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Sample records for kvalitetsreform og modernisering

  1. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required. PMID:15473207

  2. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  3. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  4. Healthcare Assistants: distributional losses as a consequence of NHS modernisation?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian; Thompson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the labour process of Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) at a National Health Service (NHS) hospital trust (TUH) in the context of the NHS modernisation agenda. It determines whether application of the modernisation agenda is formalised at TUH and considers how HCAs are affected. The paper is based upon 60 interviews with HCAs, structured questionnaires completed by all interview respondents, observation of HCAs and interviews with non‐clinical managers. The findings show that elements of the modernisation agenda are informally implemented at TUH to the detriment of HCAs. HCAs experience distributional losses in the form of intensification as nurses deflect duties to HCAs and insulate themselves from adverse effects. HCAs resist, using selective absence when pressures mount. They ameliorate losses by re‐internalising their work as a job with caring elements not a genuine caring role. They rationalise their altered behaviour towards patients by blaming the regime's treatment of them as a subordinated group. PMID:27570359

  5. Chinese Character Modernisation in the Digital Era: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Shouhui

    2005-01-01

    After a century of effort, directed at modernising Chinese script, it is still the case that Chinese characters (henceforth "hanzi") remain a deficient communication system both for human use and for mechanical application. In some respects, the reform of Chinese "hanzi" has been a very political process, driven ultimately by politicians, yet at…

  6. Modernising Education and Training: Mobilising Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attewell, Jill; Savill-Smith, Carol; Douch, Rebecca; Parker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been amazing advances in consumer technology. The Mobile Learning Network (MoLeNET) initiative has enabled colleges and schools to harness some of this technology in order to modernise aspects of teaching, learning and training. The result has been improvements in learner engagement, retention, achievement and…

  7. Learning lessons from health visiting modernisation in Bromley.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Karen

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the processes involved in a health visiting modernisation project, which was undertaken in Bromley Primary Care Trust between July 2004 and July 2005. The paper first describes the health visiting service and the rationale for the modernisation project. It uses a framework incorporating Nadler's Organisational Change Model, which argues that to be successful, the problems of power, resistance and control, inherent in any organisational change process, need to be managed. Nadler's model is used to analyse the methods for communicating, consulting and engaging with health visitors and managers. The importance of involving health visiting clients in modernisation and staff who found change particularly difficult are also highlighted. Improved partnership working between health visitors and staff in early years settings and the development of action learning sets for health visitor team leaders were identified as successful project activities. The paper concludes with the author's list of '10 good practice suggestions for service modernisation', offering useful advice and suggestions for other would-be change and project managers. PMID:17256285

  8. Modernisation as a professionalising strategy: the case of critical care in England.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith; Durand, Mary Alison; Hutchings, Andrew; Black, Nick

    2011-09-01

    There has been broad agreement about how to characterise the processes of 'modernisation' of the public sector in welfare societies, but rather less consensus on the impact of this modernisation on professionals. This paper takes critical care in England as a case study to explore how professionals in one setting account for the changes associated with modernisation. In contrast to reports from other arenas, critical care professionals were positive about the processes and outcomes of 'modernisation' in general, and there was a surprising lack of nostalgia in their accounts of organisational changes. However, joking comments suggested considerable scepticism about the initiatives explicitly associated with the national organisation that was charged with 'modernising' critical care, the Modernisation Agency. We suggest that the relative optimism of staff is in part explained by historical and political contingencies which meant that critical care, as a relatively new clinical specialty, benefited in tangible ways from modernisation. Further, all staff groups were able to attribute gains, rather than losses, in autonomy and authority to the modernisation of critical care. Their accounts suggest that modernisation can be a professionalising strategy, with responses to change being neither resistant nor compliant, but sceptically strategic.

  9. Modernisation, migration and nutritional health of Pacific Island populations.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of obesity and fatness across the second part of the 20th century has been documented for a number of Pacific Island populations. While dietary change and reduced physical activity levels associated with economic modernisation have been identified as the key factors fuelling the emergence of obesity, it is argued here that increasing numbers of Pacific Island migrants in the United States, New Zealand, France and Australia have provided the basis for the acceleration of the modernisation process by way of remittances, and the transmission of ideas of economic opportunity and change. Potential for migration for the Pacific Island nations is estimated from available data on population growth, total fertility rates and total mortality rates. Pacific Islander migrants form approximately one quarter of the total global Pacific Islander population, the majority of whom are from Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Per capita energy and fats and meat intake for the period 1961 to 2000 is described for five Pacific Island nations, showing that, in general, energy intakes have increased, as have the energy densities of the diets consumed. Thus the increase in mean body mass index observed in Pacific Islanders in the second half of the twentieth century can in general be attributed to dietary change associated with greater food and energy intake, and with increased consumption of fatty foods and meat, most of which are imports.

  10. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836

  11. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qihe; Bauer, Rudolf; Hendry, Bruce M; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Duez, Pierre; Simmonds, Monique S J; Witt, Claudia M; Lu, Aiping; Robinson, Nicola; Guo, De-an; Hylands, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow's medicine. PMID:23763836

  12. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  13. Emirati Women's Higher Educational Leadership Formation under Globalisation: Culture, Religion, Politics, and the Dialectics of Modernisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie

    2015-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a small state transitioning from traditional communities into a modern society. This is a complex process: it involves instilling a national identity over tribal structures; modernising and technologising while retaining Islam; ensuring a high level of security while allowing for a liberal and relatively free…

  14. Appropriating Professionalism: Restructuring the Official Knowledge Base of England's "Modernised" Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines efforts by government and government agencies in England to prescribe and control the knowledge base of a teaching profession that has, under successive New Labour administrations since 1997, been subjected to "modernisation". A theoretical framework drawn from aspects of the work of Basil Bernstein, and of Rob Moore and…

  15. Modularisation of Vocational Training in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: Parallels and Disparities in a Modernisation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the modularisation of initial vocational training (including apprenticeships) as a modernisation strategy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Training systems are similarly structured in these three countries with the apprenticeship system at their heart, and the three national philosophies of education and training are…

  16. "Teachers" to "Academics": The Implementation of a Modernisation Project at One UK Post-92 University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Among the many external forces that have impacted upon institutions, league tables have been the dynamic to which universities across the world are now responding. Following the appointment of a new vice-chancellor at one post-92 UK university, a modernisation project was introduced aimed at maximising the institutions' research standing. For the…

  17. [Modernisation of the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents].

    PubMed

    Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-04-01

    In January 2002 the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials was organised in Scotland. The meeting was an initiative of both academic and industrial partners, in order to arrive at a consensus about ways to modernise the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents (Caries Clinical Trials or CCTs). All presentations delivered at the workshop and the consensus statements formulated at the end of the workshop were published last year in a special issue of the Journal of Dental Research. In this paper some important aspects are highlighted and the workshop conclusions are presented.

  18. Markets, modernisation and national interest: three faces of patient choice policy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin; Hughes, David; Yıldırım, Türkan

    2011-03-01

    This article discusses three faces of patient choice policy in a developing country, Turkey. As part of its wider health transformation programme (HTP), Turkey has created a purchaser/provider system in which a single public purchaser channels funding to a range of public and private hospitals, and patients--in theory at least--are given significant freedoms to choose their hospital and physician. At the same time, marketisation has been softened by an emphasis on the creation of 'human-centred' services, resulting in a variety of initiatives to enhance patient rights and using a similar rhetoric to that employed in modernising 'third-way' reforms in countries such as the United Kingdom. We argue that neither markets nor modernisation fully explain the specifics of Turkish choice policy, which is also driven by the strong political imperative arising from Turkey's proximity to the European Union and its accession ambitions. Europeanisation represents an approach to markets softened by social solidarity, and gives the Turkish reforms a very different profile from neo-liberal reforms implemented in other middle income countries. However, in practice, medical workforce shortages, the uneven distribution of resources across the nation, and the lack of systematic information on provider outcomes limit the scope of choice for much of the population. In this situation, a planned allocation of resources to support equity of provision has advantages over a system where resource flows to providers are determined by individual patient choices.

  19. Modernisation and children's blood pressure: On and off the tourist trail in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Tessa M.; Ward, Gill A.; Thornley, Jeremy; Wooster, Gordon; Wooster, Jeanette; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken for 231 children between 11 and 14 years in the Annapurna area of Central Nepal, a popular tourist destination. Children from villages on the tourist trail, whose lifestyles were generally more modernised, were compared with children from nearby villages off the tourist trail. Indications of greater modernisation on the trail included the findings that fathers of children living on the trail were less likely to work as farmers than fathers of those off the trail (P = 0.003), and children living on the trail were much more likely to have seen television (P < 0.001). Children on the tourist trail were taller and heavier (P < 0.001), and had higher body mass indices (P = 0.003) and biceps skinfolds (P = 0.005). They also had higher diastolic blood pressure than children living off the trail (P = 0.02). The differences in weight appeared to account for the effect of living on the trail on diastolic blood pressure, since when weight was added to the model it showed a significant association with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.02) and the effect of location became nonsignificant. For the biceps skinfold and systolic blood pressure, there was a significant sex difference in the effect of living on the trail (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05 respectively), such that among girls there were greater increases associated with living on the trail than there were among boys. The findings suggest that lifestyle changes linked to the development of tourism in Nepal are associated from an early age with potentially deleterious changes in cardiovascular characteristics and demonstrate that such socioeconomic changes can have quite local effects. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:478-486, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Modernisation, smoking and chronic disease: Of temporality and spatiality in global health.

    PubMed

    Reubi, David

    2016-05-01

    This article explores the spatio-temporal logics at work in global health. Influenced by ideas of time-space compression, the global health literature argues that the world is characterised by a convergence of disease patterns and biomedical knowledge. While not denying the influence of these temporalities and spatialities of globalisation within the global health and chronic disease field, the article argues that they sit alongside other, often-conflicting notions of time and space. To do so, it explores the spatio-temporal logics that underpin a highly influential epidemiological model of the smoking epidemic. Unlike the temporalities and spatialities of sameness described in much of the global health literature, the article shows that this model is articulated around temporalities and spatialities of difference. This is not the difference celebrated by postmoderns, but the difference of modernisation theorists built around nations, sequential stages and progress. Indeed, the model, in stark contrast to the 'one world, one time, one health' globalisation mantra, divides the world into nation-states and orders them along epidemiological, geographical and development lines. PMID:25956260

  1. Modernisation, smoking and chronic disease: Of temporality and spatiality in global health.

    PubMed

    Reubi, David

    2016-05-01

    This article explores the spatio-temporal logics at work in global health. Influenced by ideas of time-space compression, the global health literature argues that the world is characterised by a convergence of disease patterns and biomedical knowledge. While not denying the influence of these temporalities and spatialities of globalisation within the global health and chronic disease field, the article argues that they sit alongside other, often-conflicting notions of time and space. To do so, it explores the spatio-temporal logics that underpin a highly influential epidemiological model of the smoking epidemic. Unlike the temporalities and spatialities of sameness described in much of the global health literature, the article shows that this model is articulated around temporalities and spatialities of difference. This is not the difference celebrated by postmoderns, but the difference of modernisation theorists built around nations, sequential stages and progress. Indeed, the model, in stark contrast to the 'one world, one time, one health' globalisation mantra, divides the world into nation-states and orders them along epidemiological, geographical and development lines.

  2. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  3. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project. PMID:19205119

  4. Creating an integrated public sector? Labour's plans for the modernisation of the English health care system

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The current Labour Government has embarked on radical public sector reform in England. A so-called ‘Modernisation Agenda’ has been developed that is encapsulated in the NHS Plan—a document that details a long-term vision for health care. This plan involves a five-fold strategy: investment through greater public funding; quality assurance; improving access; service integration and inter-professional working; and providing a public health focus. The principles of Labour's vision have been broadly supported. However, achieving its aims appears reliant on two key factors. First, appropriate resources are required to create capacity, particularly management capacity, to enable new functions to develop. Second, promoting access and service integration requires the development of significant co-ordination, collaboration and networking between agencies and individuals. This is particularly important for health and social care professionals. Their historically separate professions suggest that a significant period of change management is required to allow new roles and partnerships to evolve. In an attempt to secure delivery of its goals, however, the Government has placed the emphasis on further organisational restructuring. In doing so, the Government may have missed the key challenges faced in delivering its NHS Plan. As this paper argues, cultural and behavioural change is probably a far more appropriate and important requirement for success than a centrally directed approach that emphasises the rearrangement of structural furniture. PMID:16896369

  5. What Children Have Lost by the Modernisation of Education: A Comparison of Experiences in Western Europe and Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The discovery of the proper value of childhood during the 18th century in Europe was an important break-through. People began to respect childhood as a sacred world that should not be judged from the standpoint of adults. However, in today' world many children are subjected to all kinds of physical and mental pain, including the so-called examination hell in some Asian countries. Children now live in a paradoxical situation. Theoretically they have obtained the right to enjoy their own world, approved and protected by adults, but in practice they cannot adapt themselves smoothly to the world mainly ruled by the logic of grown-ups. This paper argues that it is time to re-evaluate what has been lost under the slogan of modernisation. The solution is not simply to return to the pre-modern situation but rather to consider what elements from the past could be re-activated to the benefit of children today.

  6. Impact of Modernising Medical Careers on basic surgical training and experience of oral and maxillofacial higher surgical trainees.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Jagtar; Opie, Niel; Webster, Keith; Tanday, Ajit; Mumtaz, Shadaab; Visram, Semina

    2011-01-01

    Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a programme for change that aims to improve the quality of patients' care through improvement in postgraduate medical education and training. Its introduction had far reaching affects and many shortcoming due to its failure to take into account the craft specialties. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the impact of MMC on oral and maxillofacial surgical (OMFS) training. An online questionnaire was distributed to OMFS trainees, and data were gathered about current position, year of training, duration and specialties worked during basic surgical training, stage of completion of examinations and courses, and overall satisfaction with training. Comparisons were made between those who had been trained before and after MMC was introduced. Ninety-five trainees (68%) responded. Of these 66 (69%) had basic surgical training before the introduction of MMC and 29 (31%) afterwards. MMC shortened overall time spent on basic surgical training of OMFS trainees by half, to only 1 year. There were similarities between the two groups in terms of the range of specialties experienced. MMC also resulted in more trainees starting higher surgical training without their Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons. There was greater satisfaction with BST for the pre-MMC group than the post-MMC group. It is hoped that the recent changes to training that were implemented after this study will address some of the shortcomings that we have identified.

  7. A 15-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Trends in Elective Urological Surgery – An Evidence Base for Modernising Medical Careers

    PubMed Central

    Nathaniel, C; Sangar, VK; Payne, SR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The impact of Modernising Medical Careers on the differential need for consultant urologists and urological surgeons is as yet unknown. This study's aim was to determine what changes there had been in operative urological activity so as to predict the need for urological surgeons in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of all elective operative urological surgery over a 15-year period was performed. The absolute numbers of patients presenting for different grades of surgery were aggregated and analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS Aggregated data from 27,839 procedures demonstrated no change in the number of operations (r 0.01; NS) or the number of diagnostic endoscopic procedures (r 0.21; NS) carried out over the study period. There was a decrease in endoscopic surgery related to a 70% reduction in trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (r −0.89; P = <0.0001) and an increase in ureteroscopic interventions (r 0.82; P = 0.0002) for stone disease. There was no change in the amount of major surgery carried out (r −0.43; NS) over the 15 years. CONCLUSIONS There have been changes to the pattern of surgery urologists have provided over the last 15 years but the need for complex surgical interventions has not altered. This suggests there will be as great a need for operating surgeons in the future, as currently exists. PMID:17346412

  8. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940–73

    PubMed Central

    Nott, John

    2016-01-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda’s dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  9. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940-73.

    PubMed

    Nott, John

    2016-04-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda's dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  10. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940-73.

    PubMed

    Nott, John

    2016-04-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda's dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy.

  11. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  12. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers. PMID:19238922

  13. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  14. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  15. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  16. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  17. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  18. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  19. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  20. Modernising the Schools Infrastructure in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeton, Ken

    This keynote speech addresses how to modernize school infrastructure for the delivery of 21st century education in England, including the background of the English education system and the current state of the English school estate and maintenance backlog. It discusses the government's role for improving the education system and raising standards,…

  1. Vocational Training in Germany: Modernisation and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in Germany. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Part I is "The…

  2. Modernising Education: International Dialogue and Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orekhova, Elena; Polunina, Liudmila

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the internationalization of higher education and its consequences both for education policy and educational practice in Russia. The internationalization is considered to be not only a political and social process but also a cultural phenomenon having a considerable impact on the modernization of education. Within this context…

  3. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  4. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  5. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  6. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  7. A Cluster of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide Biosynthesis from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Murray, Barbara E.; Weinstock, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous work identified a cosmid clone containing a 43-kb insert from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF that produced a nonprotein antigen in Escherichia coli. In the present work, we studied this clone in detail. Periodate treatment of lysates of the clone confirmed that the antigen was carbohydrate in nature. Analysis of DNA sequences and transposon insertion mutants suggested that the insert contained a multicistronic gene cluster. Database comparison showed that the cluster contained genes similar to genes involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-rhamnose, glycosyltransferases, and ABC transporters involved in the export of sugar polymers from both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Insertions in several genes within the cluster abolished the immunoreactivity of the clone. This is the first report on a gene cluster of E. faecalis involved in the biosynthesis of an antigenic polysaccharide. PMID:9712783

  8. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  9. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  10. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  11. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  12. DC-8-based observations of aircraft CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O(g) emission indices during SUCCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, S. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Podolske, J. R.; Twohy, C. H.; Gandrud, B.; Chan, K. R.; Baughcum, S. L.; Wallio, H. A.

    We report the first measurements of CO, CH4, N2O, CO2, and H2O(g) in the exhaust trails of T-39, B-757, and DC-8 aircraft at cruise conditions. Emission indices (EI) derived from these in-situ measurements are presented. Results are in agreement with ground-based tests indicating aircraft act as a net sink for CH4 and recent airborne in-situ measurements that N2O is not an important exhaust constituent. Condensation of H2O(g) on exhaust particles resulted in EI(H2O(g)) values less than those expected from the combustion of fuel alone. Observed apparent negative EI(H2O(g)) values suggest that aircraft aerosol emissions, under unique atmospheric conditions, seed cloud formation and lead to dehydration of the exhaust-influenced air parcel. Such conditions may induce the formation of cirrus clouds from persistent contrails. Comparisons with the Boeing EMIT Code show measurement-derived CO emission index values consistent with model evaluations.

  13. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  14. Modernisation of the Narod fluxgate electronics at Budkov Geomagnetic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlk, Michal

    2013-04-01

    From the signal point of view, fluxgate unit is a low-frequency parametric up-convertor where the output signal is picked up in bands near second harmonic of the pump frequency fp (sometimes called idler for historic reasons) and purity of idler is augmented by orthogonal construction of the pump and pick-up coil. In our concept, the pump source uses Heegner quartz oscillator near 8 MHz, synchronous divider to 16 kHz (fp) and switched current booster. Rectangular pulse is used for feeding the original ferroresonant pump source with neutralizing transformer in the case of symmetric shielded cabling. Input transformer has split primary winding for using symmetrical shielded input cabling and secondary winding tuned by polystyrol capacitor and loaded by inverting integrator bridged by capacitor. This structure behaves like resistor cooled to low temperature. Next stage is bandpass filter (derivator) with a gain tuned to 2 fp with leaky FDNRs followed by current booster. Another part of the system is low-noise peak elimination and bias circuit. Heart of the system is a 120-V precision source which uses 3.3-V Zener diode chain - thermistor bridge in the feedback. Peak elimination circuit logics consists of the envelope detector, comparators, asynchronous counter in hardwired logics, set of weighted resistor chains and discrete MOS switches in current-mode. All HV components use airy montage to prevent the ground-leak. After 200 m long coaxial line, the signal is galvanically separated by transformer and fed into A/D converter, which is ordinary HD audio (96 kHz) soundcard. Real sample rate is constructed by a-posteriori data processing when statistic properties of the incoming sample are known. The sampled signal is band-pass filtered with a 200-Hz filter centered at 2 fp. The signal is then fed through a first-order allpass centered at 2 fp. The result approximates Hilbert transform sufficiently good for detecting the envelope via square sum-root rule. The signal is further decimated via IIR filters to sample-rate 187.5 Hz. Raw instrument data files are saved hourly in floating-point binary files and are marked by time stamps obtained from NTP server. A-posteriory processing of (plesiochronous) instrument data consists of downsampling by IIRs to 12 Hz, irrational (time-mark driven) upsampling to 13 Hz and then using the INTERMAGNET standard FIR filter (5 sec to 1 min) to obtain 1-min data. Because the range of the signal processing system is about 60 nT (range of the peak elimination circuit is 3.8 uT), the resulting magnetograms look like the La Cour ones.

