the MoCoS gene. The transcript of the MoCoS gene was not detected in the og(Z) homozygote. We concluded that og(Z) is a complete loss-of-function allele generated by a disruption of the MoCoS gene.

  1. New Tables For IABG's 320kN Shaker System: Design And Procurement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartl, Ralf

    2012-07-01

    For more than 25 years IABG is operating its 320kN vibration system in testing of space and non-space applications. The vibration system is a multi shaker system, using four electrodynamic shakers, driving a 3x3m2 head expander and a 3x3m2 slip table. During the recent years a modernisation program of the shaker system has been implemented. The purpose of this program was to exchange system components, which have reached their expected duration of life, as well as to exchange components which did no longer fulfil the state-of-the-art requirements in testing and thus to adapt the vibration system to future challenges. Two major components of the shaker system, which have been covered during the modernisation program, are the shaker tables (the head expander and the slip table). Being the direct interface of a vibration test facility to a specimen, the shaker tables are crucial regarding the shaker system overall performance. And this fact applies even more for shaker systems with large tables, because there are no off-the-shelf solutions in this area. During the recent 5 years IABG specified, designed and procured a new head expander and a new slip table for the 320kN shaker system. This paper describes the overall process investigating on the following listed aspects: - general requirements for the tables - definition of boundary conditions and guidance principles - specific areas of interest - definition of the table material and the manufacturing method - design solutions - challenges during manufacturing - results - table properties

  2. Implementing the NHS information technology programme: qualitative study of progress in acute trusts

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Naomi; Reeves, Barnaby C; Hutchings, Andrew; Collin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe progress and perceived challenges in implementing the NHS information and technology (IT) programme in England. Design Case studies and in-depth interviews, with themes identified using a framework developed from grounded theory. We interviewed personnel who had been interviewed 18 months earlier, or new personnel in the same posts. Setting Four NHS acute hospital trusts in England. Participants Senior trust managers and clinicians, including chief executives, directors of IT, medical directors, and directors of nursing. Results Interviewees unreservedly supported the goals of the programme but had several serious concerns. As before, implementation is hampered by local financial deficits, delays in implementing patient administration systems that are compliant with the programme, and poor communication between Connecting for Health (the agency responsible for the programme) and local managers. New issues were raised. Local managers cannot prioritise implementing the programme because of competing financial priorities and uncertainties about the programme. They perceive a growing risk to patients' safety associated with delays and a loss of integration of components of the programme, and are discontented with Choose and Book (electronic booking for referrals from primary care). Conclusions We recommend that the programme sets realistic timetables for individual trusts and advises managers about interim IT systems they have to purchase because of delays outside their control. Advice needs to be mindful of the need for trusts to ensure longer term compatibility with the programme and value for money. Trusts need assistance in prioritising modernisation of IT by, for example, including implementation of the programme in the performance management framework. Even with Connecting for Health adopting a different approach of setting central standards with local implementation, these issues will still need to be addressed. Lessons learnt in the NHS

  3. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  4. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  5. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

  6. Cancer-associated variants and a common polymorphism of MUTYH exhibit reduced repair of oxidative DNA damage using a GFP-based assay in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raetz, Alan G; Xie, Yali; Kundu, Sucharita; Brinkmeyer, Megan K; Chang, Cindy; David, Sheila S

    2012-11-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair enzyme gene MUTYH lead to multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis. MUTYH removes adenine misincorporated opposite the DNA oxidation product, 8-oxoguanine (OG), thereby preventing accumulation of G:C to T:A transversion mutations. The most common cancer-associated MUTYH variant proteins when expressed in bacteria exhibit reduced OG:A mismatch affinity and adenine removal activity. However, direct evaluation of OG:A mismatch repair efficiency in mammalian cells has not been assessed due to the lack of an appropriate assay. To address this, we developed a novel fluorescence-based assay of OG:A repair and measured the repair capacity of MUTYH-associated polyposis variants expressed in Mutyh-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The repair of a single site-specific synthetic lesion in a green fluorescent protein reporter leads to green fluorescent protein expression with co-expression of a red fluorescent protein serving as the transfection control. Cell lines that stably express the MUTYH-associated polyposis variants G382D and Y165C have significantly lower OG:A repair versus wild-type MEFs and MEFs expressing human wild-type MUTYH. The MUTYH allele that encodes the Q324H variant is found at a frequency above 40% in samples from different ethnic groups and has long been considered phenotypically silent but has recently been associated with increased cancer risk in several clinical studies. In vitro analysis of Q324H MUTYH expressed in insect cells showed that it has reduced enzyme activity similar to that of the known cancer variant G382D. Moreover, we find that OG:A repair in MEFs expressing Q324H was significantly lower than wild-type controls, establishing that Q324H is functionally impaired and providing further evidence that this common variant may lead to increased cancer risk.

  7. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  8. D-2-hydroxyglutarate metabolism is linked to photorespiration in the shm1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Engqvist, M K M; Jansen, E E W; Weber, A P M; Jakobs, C; Maurino, V G

    2013-07-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant shm1-1 is defective in mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 activity and displays a lethal photorespiratory phenotype at ambient CO2 concentration but grows normally at high CO2 . After transferring high CO2 -grown shm1-1 plants to ambient CO2 , the younger leaves remain photosynthetically active while developed leaves display increased yellowing and decreased FV /FM values. Metabolite analysis of plants transferred from high CO2 to ambient air indicates a massive light-dependent (photorespiratory) accumulation of glycine, 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Amino acid markers of senescence accumulated in ambient air in wild-type and shm1-1 plants maintained in darkness and also build up in shm1-1 in the light. This, together with an enhanced transcription of the senescence marker SAG12 in shm1-1, suggests the initiation of senescence in shm1-1 under photorespiratory conditions. Mitochondrial D-2HG dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) converts D-2HG into 2OG. In vitro studies indicate that 2OG exerts competitive inhibition on D-2HGDH with a Ki of 1.96 mm. 2OG is therefore a suitable candidate as inhibitor of the in vivo D-2HGDH activity, as 2OG is produced and accumulates in mitochondria. Inhibition of the D-2HGDH by 2OG is likely a mechanism by which D-2HG accumulates in shm1-1, however it cannot be ruled out that D-2HG may also accumulate due to an active senescence programme that is initiated in these plants after transfer to photorespiratory conditions. Thus, a novel interaction of the photorespiratory pathway with cellular processes involving D-2HG has been identified.

  9. Effects of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage of resin-modified glass ilonomer cement restorations.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, W Y; Yeo, Egwin J C; Tan, Jane W S; Ong, Debbie S B

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of finishing/polishing techniques on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with eight-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finishing/polishing was done with one of the following systems: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. After finishing/polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for one week. The root apices were then sealed with acrylic and two coats of varnish was applied 1 mm beyond the restoration margins. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fuchsin), sectioned and scored. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Enamel margins: PF-OGOGOG & CSOG. FT restorations had significantly less enamel and dentin leakage than PF restorations when treated with OG. The effect of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage was both tissue and material dependent.