  15. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  16. Quality Risk Management. Modernising the Architecture of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raban, Colin; Turner, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Although the world is changing, quality management remains an area of relative calm. Many institutions continue to use elaborated versions of a model that is developed by the Council of Academic Awards and conceived at a time when higher education was not so exposed to market forces, when the policy and regulatory environment was relatively…

  17. Performance Ecologies, Biotic Rights and Retro-Modernisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Baz

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a paper first presented at the Performance Studies international annual conference on Performing Rights at Queen Mary, University of London, 2006. It has been rewritten specially for this themed issue of "RiDE" in light of my research following publication of "Theatre Ecology: Environments and Performance Events" in 2007.…

  18. Ambivalence, Modernisation and Language Attitudes: French and Arabic in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the ambivalent attitude toward the major speech varieties used in Tunisia (French, Classical Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic) and seeks to show the effects of that ambivalence on language policy, especially with regard to Arabization and bilingualism. (EKN)

  19. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  20. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  1. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  2. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  3. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  4. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  5. Changes in Antibody Levels during and following an Episode of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL) among Lymphedema Patients in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Katherine E.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Klein, Mitchel; Kleinbaum, David G.; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF). They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens. Methods We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens. Results Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2), Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351) and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074) showed a significant result. Conclusion Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial

  6. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  7. Complex rupture source of the 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake derived from geologic, geodetic, and seismologic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R. W.; Hayes, G. P.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C. S.; Hudnut, K. W.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.; Jean, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake initially appeared to be a straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North America plates along the previously recognized Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF). Our combined geologic field observations, space geodetic measurements, and seismologic data show that the rupture process of this event involved slip on multiple faults and that slip along the EPGF was minimal or absent. Instead, primary surface deformation resulted from rupture on previously unrecognized blind thrust faults with only minor, deep lateral slip along or near the main EPGF. We quantified uplift along the coast north of the EPGF using vertically displaced coral microatolls. SAR interferograms demonstrate that the observed coastal deformation reflects a broader pattern of uplift and subsidence. Seismologic observations (including body-wave first motions, high non-double couple components of moment tensor inversions, the aftershock distribution and their associated moment tensors) imply that the rupture involved multiple faults. A joint inversion of all data sets yields a preferred model of slip on three faults to explain the principal observations. Moment-release calculations show that this event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. The lack of surface deformation along the EPGF--which shows clear field evidence for Holocene, and probably historic surface rupture--and the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting implies that considerable shallow shear strain remains to be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGF, including the section adjacent to Port-au-Prince. Because the geologic signature of this earthquake involves broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone, the event will not leave a distinct geologic signal that will be easily recognized

  8. Capitalist Bears and Socialist Modernisation: Chinese Children's Literature in the Post-Mao Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Lijun

    2003-01-01

    Discusses what Chinese children have read in the last quarter of the 20th century. Notes that much of Chinese children's literature contains strong political, moral, and ideological messages. Examines the official guidelines for children's literature in the post-Mao era. Concludes that in the post-Mao period, the state has become more flexible,…

  9. Beyond professional boundaries: relationships and resources in health services' modernisation in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Huby, Guro; Harris, Fiona M; Powell, Alison E; Kielman, Tara; Sheikh, Aziz; Williams, Sian; Pinnock, Hilary

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on theories of social capital to understand ways in which the negotiation of professional boundaries among healthcare professionals relates to health services change. We compared reconfiguration of respiratory services in four primary care organisations (PCOs) in England and Wales. Service development was observed over 18 months during a period of market-based reforms. Serial interviews with key clinicians and managers from hospital trusts and PCOs followed progress as they collaborated around, negotiated and contested developments. We found that professionals work to protect and expand their claims to work territory. Remuneration and influence was a catalyst for development and was also necessary to establish professional boundaries that underpinned novel service arrangements. Conflict and contest was less of a threat to change than a lack of engagement in boundary work because this engagement produced relationships based on forming shifting professional allegiances across and along boundaries, and these relationships mediated the social capital needed to accomplish change. However, this process also (re)produced inequalities among professions and prevented some groups from participation in service change. PMID:24266800

  10. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  11. Medical Refugees and the Modernisation of British Medicine, 1930–1960

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reappraises the position of medical refugees in Britain between the 1930s and 1950s. Advocates of reforming British medicine in terms of its knowledge base and social provision emerged as strongly supportive of the medical refugees. By way of contrast, an élite in the British Medical Association attempted to exercise a controlling regime through the Home Office Advisory Committee. The effects of these divisions are gauged by reconstructing the complete spectrum of refugees as a total population. Applying this methodology of population reconstruction provides a corrective to the notion of a cohesive ‘medical establishment’ exercising rigid and discriminatory controls. PMID:26166948

  12. Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Funding and the Social Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Dalferth, Simon; Kerpanova, Viera; Parveva, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address the social dimension of higher education more forcefully and coherently, particularly in view of the economic downturn across Europe. This is the conclusion of the new Eurydice report, which looks at national policies on access to higher education, funding and student support. The report, covering EU Member…

  13. Individual identity and organisational control: empowerment and modernisation in a primary care trust.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth

    2004-11-01

    The notion of empowerment has been increasingly used within management discourses in recent years. Enthusiastic supporters conceive it as an acknowledgement of the individual employee as a talented, creative being, and hence a productive resource for contributing to organisational goals. Alternatively, more critical commentators have interpreted it as another means of exercising control over employees and their identities. Although various commentators have speculated on the management of identity as a means of organizational control, there is very little empirical work from which to draw conclusions. This paper, using participant observation and interview data, represents a contribution to the small body of empirical research in the area. It focuses on an initiative aimed ostensibly at 'empowering' staff in an English Primary Care Trust, which may be seen as an attempt at increasing organisational control by shaping employee identities. As such, these processes can be understood more readily in terms of ethics rather than empowerment. The term ethics is used here in a Foucauldian sense and is linked to the processes of self-definition and self-constraint by which individuals train themselves to become ethical persons. The paper suggests that the outcome of attempts to manufacture particular forms of subjectivity by such methods as 'empowerment' programmes may be very different from those intended. PMID:15610473

  14. Power to Innovate? A Study of How Primary Practitioners Are Negotiating the Modernisation Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Although standards and accountability continue to be at the centre of education policy in England, there has been a shift in emphasis encouraging practitioners to take ownership of and deliver a broader curriculum. This article explores specific projects in one primary school that highlight the way in which staff are embracing, extending and…

  15. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and '70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT's historic buildings, especially after Poland's accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the `modern' and the `traditional'.

  16. Germany's System of Vocational Education and Training: Challenges and Modernisation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The German education system has recently come under fire with the publication of various international studies on student performance (OECD 2000; 2003). And in the first national "Education Report" (Bildungsbericht) published in October 2003 (Avenarius et al. 2003), the German ministers of education point out serious deficiencies in the country's…

  17. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Bendimerad, Patrick; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Perney, Pascal; Dematteis, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. PMID:25402563

  18. Individual identity and organisational control: empowerment and modernisation in a primary care trust.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth

    2004-11-01

    The notion of empowerment has been increasingly used within management discourses in recent years. Enthusiastic supporters conceive it as an acknowledgement of the individual employee as a talented, creative being, and hence a productive resource for contributing to organisational goals. Alternatively, more critical commentators have interpreted it as another means of exercising control over employees and their identities. Although various commentators have speculated on the management of identity as a means of organizational control, there is very little empirical work from which to draw conclusions. This paper, using participant observation and interview data, represents a contribution to the small body of empirical research in the area. It focuses on an initiative aimed ostensibly at 'empowering' staff in an English Primary Care Trust, which may be seen as an attempt at increasing organisational control by shaping employee identities. As such, these processes can be understood more readily in terms of ethics rather than empowerment. The term ethics is used here in a Foucauldian sense and is linked to the processes of self-definition and self-constraint by which individuals train themselves to become ethical persons. The paper suggests that the outcome of attempts to manufacture particular forms of subjectivity by such methods as 'empowerment' programmes may be very different from those intended.

  19. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the complex relationship of capital accumulation, external debt, and food supply in Brazil, a country which has simultaneously increased its food exports and its unsatisfied demand for food imports in the context of the world economic crisis. In Brazil, the substitution of export cash crops for subsistence crops has been accompanied by a profound but incomplete restructuring of the basic food supply and model of consumption, a restructuring made possible by declining real cost of the new foods. The gap between the extremely rapid evolution of consumption, especially in the urban areas, and the possibilities of concomitant transformation of production is the characteristic feature of the change occuring in Brazil. The current diet of the developed countries evolved over a relatively long period and was based on the declining real cost of basic foodstuffs made possible by increasing labor productivity. Between 1800-1900, the real cost of a kilo of bread was halved, while that of meat remained stable. In France and the US respectively, 80 and 90% of the principal cereals are consumed by animals, while in developing countries most grains are directly consumed. Numerous indices suggest that Brazil has begun to differentiate its food regime in the direction of decreased consumption of cereals, tubers, and legumes, and increased consumption of animal products, with grains increasingly consumed indirectly by animals. Since the early 1970s, Brazil has developed a powerful processed food industry which supports intensive breeding of poultry and, to a lesser extent, pork and milk cattle. However, low income population groups have been forced to reduce their consumption of traditional foodstuffs, whose real prices have undergone relative increases, without achieving a satisfactory level of consumption of the new products. Brazilian food problems result not from insufficient production of food but from the choice of a strongly internationalist model of development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  20. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

  1. Radical Policies, Progressive Modernisation and Deepening Democracy: The Academies Programme in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the tricky things we have to wrestle at present is whether or not we should believe what often sounds like good policy, policy that trumpets the involvement of those who are to be affected by it. Is "engaging with the local" to be taken seriously or not? Is the language of participation a linguistic sleight of hand or an indicator of a…

  2. Current Problems and Developments of VET in Germany--The Educational Case for Modernisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Germany's Dual System of apprenticeship and training has been criticized for obsolescence and social segmentation. Some advocate a more flexible approach to improve training programs. Although new types of training are emerging, the lower end of the qualifications ladder is being neglected. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  3. "Modernisation" and the Role of Policy Levers in the Learning and Skills Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Richard; Spours, Ken; Hodgson, Ann; Finlay, Ian; Coffield, Frank; Edward, Sheila; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the changing use of policy levers in the English postcompulsory education and training system, often referred to as the learning and skills sector (LSS). Policy steering by governments has increased significantly in recent years, bringing with it the development of new forms of arms-length regulation. In the English context,…

  4. New Capitalism, Educational Modernisation and the New Role of the Professional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsarika, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Current times are witnessing multiple challenges in the economic, political and social domain, which modern citizens and professionals are required to address with an enterprising mindset. Young people have not been left intact by the spirit of new capitalism. In the face of ongoing educational changes on a European level, being a student…

  5. Investing in Change. An Appraisal of Staff Development Needs for the Delivery of Modernised Occupational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Regional and national seminars provided an opportunity for some 500 experts from industry and further education (FE) to analyze staff development needs related to modernization of occupational training in England. Eight issues affecting staff development were identified: environmental factors, access, relevance, design, delivery, assessment,…

  6. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  7. The Slow Process of Modernising Teacher Training in Music in New South Wales, 1920-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaseling, Marilyn; Boyd, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The need for appropriately trained teachers to teach in its schools has been a priority for the Department of Education (hereafter referred to as the Department) since the beginning of public education in New South Wales in the 1850s. This paper presents an overview of the provisions made by the Department for the musical development of its…

  8. Frederik Kaiser (1808-1872) and the Modernisation of Dutch Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Petra

    Frederik Kaiser was the director of Leiden Observatory from 1837 until his death in 1872. Educated by his German-born uncle Johan Frederik Keyser (1766-1823), who was a proficient amateur astronomer, Kaiser proved to be a real observational talent. Despite the poor conditions in which he worked, his observations soon rivalled with the best in the world. Kaiser's contributions to astronomical practice include the foundation of a new, completely up-to-date observatory building in Leiden, and the introduction of statistics and precision measurements in daily practice at the observatory. Moreover he was the author of several bestselling books on popular astronomy. Kaiser had an extensive correspondence with colleagues all over Europe, mostly in Germany. Correpondents include Airy, Argelander, Von Auwers, Bessel, Encke, John Herschel, LeVerrier, Von Littrow, Schumacher, Otto W. Struve, as well as several geodesists and instrument makers. Preliminary research indicates that Frederik Kaiser played a crucial role in the revival of Dutch astronomy in the second half of the 19th century. This project aims at analysing and explaining Kaiser's activities in science, institutionalisation and popularisation, in the context of national and international developments in 19th-century astronomy and scientific culture.

  9. The N-Terminal Region of the Oenococcus oeni Bacteriophage fOg44 Lysin Behaves as a Bona Fide Signal Peptide in Escherichia coli and as a cis-Inhibitory Element, Preventing Lytic Activity on Oenococcal Cells

    PubMed Central

    São-José, Carlos; Parreira, Ricardo; Vieira, Graça; Santos, Mário A.

    2000-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of the Oenococcus oeni phage fOg44 lysin (Lys44) as an export signal was investigated. We observed that when induced in Escherichia coli, Lys44 was cleaved between residues 27 and 28 in a SecA-dependent manner. Lys44 processing could be blocked by a specific signal peptidase inhibitor and was severely reduced by modification of the cleavage site. The lethal effect of Lys44 expression observed in E. coli was ascribed to the presence of its N-terminal 27-residue sequence, as its deletion resulted in the production of a nontoxic, albeit active, product. We have further established that lytic activity in oenococcal cells was dependent on Lys44 processing. An active protein with the molecular mass expected for the cleaved enzyme was detected in extracts from O. oeni-infected cells. The temporal pattern of its appearance suggests that synthesis and export of Lys44 in the infected host progress along with phage maturation. Overall, these results provide, for the first time, experimental evidence for the presence of a signal peptide in a bacteriophage lysin. Database searches and alignment of protein sequences support the prediction that other known O. oeni and Lactococcus lactis phages also encode secretory lysins. The evolutionary significance of a putative phage lysis mechanism relying on secretory lytic enzymes is tentatively discussed, on the basis of host cell wall structure and autolytic capacity. PMID:11004183

  10. Austerity and Modernisation, One Nation Labour--Localism, the Economy and Vocational Education and Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses national and global questions concerned with neoliberalism, social democracy and social justice. It explores a number of themes that arise from the British Labour Party's policy review and its rebranding as One Nation Labour (ONL). In particular it addresses ONL's approach to the economy, localism and vocational…

  11. Extension and modernisation of the system of municipal heat distribution networks and elimination of emission in the remaining sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ciurlik, L.

    1995-12-31

    After a preliminary conference held in November 1992, the MPEC SA made contact with 6 US companies so as to prepare offers and the implementation of joint projects. According to their assumptions, those tasks had been picked up and prepared in order to be useful in solving a part of problems related with technology and organization which would be encountered by the MPEC SA of that time. Those decisions were well-aimed, yet the long time that had elapsed till the moment of their implementation did affect them in part. The development of free market economy in Poland was taking place without influencing the program assumptions. The MPEC SA was then interested in the enterprises which presented their activity.

  12. Modernisation of a test rig for determination of vehicle shock absorber characteristics by considering vehicle suspension elements and unsprung masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniowski, M.; Para, S.; Knapczyk, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a modernization approach of a standard test bench for determination of damping characteristics of automotive shock absorbers. It is known that the real-life work conditions of wheel-suspension dampers are not easy to reproduce in laboratory conditions, for example considering a high frequency damper response or a noise emission. The proposed test bench consists of many elements from a real vehicle suspension. Namely, an original tyre-wheel with additional unsprung mass, a suspension spring, an elastic top mount, damper bushings and a simplified wheel guiding mechanism. Each component was tested separately in order to identify its mechanical characteristics. The measured data serve as input parameters for a numerical simulation of the test bench behaviour by using a vibratory model with 3 degrees of freedom. Study on the simulation results and the measurements are needed for further development of the proposed test bench.

  13. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  14. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

  15. The Modernisation of European Universities: Cross-National Academic Perspectives. Higher Education Research and Policy. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek, Ed.; Kurkiewicz, Andrzej, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The recent decade brought about new ways of thinking about universities. European-level educational policies became increasingly influential as the agenda of university reforms was viewed as part of greater Lisbon strategy reforms. National governments adopted the economic concept of the university consistently developed in subsequent official…

  16. Educational Reform and Modernisation in Europe: The Role of National Contexts in Mediating the New Public Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Gunter, Helen M; Møller, Jorunn; Serpieri, Roberto; Skedsmo, Guri

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spread of new public management (NPM) across European education systems as it has traversed national boundaries. While recognising the transnational dimensions of the spread of NPM, the authors offer new insights into the importance of national contexts in mediating this development in educational settings by focusing…

  17. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  18. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  19. Communist Education as Modernisation Strategy? the Swings of the Globalisation Pendulum in Eastern Europe (1947-1989)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincu, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the influence of Soviet educational models and Western European contacts, mediated by historical institutional and cultural legacies in producing specifically Eastern educational variants. A first level of analysis will identify the reasons behind the emergence of these variations. A second and higher level of analysis…

  20. Reflecting the scope and work of palliative care teams today: an action research project to modernise a national minimum data set.

    PubMed

    Jack, B A; Littlewood, C; Eve, A; Murphy, D; Khatri, A; Ellershaw, J E

    2009-01-01

    The Minimum Data Set (MDS) for UK specialist palliative care services was developed in 1995 to provide annual data on palliative care services. Data collected is used for local and national purposes including service management, monitoring and audit, the commissioning of services and the development of national policy. The emergence of Payment by Results and HealthCare Resource Groups, which will have an impact on the funding processes, together with identified limitations of the current MDS resulted in a project to revise the MDS. An action research approach was used for the project and had distinctive phases including modifying the MDS, a pilot phase and an expert panel consultation. Modifications to all the sections of the MDS and changes to terminology were made. The action research approach enabled revisions made based upon a national consensus and met the changing provision of specialist palliative care services for the UK.

  1. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  2. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  3. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  4. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  5. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  6. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  7. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  8. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  9. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  10. Gocad2OGS: Workflow to Integrate Geo-structural Information into Numerical Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Naumov, Dmitri; Sattler, Sabine; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of fluid circulation in the Thuringian syncline is one of the INFLUINS project's targets. A 3D geo-structural model including 12 stratigraphic layers and 54 fault zones is created by geologists in the first step using the Gocad software. Within the INFLUINS project a ground-water flow simulation is used to check existing hypotheses and to gain new ideas of the underground fluid flow behaviour. We used the scientific, platform independent, open source software OpenGeoSys that implements the finite element method to solve the governing equations describing fluid flow in porous media. The geo-structural Gocad model is not suitable for the FEM numerical analysis. Therefore it is converted into an unstructured grid satisfying all mesh quality criteria required for the ground-water flow simulation. The resulting grid is stored in an open data format given by the Visualization Toolkit (vtk). In this work we present a workflow to convert geological structural models, created using the Gocad software, into a simulation model that is easy to use from numerical simulation software. We tested our workflow with the 3D geo-structural model of the Thuringian syncline and were able to setup and to evaluate a hydrogeological simulation model successfully.