  10. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SS<OG & SSOG; Photac-Fil: RaV- SS, CS<OG; RaH-SSOG & CSOG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  11. A novel magnetic nanoscaled Fe3O4/CeO2 composite prepared by oxidation-precipitation process and its application for degradation of orange G in aqueous solution as Fenton-like heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gan, Guoqiang; Liu, Juan; Zhu, Zhixi; Yang, Ziran; Zhang, Conglu; Hou, Xiaohong

    2017-02-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Fe3O4/CeO2 were firstly synthesized using three different preparation methods, including coprecipitation, impregnation oxidation-precipitation and impregnation reduction-precipitation, respectively. The catalytic activities of Fe3O4/CeO2 MNPs, prepared by above three methods, were compared systematically in terms of the degradation of orange G (OG). The impregnation oxidation-precipitation process was economical and maneuverable due to the usage of air, no need of nitrogen protection and higher utilization efficiency of iron. Response surface methodology based on central composite design were used to investigate the individual and interactive effects of three process parameters on the OG degradation, i.e. the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of H2O2 and the initial concentration of OG. Under the optimal conditions of pH 2.5, H2O2 30 mM, OG 50 mg L(-1), catalyst 2.0 g L(-1) and 35 °C, the degradation percentage of OG was 98.2% within 120 min, which agreed well with the modeling prediction (R(2) = 0.9984, and Adj-R(2) = 0.9969). And the degradation reaction well followed the first-order kinetic with R(2) = 0.9969. The Fe3O4/CeO2-OX MNPs showed high catalytic activity, stability and reusability in the degradation of OG.

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Xu; Fang Guanwen; Wang Min; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2009-09-10

    We present a study of the classification of z {approx} 1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes {approx}5300 EROs with i - K{sub s} {>=} 2.45 (AB, equivalently I - K{sub s} = 4 in Vega) and K{sub s} {<=} 21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer IRAC [3.6] - [8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48% of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52% of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology parameters and SEDs are efficient in segregating OGs and DGs. The [3.6] - [8.0] color, which depends on reddening, redshift, and photometric accuracy, is difficult to separate EROs around the discriminating line between starburst and elliptical. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important at fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. The clustering of the entire EROs, DGs, and OGs was estimated by calculating their correlation function, and we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of {approx}2 larger than that of DGs.

  13. Absolute Doppler shift calibration of laser induced fluorescence signals using optogalvanic measurements in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of optogalvanic (OG) measurements on the neutral 3P1 and 3P2 levels of argon in a hollow cathode lamp for the purpose of calibrating Doppler shifts of laser-induced fluorescence signals from an arcjet plume. It is shown that, even with non-Doppler-free OG detection, accuracy to better than 10 MHz is possible but that, depending on the experiment geometry, corrections of 10-35 MHz may be necessary to offset small axial drift velocities of neutral atoms in the hollow cathode lamp.

  14. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  15. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  16. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  17. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  18. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  19. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  20. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  1. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  2. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  4. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  5. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  8. Single-protein study of photoresistance of pigment-protein complex in lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Daisuke; Hoshino, Hajime; Otomo, Kohei; Kato, Taro; Onda, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Akira; Oikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Matsushita, Michio; Nango, Mamoru; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa

    2011-07-01

    Photoresistance of a pigment-binding membrane protein, light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, was investigated by fluorescence of single LH2 complexes at a temperature of 296 K. Before irreversibly stopping fluorescence, a single LH2 complex in phospholipid bilayer of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) emitted on average 4 times more fluorescence photons than a complex in detergent micelle of octylglucopyranoside (OG). Fluorescence-excitation spectrum of single LH2 complexes taken at 5 K showed that the LH2 complex is structurally less perturbed in DMPC bilayer than in OG micelle, suggesting that structural instability reduces photoresistance of LH2.

  9. 40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cleaning Subcategory § 420.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G 0.0313 0.0104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...) of products TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0....

  10. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  11. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  13. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coliform ( 2 ) ( 3 ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  14. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  15. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coliform ( 2 ) ( 3 ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  16. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coliform ( 2 ) ( 3 ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  17. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  18. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  19. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  20. “Fast-track” and “Minimally Invasive” Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hua-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries. However, little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone. Methods: We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups: open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group, n = 167); OG with FT programs (OG + FT group, n = 277); laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group, n = 248); and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group, n = 292). Patients’ data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Results: The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean: 12.3 days, median: 11 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 6–16 days), while OG + FT, LG + FT, and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean: 7.4, 6.4, and 6.6 days, median: 6, 6, and 6 days, IQR: 3–9, 4–8, and 3–9 days, respectively, all P < 0.001). The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9, 3.1 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.9, and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner. After 30 postoperative days’ follow-up, the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group, 10.1% in OG + FT group, 8.1% in LG + FT group, and 10.3% in RG + FT group. The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: ERAS protocols

  1. The effects of CO2 injection on Geochemistry and Aquifer properties investigated at a hypothetical storage site in the north German basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graupner, B. J.; Li, D.; Benisch, K.; Mitiku, A. B.; Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is one of the major options for carbon dioxide sequestration. With the injection of CO2 in the underground a CO2 phase will migrate through the target reservoir controlled by the pressure gradient and buoyancy. Over the time CO2 dissolves in water and stimulates geochemical reactions like mineral dissolution due to the acidic conditions that might be followed by mineral precipitation again. Mineral dissolution and precipitation affects the porosity and permeability and thus feeds back on multiphase flow. To evaluate the behaviour of the storage system the coupled simulator OGS-Eclipse-ChemApp was developed, which provides the coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport simulation under conditions typical for CO2 injection. The open-source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) was used in this investigation to simulate CO2 injection into a saline formation. To represent the hydraulic and geochemical alteration during CO2 sequestration under reservoir conditions, OGS was coupled to the widely used multiphase flow simulator ECLIPSE for modelling multiphase flow. Geochemical reactions are considered with an already existing interface between OGS and PhreeqC. Furthermore changes in porosity and permeability were considered. ECLIPSE and OGS are coupled using an operator splitting approach. Results of the multiphase flow simulation are passed for each time step from ECLIPSE to OGS where transport of dissolved species is calculated. Transport of components can be considered with OGS in the CO2 as well as in the water phase. Transport in the water phase is of major interest for reactive transport simulations. Subsequently, equilibrium geochemical reactions at each node of the OGS FEM model grid can be calculated using ChemApp. Changes in the brine concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon due to chemical reactions are transferred back to the multiphase flow simulator, which calculates the new phase equilibrium in the next time

  2. An Investigation of the Squadron Air Combat Training System (HAVE ACME)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    flight) ALOAD Trajectory/Maneuver Gs (Og for straight and level flight) AOA Angle of attack in degrees PITCH Elevation angle of the aircraft longitudinal axis...in degrees YAW Azimuth angle between the aircraft longitudinal axis and North in degrees ROLL Roll angle of transverse/wing axis about

  3. Sputtered Thin Film Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    percent HF, and boiling aqua - regia , did not result in any significant etching of the HfOg. Aqueous solutions of K0H and NaOH had no appreciable effect...horn Report) IB. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS rContfnue on reverse elde II neceeemy and Identity by block number) Reactive sputtering

  4. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership and…

  5. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  6. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of a Realistic Job Preview on Marine Recruit Affect, Intentions and Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Relations, February 1974. Walker, B. L., & lIcyns, R. W. An anatomy for conformi ty. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub51-11Fh.igq, 1963. Wanous, J. P. An...Sciences West Lafayette, I liana 47907 3 LIST 4 (cont’d.) Dr. Philip G. ZitmbardO Stanford UniversitY Department of PsycholOgY Stanford, California 94305

  7. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 437.42(d). (e) Combined waste receipts from subparts B and C of this part: Limitations for BOD5, O&G... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Multiple Wastestreams § 437.43 Effluent limitations... combines treated or untreated wastes from subparts A, B, or C of this part may be subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 437.42(d). (e) Combined waste receipts from subparts B and C of this part: Limitations for BOD5, O&G... WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Multiple Wastestreams § 437.43 Effluent limitations attainable by... combines treated or untreated wastes from subparts A, B, or C of this part may be subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 437.42(d). (e) Combined waste receipts from subparts B and C of this part: Limitations for BOD5, O&G... WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Multiple Wastestreams § 437.43 Effluent limitations attainable by... combines treated or untreated wastes from subparts A, B, or C of this part may be subject to...

  10. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis.

  11. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  12. OmniGen-AF alters rectal temperature (RT) and leukocyte profiles in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) following acute activation of the stress axis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 162±1 days in milk)...

  13. Catalytic ozonation of Orange-G through highly interactive contributions of hematite and SBA-16 - To better understand azo-dye oxidation in nature.

    PubMed

    Larouk, Safa; Ouargli, Rachida; Shahidi, Dariush; Olhund, Leanne; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Chergui, Nacira; Sehili, Tahar; Roy, René; Azzouz, Abdelkrim

    2017-02-01

    Hematite-SBA-16 mixture (HS) exhibited high catalytic activity in Orange-G (OG) ozonation in water. Total OG discoloration was achieved in half the time required with hematite or SBA-16 alone, all UV-Vis bands disappeared in less than 2 min. Liquid chromatography- Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that OG ozonation triggers via both hydroxylation and desulfonation of the aromatic rings into specific intermediates. Prolonged ozonation in the presence of hematite and SBA-16 alone resulted in different distributions of common derivatives. The latter were not detected after 25 min ozonation with HS. Stochastic modeling of the evolution in time of the UV-Vis bands of OG revealed strong binary interaction between the initial pH and catalyst concentration. This was explained in terms of reciprocal contributions of: i. the catalytic properties of hematite in spite of its low porosity; ii. the high specific surface area of SBA-16 for adsorption and surface reaction notwithstanding its low intrinsic catalytic activity. The weak basicity of SBA-16 surface seems to play a key-role in adsorption. These findings are of great interest for envisaging flexible oxidative treatments, where Fe(3+) containing soils or mixtures of sand and rust may also act as catalyst for total mineralization of various azo-dyes, regardless to their structures.

  14. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html).

  15. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  16. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  17. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  18. Experimental Characterization of Turbulent Flow Around Cylinder Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    mole fractions of suppressant, indicating a significant impact from clutter and obstructions [2]. The NGP came to a close in 2006 and will present...AFIT/GAE/ENY/07-M12 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 46TW/OG/ OGM /OL-AC

  19. Effects of Secondary Structure on the Stress and Stability of Submarine Pressure Hulls,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    which might have significant impact on the global stress pattern of -’ the submarine section. The stress pattern for the ballast tank and pressure hull...Specific rapwtrttg perois SCVWIIsL DREA Report &SPONSORING ACTIVITY (%A qam" of a. Oepiuntgni ogM offtice W tuifso SI10-10~ WIG OeseNCRta 41 8tel

  20. 75 FR 11904 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: March 12, 2010. FOR...

  1. 75 FR 8985 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: February 26, 2010. FOR...

  2. 75 FR 18231 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes a... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  3. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance…

  4. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses.

  5. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  6. 78 FR 759 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615... reinstatement from Meagher O&G Properties, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW145615 for land in Johnson... the lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management,...

  7. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  8. The mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate carrier is part of a metabolic pathway that mediates glucose- and glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Matthew L; Joseph, Jamie W; Jensen, Mette V; Lu, Danhong; Ilkayeva, Olga; Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Becker, Thomas C; Newgard, Christopher B

    2010-05-28

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells is dependent in part on pyruvate cycling through the pyruvate/isocitrate pathway, which generates cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate, also known as 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). Here, we have investigated if mitochondrial transport of 2OG through the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC) participates in control of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Suppression of OGC in clonal pancreatic beta-cells (832/13 cells) and isolated rat islets by adenovirus-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. OGC suppression also reduced insulin secretion in response to glutamine plus the glutamate dehydrogenase activator 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Nutrient-stimulated increases in glucose usage, glucose oxidation, glutamine oxidation, or ATP:ADP ratio were not affected by OGC knockdown, whereas suppression of OGC resulted in a significant decrease in the NADPH:NADP(+) ratio during stimulation with glucose but not glutamine + 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Finally, OGC suppression reduced insulin secretion in response to a membrane-permeant 2OG analog, dimethyl-2OG. These data reveal that the OGC is part of a mechanism of fuel-stimulated insulin secretion that is common to glucose, amino acid, and organic acid secretagogues, involving flux through the pyruvate/isocitrate cycling pathway. Although the components of this pathway must remain intact for appropriate stimulus-secretion coupling, production of NADPH does not appear to be the universal second messenger signal generated by these reactions.

  9. Sprog, kultur, intersprog (Language, Culture, Interlanguage). ROLIG-Papir 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risager, Karen, Ed.