  11. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  12. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  13. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  14. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-07-19

    This fourth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Work done this quarter has been primarily devoted to improving the apparatus and data collection system. This includes a totally new optical setup, continued development of a new imaging spectrometer, and software improvements. Additionally, interest from other mining operations has arisen and sample of titanium and talc have now been obtained for preliminary analysis. Work is ongoing with coal samples, although it appears a more diverse sampling may be required. With the improvements now being made in the system, much faster and more user-friendly data collection and analysis will result in faster and better turn-around for sample analysis.

  15. Optical limiting in semiconductor-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    We report optical limiting at 527 nm in two Schott semiconductor-doped glasses OG530 and OG515. These two glasses show quite contrasting nonlinear optical behaviour. The glass OG515 shows strong clamping while OG530 shows no clamping in optical limiting inspite of having much larger nonlinear refractive index. Similarly OG530 exhibits saturation of absorption while OG515 does not.

  16. The "Great Refusal"? A Marcusian Response to the Bright Blue Vision of Education in the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The modernisation of education and other public services remains a major political objective of the current Coalition government in the UK. This paper focuses on "Tory Modernisation 2.0," a blueprint for the second stage of the public sector reform produced by the Conservative pressure group, Bright Blue. From the critical theory…

  17. New Partnerships for Learning: Meeting Professional Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon-Leary, Pat; Carr, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been prompted by the challenges created by recent proposed reforms to social care services in the UK services which are being "modernised", a term ubiquitous in policy documents but difficult to define with confidence. Government modernisation and e-government programmes highlight with renewed urgency the need for social care…

  18. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  19. The formation of pentagon-heptagon pair defect by the reconstruction og vacancy defects in carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.D.; Wang, C.Z.; Yoon, E.; Hwang, N.M.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-29

    The reconstruction process of vacancy hole in carbon nanotube is investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations and by ab initio total energy calculations. In the molecular dynamics simulation, a vacancy hole is found to reconstruct into two separated pentagon-heptagon pair defects. As the result of reconstruction, the radius of the carbon nanotube is reduced and the chirality of the tube is partly changed. During the vacancy hole healing process, the formation of pentagonal and heptagonal rings is proceeded by the subsequent Stone-Wales.

  20. National Development Generates National Identities.

    PubMed

    Golob, Tea; Makarovič, Matej; Suklan, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  1. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  2. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow.

  3. First zoeal stage of the partner shrimp Periclimenes paivai Chace, with remarks on the genus Periclimenes O.G. Costa (Caridea, Palaemonidae.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, João A F; Terossi, Mariana; Costa, Rogério C; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the first zoeal stage of Periclimenes paivai Chace is described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae were obtained from three females with embryos, caught in the type locality (Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil). The morphological characters are detailed and compared with all previous descriptions of larvae in the genus (P. amethysteus, P. brevicarpalis, P. diversipes, P. pandionis, P. sagittifer and P. soror). The zoeae I of Periclimenes species are very similar, but P. paivai can be separated from the other six species by means of five characteristics: 8 plumose setae on the inner margin of the antennal scale, one spine on the endopod of the maxillule, one cuspidate seta on the basal endite of the maxilulle, one plumose seta on the single coxal endite of the maxilla, and one plumose seta on the endopod of the maxilla. Remarks from a comparative analysis of available descriptions of the genus are furnished. 

  4. Samtaler i hvid kittel: En analyse af indlaeggelsessamtaler og deres institutionelle betingelser (Conversations in White Aprons: An Analysis of Hospitalization Conversations and Their Institutional Conditions). ROLIG Papir 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jytte

    This report focuses on the communication that takes place between nurses and patients in a hospital setting. Nurses have for years been accused of talking at patients rather than talking to them. They have also been accused of using a language that patients do not know. The problem is partly a result of individual roles within the medical…

  5. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  6. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process.

  7. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process. PMID:27193611

  8. cDNA cloning and functional characterization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 orthologs from Oncidium Gower Ramsey involved in flower cutting and pollinia cap dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Tsai, Hsing-Chun; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2011-10-01

    The cDNAs encoding ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor, OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of Oncidium were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of identified cDNA clones contain all structural features found in the Arabidopsis EIN3, such as an amino terminal acidic domain, a proline-rich region, and five basic conserved domains. Complementation test for OgEIL1 in Arabidopsis ein3 mutant indicate that function of OgEIL1 is the same as Arabidopsis EIN3. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 expressed differentially in the roots, stem, leaves and flower buds of Oncidium. OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels in fully opened flowers increased as time progressed after cutting and reached a maximum in the fifth day and decreased on seventh day, which is consistent with the hypothesis that flowers initiated to wilt when ethylene raised abruptly. In de-capped flowers, OgEIL2 mRNA showed a decrease, while OgEIL1 mRNA exhibited an increase. Exogenous application of ethylene increased the mRNA levels of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 in flower buds and flowers after cutting compared prior to ethylene treatment, however, in pollinia de-capped flowers, both OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels responded to a decline to exogenous ethylene immediately after treatment. Collectively, it is suggested that the main functions of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 are to modulate the senescence of Oncidium flowers.

  9. Institutional transfer from the European design practices to Ukraine and Moldova: the case of hospital design.

    PubMed

    Plugaru, Rodica

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the development of post-soviet hospital design through the analysis of recent modernisations in Moldova and Ukraine. It consists of two parts. First, an introduction of the definition of hospital design as well as its main characteristics during the Soviet period. Secondly, a presentation of two hospital modernisations in Ukraine and Moldova. In a comparative perspective, the paper presents the actors involved, the difficulties in modernising the hospital regarding the inherited rules as well as the solutions advanced in order to implement a change. An introduction to the hospital design in Moldova and Ukraine will allow an in-depth study of the involvement of international actors in the post-communist transformations.

  10. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs.

  11. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  12. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  13. Two Grammatical Models of Modern English. The Old and the New from A to Z. Germanic Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurman, Frits

    Case studies provide detailed comparisons, arranged alphabetically by title for ease of reference, of 26 problems in Modern English grammar, from both the old grammar (OG) and new grammar (NG) viewpoints. This A-Z approach juxtaposes contributions made by OG and NG to the description of Modern English grammar. Part I surveys large OG and NG…

  14. Peer Pressure: Comments on the European Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesner, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the growing influence of informal and not democratically legitimised authority within the educational field in Europe. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework are discussed as instances of neoliberal strategies of modernisation that change the…

  15. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  16. Crises in EFL Proficiency and Teacher Development in the Context of International Donation and Transformation Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Ethiopia has been working to come out of social crises, modernise itself and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Although provided with billions of dollars by the West and their international agents, little has been changed and the crises seem never to abate, especially in the educational system. This study, thus, critically…

  17. New Labour and the Logic of Practice in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Forrester, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on data and theorising from the Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership (KPEL) Project where we have investigated New Labour's education policy and investment in headteachers as school leaders in England. New Labour took up office in May 1997 with a modernisation agenda and the leadership of schools is central to this…

  18. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  19. The Concept of Greater China in Higher Education: Adoptions, Dynamics and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting modernisation and globalisation in East Asia as processes of Westernisation creates confusion and discomfort among some academics from the region. To illustrate why such discomfort occurs, this article explores the changes in the higher education systems of Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China in terms of their "Chineseness"…

  20. "A Diploma and a Descendant!" Premarital Sexuality, Education and Politics among Dani University Students in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, the notion of "study first" ("kuliah dulu") pressures young adults to refrain from sex and delay marriage until they finish tertiary education. Recent scholarship has viewed choices to abstain from sex as evidence of the potency of values of modernisation, Islamic culture and the contemporary importance of moral and social order. By…

  1. Itineraries of the Discourses on Development and Education in Spain and Latin America (circa 1950-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossenbach, Gabriela; Martinez Boom, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The rise during the 1950s of a discourse centred on "development," together with the elaboration of the concept of "human capital," led to an altogether new paradigm of economic modernisation. The expansion of education and professional training was now viewed as a key strategy for those countries wishing to join the developed world. As a result,…

  2. The Democratisation of the Education System in France after the Second World War: A Neo-Weberian Glocal Approach to Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The structural reforms of the education system in France (1959, 1963, and 1975) were part both of a global process of democratisation of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernisation project in which knowledge producers (experts, scholars and consultants) played a crucial role. Instead of a national approach or a…

  3. Professional Development of Russian HEIs' Management and Faculty in CDIO Standards Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuchalin, Alexander; Malmqvist, Johan; Tayurskaya, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the approach to complex training of managers and faculty staff for system modernisation of Russian engineering education. As a methodological basis of design and implementation of the faculty development programme, the CDIO (Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate) Approach was chosen due to compliance of its concept to the purposes…

  4. Music Education Curriculum and Social Change: A Study of Popular Music in Secondary Schools in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese society over the last two decades, modernisation and globalisation, together with the transition to a market economy, have created new imperatives and challenges for the school music curriculum. As a result, the 2011 reform of the Curriculum Standards for Primary Education and Junior Secondary Education marks the first time that the…

  5. What Is the Public Role of the University? A Proposal for a Public Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert; Kwiek, Marek; Locke, Grahame; Martins, Herminio; Masschelein, Jan; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Simons, Maarten; Zgaga, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    With a view to meeting the demands of the knowledge economy and taking up a leading role in its further development, Europe and its member states are urging universities and institutions for higher education more generally to innovate and modernise themselves. Organisational structures, governance and management systems, curricula and teaching…

  6. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  7. Getting "Foolishly Hot and Bothered"? Parents and Teachers and Sex Education in the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Hera

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…

  8. Educational Biographies in Germany: From Secondary School General Education to Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebel, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the change in the transitional process from secondary school general education to gainful employment within the framework of societal modernisation processes in Germany. We analyse the relationship between the options for and restrictions upon individual educational mobility under the conditions imposed by the various…

  9. Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Allison; Barbour, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the North American Council for Online Learning surveyed the activity and policy relating to primary and secondary e-learning, which they defined as online learning, in a selection of countries. They found most were embracing e-learning delivery of education as a central strategy for enabling reform, modernising schools, and increasing…

  10. The Concept of "Educational Campus" and Its Application in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2010-01-01

    A university campus should reflect a commitment to quality and be dedicated to the intellectual, psychological and social development of its students. The "Educational Campus" is an innovative concept which espouses this concept and is designed to stimulate a process of modernisation in universities and contribute to their excellence. The theory…

  11. Language Planning, Naming and Character Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Shouhui; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    As Chinese characters ("hanzi") have three aspects--as a technical writing system, an aesthetic visual art (Chinese calligraphy), and a highly-charged cultural symbolic system--changing them is a complex process. In the 1950s when language planning campaigns were launched to modernise Chinese through "hanzi" standardisation, names were set aside…

  12. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  13. Competitiveness, Diversification and the International Higher Education Cash Flow: The EU's Higher Education Discourse amidst the Challenges of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the EU discourse on Higher Education and analyses this discourse within the context of globalisation. Importance is attached to the issues of lifelong learning, competitiveness, diversification, entrepreneurship, access, knowledge society, modernisation, quality assurance, innovation and creativity, governance and business-HE…

  14. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  15. European Teacher Education: A Fractal Perspective Tackling Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesa; Margiotta, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    This article takes stock of the complex scenario of the European education space in its past, present and future developments, which highlights the priorities of the modernisation, improvement and convergence of the goals for education and training systems in the knowledge and learning society. The critical case of teacher education is then…

  16. Ugandan Mathematics: An Unsolvable Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This author is on a journey--hoping that his expertise might have some small local impact. He shares his experiences that might relate to those who are thinking about volunteering abroad, or trying to modernise a system that is cemented in place. Creating change, developing teaching styles, and working for a charity are some of the challenges he…

  17. Tony Blair's Big Prize? A Reply to Furlong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dave; Gunter, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    In the December 2008 special issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" John Furlong focused upon Tony Blair's modernisation of the teaching profession and associated attempts to harness teacher professionalism to a broader reform agenda. This article responds to Furlong's contribution through an examination of the evidence base used to support his…

  18. Ideological Tensions in the Educational Choice Practices of Modern Greek Cypriot Parents: The Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony; Vryonides, Marios

    2005-01-01

    The rapid modernisation process of Greek Cypriot society has created a cultural environment with an amalgam of traditionalist and modernist ethical attitudes, and antagonisms between them concerning, among other things, social advancement. These have implications for the way individuals and families develop various strategies of choice-making for…

  19. Promoting Health in Hospitals: The Role of Beacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Watson, Jonathan; Hennessy, Sue

    2004-01-01

    "Best practice" is currently being used to enable modernisation within the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. One element of this is the Beacon programme where examples of hospitals that exemplify local "best practice" are supported to develop and disseminate learning across the wider NHS. The aims of this research were to map…

  20. Getting Education Right for Long-term Growth in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 497

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Widening the skills base and improving labour-market efficiency requires the support of good education. This paper describes the structure of the education system, identifies weaknesses and considers ways to improve performance in light of the ongoing rapidly expanding demand for tertiary level education. The paper discusses ways to modernise the…

  1. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  2. Personal Integration Resources of Mentally Handicapped Teenagers into Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konovalova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…

  3. The Latest Progress Report on ICT Application in Chinese Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jingtao, Zhang; Yuanyuan, Fang; Xiaoling, Ma

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating educational modernisation through information and communication technology (ICT) application in education is an important strategic measure taken by the Chinese government on the requirement of educational reform and development. After briefly introducing the status quo of Chinese basic education, this paper elaborates the significant…

  4. Developing International Campuses of Excellence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubiralta, Marius; Delgado, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Secretary General of Universities (SGU) of the Spanish Ministry of Education launched a new programme to foster the modernisation and internationalisation of Spanish university campuses. This initiative focused on teaching, research and aspects of technology transfer, but also developing the campus into an integral social model which…

  5. Linking Exploration and Exploitation: How a Think Tank Triggers a Managerial Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jetta; Vogel, Rick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we focus on think tanks as intermediaries between exploration and exploitation. To underpin our theoretical arguments on their linking function between both domains, we conducted a case study. The object of investigation is a think tank which has played a decisive role in the modernisation of the German public sector. The…

  6. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  7. A Study of the Shaping of the "Emotion and Attitude" Domain in the New English Language Curriculum of China through an EFL Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The English language curriculum (ELC) in China has undergone numerous changes since its modernisation movement in the late 1970s. The recent English language syllabus (2001) marks a new direction by incorporating "emotion and attitude" as one of the ELC's key domains. The implication is that the deep-rooted principle of learning a western language…

  8. Demography, Social Structure and Learning through Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, Ruud

    2010-01-01

    The modernisation of the Western world during the last two centuries has been a mix of industrialisation/computerisation and urbanisation. Consequently, reports on the future of adult learning and adult education have been a mix on the one hand of the learning requirements that follow from industrialisation/computerisation and on the other hand,…

  9. Efficiency and Counter-Revolution: Connecting University and Civil Service Reform in the 1850s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Historians have often recognised important links between the processes of university and civil service reform in mid-nineteenth-century England. Yet such connections are usually seen as forming part of a wider project of modernising reform with any conservative or counter-revolutionary aims largely discounted. However, as this article suggests,…

  10. The Identity of Educated Women in India: Confluence or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslak, Mary Ann; Singhal, Gayatri

    2008-01-01

    Under the combined effects of commercialisation, urbanisation, migration and employment, significant changes are taking place in India's process of modernisation. One change is the emergence of a population of women with degrees in higher education. These degrees, and the individuals' desire to pursue professional positions that relate to their…

  11. Educational Reform in China: Tensions in National Policy and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujin; Dunne, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    In the post-Mao era, the Chinese government carried out a series of education reforms to modernise education provision. This paper explores two related aspects of these reforms through comparative case study research in three different school locations within the same region in China. The first focus is upon system reform initiated through…

  12. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  13. The Importance of Workplace Learning for Trade Unions: A Study of the Steel Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between trade unions and learning in the workplace, particularly in relation to the enhancement of worker employability profiles. With the restructuring and modernising of the European steel industry as its context, this paper argues that the organisational and structural features of a sector have a…

  14. Making Sense of the Educational Present: Problematising the "Merit Turn" in the Italian Eduscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Barzano, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises the recent "merit turn" in the Italian education system. It addresses the analysis of how the global idea of "merit as lever for modernisation" and its related technologies have flowed into a regional education space through a set of four policy trajectories. It explores how these have partially…

  15. Teacher Agency and School-Based Curriculum in China's Non-Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has been embarking on a nation-wide education reform as part of its modernisation project for the past few decades. A relatively under-researched topic is teacher agency in non-elite schools where educators critically shape their reactions to new situations brought about by the reform. Focussing on the introduction of school-based…

  16. High Performance School Buildings in Portugal: A Life Cycle Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Graca Fonseca; da Costa, Marta Marques

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Portuguese government launched a major school modernisation programme, and has taken steps to ensure the long-term sustainability of facilities. A specially created state-owned company, Parque Escolar (PE) has already completed 104 schools; 70 are work-in-progress and an additional 39 are under design or tender. Parque Escolar is…

  17. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is…

  18. Popular Education and Social Movements in India: State Responses to Constructive Resistance for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2004-01-01

    The process of globalisation and modernisation of the south through "the development project" continues to "invite" resistance to ecological destruction and displacement of rural and forest-based communities. Post-developmentalist critics emphasise the significance of social movements in ushering in a new partnership for social justice at the…

  19. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the inequitable…

  20. E-Portfolios and Digital Identity: Some Issues for Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Mhairi

    2005-01-01

    As awarding bodies modernise their procedures and incorporate elements of e-assessment into their qualifications, e-portfolios are emerging as a popular method of allowing candidates to display their abilities. All major United Kingdom awarding bodies now accept evidence from e-portfolio products for at least some of their qualifications. Although…

  1. Diversity, Specialisation and Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris; Fitza, John; Gorard, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    School diversity in the UK is not a new phenomenon. However, recent reforms to "modernise" the secondary school system towards greater diversity of provision, primarily in England, needs to be explored in more detail. The article begins by proposing three phases in the development of state-funded school diversity and provision between 1944 and…

  2. Relative-Change Theory: Examining the Impact of Patriarchy, Paternalism, and Poverty on the Education of Women in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five years have passed since Kenya gained independence and almost 30 years since the feminist revolution ushered in a global gender and development agenda. While Kenya's development agenda had a functionalist orientation aimed at modernisation, the outcome of efforts to promote education development cannot be understood without an…

  3. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  4. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  5. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  6. The Rationalisation of the Body: Physical Education in Hungary in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadas, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how "turnen", the modernised form of earlier gymnastic exercises, emerged in Hungary in the second part of the nineteenth century. It is argued that although the advocates of the "turnen" movement are gradually squeezed from the spheres of modern competitive sports, their strategies of expansion are successful: earlier…

  7. Overview of the Programme TEMPUS IV, 2007-2013: Information for Future Applicants and Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Union, 2010

    2010-01-01

    TEMPUS is a European Union funded Programme which supports the modernisation of higher education in the Partner Countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region, mainly through university cooperation projects. It also aims to promote the voluntary convergence of the higher education systems in the Partner…

  8. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  9. The Change from Private to Public Governance of British Higher Education: Its Consequences for Higher Education Policy Making 1980-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattock, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that in moving from being self governed to being state governed the policy drivers for higher education are no longer those of the system itself but are derived from a set of policies designed for the reform and modernisation of the public sector of the economy. The formation of higher education policy therefore needs to be…

  10. Landowners' Perspectives on the Rural Future and the Role of Forests across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elands, Birgit H. M.; Praestholm, Soren

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary changes in rural Europe have been characterised by the contrasting terms of rural modernisation and productivism versus restructuring and post-productivism. This study investigates how different categories of owners of farm and/or forestland in 16 case study areas in eight European countries perceive future development. Landowners'…

  11. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  12. New Community Schools and Inter-Agency Working: Assessing the Effectiveness of Social Justice Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the meaning of social justice as reflected by New Communities Schools (NCS). It reviews the role of NCS in the modernisation of welfare, considers the criteria used to judge their effectiveness and assesses the outcomes of the NCS programme. Problems in assessing social justice outcomes are explored in terms of pilot or…

  13. Adjusting to the Falling Interest in VET in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the development issues of VET in Slovenia with an accent on the transition period. It shows how the dual system was gradually replaced by the school-based one and the difficulties its reintroduction faces. It also shows that despite the modernising of VET influenced by EU accession a shift has been observed in the…

  14. Islam, Christianity and Secularism in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger

    2008-01-01

    At a very general ("civilisational") level, compulsory and upper secondary education in Europe is based in the Christian tradition and does not easily tolerate other types of education. Europe is the only continent that has been able to combine modernisation and secularisation, and this has continuously favoured religious schools of the Christian…

  15. The Effect of the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies on Training in the Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrillon, Isabel Dieguez; Cantorna, Ana I. Sinde

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel-training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study provides empirical evidence from a sector with high rates of technological modernisation. Design/methodology/approach: "Ad hoc" survey of 90 firms in…

  16. The "Assistant Practitioner" as "Associate Professional"? Professional Development of Intermediate Roles in Health and Social Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Nadia; Aranda, Kay; Gaudoin, Rosemary; Law, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the health and social care and education sectors subject to a range of policy initiatives which have been characterised by a concern for "modernisation" and restructuring of the workforce which has resulted in a reappraisal and so-called "professionalisation" of many existing previously lowskill roles. This has resulted in…

  17. Making Teaching a 21st Century Profession: Tony Blair's Big Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2008-01-01

    From his very earliest days in office, Tony Blair believed that if he was to achieve his broader educational reforms then the teaching profession itself needed modernising--it had to become a "21st century profession". This paper charts the background to this aspiration and the complex range of interrelated policies used to achieve that reform.…

  18. Activated carbon fiber for heterogeneous activation of persulfate: implication for the decolorization of azo dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Hong, Wei; Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Wenwei; Wang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used as a green catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for oxidative decolorization of azo dye. ACF demonstrated a higher activity than activated carbon (AC) to activate PS to decolorize Orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency of OG increased as ACF loading, PS dosage, and temperature increased. OG decolorization followed a pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was 40.902 kJ/mol. pH had no apparent effect on OG decolorization. Radical quenching experiments with various radical scavengers (e.g., alcohols, phenol) showed that radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO4 (·-) and HO· were responsible for OG decolorization. The impact of inorganic salts was also evaluated because they are important compositions of dye wastewater. Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) exhibited a promoting effect on OG decolorization, and the accelerating rate increased with elevating dosage of ions. Addition of Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) could increase the adsorption of OG on ACF surface, thus favorable for OG decolorization caused by the surface-bound SO4 (·-) and HO·. Conversely, HCO3 (-) and humic acid (HA) slightly inhibited OG decolorization. The azo band and naphthalene ring on OG were remarkably destructed to other intermediates and finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O. PMID:27294702

  19. OGtree: a tool for creating genome trees of prokaryotes based on overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Wei; Lin, Kuang-Lun; Lu, Chin Lung

    2008-07-01

    OGtree is a web-based tool for constructing genome trees of prokaryotic species based on a measure of combining overlapping-gene content and overlapping-gene order in their whole genomes. The overlapping genes (OGs) are defined as adjacent genes whose coding sequences overlap partially or entirely. In fact, OGs are ubiquitous in microbial genomes and more conserved between species than non-OGs. Based on these properties, it has been suggested that OGs can serve as better phylogenetic characters than non-OGs for reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among microbial genomes. OGtree takes the accession numbers of prokaryotic genomes as its input. It then downloads their complete genomes from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information and identifies OGs in each genome and their orthologous OGs in other genomes. Next, OGtree computes an overlapping-gene distance between each pair of input genomes based on a combination of their OG content and orthologous OG order. Finally, it utilizes distance-based methods of building tree to reconstruct the genome trees of input prokaryotic genomes according to their pairwise OG distance. OGtree is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/OGtree/.

  20. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text analysis in…

  1. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  2. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  3. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  4. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  10. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  11. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  12. Biomass energy use in developing countries: An African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Karekezi, S.; Ewagata, E.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass forms the bulk of the energy supply of the developing world with the largest share consumed in the household sector as either fuelwood or charcoal for cooking, lighting and space heating. However there are a number of constraints facing the use of biomass if it is to be sustainable. Stephen Karekezi and Esther Ewagata of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) outline these constraints and discuss the modernisation of the traditional technologies now underway.

  13. Challenging Ronald: McDonald versus McDonald's.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health condition affecting first world children in 2011. This article recounts a campaign that opposed the construction of a fast food outlet in close proximity to a large school complex. The epidemiologic evidence that there is a negative health impact on children that attend schools close to fast food outlets is reiterated. There is an urgent need for planning laws to be modernised to reflect that evidence. PMID:21902754

  14. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  15. [Henri-Léonard Bertin and the development of agriculture in the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Pédro, Georges

    2012-05-01

    This meeting of the Committee on the History of Science and Epistemology takes place as we celebrate the 250th anniversary of the creation of the world's first veterinary schools, a major event among all those that, in the wake of the Physiocrat movement initiated by Quesnay and DuPont de Nemours, shaped the modernisation of agriculture in France during the 18th century. Henri-Léonard Bertin (1720-1792) was the impetus to the restructuring process. He was well aware that farming should not remain an activity that solely provides a livelihood for the population, but that it needed to be modernised, i.e. it should produce more, and better. His view was that agriculture could become a great source of riches for France and therefore, a true economic and even political force. He used the various official positions he occupied during that period (Intendant of Lyon (1754-1757), Controller General of Finances (1759-1763), Minister-Secretary of State for Agriculture (1763-1780) to initiate a number of reforms that brought about the modernisation of the kingdom's agricultural world.

  16. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  17. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  18. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  19. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  20. Glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components: glioblastoma or anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Tetsuya; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshiaki; Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Sato, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toshihiko; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    There have been some recent reports about glioblastoma with oligodendroglial (OG) components and malignant glioma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)-like components. We investigated whether the presence and extent of OG components and PNET-like components influenced the prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. Eighty-six patients with glioblastoma were divided into an OG group (28 %), which revealed areas with a honeycomb appearance, and a non-OG group (72 %) without a honeycomb appearance. Patients with glioblastoma were also divided into a PNET group (27 %), which revealed areas with PNET-like features defined as neoplastic cells with high N/C ratios and hyperchromatic oval-carrot-shaped nuclei, and lacked the typical honeycomb appearance, and a non-PNET group (73 %) without PNET features. There were no significant differences in overall survival among the OG, the non-OG, the PNET, and the non-PNET groups. Two patients who survived longer than 36 months had both OG and PNET components with 1p or 19q loss of heterozygosity. Perinuclear halo, which is a characteristic feature of oligodendrogliomas, is an artifact of tissue fixation. Therefore, we should not readily use the term glioblastoma with OG components. PNET-like components, which are considered rare in malignant gliomas, may be frequently identified in glioblastomas. PMID:22527749

  1. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  2. Reprint of "The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-10-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  3. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  4. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    α-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  5. Differential expression of carotenoid-related genes determines diversified carotenoid coloration in floral tissues of Oncidium cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Pan, Hsin-An; Chuang, Yao-Nung; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2010-09-01

    Three cultivars of Oncidium orchid with varied coloration, such as Oncidium Gower Ramsey (yellow), Sunkist (orange), and White Jade (white), were analyzed for carotenoid metabolites and gene expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes. The HPLC analysis revealed that yellow Gower Ramsey accumulates violaxanthin, 9-cis-violaxanthin and neoxanthin, orange Sunkist accumulates an additional beta-carotene, and White Jade is devoid of carotenoid compounds. Molecular characterization indicated that the three Oncidium cultivars exhibited varied expression pattern and level in carotenoid-biosynthetic pathway. Among them, high expression level of beta-hydroxylase (OgHYB) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (OgZEP) was displayed in yellow Gower Ramsey, relative to the down-regulation of OgHYB and OgZEP exhibited in orange Sunkist, which results in the accumulation of beta-carotene and orange coloration in floral tissues. However, White Jade is caused by the up-regulation of OgCCD1 (Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 1), which catabolizes carotenoid metabolites. Methylation assay of OgCCD1 promoter in White Jade and Gower Ramsey revealed that a high level of DNA methylation was present in OgCCD1 promoter region of Gower Ramsey. Transient expression of OgCCD1 in yellow lip tissues of Gower Ramsey by bombardment confirmed its function of disintegrating carotenoid compounds. Our results suggest an evolutionary significance that genetic variation of carotenoid-related genes in Oncidium generates the complexity of floral pigmentation and consequently provides the profound varieties in Oncidium population.

  6. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  7. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  8. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C.; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  9. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  10. The detergent octylglucoside neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in a specific manner.

    PubMed

    Henrich, B; Guadarrama, R; Zähringer, U; MacKenzie, C R

    2001-04-01

    The stimulatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on human macrophages was found to be neutralized by the detergent octylglucoside (OG). Both macrophage stimulation and reactivity in a limulus amebocyte lysate test were suppressed by suspension of LPS in OG at concentrations between 0.25 and 2.5 mM, whereas other stimulatory lipopeptides and lipid containing stimulants were unaffected by OG. LPS at concentrations causing maximal stimulation of macrophages could be completely neutralized by non-toxic concentrations of OG. In addition, it was found that the neutralization in complex mixtures of macromolecules, such as bacterial cell lysate, was specific for LPS and that the stimulatory activity of the other substances in the mixture was not affected by the OG.

  11. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  12. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  13. Oligogalacturonides: plant damage-associated molecular patterns and regulators of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Simone; Savatin, Daniel V; Sicilia, Francesca; Gramegna, Giovanna; Cervone, Felice; Lorenzo, Giulia De

    2013-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues released from plant cell walls upon partial degradation of homogalacturonan. OGs are able to elicit defense responses, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species and pathogenesis-related proteins, and protect plants against pathogen infections. Recent studies demonstrated that OGs are perceived by wall-associated kinases and share signaling components with microbe-associated molecular patterns. For this reason OGs are now considered true damage-associated molecular patterns that activate the plant innate immunity and may also be involved in the activation of responses to mechanical wounding. Furthermore, OGs appear to modulate developmental processes, likely through their ability to antagonize auxin responses. Here we review our current knowledge on the role and mode of action of this class of oligosaccharides in plant defense and development.

  14. Morphology and structure of extremely red objects at z ∼ 1 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Using high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 F125W imaging from the CANDELS-COSMOS field, we report the structural and morphological properties of extremely red objects (EROs) at z ∼ 1. Based on the UVJ color criteria, we separate EROs into two types: old passive galaxies (OGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DGs). For a given stellar mass, we find that the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ∼ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at a rest-frame optical wavelength. We derive the average effective radii of OGs and DGs, corresponding to 2.09 ± 1.13 kpc and 3.27 ± 1.14 kpc, respectively. Generally, the DGs are heterogeneous, with mixed features including bulges, disks and irregular structures, with relatively high M20, large size and low G. By contrast, OGs have elliptical-like compact morphologies with lower M20, smaller size and higher G, indicating a more concentrated and symmetric spatial extent of the stellar population distribution in OGs than DGs. These findings imply that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and that the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of galaxies. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  15. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  16. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  17. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  18. Effect of nucleosides and a nucleotide mixture on proliferation of human gastric cancer cells (KATO III).

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Usami, M; Yasuda, I; Kasahara, H; Kotani, G; Cao, Y; Zheng, J; Iso, A; Kanamaru, T; Ohyanagi, H

    1994-04-01

    The effect of the nucleotides and a nucleotide mixture (OG-VI), consisting of inosine, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP), cytidine, uridine, thymidine (TdR) (4:4:4:3:1 in molar ratio), and TdR co-administration on proliferation of KATO III human gastric cancer cells in culture was evaluated. Consumption of purine and pyrimidine by cancer cells and changes in cell number with OG-VI or TdR were compared with the control culture medium (Williams E) after 72 hour-culture. Addition of OG-VI or TdR did not enhance the cellular proliferation, but inhibited growth when given in higher concentrations (0.3-3 mM inosine, 0.3-3 mM 5'-GMP, 0.22-2.2 mM uridine, 74-740 microM TdR). Consumption rate of TdR in the medium was less in the TdR group, 33.7%, than in the OG-VI group, 72.2% (p < 0.05). This suggests that TdR metabolism is modulated by other nucleosides and nucleotide included in OG-VI. Under the coadministration of 5-fluorouracil (FUra), addition of OG-VI or TdR suppressed cellular proliferation (p < 0.05). The inhibition rate of cellular proliferation in the OG-VI group was slightly higher than the TdR group, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The combination of FUra with OG-VI or TdR enhances the antitumor effect of FUra. It is concluded that the OG-VI does not enhance the tumor cell proliferation and it is a potential biochemical modulator of FUra metabolism in human cancer cells. PMID:7823535

  19. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  20. Development of voice telecommunication services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, R G

    1998-10-01

    There is now an opportunity to accelerate the process of modernisation in the delivery of healthcare by the use of new technology. Advanced voice services such as the virtual private network, Centrex and mobile extension facilities are increasingly used in the NHS to the benefit of staff and patient. The provision of reliable and feature-rich integrated voice solutions across all groups in the healthcare arena is an essential factor in the development of new and better services to the public into the next millennium.

  1. Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2014-05-30

    A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ∼10{sup 8}. (lasers)

  2. Neurosciences intensive care medicine in initial neurosurgical training.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Madder, H; Millo, J; Kearns, C F

    2009-04-01

    The authors describe a novel 4-month clinical placement in neurosciences intensive care medicine (NICM) undertaken in the first specialty registrar (ST1) year of neurosurgical training as part of a clinical neurosciences themed training year. Neurosurgery is unique among British surgical specialties in having pioneered themed early years in run-through training to replace basic surgical training in general surgical specialties as part of Modernising Medical Careers. After describing events leading to the new neurosurgical training, the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in NICM are highlighted alongside discussion of logistic aspects and future directions from an inaugural experience.

  3. Learning from other professions.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Chaudhry Aqeel

    2012-06-01

    In the last few years, medical education has become evidence-based and structured. It has incorporated principles of learning used in professions other than medicine. Safety, simulators and checklists have been learned from aviation industry. Handover protocols are borrowed from oil industry. Legal profession has emphasized the importance of critical thinking. Even the modern war colleges have developed learning strategies like war games and mock scenarios which can be assimilated in our postgraduate medical education. Modern-day medical education is looking for new horizons and innovations. Many professions other than traditional medical education may provide the necessary guidelines for modernisation. PMID:22755348

  4. Boryeong Thermal Power Complex, Boryeong-Si, Chungcheongnam-do Province, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, J.D.

    2008-10-15

    From tall skyscrapers and flashing neon signs to Buddhist temples and pagodas, South Korea is a mixture of the new and old Asia. Doing its part to help modernise this country, the Boryeong thermal power complex operates six coal-fired 500-MW units that provide electricity to power South Korea's economic growth. One of the important reasons for this facility's overall success is its operational reliability. An example of this is Boryeong Unit 3's outstanding achievement of 3,000 days of trouble-free operation. The Complex also has a dozen 150 MW combined cycle units burning imported liquefied natural gas for electrical system peaking. 4 photos.

  5. Knowledge for Healthcare: the future of health librarianship.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sue Lacey; Stewart, David; Goswami, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Many people are still not receiving the right care. It is imperative for health care librarians to come together around a common vision to achieve Knowledge for Healthcare so that the right knowledge and evidence is used at the right time in the right place. The authors describe five workstreams within a modernisation programme: Service Transformation, Workforce Planning and Development, Quality and Impact, Resource Discovery and Optimising Investment. Communications, engagement and partnership working are central to success. The development framework sets out principles on which to base decisions, and design criteria for transforming services.

  6. Transnational History of Medicine after 1950: Framing and Interrogation from Psychiatric Journals

    PubMed Central

    BURNHAM, JOHN C.

    2011-01-01

    Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation. PMID:23752862

  7. The doctor's medicine and the ambiguity of amulets: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London – an interview study – 1

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in London demonstrated simultaneous trust in psychiatrists as well as in the widespread use of healing amulets. At the same time, local Islamic clerics and traditional healers were seen by many with some degree of suspicion. The authors offer an interpretation in which local healers and their methods are regarded ambivalently: the more distant biomedical framework fits with the newer modernising ‘High’ Islam (literate, scripturalist, puritanical, unitarian, urban, clerical, perhaps masculinist), as opposed to Hindu-inflected traditional Sufi Islam in Bangladesh (peasant, popular, syncretic, saintly, magical, ecstatic and possibly more sympathetic to women's experience). PMID:23998259

  8. Transnational history of medicine after 1950: framing and interrogation from psychiatric journals.

    PubMed

    Burnham, John C

    2011-01-01

    Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.

  9. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  10. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  11. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  12. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  13. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  14. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  15. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  16. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  17. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  18. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  19. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  20. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  1. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  2. Training obstetricians and gynaecologists to be emotionally intelligent.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, A; Hart, J; Bundy, C

    2012-01-01

    The concept of emotional intelligence (EI), a model that encompasses all of the skills in the patient-doctor relationship, has been applied to medical education in recent years. Doctors in obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) often deal with emotionally demanding situations for themselves and for their patients, and therefore, EI skills may be vital and should be part of any training curriculum. Using novel methodology, 16 O&G consultants from across the North-West of England were asked to investigate (using a coding manual) randomly allocated modules of the RCOG O&G training curriculum, to look for constructs of EI and these were found both implicitly and explicitly, highlighting the importance of EI to O&G. By focussing on EI training within the curriculum, to improve the patient-doctor relationship, patient satisfaction may be increased and litigation reduced in a specialty that is already highly litigious.

  3. The broad spectrum 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitor N-oxalylglycine is present in rhubarb and spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Jabeen, Bushra; Sekirnik, Rok; Riaz, Naheed; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J; McCullagh, James S O

    2015-09-01

    2-Oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron dependent oxygenases are involved in many biological processes in organisms ranging from humans (where some are therapeutic targets) to plants. These enzymes are of significant biomedicinal interest because of their roles in hypoxic signaling and epigenetic regulation. Synthetic N-oxalylglycine (NOG) has been identified as a broad-spectrum 2OG oxygenase inhibitor and is currently widely used in studies on the hypoxic response and chromatin modifications in animals. We report the identification of NOG as a natural product present in Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) and Spinach oleracea (spinach) leaves; NOG was not observed in Escherchia coli or human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T). The finding presents the possibility that NOG plays a natural role in regulating gene expression by inhibiting 2OG dependent oxygenases. This has significance because tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate inhibition of 2OG dependent oxygenases has attracted major interest in cancer research.

  4. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  5. 78 FR 5171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... to the Chief of Account Management, Online GEOINT Services--Customer Account Management (OGSU... collection requirement is necessary to develop customer service models regarding consumers of geospatial... 1995, the Online GEOINT Services (OGS) directorate of NGA announces a proposed public...

  6. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  7. Role of low-frequency vibrations on sound propagation in glasses at intermediate temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, A.; Jimenez-Ruiz, M.; Cabrillo, C.; Bermejo, F. J.; Grimsditch, M.; Fischer, H. E.; Bennington, S. M.; Eccleston, R. S.; Materials Science Division; Conesjo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; Univ. de Sevilla; Inst. Laue Langevin; Rutherford Appleton Lab.

    2000-04-01

    We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the sound attenuation and the fractional change in sound velocity for the glass (G) and orientational-glass (OG) phases of polymorphic ethanol. Strikingly similar behaviors are found for both phases despite the OG's underlying crystal (bcc) lattice. Such similarity, which is also revealed in dielectric spectroscopy and inelastic neutron scattering measurements, suggests whole molecule small-angle librations as a common microscopic origin for a wide variety of 'glassy' phenomena.