    Four articles on language, culture, and interlanguage are included in this volume. The first by Karen Risager, "Sprog, kultur, og internationalisering" ("Language, Culture, and Internationalization") takes issue with the very broad perception that foreign language and culture cannot be separated in instruction. The second article,…

  10. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  11. Mosquito Information Management Project (MIMP): Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    4 MOSQUITO INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROJECT (MIMP): *APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE I INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO...1983 to August 1984 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDI- 6 EFRIGOG EOTNME * CALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) .v PEnRMN OG

  12. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  13. Computerized occlusal analysis: correlation with occlusal indexes to assess the outcome of orthodontic treatment or the severity of malocculusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to verify the validity of the T-Scan III system (Tekscan) as an objective occlusal evaluation tool, and to assess the differences between two occlusal indexes-the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system (OGS)-by comparing the scores derived from the T-Scan III system with the two occlusal indexes and analyzing the correlations between them. Methods The final study sample included 48 adult volunteers (39 men and 9 women, mean age 24.14 ± 3.16 years), after excluding 29 volunteers whose occlusion could not be evaluated by the T-Scan III system due to severe skeletal or occlusal problems. PAR index and OGS scores were assessed using dental study models, and measurements of centric occlusion, protrusive movement, and lateral excursion movement were obtained via the T-Scan III system. The results were analyzed to determine correlations. Results Occlusal analysis by the T-Scan III system was clinically reliable (p < 0.05), and the PAR index and OGS scores were significantly correlated with several measurements obtained with the T-Scan III system (p < 0.05). Conclusions The T-Scan III system is a quantitative and reliable method for occlusal evaluation, and represents a potential substitute for occlusal indexes. Compared to the PAR index, the OGS scores of more variables were significantly correlated with the T-Scan measurements. PMID:26877980

  14. A Graph with E Edges Has Pagenumber o (the Square root of E log E),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    pages. The general conjecture for arbitrary fixed genus was recently disproved by Heath and Istrail [111 who provide an algorithm to embed a genus g graph in...1987), The pagenumber of genus g graphs is O(g), 19th ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing, 388-397. [KI . Kannan (1985), Unraveling k-page graphs

  15. Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Corrosion Films on Lead in O. 1 M Sulfate Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Pourbaix diagrarm. XPEE RI. !E-NTA Ram-an spectra were recorded with a Spex Industries Yodel 1401 d--uble mnochromator using a photon counting detection...Fleidersbach Ele-tr-c~he-i el Technol~og y Corporation University of PRxj>e Is land 1CKý15 31st Aven.e, NE. Department of Ocean Emgineering Seattle, Washl

  16. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  17. Effects of internal molecular degrees of freedom on the thermal conductivity of some glasses and disordered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivchikov, A. I.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Sharapova, I. V.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Bermejo, F. J.; Pardo, L. C.; Rovira-Esteva, M.; Ruiz-Martin, M. D.; Jezowski, A.; Baran, J.; Davydova, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal conductivity κ(T) of the fully ordered stable phase II, the metastable phase III, the orientationally disordered (plastic) phase I, as well as the nonergodic orientational glass (OG) phase, of the glass former cyclohexanol (C6H11OH) has been measured under equilibrium vapor pressure within the 2-200 K temperature range. The main emphasis is here focused on the influence of the conformational disorder upon the thermal properties of this material. Comparison of results with those regarding cyanoclyclohexane (C6H11CN), a chemically related compound, serves to quantify the role played by the terminal groups -OH and -CN on the phonon scattering processes. The picture that emerges shows that motions of such groups do play a minor role as scattering centers, both within the low-temperature orientationally ordered phases as well as in the OG states. The results are analyzed within the Debye-Peierls relaxation time model for isotropic solids comprising mechanisms for long-wave phonon scattering within the OG and orientational ordered low-temperature phases, as well as others arising from localized short-wavelength vibrational modes as pictured by the Cahill-Pohl model. By means of complementary neutron and Raman scattering we show that in the OG state the energy landscapes for both compounds are very similar.

  18. Dimension-six triple gluon operator in Higgs +jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Recently a lot of progress has been made towards a full classification of new physics effects in Higgs observables by means of effective dimension-six operators. Specifically, Higgs production in association with a high transverse momentum jet has been suggested as a way to discriminate between operators that modify the Higgs-top coupling (Ot) and operators that induce an effective Higgs-gluon coupling (Og)—a distinction that is hard to achieve with signal strength measurements alone. With this article we would like to draw attention to another source of new physics in Higgs +jet observables: the triple gluon operator O3 g (consisting of three factors of the gluon field strength tensor). We compute the distortions of kinematic distributions in Higgs +jet production at a 14 TeV LHC due to O3 g and compare them with the distortions due to Ot and Og. We find that the transverse momentum distributions alone cannot discriminate between O3 g and Og if the coefficient of the operator Ot treated as an unknown parameter. We further show that the jet rapidity and the difference between the Higgs and jet rapidity are well suited to remove this new degeneracy. Using rough estimates for the expected bounds we find that allowed distortions in kinematic distributions due to Og are of similar size as those due to O3 g. We conclude that a full analysis of new physics in Higgs +jet observables must take the contributions from O3 g into account.

  19. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  20. Stressors and Coping in the Norwegian Aeromedical Detachment in Afghanistan 2008-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Lärarhögskolan Stockholm. HLS Förlag. [4] Bache, M., & Hommelgaard, B. (1994). Danske FN- soldater – opplevelser og stressreaktioner. Unpublished report...College. [65] Widing, H., Davøen, L.M., Laberg, J.C., Johnsen, B.H., Brun,W. & Eid, J. (2002). Soldaters vurdering av egne militære ferdigheter ved

  1. Nitric oxide production mediates oligogalacturonide-triggered immunity and resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rasul, S; Dubreuil-Maurizi, C; Lamotte, O; Koen, E; Poinssot, B; Alcaraz, G; Wendehenne, D; Jeandroz, S

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. In this study, we investigated the production and/or function of NO in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf discs and plants elicited by oligogalacturonides (OGs) and challenged with Botrytis cinerea. We provided evidence that OGs triggered a fast and long lasting NO production which was Ca(2+) dependent and involved nitrate reductase (NR). Accordingly, OGs triggered an increase of both NR activity and transcript accumulation. NO production was also sensitive to the mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Intriguingly, we showed that L-NAME affected NO production by interfering with NR activity, thus questioning the mechanisms of how this compound impairs NO synthesis in plants. We further demonstrated that NO modulates RBOHD-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and participates in the regulation of OG-responsive genes such as anionic peroxidase (PER4) and a β-1,3-glucanase. Mutant plants impaired in PER4 and β-1,3-glucanase, as well as Col-0 plants treated with the NO scavenger cPTIO, were more susceptible to B. cinerea. Taken together, our investigation deciphers part of the mechanisms linking NO production, NO-induced effects and basal resistance to B. cinerea.

  2. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  3. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Hye

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250) discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control). In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP). The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9). Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The cell surface of S. mutans tested showed hydrophobic characteristics. Group PoGo exhibited the greatest bacterial adhesion among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The sealant-coated groups showed statistically similar (groups PS and FP, p > 0.05) or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001) bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo. PMID:28194363

  4. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 11/18/1982

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... _lth a: ,:;:cod machine adJII",t<>d tf} rj,'I1\\'(r 3. fin'" ah;t or 'og.'1 tor rapl~ c()ntf"ol tit l"\\ouot;{> flies. ("I..IJt. fUI'",:. ljn:lt~. ... ur tIt I \\"'rt f '""~I ~pr;l\\" I .. ' .. k ...