  8. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  9. Rapid Oligo-Galacturonide Induced Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B; Sussman, Michael R; Kohorn, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)(1)are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAK-dependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGsin planta Using N(14/)N(15)isotopicin vivometabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominantWAKallele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase

  10. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  11. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  12. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  13. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. Structure of human phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase identifies molecular mechanisms of Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Michael A; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Butler, Danica; Searls, Timothy; Oppermann, Udo; Schofield, Christopher J

    2005-12-01

    Refsum disease (RD), a neurological syndrome characterized by adult onset retinitis pigmentosa, anosmia, sensory neuropathy, and phytanic acidaemia, is caused by elevated levels of phytanic acid. Many cases of RD are associated with mutations in phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PAHX), an Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenase that catalyzes the initial alpha-oxidation step in the degradation of phytenic acid in peroxisomes. We describe the x-ray crystallographic structure of PAHX to 2.5 A resolution complexed with Fe(II) and 2OG and predict the molecular consequences of mutations causing RD. Like other 2OG oxygenases, PAHX possesses a double-stranded beta-helix core, which supports three iron binding ligands (His(175), Asp(177), and His(264)); the 2-oxoacid group of 2OG binds to the Fe(II) in a bidentate manner. The manner in which PAHX binds to Fe(II) and 2OG together with the presence of a cysteine residue (Cys(191)) 6.7 A from the Fe(II) and two further histidine residues (His(155) and His(281)) at its active site distinguishes it from that of the other human 2OG oxygenase for which structures are available, factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor. Of the 15 PAHX residues observed to be mutated in RD patients, 11 cluster in two distinct groups around the Fe(II) (Pro(173), His(175), Gln(176), Asp(177), and His(220)) and 2OG binding sites (Trp(193), Glu(197), Ile(199), Gly(204), Asn(269), and Arg(275)). PAHX may be the first of a new subfamily of coenzyme A-binding 2OG oxygenases.

  15. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  16. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  17. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... property Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days kg/per day TSS 5.72 2.45 O&G... New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0438 0.0188 O&G 0.0188 0.00626 Lead 0.000282...

  18. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0751 0.0376 O&G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0225 0.0113 O&G 0.00939 0... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  19. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.701 0.300 O&G 0... values for 30 consecutive days Kilograms per day TSS 38.1 16.3 O&G 16.3 5.45 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...

  20. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  1. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  2. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  3. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  4. Quaternized magnetic microspheres for the efficient removal of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Chendong; Li, Penghui; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Yang

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, a novel quaternized magnetic resin, NDMP, was prepared and characterized. Two reactive dyes (RDs), Orange G (OG) and red RWO, were used as a small-molecular RD and large-molecular RD, respectively, to investigate their adsorption on NDMP. A common quaternized magnetic resin, MIEX, was selected for comparison. The adsorption kinetics of OG onto both resins and the adsorption kinetics of RWO onto NDMP followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, whereas the adsorption of RWO onto MIEX was better fitted by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The experimental data illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both RDs onto NDMP (1.9 mmol OG/g, 0.70 mmol RWO/g) was twice as large as that on MIEX (1.0 mmol OG/g, 0.35 mmol RWO/g). The Langmuir equation and the Freundlich model fit the isotherm data for OG and RWO adsorption, respectively. The adsorption of OG on the NDMP and MIEX resins declined in the presence of NaCl or Na₂SO₄. The effects of the salts on the adsorption of RWO were different. The recyclability of NDMP and MIEX were also evaluated. This work provides a reusable efficient adsorbent for the removal of RDs. PMID:22726352

  5. Sensory Stimulation Prior to Spinal Cord Injury Induces Post-Injury Dysesthesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoschouer, Emily L.; Finseth, Taylor; Flinn, Sharon; Basso, D. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI. PMID:20121420

  6. Calorimetric studies of the state of water in seed tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vertucci, Christina W.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the physical state of water in hydrating biological tissues, thermodynamic properties of water in cotyledons of pea and soybean with moisture contents ranging from 0.01 g H2O/g dw to 1.0 g H2O/g dw were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of the tissues increased abruptly at moisture contents above 0.08 and 0.12 g H2O/g dw for soybean and pea cotyledons, respectively. Melting transitions of water were observed at moisture contents >0.23 and 0.26 g H2O/g dw for soybean and pea. However, freezing of water was not observed unless moisture contents exceeded 0.33-0.35 g H2O/g dw. In both seed tissues, the temperatures of the freezing and melting varied with moisture content and showed hysterisis. The energy of the transition also varied with moisture content and was similar to the heats of fusion and crystallization of pure water only at moisture contents >0.54 and 0.58 gH2O/g dw for soybean and pea seeds, respectively. The thermal properties of water change distinctly as seed moisture content changes: at least five states or water can be identified. PMID:19431782

  7. Simulation of the introduction of new technologies in air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernisation of large infrastructure problems. This is especially true in the modernisation of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behaviour due to complex human/machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviours. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behaviour coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead, we introduce an alternate approach. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behaviour with relatively simple goal-directed agents. In this model, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the high-level behaviour of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method is capable of reflecting the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology. Finally, we show how these high-level simulated behaviours compare to actual deployed air traffic control mechanisms in use today.

  8. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  9. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  10. Explaining health marginalisation of the lower educated: the role of cross-national variations in health expenditure and labour market conditions.

    PubMed

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have shown ample cross-national variation in the risk that lower educated people run to be in poor health. However, explanations for this cross-national variation are still scarce. In this article we aim at filling this lacuna by investigating to what extent cross-national variation in the health gap between the lower and higher educated in Europe is explained by governmental health expenditure, namely, how much governments contribute to a country's total healthcare costs, and labour market conditions, that is, unemployment rates and modernisation of the labour market. We used information from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2008 on more than 90,000 individuals in 32 European nations, and estimated hierarchical models with cross-level interactions to test our expectations. Our results show that the relative risk of being in poor health of lower educated individuals is smaller in countries where the government spends much on healthcare and with a highly modernised labour market.

  11. Generating event logs from non-process-aware systems enabling business process mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Castillo, Ricardo; Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; García-Rodríguez de Guzmán, Ignacio; Piattini, Mario

    2011-08-01

    As information systems age they become legacy information systems (LISs), embedding business knowledge not present in other artefacts. LISs must be modernised when their maintainability falls below acceptable limits but the embedded business knowledge is valuable information that must be preserved to align the modernised versions of LISs with organisations' real-world business processes. Business process mining permits the discovery and preservation of all meaningful embedded business knowledge by using event logs, which represent the business activities executed by an information system. Event logs can be easily obtained through the execution of process-aware information systems (PAISs). However, several non-process-aware information systems also implicitly support organisations' business processes. This article presents a technique for obtaining event logs from traditional information systems (without any in-built logging functionality) by statically analysing and modifying LISs. The technique allows the modified systems to dynamically record event logs. The approach is validated with a case study involving a healthcare information system used in Austrian hospitals, which shows the technique obtains event logs that effectively and efficiently enable the discovery of embedded business processes. This implies the techniques provided within the process mining field, which are based on event logs, may also be applied to traditional information systems.

  12. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  13. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites.

  14. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  15. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  16. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. PMID:27514694

  17. Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

    PubMed

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Świerszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2013-02-14

    A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T═T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T═T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T═T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T═T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T═T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T═T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T═T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T═T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T═T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T═T repair quantum yield of 1

  18. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  19. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  20. Linear algebra algorithms for divisors on an algebraic curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri-Makdisi, Kamal

    We use an embedding of the symmetric $d$th power of any algebraic curve $C$ of genus $g$ into a Grassmannian space to give algorithms for working with divisors on $C$, using only linear algebra in vector spaces of dimension $O(g)$, and matrices of size $O(g^2)\\times O(g)$. When the base field $k$ is finite, or if $C$ has a rational point over $k$, these give algorithms for working on the Jacobian of $C$ that require $O(g^4)$ field operations, arising from the Gaussian elimination. Our point of view is strongly geometric, and our representation of points on the Jacobian is fairly simple to work with; in particular, none of our algorithms involves arithmetic with polynomials. We note that our algorithms have the same asymptotic complexity for general curves as the more algebraic algorithms in Hess' 1999 Ph.D. thesis, which works with function fields as extensions of $k[x]$. However, for special classes of curves, Hess' algorithms are asymptotically more efficient than ours, generalizing other known efficient algorithms for special classes of curves, such as hyperelliptic curves (Cantor), superelliptic curves (Galbraith, Paulus, and Smart), and $C_{ab}$ curves (Harasawa and Suzuki); in all those cases, one can attain a complexity of $O(g^2)$.

  1. Nerve stretch injury induced pain pattern and changes in sensory ganglia in a clinically relevant model of limb-lengthening in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pap, K; Berta, Á; Szőke, G; Dunay, M; Németh, T; Hornok, K; Marosfői, L; Réthelyi, M; Kozsurek, M; Puskár, Z

    2015-01-01

    We used a model of tibial lengthening in rabbits to study the postoperative pain pattern during limb-lengthening and morphological changes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including alteration of substance P (SP) expression. Four groups of animals (naive; OG: osteotomized only group; SDG/FDG: slow/fast distraction groups, with 1 mm/3 mm lengthening a day, respectively) were used. Signs of increasing postoperative pain were detected until the 10(th) postoperative day in OG/SDG/FDG, then they decreased in OG but remained higher in SDG/FDG until the distraction finished, suggesting that the pain response is based mainly on surgical trauma until the 10(th) day, while the lengthening extended its duration and increased its intensity. The only morphological change observed in the DRGs was the presence of large vacuoles in some large neurons of OG/SDG/FDG. Cell size analysis of the S1 DRGs showed no cell loss in any of the three groups; a significant increase in the number of SP-positive large DRG cells in the OG; and a significant decrease in the number of SP-immunoreactive small DRG neurons in the SDG/FDG. Faster and larger distraction resulted in more severe signs of pain sensation, and further reduced the number of SP-positive small cells, compared to slow distraction.

  2. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits bone regeneration induced by osteogenin, a bone morphogenetic protein, in rat craniotomy defects.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, L J; Fan, R S; Pierce, G F; Reddi, A H; Hollinger, J O

    1993-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent moderator of soft tissue repair through induction of the inflammatory phase of repair and subsequent enhanced collagen deposition. We examined the effect of recombinant BB homodimer PDGF (rPDGF-BB) applied to rat craniotomy defects, treated with and without bovine osteogenin (OG), to see if bone regeneration would be stimulated. Implants containing 0, 20, 60, or 200 micrograms rPDGF-BB, reconstituted with insoluble rat collagenous bone matrix containing 0, 30, or 150 micrograms OG, were placed into 8-mm craniotomies. After 11 d, 21 of the 144 rats presented subcutaneous masses superior to the defect sites. The masses, comprised of serosanguinous fluid encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue, were larger and occurred more frequently in rats treated with 200 micrograms rPDGF-BB, and were absent in rats not treated with rPDGF-BB. The masses underwent resorption within 28 d after surgery. OG (2-256 micrograms) caused a dose-dependent increase in radiopacity and a marked regeneration of calcified tissue in a dose-dependent fashion within defect sites. However, OG-induced bone regeneration was inhibited 17-53% in the presence of rPDGF-BB. These results suggest that rPDGF-BB inhibited OG-induced bone regeneration and stimulated a soft tissue repair wound phenotype and response. Images PMID:8254045

  4. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  5. The trpE gene negatively regulates differentiation of heterocysts at the level of induction in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Videau, Patrick; Cozy, Loralyn M; Young, Jasmine E; Ushijima, Blake; Oshiro, Reid T; Rivers, Orion S; Burger, Andrew H; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) reflect nitrogen status in many bacteria. In heterocystous cyanobacteria, a spike in the 2-OG level occurs shortly after the removal of combined nitrogen from cultures and is an integral part of the induction of heterocyst differentiation. In this work, deletion of one of the two annotated trpE genes in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 resulted in a spike in the 2-OG level and subsequent differentiation of a wild-type pattern of heterocysts when filaments of the mutant were transferred from growth on ammonia to growth on nitrate. In contrast, 2-OG levels were unaffected in the wild type, which did not differentiate under the same conditions. An inverted-repeat sequence located upstream of trpE bound a central regulator of differentiation, HetR, in vitro and was necessary for HetR-dependent transcription of a reporter fusion and complementation of the mutant phenotype in vivo. Functional complementation of the mutant phenotype with the addition of tryptophan suggested that levels of tryptophan, rather than the demonstrated anthranilate synthase activity of TrpE, mediated the developmental response of the wild type to nitrate. A model is presented for the observed increase in 2-OG in the trpE mutant.

  6. [Research on the separation of limonoid glucosides by reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tian, Q G; Dai, J; Ding, X L

    2000-03-01

    Obacunone-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) was isolated from the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck by using solvent extraction, classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation, OG was finally purified by C18 reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography and was identified by thin-layer chromatography. The purity of OG was analyzed by analytical reversed-phase HPLC. At last the structure of OG was determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). In this work, the conditions of the reversed-phase preparative HPLC technique to purify limonoid glucosides was optimized. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC on a C18 column with a mobile phase of acidic acetonitrile-water (about 0.2% TFA, V/V) at pH 3 enabled the baseline separation of limonoid glucosides in the extract. The results show that OG is the predominant limonoid glucoside in the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck and nomilin glucoside is the second one. The results also show that the classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation are effective for purifying limonoid glucosides.

  7. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  8. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  9. The trpE gene negatively regulates differentiation of heterocysts at the level of induction in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Videau, Patrick; Cozy, Loralyn M; Young, Jasmine E; Ushijima, Blake; Oshiro, Reid T; Rivers, Orion S; Burger, Andrew H; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) reflect nitrogen status in many bacteria. In heterocystous cyanobacteria, a spike in the 2-OG level occurs shortly after the removal of combined nitrogen from cultures and is an integral part of the induction of heterocyst differentiation. In this work, deletion of one of the two annotated trpE genes in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 resulted in a spike in the 2-OG level and subsequent differentiation of a wild-type pattern of heterocysts when filaments of the mutant were transferred from growth on ammonia to growth on nitrate. In contrast, 2-OG levels were unaffected in the wild type, which did not differentiate under the same conditions. An inverted-repeat sequence located upstream of trpE bound a central regulator of differentiation, HetR, in vitro and was necessary for HetR-dependent transcription of a reporter fusion and complementation of the mutant phenotype in vivo. Functional complementation of the mutant phenotype with the addition of tryptophan suggested that levels of tryptophan, rather than the demonstrated anthranilate synthase activity of TrpE, mediated the developmental response of the wild type to nitrate. A model is presented for the observed increase in 2-OG in the trpE mutant. PMID:25384479

  10. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  11. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  12. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection.

  13. [The genotoxic action of uranyl ions on DNA in vitro caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, V S; Gudkov, S V; Shtarkman, I N; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I

    2005-01-01

    8-Oxoguanine (8-OG) is an important biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). By using ELISA with monoclonal antibodies against 8-OG, the formation of 8-OG in DNA by the action of uranyl ions, gamma-irradiation, and heating at 37 degrees C and their combined action was investigated in view of environmental pollution by uranium oxides as a result of the use of armor piercing shells with depleted uranium. The content of 8-OG in DNA induced by the action of gamma-irradiation, 5 microM uranyl ions and heating changes with time in a complicated manner. These results suggest that, by the action of uranyl ions, an additional generation of ROS occurs, which leads both to the formation of 8-OG in DNA and its further oxidation. Uranyl ions at a conceptration of 5 microM increase the thermal deamination of cytosine in DNA several times but do not influence DNA thermal depurination. It is shown that uranyl ions essentially increase the production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals by the action of heat on water. The results indicate a high chemical genotoxicity of uranyl ions and their enhancing effect on DNA base damage by the action of heat and gamma-irradiation.

  14. Évidences paléomagnétiques et paléontologiques en faveur d'une position antipodale du craton Ouest-Africain et de la Chine du Nord : conséquences paléogéographiquesPalaeomagnetic and palaeontologic evidence for an antipodal position of the West African Craton and of northern China in the Rodinia puzzle: palaeogeographic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bourrouilh, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetic data previously published about the West African Craton and their comparison with the most recent information obtained on doleritic dykes and stromatolite-bearing formations allow us to propose, after a critical examination of the old geochronological data, a new path for the West African Craton between 2200 and 700 Ma. This path has been compared with that of eastern China (which can be simply divided into a northern and a southern China block) between 1400 and 700 Ma. We can observe that these two blocks show a common path before their accretion to the Rodinia super-continent. These two blocks, which were located close the equator and at the outboard of Rodinia at about 1000 Ma, were also characterized by identical stromatolitic assemblages. This result shows that West Africa and Eastern China represented the antipodal continental margins of Rodinia. One can also deduce from our data that the accretion of Rodinia mainly resulted from north-south-oriented displacements. To cite this article: J.-P. Lefort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  15. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  17. A prebiotic role for 8-oxoguanosine as a flavin mimic in pyrimidine dimer photorepair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khiem Van; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-09-21

    Redox-active enzyme cofactors derived from ribonucleotides have been called "fossils of the RNA world," suggesting that early catalysts employed modified nucleobases to facilitate redox chemistry in primitive metabolism. Here, we show that the common oxidative damage product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), when incorporated into a DNA or RNA strand in proximity to a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, can mimic the function of a flavin in photorepair. The OG nucleotide acts catalytically in a mechanism consistent with that of photolyase in which the photoexcited state of the purine donates an electron to a pyrimidine dimer to initiate bond cleavage; subsequent back electron transfer regenerates OG. This unusual example of one form of DNA damage, oxidation, functioning to repair another, photodimerization, may provide insight into the origins of prebiotic redox processes. PMID:21877686

  18. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors.

  19. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  20. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  1. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. PMID:26774713

  2. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny.

  3. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  4. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  5. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  6. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  7. `Science to the Glory of God'. The Popular Science Magazine Ibérica and its Coverage of Radioactivity, 1914-1936

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herran, Néstor

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a first approach to the history of Ibérica, one of the most important popular science magazines published in Spain before the Civil War. Founded in 1914 by members of the Society of Jesus based at the Ebro Observatory, Ibérica reached a weekly circulation of about 10,000 in the mid 1920s, and was instrumental in extending science education in Jesuit education facilities and in developing a "reactionary modernist" culture that embraced Catholicism and modernisation. By focusing on its coverage of radioactivity and the radium industry, the article aims to examine the magazine's popularising style and ideology, and to determine its role in the debates regarding the cultural value of science in the first decades of twentieth century Spain.

  8. Numerical and field tests of hydraulic transients at Piva power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giljen, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In 2009, a sophisticated field investigation was undertaken and later, in 2011, numerical tests were completed, on all three turbine units at the Piva hydroelectric power plant. These tests were made in order to assist in making decisions about the necessary scope of the reconstruction and modernisation of the Piva hydroelectric power plant, a plant originally constructed in the mid-1970s. More specifically, the investigation included several hydraulic conditions including both the start-up and stopping of each unit, load rejection under governor control from different initial powers, as well as emergency shut-down. Numerical results were obtained using the method of characteristics in a representation that included the full flow system and the characteristics of each associated Francis turbine. The impact of load rejection and emergency shut-down on the penstock pressure and turbine speed changes are reported and numerical and experimental results are compared, showing close agreement.

  9. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  10. Electronic transmission of prescriptions: towards realising the dream.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren; Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is about to commence upon major computerisation of its processes as part of a government plan of modernisation. One of these is the Electronic Transmission of Prescription (ETP). To achieve success it is important to know what benefits are expected from the new system and what barriers to adoption the systems will face. This paper reviews substantial ETP published material, and identifies 17 issues that need to be addressed. These issues are categorised under four major headings of stakeholders, cost, technology, and current process and practice, and are then further classified as positive or negative influences on the project's success. Many of these influences will be common to most of the computerisation projects to be undertaken by the NHS, and therefore this paper has wider applicability than ETP. PMID:18048207

  11. Current dilemmas in overseas doctors' training

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, D

    2005-01-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) are a remarkably successful professional group in the United Kingdom making up to 30% of the NHS work force. Their very success and media publicity about general practice and consultant shortages, has led to a large influx of inexperienced doctors seeking training opportunities in competitive specialties. In 2003 a record 15 549 doctors joined the medical register of which 9336 doctors were non-European Economic Area citizens. The number of candidates sitting PLAB part 1 and part 2 in 2003 rose by 267% and 283% respectively compared with 2001. Changes to Department of Health, Home Office, and deanery regulations with expansion of medical schools, implementation of European Working Time Directive, Modernising Medical Careers, and the future role of the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board, will have an important impact on IMGs' training. Dissemination of realistic information about postgraduate training opportunities is important as the NHS for some time will continue to rely on IMGs. PMID:15701736

  12. The deleterious impact of primary care-based commissioning on plastic surgery services and patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Kisku, W; Jaffe, W

    2012-07-01

    The wide variation in the availability of treatments across the National Health Service (NHS) in England has led to a postcode lottery due to the rationing of available services by individual Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). In 2005 an NHS Modernisation Agency document, "Action on Plastic Surgery" was designed to aid PCTs making funding decisions on Plastic Surgery patients. Despite this and evidence in the Plastic Surgery literature, patients continue to experience difficulties in the primary care setting accessing our services.(3) The authors present two patients who presented to their GPs requesting to seen by the local Plastic Surgery service regarding their symptoms in an effort to explore the possible available treatment modalities. These patients were not referred and subsequently these patients operated upon themselves leading to complications which warranted inpatient management. PMID:22133381

  13. Can 'distant water … quench the instant thirst'? The renegotiation of familial support in rural China in the face of extensive out migration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joanne; Liu, Jieyu

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses debates on modernisation, ageing and intergenerational support in developing/emerging economies. By examining the impact of rural to urban migration on elder support in Chinese rural families, it examines how support is being renegotiated and the implications this holds for experiences of growing older. It is positioned critically within the Chinese rural families literature, both drawing on research that reveals the continued influence of familial culture (Silverstein 2009; Lin and Yi 2011, 2013; Guo, Chi and Silverstein 2011) while arguing that this research has under-examined the strain this places on rural families, emerging conflicts and the potentially negative implications for gender and ageing. A gendered intergenerational lens is adopted to examine how generations experience and interpret these changes in the form and delivery of intergenerational support. The article focuses on the experiences and lives of the older parents, and older women in particular, to address some of the oversights in existing literature. PMID:27131276

  14. Introducing competition principles into health care through EU law and policy: a case study of the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Gronden, Johan; Szyszczak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A national health care service is one of the central pillars of the welfare state in Europe. Recent moves to modernise health care, alongside introducing efficiencies through competition have resulted in experimentation and a re-organisation of national health care systems. The experimental nature of the reforms has brought health care into the focus, but uncertain territory, of EU economic law, especially competition law. Added to these pressures, the new EU fiscal measures oblige Member States to avoid excessive budgets and macro-economic imbalances. One constraint on an EU-based system of competition in health care is the effect of decentralisation, resulting in variations at the national level. Thus a case study is taken of the experience in The Netherlands. From this case study, we argue that a new form of Euro-national competition law is emerging for the health care sector with national authorities taking the lead in shaping the contours of this law. PMID:24841529

  15. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  16. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  17. Development and Displacement in India: Reforming the Economy towards Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Kalim

    2012-05-01

    Displacement of human populations from the natural habitats results in a host of socio-economic impacts. This study will focus on mainly farmers and tribal communities in India and how the modernisation process has affected these communities especially since the adoption of neoliberal economic reforms. For the rural people the displacement is a traumatic both in terms livelihoods and cultural point of view. The paper will analyse the issues of displacement of the villages that have been relatively isolated from the outside world. The development induced displacement becomes important due to its impact on the rural communities through land alienation in the form of protests by the affected communities. I find that not even a single study shows the socio-economic and environmental effects of these policies on the rural poor. Analysis of the reasons for these changes point in many directions. Displacement, the loss of traditional livelihoods of the rural communities and environmental destruction are the most prominent among them.

  18. Meeting the non-clinical education and training needs of new consultants.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R; Gallen, D; Whiteman, S

    2005-08-01

    This review highlights the non-clinical training needs of new consultants, identifying strategies for meeting these needs. Non-clinical activities are integral to the consultant's role and senior clinicians need training in these areas. Concerns over the quantity and quality of current provision are compounded by changes the European Working Time Directive and Modernising Medical Careers initiative will bring. Accelerated progression to senior level and reduction in time for training suggest a pressing need to respond to the needs of new consultants. Ad hoc initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts offer examples of how training needs may be met, including mentoring and continuing professional development schemes. A multi-professional strategy, incorporating elements of higher professional education in general practice and other NHS initiatives (particularly management/leadership training), may offer an appropriate framework within which to capitalise on existing opportunities. There are, however, resource implications that need to be addressed.

  19. The consultant contract: marriage or divorce?

    PubMed

    Noble, Peter; Selby, Peter; Kobzev, Denis; Hillhouse, Edward

    2005-01-01

    At the birth of the new millennium Britain's Labour government published a 10-year plan for modernising the National Health Service (NHS), placing great emphasis on new ways of working. As part of this process, and following extensive negotiation, general practitioners and hospital consultants were offered new contracts in 2003. This process highlighted the issues academic clinicians and managers face in dealing with the tensions inherent in delivering the tripartite mission of teaching, research and clinical service. Following a retrospective review of clinical academic appraisals, this paper considers new strategies for strengthening the relationship across the university and NHS interface and how this novel and strategic approach might be adopted in future health policy. These findings can be helpful for both UK colleagues and for a broader international audience by providing a pragmatic approach to increasing collaboration across the higher education and health service sectors. PMID:16411356

  20. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  1. River basin management, described for the example of the Emschergenossenschaft.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, H C; Sperling, F; Stemplewski, J

    2003-01-01

    Considerable problems concerning drainage capacity made it necessary, at the beginning of the 20th Century, to make a joint public-private effort, because the existence of the Ruhr Area as an industrial location was endangered. By Prussian law a co-operative was established for wastewater and drainage-management of the entire Emscher river system. In the past the Emscher Association and the later founded Lippe Association have proved to be the best instrument to cope with the wastewater problems of a densely-populated industrial area. In recent time, the Emscher area is undergoing fundamental structural changes. To increase its attractiveness increased efforts are needed for a modernisation of the wastewater transport and treatment system. To deal with the various and complex tasks to reshape the Emscher system, the joint association again provides a highly efficient and competent instrument.

  2. Can 'distant water … quench the instant thirst'? The renegotiation of familial support in rural China in the face of extensive out migration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joanne; Liu, Jieyu

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses debates on modernisation, ageing and intergenerational support in developing/emerging economies. By examining the impact of rural to urban migration on elder support in Chinese rural families, it examines how support is being renegotiated and the implications this holds for experiences of growing older. It is positioned critically within the Chinese rural families literature, both drawing on research that reveals the continued influence of familial culture (Silverstein 2009; Lin and Yi 2011, 2013; Guo, Chi and Silverstein 2011) while arguing that this research has under-examined the strain this places on rural families, emerging conflicts and the potentially negative implications for gender and ageing. A gendered intergenerational lens is adopted to examine how generations experience and interpret these changes in the form and delivery of intergenerational support. The article focuses on the experiences and lives of the older parents, and older women in particular, to address some of the oversights in existing literature.

  3. Interprofessional care co-ordinators: the benefits and tensions associated with a new role in UK acute health care.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jackie; Meyer, Julienne; Glynn, Michael; Bentley, Jane; Reeves, Scott

    2003-08-01

    While more flexible models of service delivery are being introduced in UK health and social care, little is known about the impact of new roles, particularly support worker roles, on the work of existing practitioners. This action research study aimed to explore the impact of one such new role, that of interprofessional care co-ordinators (IPCCs). The general (internal) medical service of a UK hospital uses IPCCs to provide support to the interprofessional team and, in doing so, promote efficiency of acute bed use. Using a range of methods, mainly qualitative, this action research study sought to explore the characteristics and impact of the role on interprofessional team working. While the role's flexibility, autonomy and informality contributed to success in meeting its intended objectives, these characteristics also caused some tensions with interprofessional colleagues. These benefits and tensions mirror wider issues associated with the current modernisation agenda in UK health care. PMID:12834925

  4. The patient's charter--its implications for surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, E

    1994-07-01

    In recent years charters have become fashionable; we now have charters issued by the Water Board, London Electricity, British Rail, a Patient's Charter from April '94, a Childbirth Charter, and many more. They all promise to give a better all-round quality of service to the public and the Patient's Charter is no exception. This document is a central part of the government's programme to improve and modernise the delivery of the NHS service to the public while continuing to reaffirm the fundamental principles of the NHS. Aneurin Bevan's dream of free health care for all citizens of this country became a reality in 1948 and, for over 30 years, it was the envy of the world. Patients had good reason to be grateful for the speed with which they were admitted to hospital and the high standard of care they received. PMID:7633062

  5. Sustainability, Social Learning and the Democratic Imperative: Lessons from the Australian Landcare Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhill, Jim

    Drawing on the experience of community based land conservation in Australia, this chapter examines the deeper structural and institutional causes of the unsustainability of modern industrialised society. Social learning is presented as a potential paradigm for engaging with these broader institutional dilemmas. Such a perspective locates the concept of social learning at the heart of current debates about the tensions between sustainable development, democracy and free market ideology. The chapter introduces the themes of risk society and reflexive modernisation as a perspective that can help explain why modern institutions are structurally biased against the ideals of sustainable development. This provides a brief political economic context for then outlining a perspective on social learning that gives particular attention to questions of how to facilitate the design of institutions more supportive of sustainable development.

  6. How do doctors choose their specialty: first love, arranged marriage or second time around? And how may an affair with MMC change this?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhys

    2008-10-01

    Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) asks trainees to commit to their specialty sooner than ever before. There has been a great deal of good-quality research on the career intentions of doctors in training. It is time to review this data with MMC's changes in mind and reflect on how earlier enforced choice may affect trainees. There are distinct patterns to career choice: those who commit strongly and early; those who wait and commit later; and those who move on from previous career choices. The specialty is imperative for some that commit early. Those in this group who fail to be selected will need focused career support. Doctors who commit late are more likely to be affected by quality of life and flexibility. The present 'one size fits all' system does not reflect the natural history of present career selection and commitment to specialty.

  7. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

  8. LSAMO forum UK strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Richards, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the LSA role and function have developed and strengthened significantly and it is crucial that this development continues in the new NHS. The biennial LSAMO UK conference which is entitled Future proofing supervision will launch the strategic plan for 2012-2015. It is essential that LSAMOs and supervisors of midwives (SoMs) look to the future to continue to maintain safety and protect the public, but within a modernised forward thinking framework. The forum will work collaboratively to encourage a greater consistency in the provision of supervision to ensure the standards set by the NMC for the LSAs and the supervision of midwives are met. Protecting the public and supporting safe midwifery practice will continue to be the driving principles behind the LSAMO UK forum's work plan. The specific challenges to LSAMOs will be to continue providing leadership and support and be pivotal in addressing the future significant challenges faced by the NHS throughout the UK.

  9. Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Luce, Tom

    2010-10-01

    After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service. PMID:21539281

  10. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  11. Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Luce, Tom

    2010-10-01

    After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service.

  12. Developing and piloting a new role to enhance the clinical learning environment.

    PubMed

    Beddingham, Elaine; Simmons, Maxine

    2016-09-01

    Environments that support pre- and post-registration students' and staff learning are vital to ensure the delivery of high quality patient care by knowledgeable and competent healthcare practitioners. A project was undertaken at Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust to modernise and enhance preceptorship against a background of national and local drivers. This article describes the development, piloting and evaluation of a new role designed to support and enhance practice learning environments for newly qualified nurses, preceptors, pre-registration nursing students and mentors. The article identifies the factors that affect clinical learning environments and discusses some practical solutions to the challenges associated with learning in practice. Finally, the article offers some recommendations and implications for practice in relation to the pilot outcomes. PMID:27581912

  13. Legislative recognition in France of psychological harassment at work.

    PubMed

    Graser, M; Manaouil, C; Verrier, A; Doutrellot-Phillipon, C; Jardé, O

    2003-01-01

    The recent French Law on Social Modernisation of 17 January 2002 introduced into the French Labour Code and into the French Criminal Code, the concept of "moral" harassment. The definition of psychological harassment under this law adopts quite a broad conception of the notion of psychological harassment. The legislator has established a means for "friendly" settlement of disputes: mediation. When it has not been possible to settle the dispute internally, the Courts have a number of sanctions available to them. The French Labour Code provides that any termination of the contract of employment resulting from a situation of psychological harassment is automatically null and void. Such nullification should therefore be applicable whatever the nature of the termination: dismissal, resignation or negotiated departure and it punishes psychological harassment at work by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 3,750 Euros. The French Criminal Code prescribes penalties of one year and 15,000 Euros.

  14. Professional regulation. Part 8: government and NMC proposals.

    PubMed

    Fullbrook, Suzanne

    Two years ago, the Department of Health released a report entitled: Modernising Nursing Careers, Setting the Direction. The opening line in the forward of this report said: 'no one can doubt that healthcare services across the United Kingdom are going through a period of profound change. In her message, which set the tone of the report, Christine Beasley, Chief Nursing Officer of England, said: 'there have been medical advances that we could hardly imagined ... society is also changing ... people's health and recovery is affected by a complex array of factors that bring added challenges. This article discusses the remit of Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) and its basis of statutory authority over its registrants, and begin to explore NMC's position with regard to nurse education.

  15. The patient's charter--its implications for surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, E

    1994-07-01

    In recent years charters have become fashionable; we now have charters issued by the Water Board, London Electricity, British Rail, a Patient's Charter from April '94, a Childbirth Charter, and many more. They all promise to give a better all-round quality of service to the public and the Patient's Charter is no exception. This document is a central part of the government's programme to improve and modernise the delivery of the NHS service to the public while continuing to reaffirm the fundamental principles of the NHS. Aneurin Bevan's dream of free health care for all citizens of this country became a reality in 1948 and, for over 30 years, it was the envy of the world. Patients had good reason to be grateful for the speed with which they were admitted to hospital and the high standard of care they received.

  16. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  17. Modified Ultrafast Thermometer UFT-M and temperature measurements during Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumala, W.; Haman, K. E.; Kopec, M. K.; Khelif, D.; Malinowski, S. P.

    2013-02-01

    A modernised UFT-M version of the ultrafast airborne thermometer UFT was designed for the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST) field campaign. Improvements in its construction resulted in the sensor's increased reliability, which provided valuable measurements in 15 of the 17 flights. Oversampling the data allowed for the effective correction of the artefacts resulting from the interaction with the on-board avionic systems and the thermal noise resulting from the sensor construction. The UFT-M records, when averaged to the 1.4 m and 55 m resolutions, compared to the similar records of a thermometer in a Rosemount housing, indicate that the housing distorts even low-resolution airborne temperature measurements. Data collected with the UFT-M during the course of POST characterise the thermal structure of stratocumulus and capping inversion with the maximum resolution of ~ 1 cm. In this paper, examples of UFT-M records are presented and discussed.

  18. Making see and treat work for patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Parker, Louise

    2004-02-01

    Every department is at a different stage in the development of see and treat. Teams have been established in various ways and are experiencing different dilemmas in making see and treat work best. It is not enough to pick up an established see and treat model, place it in an emergency department and sit back and watch the results. There is no 'magic wand'; no single determining factor to make see and treat work well. Influencing factors need to be understood, applied locally and reviewed regularly to assess success. The NHS Modernisation Agency publishes its survey report, See and Treat: Making it work for patients and staff, on February 4. For Further details, access www.modern.nhs.uk/emergency

  19. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    PubMed

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  20. ROOT6: a Quest for Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piparo, Danilo

    2015-12-01

    The sixth release cycle of ROOT is characterised by a radical modernisation in the core software technologies the too kit relies on: language standard, interpreter, hardware exploitation mechanisms. If on the one hand, the change offered the opportunity of consolidating the existing code base, in presence of such innovations, maintaining the balance between full backward compatibility and software performance was not easy. In this contribution we review the challenges and the solutions identified and implemented in the area of CPU and memory consumption as well as I/O capabilities in terms of patterns. Moreover, we present some of the new ROOT components which are offered to the users to improve the performance of third party applications.

  1. "We make a big effort to bring out the ladies": visual representations of women in the modern American stadium.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    Modern stadiums were constructed across the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, usually to replace old baseball parks that were run-down, inaccessible by automobile, and located near African American neighbourhoods. Sports promoters coveted affluent, white, consumption-oriented customers who had recently moved to the suburbs. To attract these customers, promoters attempted to imaginatively reconstitute stadium space - from urban, old, dirty, rambunctious, masculine places to suburban, new, clean, orderly, female-friendly spaces. The attraction of women - as signifiers of an affluent and domesticated postwar social order - was central to this strategy. Visual representations of women in new stadium spaces were essential to the imaginative reconfiguration and modernisation of stadium space. This essay examines their use, particularly in the Houston Astrodome. Stadium publications and local newspapers used photographs and illustrations of women to conceptually reinvent the stadium, extending a distinctively post-war, modern ideology privileging comfort, consumption and respectable behaviour into stadium space.

  2. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  3. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam.

  4. The consultant contract: marriage or divorce?

    PubMed

    Noble, Peter; Selby, Peter; Kobzev, Denis; Hillhouse, Edward

    2005-01-01

    At the birth of the new millennium Britain's Labour government published a 10-year plan for modernising the National Health Service (NHS), placing great emphasis on new ways of working. As part of this process, and following extensive negotiation, general practitioners and hospital consultants were offered new contracts in 2003. This process highlighted the issues academic clinicians and managers face in dealing with the tensions inherent in delivering the tripartite mission of teaching, research and clinical service. Following a retrospective review of clinical academic appraisals, this paper considers new strategies for strengthening the relationship across the university and NHS interface and how this novel and strategic approach might be adopted in future health policy. These findings can be helpful for both UK colleagues and for a broader international audience by providing a pragmatic approach to increasing collaboration across the higher education and health service sectors.

  5. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s. PMID:26054217

  6. "We make a big effort to bring out the ladies": visual representations of women in the modern American stadium.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    Modern stadiums were constructed across the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, usually to replace old baseball parks that were run-down, inaccessible by automobile, and located near African American neighbourhoods. Sports promoters coveted affluent, white, consumption-oriented customers who had recently moved to the suburbs. To attract these customers, promoters attempted to imaginatively reconstitute stadium space - from urban, old, dirty, rambunctious, masculine places to suburban, new, clean, orderly, female-friendly spaces. The attraction of women - as signifiers of an affluent and domesticated postwar social order - was central to this strategy. Visual representations of women in new stadium spaces were essential to the imaginative reconfiguration and modernisation of stadium space. This essay examines their use, particularly in the Houston Astrodome. Stadium publications and local newspapers used photographs and illustrations of women to conceptually reinvent the stadium, extending a distinctively post-war, modern ideology privileging comfort, consumption and respectable behaviour into stadium space. PMID:21949945

  7. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  8. “Fast-track” and “Minimally Invasive” Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hua-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries. However, little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone. Methods: We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups: open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group, n = 167); OG with FT programs (OG + FT group, n = 277); laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group, n = 248); and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group, n = 292). Patients’ data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Results: The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean: 12.3 days, median: 11 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 6–16 days), while OG + FT, LG + FT, and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean: 7.4, 6.4, and 6.6 days, median: 6, 6, and 6 days, IQR: 3–9, 4–8, and 3–9 days, respectively, all P < 0.001). The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9, 3.1 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.9, and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner. After 30 postoperative days’ follow-up, the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group, 10.1% in OG + FT group, 8.1% in LG + FT group, and 10.3% in RG + FT group. The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: ERAS protocols

  9. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  10. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  11. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  13. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  14. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  16. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  17. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  18. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  19. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  20. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  1. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  2. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  5. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  7. [The user oriented hospital - chances and challenges for the healthcare industry].