  5. Sono-incorporation of CuO nanoparticles on the surface and into the mesoporous hexatitanate layers: Enhanced Fenton-like activity in degradation of orange-G at its neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehati, S.; Entezari, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, for the first time, CuO/Ti6O13 mesoporous nanocomposite was synthesized by direct intercalation of CuO nanoparticles into hexatitanate layers in the presence of ultrasound. In fact mesoporous potassium hexatitanate with high pore size (44.94 nm) was used as a support. CuO nanoparticles were grown into the titanate pores which caused formation of ultra small CuO with uniform size and high surface area. In fact, titanate is considered as a substrate for better dispersion and nucleation of the CuO nanoparticles which prevented the agglomeration and overgrowth of guest molecules. The prepared sample was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectra and FT-IR techniques. The product was used as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Orang G (OG). The effect of important parameters, including pH, H2O2 addition rate and catalyst loading on the decolorization of OG were investigated. Based on the results, CuO/Ti6O13 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for OG degradation in aqueous solution at neutral pH of the dye. Moreover, breaking of H2O2 during the catalytic reaction was monitored by spectroscopic method. The results confirmed the decomposition of H2O2 to produce rad OH which is the main active species for the degradation of OG.

  6. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N. F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Rydzik, Anna M.; Rose, Nathan R.; Bagg, Eleanor A.; McDonough, Michael A.; Krojer, Tobias; Yue, Wyatt W.; Ng, Stanley S.; Olsen, Lars; Brennan, Paul E.; Oppermann, Udo; Muller-Knapp, Susanne; Klose, Robert J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement PMID:26682036

  7. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  8. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  9. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  10. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  11. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  12. 75 FR 63501 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: October 15, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  13. 75 FR 47616 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: August 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  14. 75 FR 6047 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: February 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  15. 75 FR 49512 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: August 13, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  16. 75 FR 41510 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: July 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes...

  17. 75 FR 34753 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: June 18, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes...

  18. 75 FR 2558 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: January 15, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  19. 75 FR 36435 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: June 25, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes...

  20. 75 FR 4836 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  1. ILIR Task of Digital Recoil Travel Measurement System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    8217 . ."c"’S9FEA4D< LU. 14 f",:N 000 F(’ IKONS ,EQ, :£4 ," ,A’ Ll.h ,:. .. O;,G O 1 .. 1 0 ***. TE DATA T10 Jf)%:jL"’]." 3 *CA-LL PTPRr4’ L1.. ’ t iE

  2. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  3. Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  4. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No...&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per...

  5. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum monthly average limitation....

  6. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  7. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  8. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  9. Modulation of chemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene loaded in kappa-carrageenan oil-in-gel emulsions.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Tsevdou, Maria; Andre, Christelle M; Cambier, Sébastien; Yonekura, Lina; Taoukis, Petros S; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, ionotropically structured κ-carrageenan based oil-in-gel (o/g) emulsions were tested as potential carrier systems for the delivery of β-carotene. In situ ionic gelation was induced by Na(+), K(+) or Ca(2+) added at the level of 0.2-0.6% (w/w). All o/g emulsions exerted a true gel like behaviour with storage modulus (G') being reduced according to the order: K(+)>Ca(2+)>Na(+). Ionic gelation induced a moderate increase in the microscopically assessed lipid droplets radii. O/g emulsions containing monovalent ions exerted the highest β-carotene retention throughout isothermal storage particularly at high (37 and 55°C) temperatures. Notwithstanding, increasing ionic strength resulted in acceleration of β-carotene degradation rates for all cation species. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was significantly lower in Ca(2+)o/g emulsions due to the formation of complexes between the biopolymer matrix containing β-carotene and bile salts. A good correlation between β-carotene bioaccessibility, physical and colloidal aspects of the micellar digesta fractions was observed.

  10. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  11. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3...

  12. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  13. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  14. 40 CFR 437.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Conventional Parameters O&G 127 38.0 pH (2) (2) TSS 74.1 30...-Decane 0.948 0.437 Fluoranthene 0.0537 0.0268 n-Octadecane 0.589 0.302 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Within the range...

  15. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1 4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... maximum monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). 5 mg/L...

  16. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2. PMID:23213308

  17. Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan nano particles enhances antioxidant activities in vitro and protects against ochratoxin A toxicity in catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Kenawy, Amany M; El-Nekeety, Aziza A; Hamed, Heba S; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize enzymatic modified chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with gallic acid (GA) or octyl gallate (OG) to optimize its potential in human application and to evaluate their protective role against ochrtoxin A (OTA) toxicity in catfish. The modified CSNPs have average size around 90 nm with positive charge and high scavenging activity especially GA-CSNPs. In the in vivo study, catfish were divided into 8 groups and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, OTA-treated group (1 mg/kg b.w.), the groups treated with CSNPs, GA-CSNPs or OG-CSNPs (280 mg/kg b.w.) anole or in combination with OTA. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for different analyses. OTA induced a significant biochemical disturbances accompanied with oxidative stress in liver and kidney, histological changes and increase DNA fragmentation in the kidney. Co-treatment with OTA plus the different CSNPs resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters and histological picture of the kidney. This improvement was more pronounced in the group treated with GA-CSNPs. It could be concluded that grafting of GA or its ester improved the properties of CSNPs. Moreover, GA-CSNPs showed strong scavenging properties than OG-CSNPs due to the blocking of carboxyl groups responsible of the scavenging activity in OG.

  18. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  19. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  20. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  1. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  2. Ada (Tradename) Compiler Validation Summary Report: TeleSoft TeleGen2 E68, Version 3.11. Host: MicroVAX II, Targets: Motorola 68020, 68010 Tektronix 8540 (M68010 CPU),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-24

    Testing, Ada Validation Office, AVO, Ada Validation Facility, AVF, ANSI/MIL-STD- 1815A, Ada Joint Program Office, AJPO 20. ABS TRAC T (Continue on reverse...test SI results ara written to tha tyneenead buffor on the host comrouter usin the $1 sami line Vtt wer used for downlcading. $ £ TSAJA /2OgNLZA - w

  3. Planning, Estimating, and Monitoring Progress in Agile Systems Development Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Jilemanifesto.orgf Nt:JRJ’HRDP GRUMMAN Agile Terminology Term Definition P d B kl R i /U S i b l dro uct ac og equ rements ser tor es to e comp ete Iteration...Marion, McKelvey, & Uhl- Bien . (2007). Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 298-318. Agile Development Practices Agile Project Management with Scrum Ken Schwaber

  4. Regulation of nitrogenase by 2-oxoglutarate-reversible, direct binding of a PII-like nitrogen sensor protein to dinitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Leigh, John A