    PubMed

    Borchers, Uwe; Evans, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Hardly any other part of the healthcare sector is under such a pressure to change as the hospital sector. Hospitals are high-performers in coping with complex changes in modernising patient care, process design, quality, cost-effectiveness and service orientation. But, what really makes value to the patient? Currently, this question is raised with new seriousness. Those hospitals which consequently align their portfolio to value based and 'patient driven' healthcare delivery will succeed by both quality and cost-effectiveness. We receive such messages from the USA. In Germany there are on-going and admonishing pleas since the end of the 1990s not to lose sight of the patients' needs while designing new concepts for healthcare delivery. Future challenges imply not only the renaissance of patient centred care, but also demand for a comprehensive user orientation as a key factor to successful hospital modernisation. This is particularly true of concepts of structured, integrated and regional healthcare delivery. But a consequent alignment of healthcare with value for patients clearly exceeds the focus on integrating hospital and outpatient care. In designing new services of coordinated regional healthcare, hospitals gain strategic options for a single-source healthcare delivery. In terms of business development, user orientation does not only yield important impulses for stronger patient centred care, but also opens up chances for better quality and competitive advantages. Nevertheless, it requires a new understanding of innovation processes which considers value for patients and quality of results and outcome as a relevant scale for measuring effects of change management. Finally, the methods of the assessment of user oriented healthcare delivery are an essential challenge for the evaluation of cooperative healthcare services.

  8. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  9. [The user oriented hospital - chances and challenges for the healthcare industry].

    PubMed

    Borchers, Uwe; Evans, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Hardly any other part of the healthcare sector is under such a pressure to change as the hospital sector. Hospitals are high-performers in coping with complex changes in modernising patient care, process design, quality, cost-effectiveness and service orientation. But, what really makes value to the patient? Currently, this question is raised with new seriousness. Those hospitals which consequently align their portfolio to value based and 'patient driven' healthcare delivery will succeed by both quality and cost-effectiveness. We receive such messages from the USA. In Germany there are on-going and admonishing pleas since the end of the 1990s not to lose sight of the patients' needs while designing new concepts for healthcare delivery. Future challenges imply not only the renaissance of patient centred care, but also demand for a comprehensive user orientation as a key factor to successful hospital modernisation. This is particularly true of concepts of structured, integrated and regional healthcare delivery. But a consequent alignment of healthcare with value for patients clearly exceeds the focus on integrating hospital and outpatient care. In designing new services of coordinated regional healthcare, hospitals gain strategic options for a single-source healthcare delivery. In terms of business development, user orientation does not only yield important impulses for stronger patient centred care, but also opens up chances for better quality and competitive advantages. Nevertheless, it requires a new understanding of innovation processes which considers value for patients and quality of results and outcome as a relevant scale for measuring effects of change management. Finally, the methods of the assessment of user oriented healthcare delivery are an essential challenge for the evaluation of cooperative healthcare services. PMID:22142885

  10. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid MgSiO 3: Comparison of molecular models and laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Nevins, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Liquid MgSiO 3 is a model for the Earth's magma ocean and of remnant melt present near the core-mantle boundary. Here, models for molten MgSiO 3 are computed employing empirical potential molecular dynamics (EPMD) and results are compared to published results including two EPMD studies and three first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) models and to laboratory data. The EPMD results derived from the Oganov (OG) potential come closest to the density of MgSiO 3 liquid at the 1-bar melting point inferred from the melting curve. At higher P, EPMD densities calculated from the OG potential and FPMD broadly match shock wave studies, with the OG potential yielding the better comparison. Matsui (M) potential results deviate from other studies above ˜50 GPa. Overall, results based on the OG potential compare best to experimental densities over the P-T range of the mantle. Isothermally, upon increasing P the mean coordination numbers ( CN¯) of oxygen around Si and Mg monotonically increase with pressure. Tetrahedral Si and octahedral Si monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, whereas pentahedral Si maximizes at 10-20 GPa. Tetrahedral Mg decreases monotonically as P increases whereas pentahedral, octahedral and higher coordination polyhedra each show similar behavior first increasing and then decreasing after attaining a maximum; the P of the maximum for each polyhedra type migrates to higher P as the CN increases. Free oxygen and oxygen with one nearest neighbor of either Si or Mg decreases whereas Si or Mg with two or three nearest oxygens (i.e., tricluster oxygen) increases with increasing P isothermally. The increase of tricluster oxygen is consistent with spectroscopy on MgSiO 3 glass quenched from 2000 K and 0-40 GPa and high-energy X-ray studies constraining the coordination of O around Mg and around Si at 2300 K and 1 bar. Coordination statistics from FPMD studies for O around Si and Si around O are in agreement with the EPMD results based on the M and

  11. Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside partitioning into lipid bilayers: thermodynamics of binding and structural changes of the bilayer.

    PubMed

    Wenk, M R; Alt, T; Seelig, A; Seelig, J

    1997-04-01

    The interaction of the nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) with lipid bilayers was studied with high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and solid-state 2H-NMR spectroscopy. The transfer of OG from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) can be investigated by employing detergent at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration; it can be defined by a surface partition equilibrium with a partition coefficient of K = 120 +/- 10 M-1, a molar binding enthalpy of delta H degrees D = 1.3 +/- 0.15 kcal/mol, and a free energy of binding of delta G degrees D = -5.2 kcal/mol. The heat of transfer is temperature dependent, with a molar heat capacity of delta CP = -75 cal K-1 mol-1. The large heat capacity and the near-zero delta H are typical for a hydrophobic binding equilibrium. The partition constant K decreased to approximately 100 M-1 for POPC membranes mixed with either negatively charged lipids or cholesterol, but was independent of membrane curvature. In contrast, a much larger variation was observed in the partition enthalpy. delta H degrees D increased by about 50% for large vesicles and by 75% for membranes containing 50 mol% cholesterol. Structural changes in the lipid bilayer were investigated with solid-state 2H-NMR. POPC was selectively deuterated at the headgroup segments and at different positions of the fatty acyl chains, and the measurement of the quadrupolar splittings provided information on the conformation and the order of the bilayer membrane. Addition of OG had almost no influence on the lipid headgroup region, even at concentrations close to bilayer disruption. In contrast, the fluctuations of fatty acyl chain segments located in the inner part of the bilayer increased strongly with increasing OG concentration. The 2H-NMR results demonstrate that the headgroup region is the most stable structural element of the lipid membrane, remaining intact

  12. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  13. Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Ren, J H; Wong, S H

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was used for treatment of oily wastewater with COD and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations ranging from 1,722-7,826 mg/L and 5,365-13,350 mg/L, respectively. A suitable start-up protocol was developed using gradual increase in oily wastewater composition with methanol as the co-substrate. This strategy enabled a short acclimation period of 12 days for the sludge in the two-stage SBR to adapt to the oily wastewater. After acclimation, the 1st stage and 2nd stage SBRs were able to achieve COD removals of 47.0+/-2.4% and 95.3+/-0.5%, respectively. The 1st stage SBR was able to achieve 99.8+/-0.1% of O&G removal and effluent O&G from the 1st stage SBR was only 6+/-2 mg/L. The 2nd stage SBR was used to further remove COD in the effluent from the 1st stage SBR. The final effluent from the 2nd stage SBR had a COD concentration of 97+/-16 mg/L with no detectable O&G content. Thus, a two-stage SBR system was shown to be feasible for treating high strength oily wastewater to meet the local discharge standards.

  14. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  15. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2. PMID:23213308

  16. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  17. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  18. Lipid bilayer elasticity measurements in giant liposomes in contact with a solubilizing surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Perzynski, Régine; Lesieur, Sylviane; Cabuil, Valérie

    2008-05-01

    A new method to probe the modification of the elasticity of phospholipid bilayers is presented. The purpose here concerns the action of a solubilizing surfactant on a vesicle bilayer. This method is based on the measure of the under-field elongation of giant magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes. The addition of the nonionic surfactant octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OG) to vesicles at sublytic levels increases the elasticity of the membrane, as shown by the value of the bending modulus K(b), which decreases. K(b) measured around 20 kT for a pure 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer indeed reaches a few kT in the case of the mixed OG-DOPC bilayer. The purpose and interest of this study are to allow the determination of the membrane bending modulus before and after the addition of OG on the same magnetic liposome. Moreover, the experimental conditions used in this work allow the control of lipid and surfactant molar fractions in the mixed aggregates. Then, optical microscopy observation can be performed on samples in well-defined regions of the OG-phospholipid state diagram. PMID:18363418

  19. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  20. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia.

    PubMed

    Philip, B A; Buckon, C; Sienko, S; Aiona, M; Ross, S; Frey, S H

    2015-08-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  1. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in the test groups. OG was administered to the DMT group at dose of 1500 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. Fecal glucose, protein and cholesterol were determined. Results: Fecal glucose was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT groups significantly (P < 0.001) lower than the control. Fecal protein was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group than the control whereas it was significantly lower in the DMT groups than the DM. Fecal cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the DM than the DMT and control groups with DMT significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the control. Conclusion: This result indicates the propensity of OG to reverse impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption in DM. PMID:25664269

  2. 78 FR 759 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615... reinstatement from Meagher O&G Properties, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW145615 for land in Johnson... the lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management,...

  3. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  4. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  5. Evaluation of the bone healing process in an experimental tibial bone defect model in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Tim, Carla Roberta; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Malavazi, Iran; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of postmenopausal bone loss (induced by ovariectomy) in the process of bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation of bone defects and the analysis of the expression of genes and proteins involved in bone consolidation. Twenty female Wistar rats (12 weeks old, weighing ±250 g) were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG) and ovariectomized group (OG). Rats of OG were submitted to ovariectomy and after 8 weeks post-surgery, all animals were submitted to the tibial bone defect model. The main histological finding analysis revealed that ovariectomized animals showed a higher amount of granulation tissue and immature newly formed bone compared to CG. Furthermore, quantitative histological analysis showed that OG presented a significant decrease in the amount of newly formed bone (p = 0.0351). RT-PCR analysis showed no difference in Runx2, ALP, RANK, RANKL and Osterix gene expression 14-day post-surgery. Interestingly, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that Runx2 was down expressed (p = 0.0001) and RANKL was up expressed (p = 0.0022) in the OG. In conclusion, these data highlight that bone loss induced by ovariectomy causes an impairment in the capacity of bone to heal mainly probably because of alterations in the imbalance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities. PMID:24532218

  6. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  7. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html).

  8. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  9. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  10. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  11. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  12. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  14. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  15. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  16. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.20 0.10 TSS 0.42...

  17. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  18. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  19. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  20. 5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the Handel og Sofartsmuseet pea Kronborg Trade and Seafaring Museum, Helsingor, Denmark) H. P. Thorsoe, painter, c. 1825 VIEW OF CHRISTIANSTED HARBOR FROM SEA, SHIPS IN FOREGROUND, HARBOR IN BACKGROUND - City of Christiansted (General Views), Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  1. 76 FR 40386 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D... Unsuitable Properties Building Illinois Bldg. 649 Philip H. Sheridan Reserve Ctr. Ft. Sheridan IL Landholding...: Secured Area New Mexico Santa Rosa State Park ] 2528 Joe & Louise Page Rd. Santa Rosa NM 88435...

  2. 78 FR 61851 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D... for info. on accessibility reqs. Georgia Building 931 1501 First St. Dobbins Air Reserve GA 30069... Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans LA 70143 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...

  3. 40 CFR 437.11 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available (BPT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.10(b), any existing point... Parameters O&G 205 50.2 pH (2) (2) TSS 60.0 31.0 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0.206 Arsenic 0.162...

  4. 40 CFR 437.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source... O&G 127 38.0 pH (2) (2) TSS 74.1 30.6 Metal Parameters Arsenic 2.95 1.33 Cadmium 0.0172...

  5. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia

    PubMed Central

    Philip, B.A.; Buckon, C.; Sienko, S.; Aiona, M.; Ross, S.; Frey, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  6. Requirement for pectin methyl esterase and preference for fragmented over native pectins for wall-associated kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent stress response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Kohorn, Susan L; Saba, Nicholas J; Martinez, Victoriano Meco

    2014-07-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that spans the plasma membrane and binds pectin in the extracellular matrix of plants. WAKs are required for cell expansion during Arabidopsis seedling development but are also an integral part of the response to pathogens and stress that present oligogalacturonides (OGs), which subsequently bind to WAKs and activate a MPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. It was unclear how WAKs distinguish native pectin polymers and OGs to activate one or the other of these two pathways. A dominant allele of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response. Moreover, the WAK2 dominant allele is suppressed by a null allele of a pectin methyl esterase (PME3) whose activity normally leads to cross-linking of pectins in the cell wall. Although OGs activate a transcriptional response in wild type, the response is enhanced in a pme3/pme3 null, consistent with a competition by OG and native polymers for activation of WAKs. This provides a plausible mechanism for WAKs to distinguish an expansion from a stress pathway.

  7. Preliminary results of the in-orbit test of ARTEMIS with the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Sodnik, Zoran; Lopez, Pablo; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Oppenhauser, Gotthard

    2002-04-01

    ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreemenet for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the IAC Teide Observatory, in order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of Optical Data Relay payloads onboard communication satellites, the first being ARTEMIS. During its recent launch, ARTEMIS was put into a degraded orbit due to a malfunction on the launcher's upper stage. ESA rapidly adopted a recovery strategy aimed to take the satellite to its nominal geostationary position. After completion of the first manoeuvres, ARTEMIS was successfully positioned in a circular parking orbit, at about 31,000 kilometers, and turned into full operation. In this orbit, its optical payload has been tested with the OGS, before establishing the link with SPOT IV. New tracking algorithms were developed at OGS control system in order to correct for ARTEMIS new orbit. The OGS has established a bi-directional link to ARTEMIS, behaving, seen from ARTEMIS, as a LEO terminal. Preliminary results are presented on the space-to- ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking (PAT) performance, received beam characterization and BER measurements.

  8. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  9. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  10. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  11. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  12. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen....85 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must continue to... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  13. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen....85 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must continue to... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  14. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified...

  15. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  16. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  17. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, resp...

  18. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials.

  19. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance remains unchanged. Some sociolinguists (particularly…

  20. Structure and Mechanism of a Viral Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenases comprise a large and diverse enzyme superfamily the members of which have multiple physiological roles. Despite this diversity, these enzymes share a common chemical mechanism and a core structural fold, a double-stranded β-helix (DSBH), as well as conserved active site residues. The prolyl hydroxylases are members of this large superfamily. Prolyl hydroxylases are involved in collagen biosynthesis and oxygen sensing in mammalian cells. Structural–mechanistic studies with prolyl hydroxylases have broader implications for understanding mechanisms in the Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Here, we describe crystal structures of an N-terminally truncated viral collagen prolyl hydroxylase (vCPH). The crystal structure shows that vCPH contains the conserved DSBH motif and iron binding active site residues of 2-OG oxygenases. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to delineate structural changes in vCPH upon binding its substrate. Kinetic investigations are used to report on reaction cycle intermediates and compare them to the closest homologues of vCPH. The study highlights the utility of vCPH as a model enzyme for broader mechanistic analysis of Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases, including those of biomedical interest. PMID:26368022

  1. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  2. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club…

  3. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  4. Influence of the ADP/ATP ratio, 2-oxoglutarate and divalent ions on Azospirillum brasilense PII protein signalling.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Araújo, Luíza M; Ribeiro, Ronny R; Chubatsu, Leda S; Scarduelli, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Thiago E; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2012-06-01

    Proteins belonging to the P(II) family coordinate cellular nitrogen metabolism by direct interaction with a variety of enzymes, transcriptional regulators and transporters. The sensing function of P(II) relies on its ability to bind the nitrogen/carbon signalling molecule 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). In Proteobacteria, P(II) is further subject to reversible uridylylation according to the intracellular levels of glutamine, which reflect the cellular nitrogen status. A number of P(II) proteins have been shown to bind ADP and ATP in a competitive manner, suggesting that P(II) might act as an energy sensor. Here, we analyse the influence of the ADP/ATP ratio, 2-OG levels and divalent metal ions on in vitro uridylylation of the Azospirillum brasilense P(II) proteins GlnB and GlnZ, and on interaction with their targets AmtB, DraG and DraT. The results support the notion that the cellular concentration of 2-OG is a key factor governing occupation of the GlnB and GlnZ nucleotide binding sites by ATP or ADP, with high 2-OG levels favouring the occupation of P(II) by ATP. Both P(II) uridylylation and interaction with target proteins responded to the ADP/ATP ratio within the expected physiological range, supporting the concept that P(II) proteins might act as cellular energy sensors.

  5. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  6. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  7. Bioinformatics analysis of thousands of TCGA tumors to determine the involvement of epigenetic regulators in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery and the identification of potential cancer drivers among members of epigenetic protein families. Methods We integrated mutation, expression, and copy number data from 5943 tumors from 13 cancer types to train a classification model that predicts the likelihood of being an oncogene (OG), tumor suppressor (TSG) or neutral gene (NG). We applied this predictor to epigenetic regulator genes (ERGs), and used differential expression and correlation network analysis to identify dysregulated ERGs along with co-expressed cancer genes. Furthermore, we quantified global proteomic changes by mass spectrometry after EZH2 inhibition. Results Mutation-based classifiers uncovered the OG-like profile of DNMT3A and TSG-like profiles for several ERGs. Differential gene expression and correlation network analyses revealed that EZH2 is the most significantly over-expressed ERG in cancer and is co-regulated with a cell cycle network. Proteomic analysis showed that EZH2 inhibition induced down-regulation of cell cycle regulators in lymphoma cells. Conclusions Using classical driver genes to train an OG/TSG predictor, we determined the most predictive features at the gene level. Our predictor uncovered one OG and several TSGs among ERGs. Expression analyses elucidated multiple dysregulated ERGs including EZH2 as member of a co-expressed cell cycle network. PMID:26110843

  8. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions. PMID:22037580

  9. Orchardgrass ley for improved manure management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive value and voluntary intake by dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement dairy feeding operations in the Upper Midwest could benefit from utilizing a wider range of forages than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn silage (Zea mays L.). A short cycle, frequently manured, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) ley (OG) was compared with corn silage (CS) in a 2 ...

  10. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24...

  11. Studies on pulsed optogalvanic effect in Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2014-07-01

    The optogalvanic (OG) effect has been observed in a Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge lamp using pulsed laser irradiation. An OG spectrum is recorded in dye laser wavelength region 574–602 nm using a boxcar-averager. In total 41 atomic lines are observed. Of these, 38 lines are assigned to neon transitions. Two lines observed corresponding to wavelengths 576.519 and 601.815 nm are assigned to europium transitions; (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 6 7/2 ) and (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 8 9/2 ), respectively, and the remaining line at 582.475 nm could not be assigned. The effect of the discharge current on europium as well as neon OG signals is also studied. At moderate discharge current values, an extra positive peak is observed in neon OG signal for the transition (1s 5 →2p 2 ) at 588.189 nm, which is explained by Penning-ionization process using the quasi-resonant energy transfer interactions between excited neon and europium atoms lying in 2p 2 and D 10 9/2 states, respectively. PMID:25089996

  12. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  13. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-04-28

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP-PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense.