    2006-06-27

    Posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase, or switch-off, in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis requires both nifI(1) and nifI(2), which encode members of the PII family of nitrogen-regulatory proteins. Previous work demonstrated that nitrogenase activity in cell extracts was inhibited in the presence of NifI(1) and NifI(2), and that 2-oxoglutarate (2OG), a potential signal of nitrogen limitation, relieved this inhibition. To further explore the role of the NifI proteins in switch-off, we found proteins that interact with NifI(1) and NifI(2) and determined whether 2OG affected these interactions. Anaerobic purification of His-tagged NifI(2) resulted in copurification of NifI(1) and the dinitrogenase subunits NifD and NifK, and 2OG or a deletion mutation affecting the T-loop of NifI(2) prevented copurification of dinitrogenase but did not affect copurification of NifI(1). Similar results were obtained with His-tagged NifI(1). Gel-filtration chromatography demonstrated an interaction between purified NifI(1,2) and dinitrogenase that was inhibited by 2OG. The NifI proteins themselves formed a complex of approximately 85 kDa, which appeared to further oligomerize in the presence of 2OG. NifI(1,2) inhibited activity of purified nitrogenase when present in a 1:1 molar ratio to dinitrogenase, and 2OG fully relieved this inhibition. These results suggest a model for switch-off of nitrogenase activity, where direct interaction of a NifI(1,2) complex with dinitrogenase causes inhibition, which is relieved by 2OG. The presence of nifI(1) and nifI(2) in the nif operons of all nitrogen-fixing Archaea and some anaerobic Bacteria suggests that this mode of nitrogenase regulation may operate in a wide variety of diazotrophs.

  5. Integrating Oil and Gas Measurement Data to Estimate Spatially-Gridded Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, D. R.; Zavala Araiza, D.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Lan, X.; Talbot, R. W.; Shepson, P. B.; Lavoie, T. N.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, a dozen research teams measured methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas at multiple scales ranging from bottom-up component measurements to top-down regional emission measurements. This work integrates ground- and aircraft-based measurements of site-level emissions from the campaign and a recent national study of gathering and processing facilities to construct a spatially resolved emission inventory for the Barnett Shale. Spatially referenced activity data including O&G site locations were obtained from multiple databases. O&G site emission factors were estimated with two-step Monte Carlo simulations that integrated emission rates from unbiased datasets with higher measurements obtained with targeted sampling. Emissions from other fossil and biogenic sources were estimated from reported emissions data or published emission factors. We constructed a 4 km x 4 km gridded emission inventory to estimate emissions by source category in the 25-county Barnett region. Total methane emissions in October 2013 were estimated to be 72.3 (+10.1/-8.9) Mg CH4 h-1 with 46.2 (+7.9/-6.2) from O&G sources. Fat-tail sites, which were defined as emission rates above the unbiased sampling distributions, accounted for 19% of O&G emissions but less than 2% of sites. In comparison to alternative estimates of O&G emissions based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, our custom inventory was higher by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively, similar to published ratios of top-down and bottom up estimates. Our custom inventory was higher than alternatives primarily due to more complete activity data and the inclusion of fat-tail site emissions. Gathering facilities, which accounted for 40% of our O&G emission estimate, had the largest difference from alternative inventories.

  6. Laparoscopy-assisted versus open gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hai-Guan; Yang, Jian-Wu; Jiang, Fu-Quan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, He-Ming; Li, Cheng-Lin; Cui, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A raising number of surgeons have chosen laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) as an alternative to open gastrectomy (OG) with D2 lymph node dissection for treatment of advanced gastric cancer (ADG). But no meta-analysis has been performed to evaluate the value of LAG versus OG with regard to safety and efficacy for treatment of ADG. A comprehensive literature research was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase to identify studies that compared LAG and OG with D2 lymph node dissection for treatment of ADG. Data of interest were checked and subjected to meta-analysis with RevMan 5.1 software. 11 studies with 1904 patients (982 in LAG and 922 in OG) were enrolled. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Compared with OG, LAG was associated with less blood loss (WMD = -144.47; P < 0.05), shorter time of first flatus time (WMD = -0.91; P < 0.05) and postoperative hospital stay (WMD = -3.27; P < 0.05), and lower morbidity (RR = 0.70; P < 0.05), but longer operation time (WMD = 41.78; P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in terms of harvested lymph nodes (WMD = 1.85; P = 0.09), pathological N stage (χ(2) 3.97; P = 0.26), tumor size (WMD = -0.05; P = 0.81), mortality (RR 0.82; P = 0.76), cancer recurrence rate (RR 0.77; P = 0.18) and 3-year overall survival rate (RR 1.09; P = 0.18). Compared with OG, LAG with D2 lymph node dissection for ADG had the advantages of minimal invasion, faster recovery, and fewer complications, and it could achieve the same degree of radicality, harvested lymph nodes, short-term and long-term prognosis as OG, though the operation time was slightly longer.

  7. Nutrient demand interacts with forage family to affect digestion responses in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI), an index of nutrient demand, were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean=25.9 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 24.3 to 60.3 kg/d (mean=42.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Alfalfa and orchardgrass contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 22.5 and 11.4% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratios were 60:40 and 43:57 for AL and OG, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Forage family and its interaction with pDMI did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition. The AL diet increased indigestible NDF (iNDF) intake and decreased potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) intake compared with OG. The AL diet increased ruminal pH, digestion rates of pdNDF and starch, and passage rates of pdNDF and iNDF compared with OG, which affected ruminal digestibility. Passage rate of iNDF was related to pDMI; AL increased iNDF passage rate and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet decreased ruminal pool sizes of pdNDF, starch, organic matter, dry matter, and rumen digesta wet weight and volume compared with OG. The AL diet decreased ruminating time per unit of forage NDF consumed compared with OG, indicating that alfalfa provided less physically effective

  8. Land use change from forest to olive grove soils in a toposequence in Mediterranean areas (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Olive grove (OG) is the most important crop in Andalusia (South of Spain), the main production area in the world. Throughout its development over the years, land use change (LUC) has been one of the most common phenomena, causing soil erosion and the loss of soil quality. This effect is aggravated by the climatic conditions and poor soil management practices. This study examined the effect of LUC from natural forest to OG in a toposequence (summit, backslope, toeslope) of a calcisols-regosols-vertisols sequence in Torredecampo (South of Spain). The studied parameters were soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content; C and N stock; and stratification ratio (SR). Total SOC (T-SOC) was low for both forest and OG soils, with a pattern of decrease from the highest (summit) to the lowest topographical position (toeslope) in forest soils, but not for OG soils, where the highest T-SOC was found in the lowest topographical position. T-SOC was more than 40% higher in forest soils than in OG soils in the summit and backslope, but not in the toeslope. This can be explained by the difference in tree and vegetative coverage from both soil uses. Natural vegetation prevents that erosion diminishes soil quality and carbon content, as well as excessive erosion from higher to lower topographical positions. SOC stock in forest soils remained evenly distributed in the three topographical positions. However, the trend for the studied olive OG soils was to have the highest SOC stock in the toeslope and the lowest in the summit. Erosion and subsequent sediment deposition in the toeslope could also be the reason behind this difference between forest and OG soils. TN followed a pattern of decrease with depth in the OG soils, but not in the forest soils. This could be because of increased erosion and fertiliser leaching caused by the lack of vegetative cover. As for TN stock, it was higher in forest soils than in OG soils, with an exception (toeslope). In this case, the exception can also

  9. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  10. Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yoshitake; Shi, Wei; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2011-02-01

    Nitrate assimilation by cyanobacteria is inhibited by the presence of ammonium in the growth medium. Both nitrate uptake and transcription of the nitrate assimilatory genes are regulated. The major intracellular signal for the regulation is, however, not ammonium or glutamine, but 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), whose concentration changes according to the change in cellular C/N balance. When nitrogen is limiting growth, accumulation of 2-OG activates the transcription factor NtcA to induce transcription of the nitrate assimilation genes. Ammonium inhibits transcription by quickly depleting the 2-OG pool through its metabolism via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle. The P(II) protein inhibits the ABC-type nitrate transporter, and also nitrate reductase in some strains, by an unknown mechanism(s) when the cellular 2-OG level is low. Upon nitrogen limitation, 2-OG binds to P(II) to prevent the protein from inhibiting nitrate assimilation. A pathway-specific transcriptional regulator NtcB activates the nitrate assimilation genes in response to nitrite, either added to the medium or generated intracellularly by nitrate reduction. It plays an important role in selective activation of the nitrate assimilation pathway during growth under a limited supply of nitrate. P(II) was recently shown to regulate the activity of NtcA negatively by binding to PipX, a small coactivator protein of NtcA. On the basis of accumulating genome information from a variety of cyanobacteria and the molecular genetic data obtained from the representative strains, common features and group- or species-specific characteristics of the response of cyanobacteria to nitrogen is summarized and discussed in terms of ecophysiological significance.

  11. Kinetic analysis of FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) reveals that it is unlikely to function as a sensor for 2-oxoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Marcella; Harding, Heather P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ron, David; Yeo, Giles S H

    2012-06-01

    Genomewide-association studies have revealed that SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) are robustly associated with BMI (body mass index) and obesity. FTO is an Fe(II) 2-OG (2-oxoglutarate)-dependent dioxygenase that can demethylate 3-meT (3-methylthymine) in single-stranded DNA, as well as 3-meU (3-methyluracil) and N6-methyl adenosine in RNA. In the present paper we describe the development of an RNase-cleavage assay measuring the demethylation activity of FTO on 3-meU. RNase A cleaves at the 3'-end of pyrimidines, including uracil, and a methyl group at position three of uracil inhibits cleavage. An oligonucleotide probe was designed consisting of a DNA stem, an RNA loop containing a single 3-meU as the only RNase A-cleavage site, a fluorescent reporter on one end and a quencher at the other end. FTO demethylation of the unique 3-meU enables RNase A cleavage, releasing the quencher and enabling a fluorescent signal. In the presence of excess RNase A, FTO activity is limiting to the development of fluorescent signal, which can be read continuously and is able to discriminate between wild-type and the catalytically dead R316Q FTO. 2-OG is a co-substrate of FTO and, as a metabolite in the citric acid cycle, is a marker of intracellular nutritional status. The assay described in the present paper was used to measure, for the first time, the K(m) of FTO for 2-OG. The K(m) of 2.88 μM is up to 10-fold lower than the estimated intracellular concentrations of 2-OG, rendering it unlikely that FTO functions as a sensor for 2-OG levels.

  12. Sensitivity of North Patagonian temperate rainforests to changes in rainfall regimes: a process-based, dynamic forest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, A. G.; Armesto, J. J.; Díaz, M. F.; Huth, A.

    2012-06-01

    Rainfall changes due to climate change and their potential impacts on forests demand the development of predictable tools coupling vegetation dynamics to hydrologic processes. Such tools need to be accurate at local scales (i.e. < 100 ha) to develop efficient forest management strategies for climate change adaptation. In this study, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model to predict hydrological balance of North Patagonian temperate rainforests on Chiloé Island, Chile (42° S). The developed model includes detailed calculations of forest water fluxes and incorporates the dynamical linkage of rainfall regimes to soil moisture, and individual tree growth. We confronted model results with detailed field measurements of water fluxes in a young secondary stand (YS). We used the model to compare forest sensitivity in the YS and an old-growth stand (OG, > 500 yr-old), i.e. changes in forest evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (biomass and basal area). We evaluated sensitivity using changes in rainfall regimes comparable to future climatic scenarios for this century in the study region. The model depicted well the hydrological balance of temperate rainforests. We found a higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climatic conditions. Dryer climatic conditions predicted for this century in the study area led to changes in the hydrological balance that impacted forest structure, with stronger impacts in OG. Changes in climatic parameters decreased evapotranspiration (up to 15 % in OG compared to current values) and soil moisture to 32 % . These changes in water fluxes induced decreases in above-ground biomass in OG (up to 27 %). Our results support the use of the model for detailed analyses of climate change impacts on hydrological balance of forests. Also, it provides a tool suitable for analyses of the impacts of multiple drivers of global change on forest processes (e.g., climate change, fragmentation, forest management).

  13. Surprising repair activities of nonpolar analogs of 8-oxoG expose features of recognition and catalysis by base excision repair glycosylases.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Paige L; Kobori, Akio; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Kool, Eric T; David, Sheila S

    2012-01-25

    Repair glycosylases locate and excise damaged bases from DNA, playing central roles in preservation of the genome and prevention of disease. Two key glycosylases, Fpg and hOGG1, function to remove the mutagenic oxidized base 8-oxoG (OG) from DNA. To investigate the relative contributions of conformational preferences, leaving group ability, enzyme-base hydrogen bonding, and nucleobase shape on damage recognition by these glycosylases, a series of four substituted indole nucleosides, based on the parent OG nonpolar isostere 2Cl-4F-indole, were tested as possible direct substrates of these enzymes in the context of 30 base pair duplexes paired with C. Surprisingly, single-turnover experiments revealed that Fpg-catalyzed base removal activity of two of the nonpolar analogs was superior to the native OG substrate. The hOGG1 glycosylase was also found to catalyze removal of three of the nonpolar analogs, albeit considerably less efficiently than removal of OG. Of note, the analog that was completely resistant to hOGG1-catalyzed excision has a chloro-substituent at the position of NH7 of OG, implicating the importance of recognition of this position in catalysis. Both hOGG1 and Fpg retained high affinity for the duplexes containing the nonpolar isosteres. These studies show that hydrogen bonds between base and enzyme are not needed for efficient damage recognition and repair by Fpg and underscore the importance of facile extrusion from the helix in its damaged base selection. In contrast, damage removal by hOGG1 is sensitive to both hydrogen bonding groups and nucleobase shape. The relative rates of excision of the analogs with the two glycosylases highlight key differences in their mechanisms of damaged base recognition and removal.

  14. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  15. Mismatch base pairing of the mutagen 8-oxoguanine and its derivatives with adenine: A theoretical search for possible antimutagenic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    Molecular geometries of 8-oxoguanine (8OG), those of its substituted derivatives with the substitutions CH2, CF2, CO, CNH, O, and S in place of the N7H7 group, adenine (A), and the base pairs of 8OG and its substituted derivatives with adenine were optimized using the RHF/6-31+G* and B3LYP/6-31+G* methods in gas phase. All the molecules and their hydrogen-bonded complexes were solvated in aqueous media employing the polarized continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) theory using the RHF/6-31+G* and B3LYP/6-31+G* methods. The optimized geometrical parameters of the 8OG-A base pair at the RHF/6-31+G* and B3LYP/6-31+G* levels of theory agree satisfactorily with those of an oligonucleotide containing the base pair found from X-ray crystallography. The pattern of hydrogen bonding in the CF2- and O-substituted 8OG-A base pair is of Watson-Crick type and that in the unsubstituted and CH2-, CNH-, and S-substituted base pairs is of Hoogsteen type. In the CO-substituted base pair, the hydrogen bonding pattern is of neither Watson-Crick nor Hoogsteen type. The CF2-substitution appears to introduce steric hindrance for stacking of DNA bases. On the basis of these results, it appears that among all the substituted 8OG molecules considered here, the O-substituted derivative may be useful as an antimutagenic drug. It is, however, subject to experimental verification. Content:text/plain; charset="UTF-8"

  16. Modeling to Evaluate Contribution of Oil and Gas Emissions to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tammy M; Shepherd, Donald; Stacy, Andrea; Barna, Michael G; Schichtel, Bret A

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (Class I and II areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with a year-long modeling episode representing the best available representation of 2011 meteorology and emissions for the Western United States. The model inputs for the 2011 episodes were generated as part of the Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS). The study includes a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States. The year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the Class I and II areas in the Western United States. Modeling results suggest that emissions from O&G activity are having a negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in our National Parks and Class I areas.

  17. Integrated processes for produced water polishing: Enhanced flotation/sedimentation combined with advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Silvia; Micó, María M; Arnaldos, Marina; Ferrero, Enrique; Malfeito, Jorge J; Medina, Francisco; Contreras, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, bench scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) and settling processes have been studied and compared to a novel flotation technology based on the use of glass microspheres of limited buoyancy and its combination with conventional DAF, (Enhanced DAF or E-DAF). They were evaluated as pretreatments for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to polish produced water (PW) for reuse purposes. Settling and E-DAF without air injection showed adequate turbidity and oil and grease (O&G) removals, with eliminations higher than 87% and 90% respectively, employing 70 mg L(-1) of FeCl3 and 83 min of settling time, and 57.9 mg L(-1) of FeCl3, 300 mg L(-1) of microspheres and a flocculation rate of 40 rpm in the E-DAF process. A linear correlation was observed between final O&G concentration and turbidity after E-DAF. In order to polish the O&G content of the effluent even further, to remove soluble compounds as phenol and to take advantage of residual iron after these treatments, Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions were essayed. After 6 h of the Fenton reaction at pH 3, the addition of 1660 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 133 mg L(-1) of iron showed a maximum O&G elimination of 57.6% and a phenol removal up to 80%. Photo-Fenton process showed better results after 3 h, adding 600 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 300 mg L(-1) of iron, at pH 3, with a higher fraction of elimination of the O&G content (73.7%) and phenol (95%) compared to the conventional Fenton process.

  18. Failure of glutamate dehydrogenase system to predict oxygenation state of human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Katz, A; Spencer, M K; Sahlin, K

    1990-07-01

    In a recent study, the total tissue contents of glutamate (Glu), ammonium (NH+4), and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) were used to estimate changes in the mitochondrial redox state ([NAD+]/[NADH]) of contracting skeletal muscle with intact circulation [Am. J. Physiol. 253 (Cell Physiol. 22): C263-C268, 1987]. These metabolites participate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) reaction, which, based on a number of assumptions, theoretically enables calculation of the mitochondrial redox state as follows (brackets indicate concentrations): [NAD+]/[NADH] = ([NH+4] [2-OG])/[( Glu]Kapp), where Kapp is the apparent equilibrium constant for GDH. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the total tissue contents of Glu, NH+4, and 2-OG could be used to predict a reduction of the mitochondrial redox state in anoxic skeletal muscle. Anoxia was induced in the quadriceps femoris muscle by 10 min of circulatory occlusion (low metabolic rate) and isometric contraction to fatigue (high metabolic rate). The mean (+/- SE) value for the metabolite ratio ([NH+4][2-OG]/[Glu]) at rest was 6 +/- 3 mmol/kg dry wt (x 10(-4]. No significant change occurred after circulatory occlusion (4 +/- 2 x 10(-4); P greater than 0.05), whereas an almost 60-fold increase was observed after isometric contraction (P less than 0.05). Because the muscle was anoxic under both conditions, a significant decrease in the metabolite ratio should have occurred. These data demonstrate that changes in total tissue contents of Glu, NH+4, and 2-OG cannot be used to estimate changes in the redox and oxygenation state of mitochondria in intact human skeletal muscle.

  19. Formaldehyde release from durable-press apparel textiles. Final project report to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.; Daffron, C.R.; Merchant, E.R.

    1985-10-01

    A survey of formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) release from durable-press apparel textiles has been performed to better characterize the CH/sub 2/O emission properties of fabrics marketed in the US. An intercomparison of the ORNL extraction, the Japanese standard and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) sealed jar methods using 12 fabrics selected from the textile survey yielded an average emission ratio of 0.46 +- 0.16 for the ORNL/AATCC methods and 1.5 +- 0.5 for the ORNL/Japenese methods. The average CH/sub 2/O releases from the survey fabrics, as measured with the ORNL extraction test, were 117 +- 140, 58 +- 72, 19 +- 17 and 31 +- 29 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric for top-weight, bottom-weight, knit and flatgood categories, respectively. Formaldehyde releases of <100 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric were measured from 86% of the survey fabrics. Three to fourfold increases in CH/sub 2/O release were observed with additional seven to nine weeks of storage in a laboratory environment between repeated testing using the ORNL extraction test. The strongest emitting fabrics with initial emission levels of >125 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric exhibited a 74 +- 11% decline in CH/sub 2/O emission levels following the first washing, with an additional 13 +- 6% decline after the completion of six further washings. The weakest emitting fabrics with initial emission levels of <25 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric demonstrated both increases and decreases in CH/sub 2/O emission strength after washing but never exceeded 11 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O/g fabric.

  20. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.