  14. Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 play different roles in basal and oligogalacturonide- or flagellin-induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ferrari, Simone; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental components of the plant innate immune system. MPK3 and MPK6 are Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MAPKs activated by pathogens and elicitors such as oligogalacturonides (OGs), which function as damage-associated molecular patterns, and flg22, a well-known microbe-associated molecular pattern. However, the specific contribution of MPK3 and MPK6 to the regulation of elicitor-induced defense responses is not completely defined. In this work we have investigated the roles played by these MAPKs in elicitor-induced resistance against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Analysis of single mapk mutants revealed that lack of MPK3 increases basal susceptibility to the fungus, as previously reported, but does not significantly affect elicitor-induced resistance. Instead, lack of MPK6 has no effect on basal resistance but suppresses OG- and flg22-induced resistance to B. cinerea. Overexpression of the AP2C1 phosphatase leads to impaired OG- and flg22-induced phosphorylation of both MPK3 and MPK6, and to phenotypes that recapitulate those of the single mapk mutants. These data indicate that OG- and flg22-induced defense responses effective against B. cinerea are mainly dependent on MAPKs, with a greater contribution of MPK6.

  15. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  16. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  17. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  18. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials. PMID:27566356

  19. Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and the Focus of Attention in Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Frith, Chris D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) denotes the function to realize intentions after a delay while being immersed in distracting ongoing (OG) activity. Here, we scrutinize the often-reported involvement of rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC; approximating Brodmann area 10) in such situations: This region might mediate attention between external stimuli and the internally maintained intention, that is, between stimulus-oriented (SO) and stimulus-independent (SI) processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we orthogonally crossed 1) PM versus OG activity only, with 2) SO versus SI attention. In support of the hypothesis, common regions of medial rPFC exhibited greater blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal for the contrasts of both OG task only versus PM and SO versus SI attending. However, activation related to the former contrast extended more superiorly, suggesting a functional gradient along a dorsal–ventral axis within this region. Moreover, region-of-interest analyses revealed that PM versus OG task only was associated with greater BOLD signal in left lateral rPFC, reflecting the requirement to maintain delayed intentions. Distinct aspects of this region were also transiently engaged at transitions between SO and SI conditions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the rostral prefrontal signal changes associated with PM performance reflect relative differences in SO versus SI processing. PMID:21976356

  20. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  1. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  2. The Adoption of Systems Innovations in Educational Organizations: A Case Study of Operation Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    To identify factors which affect the acceptance of innovation in school organizations, a career development product entitled Operation Guidance (OG) was the object of a case study. Five basic organizational characteristics were used to roughly quantify attributes of the organization of the six schools studied. The characteristics were:…

  3. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00730 0.00261 O&G 0.00313 0.00104 Lead...

  4. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  5. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  6. Integrating Oil and Gas Measurement Data to Estimate Spatially-Gridded Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, D. R.; Zavala Araiza, D.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Lan, X.; Talbot, R. W.; Shepson, P. B.; Lavoie, T. N.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, a dozen research teams measured methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas at multiple scales ranging from bottom-up component measurements to top-down regional emission measurements. This work integrates ground- and aircraft-based measurements of site-level emissions from the campaign and a recent national study of gathering and processing facilities to construct a spatially resolved emission inventory for the Barnett Shale. Spatially referenced activity data including O&G site locations were obtained from multiple databases. O&G site emission factors were estimated with two-step Monte Carlo simulations that integrated emission rates from unbiased datasets with higher measurements obtained with targeted sampling. Emissions from other fossil and biogenic sources were estimated from reported emissions data or published emission factors. We constructed a 4 km x 4 km gridded emission inventory to estimate emissions by source category in the 25-county Barnett region. Total methane emissions in October 2013 were estimated to be 72.3 (+10.1/-8.9) Mg CH4 h-1 with 46.2 (+7.9/-6.2) from O&G sources. Fat-tail sites, which were defined as emission rates above the unbiased sampling distributions, accounted for 19% of O&G emissions but less than 2% of sites. In comparison to alternative estimates of O&G emissions based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, our custom inventory was higher by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively, similar to published ratios of top-down and bottom up estimates. Our custom inventory was higher than alternatives primarily due to more complete activity data and the inclusion of fat-tail site emissions. Gathering facilities, which accounted for 40% of our O&G emission estimate, had the largest difference from alternative inventories.

  7. Land use change from forest to olive grove soils in a toposequence in Mediterranean areas (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Olive grove (OG) is the most important crop in Andalusia (South of Spain), the main production area in the world. Throughout its development over the years, land use change (LUC) has been one of the most common phenomena, causing soil erosion and the loss of soil quality. This effect is aggravated by the climatic conditions and poor soil management practices. This study examined the effect of LUC from natural forest to OG in a toposequence (summit, backslope, toeslope) of a calcisols-regosols-vertisols sequence in Torredecampo (South of Spain). The studied parameters were soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content; C and N stock; and stratification ratio (SR). Total SOC (T-SOC) was low for both forest and OG soils, with a pattern of decrease from the highest (summit) to the lowest topographical position (toeslope) in forest soils, but not for OG soils, where the highest T-SOC was found in the lowest topographical position. T-SOC was more than 40% higher in forest soils than in OG soils in the summit and backslope, but not in the toeslope. This can be explained by the difference in tree and vegetative coverage from both soil uses. Natural vegetation prevents that erosion diminishes soil quality and carbon content, as well as excessive erosion from higher to lower topographical positions. SOC stock in forest soils remained evenly distributed in the three topographical positions. However, the trend for the studied olive OG soils was to have the highest SOC stock in the toeslope and the lowest in the summit. Erosion and subsequent sediment deposition in the toeslope could also be the reason behind this difference between forest and OG soils. TN followed a pattern of decrease with depth in the OG soils, but not in the forest soils. This could be because of increased erosion and fertiliser leaching caused by the lack of vegetative cover. As for TN stock, it was higher in forest soils than in OG soils, with an exception (toeslope). In this case, the exception can also

  8. Novel strategy for the selection of human recombinant Fab fragments to membrane proteins from a phage-display library.

    PubMed

    Labrijn, Aran F; Koppelman, Marco H G M; Verhagen, Janneke; Brouwer, Mieke C; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Hack, C Erik; Huisman, Han G

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, the selection of phage-display libraries is performed on purified antigens (Ags), immobilized to a solid substrate. However, this approach may not be applicable for some Ags, such as membrane proteins, which for structural integrity strongly rely on their native environment. Here we describe an approach for the selection of phage-libraries against membrane proteins. The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) were used as a model for a type-1 integral membrane protein. HIV-1IHI Env, expressed on the surface of Rabbit Kidney cells (RK13) with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), was solubilized using the non-ionic detergent n-Octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG). Membrane associated Env was reconstituted into vesicles by the simultaneous removal of detergent and free monomeric Env subunits by gel-filtration. The resulting antigen preparation, termed OG-P1IHI, was captured on microtiter plates coated with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) and used for rounds of selection (panning) of a well-characterized phage-display library derived from an HIV-1 seropositive donor. Simultaneously, an identical experiment was performed with OG-P1IHI vesicles disrupted by Nonidet P-40 (NP-P1IHI). Both membrane-associated and soluble Ags were selected for vaccinia-specific clones (OG-P1IHI: 59/75 and NP-P1IHI: 1/75) and HIV-1-specific clones (OG-P1IHI: 11/75 and NP-P1IHI: 65/75) using our approach. Hence, the novel panning strategy described here may be applicable for selection of phage-libraries against membrane proteins.

  9. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  10. Evidence for the Slow Reaction of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase 2 with Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Flashman, Emily; Hoffart, Lee M.; Hamed, Refaat B.; Bollinger, J. Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The response of animals to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Human HIF is regulated by four Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases: Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs or EGLNs) 1–3 catalyse hydroxylation of two prolyl-residues in HIF, triggering its degradation by the proteasome. Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) catalyses hydroxylation of an asparagine-residue in HIF, inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Collectively, the HIF hydroxylases negatively regulate HIF in response to increasing oxygen concentration. Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) is the most important oxygen sensor in human cells; however the underlying kinetic basis of the oxygen sensing function of PHD2 is unclear. We report analyses of the reaction of PHD2 with oxygen. Chemical quench/mass spectrometry experiments showed that reaction of a complex of PHD2, Fe(II), 2OG and the C-terminal oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-α (CODD) with oxygen to form hydroxylated CODD and succinate is much slower (~100 fold) than for other similarly studied 2OG oxygenases. Stopped flow/UV-visible spectroscopy experiments showed that the reaction produces a relatively stable species absorbing at 320nm; Mössbauer spectroscopic experiments implied that this species is likely not a Fe(IV)=O intermediate, as observed for other 2OG oxygenases. Overall the results suggest that, at least compared to other studied 2OG oxygenases, PHD2 reacts relatively slowly with oxygen, a property that may be associated with its function as an oxygen sensor. PMID:20840591

  11. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.

  12. Modeled Oil and Gas Atmospheric Impacts in National Parks and Wilderness Areas in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.

  13. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  14. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose. PMID:25734825

  15. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  16. OpenGeoSys-GEMS: Hybrid parallelization of a reactive transport code with MPI and threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Shao, H.

    2012-04-01

    OpenGeoSys-GEMS is a generic purpose reactive transport code based on the operator splitting approach. The code couples the Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport modules of the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=18345) with the GEM-Selektor research package to model thermodynamic equilibrium of aquatic (geo)chemical systems utilizing the Gibbs Energy Minimization approach (http://gems.web.psi.ch/). The combination of OGS and the GEM-Selektor kernel (GEMS3K) is highly flexible due to the object-oriented modular code structures and the well defined (memory based) data exchange modules. Like other reactive transport codes, the practical applicability of OGS-GEMS is often hampered by the long calculation time and large memory requirements. • For realistic geochemical systems which might include dozens of mineral phases and several (non-ideal) solid solutions the time needed to solve the chemical system with GEMS3K may increase exceptionally. • The codes are coupled in a sequential non-iterative loop. In order to keep the accuracy, the time step size is restricted. In combination with a fine spatial discretization the time step size may become very small which increases calculation times drastically even for small 1D problems. • The current version of OGS is not optimized for memory use and the MPI version of OGS does not distribute data between nodes. Even for moderately small 2D problems the number of MPI processes that fit into memory of up-to-date workstations or HPC hardware is limited. One strategy to overcome the above mentioned restrictions of OGS-GEMS is to parallelize the coupled code. For OGS a parallelized version already exists. It is based on a domain decomposition method implemented with MPI and provides a parallel solver for fluid and mass transport processes. In the coupled code, after solving fluid flow and solute transport, geochemical calculations are done in form of a central loop over all finite

  17. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  18. Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Bourg, V; Ramaioli, A; Chanalet, S; Vandenbos, F; Lonjon, M; Fauchon, F; Paquis, P; Frenay, M

    2007-04-01

    Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed. Several studies have reported the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents in a small number of patients with low-grade gliomas, e.g. pure astrocytomas, OG or mixed histologies. The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years. We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery. All the tumors were low grade (grade II) pure OG according to the WHO classification. All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis. Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied. The most common first symptom was partial epileptic seizure (73.7%). Six patients (18%) had initial gadolinium enhancement, associated with methoxyisobutyl (MIBI) hypermetabolism (P < 0.001). The resection was partial in seven cases (21%), and 26 patients (79%) had biopsy only. Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months. Favorable prognostic factors were lack of contrast enhancement (P < 0.0001), and age <40 years (P < 0.0003); 90% of patients were progression-free at 1 year. Survival rates at 2, 5 and 10 years were 85%, 75% and 50%, respectively. Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression. These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive

  19. Long-term survival outcomes of laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Wen, Lei; Rui, Yuan-Yi; Liu, Chao-Xu; Zhao, Qing-Chuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many meta-analyses have confirmed the technical feasibility and favorable short-term surgical outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer patients, but the long-term survival outcome of LG remains controversial compared with open gastrectomy (OG). This study aimed to compare the 5-year overall survival (OS), recurrence, and gastric cancer-related death of LG with OG among gastric cancer patients. PubMed was searched to February 2014. The resectable gastric cancer patients who underwent curative LG or OG were eligible. The studies that compared 5-year OS, recurrence, or gastric cancer-related death in the LG and OG groups were included. A meta-analysis, meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and stage-specific analysis were performed to estimate the survival outcome between the two groups and identify the potential confounders. Quality assessment was based on a tailored comparability scoring system. Twenty-three studies with 7336 patients were included. The score of comparability between two groups and the extent of lymphadenectomy were two independent confounders. Based on the well-balanced studies, the 5-year OS (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28, P = 0.45), recurrence (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.02, P = 0.08), and gastric cancer-related death (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.65-1.13, P = 0.28) rates were comparable in LG and OG. Several subsets such as the publication year, study region, sample size, gastrectomy pattern, extent of lymphadenectomy, number of nodes harvested, and proportion of T1-2 or N0-1 did not influence the estimates, if they were well balanced. Particularly, the stage-specific estimates obtained comparable results between the two groups. Randomized controlled trials comparing LG with OG remain sparse to assess their long-term survival outcomes. The major contributions of this systematic review compared with other meta-analyses are a comprehensive collection of available long-term survival outcomes within

  20. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  1. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  2. Mouse alpha1(I)-collagen promoter is the best known promoter to drive efficient Cre recombinase expression in osteoblast.

    PubMed

    Dacquin, Romain; Starbuck, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten; Karsenty, Gérard

    2002-06-01

    Cell- and time-specific gene inactivation should enhance our knowledge of bone biology. Implementation of this technique requires construction of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase in osteoblasts, the bone forming cell. We tested several promoter fragments for their ability to drive efficient Cre expression in osteoblasts. In the first mouse transgenic line, the Cre gene was placed under the control of the 2.3-kb proximal fragment of the alpha1(I)-collagen promoter, which is expressed at high levels in osteoblasts throughout their differentiation. Transgenic mice expressing this transgene in bone were bred with the ROSA26 reporter (R26R) strain in which the ROSA26 locus is targeted with a conditional LacZ reporter cassette. In R26R mice, Cre expression and subsequent Cre-mediated recombination lead to expression of the LacZ reporter gene, an event that can be monitored by LacZ staining. LacZ staining was detected in virtually all osteoblasts of alpha1(I)-Cre;R26R mice indicating that homologous recombination occurred in these cells. No other cell type stained blue. In the second line studied, the 1.3-kb fragment of osteocalcin gene 2 (OG2) promoter, which is active in differentiated osteoblasts, was used to drive Cre expression. OG2-Cre mice expressed Cre specifically in bone. However, cross of OG2-Cre mice with R26R mice did not lead to any detectable LacZ staining in osteoblasts. Lastly, we tested a more active artificial promoter derived from the OG2 promoter. The artificial OG2-Cre transgene was expressed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cartilage and bone samples. After cross of the artificial OG2-Cre mice with R26R mice, we detected a LacZ staining in articular chondrocytes but not in osteoblasts. Our data suggest that the only promoter able to drive Cre expression at a level sufficient to induce recombination in osteoblasts is the alpha1(I)-collagen promoter. PMID:12112477

  3. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  4. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  5. Prevalence of hypertension at high altitude: cross-sectional survey in Ladakh, Northern India 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Norboo, Tsering; Stobdan, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Angchuk, Norboo; Tsering, Phunsog; Ahmed, Iqbal; Chorol, Tsewang; Kumar Sharma, Vijay; Reddy, Prasanna; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kimura, Yumi; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Okumiya, Kiyohito

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of hypertension was examined in a widely dispersed (45 110 km2) representative group of Ladakhi in Northern India. The influence of hypoxic environment of wide-ranged altitude (2600–4900 m) and lifestyle change on hypertension was studied. Methods 2800 participants (age 20–94 years) were enrolled. Systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current anti-hypertensive medicine was defined as hypertension. Height and weight for body mass index and SpO2 were examined. The rural population comprised six subdivisions with a distinct altitude, dietary and occupational pattern. Participants in the urban area of Leh consist of two groups, that is, migrants settled in Leh from the Changthang nomadic area, and dwellers born in Leh. The prevalence of hypertension in the two groups was compared with that in the farmers and nomads in rural areas. The effects of ageing, hypoxia, dwelling at high altitude, obesity, modernised occupation, dwelling in an urban area, and rural-to-urban migration to hypertension were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 37.0% in all participants and highest in migrants settled in Leh (48.3%), followed by dwellers born in Leh town (41.1%) compared with those in rural areas (33.5). The prevalence of hypertension in nomads (all: 27.7%, Tibetan/Ladakhi: 19.7/31.9%)) living at higher altitude (4000–4900 m) was relatively low. The associated factors with hypertension were ageing, overweight, dwelling at higher altitude, engagement in modernised sedentary occupations, dwelling in urban areas, and rural-to-urban migration. The effects of lifestyle change and dwelling at high altitude were independently associated with hypertension by multivariate analysis adjusted with confounding factors. Conclusions Socioeconomic and cultural factors play a big role with the effect of high altitude itself on high prevalence of

  6. PRIDE for PLAY: Personal Responsibility in Daily Effort for Participation in Lifelong Activity for Youths. A Singaporean Context

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Singapore, a developed city state of four million people is experiencing the pitfalls that come with rapid modernisation and economic progress- elevated disease risk factors among adults and young people. Weekly compulsory physical education classes of 70 minutes in schools and the associated sports activities after classes are inadequate to meet emergent physical activity guidelines of a daily accumulation of at least 90 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity. Daily play sessions that are exclusive of an active daily recess, physical education classes taught by trained specialists and after-school sport sessions, can provide many developmental and holistic health benefits that may carry over into adulthood. A school environment that is play-encouraging, play-enabling and play-inviting can be a useful, innovative and natural way of inculcating a love for movement and help redress a serious trend of physical activity insufficiency while youngsters engage electronic gaming activities. Pilot initiatives for the PRIDE (personal responsibility in daily effort) for PLAY (participation in lifelong activity for youths) programme is a radicalised approach in a number of primary schools in Singapore to infuse daily physical play of between 20 to 45 minutes during curriculum hours. The hope is that PRIDE for PLAY will reap benefits of improved holistic health of youngsters- better physical, social, emotional and mental attributes. While PRIDE for PLAY is no panacea to all of the ills of modernisation, it will go some way in helping the students of tomorrow to be physically healthy, socially more engaged and tolerant of others, mentally more apt to problem-solve and emotionally more proficient to embrace working life in adulthood. Key pointsPhysical play is natural among young people and a daily dose of play can help young people meet daily requirements for accumulated physical activity of at least 90 minutes and at least of a moderate intensity.Play is

  7. Phylogenomics Using Transcriptome Data.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Kocot, Kevin Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a generalized protocol for conducting phylogenetic analyses using large-scale molecular datasets, specifically using transcriptome data from the Illumina sequencing platform. The general molecular lab bench protocol consists of RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and sequencing, in this case via Illumina. After sequences have been obtained, bioinformatics methods are used to assemble raw reads, identify coding regions, and categorize sequences from different species into groups of orthologous genes (OGs). The specific OGs to be used for phylogenetic inference are selected using a custom shell script. Finally, the selected orthologous groups are concatenated into a supermatrix. Generalized methods for phylogenomic inference using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference software are presented. PMID:27460370

  8. Development of algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys and application to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Shinn, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination.

  9. Maxima in antioxidant distributions and efficiencies with increasing hydrophobicity of gallic acid and its alkyl esters. The pseudophase model interpretation of the "cutoff effect".

    PubMed

    Losada Barreiro, Sonia; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Romsted, Laurence S

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidant (AO) efficiencies are reported to go through maxima with increasing chain length (hydrophobicity) in emulsions. The so-called "cutoff" after the maxima, indicating a decrease in efficiency, remains unexplained. This paper shows, for gallic acid (GA) and propyl, octyl, and lauryl gallates (PG, OG, and LG, respectively), that at any given volume fraction of emulsifier, the concentrations of antioxidants in the interfacial region of stripped corn oil emulsions and their efficiency order follow PG > GA > OG > LG. These results provide clear evidence that an AO's efficiency correlates with its fraction in the interfacial region. AO distributions were obtained in intact emulsions by using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret changes in observed rate constants of the AOs with a chemical probe, and their efficiencies were measured by employing the Schaal oven test. The model provides a natural explanation for the maxima with increasing AO hydrophobicity.

  10. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  11. Cumulative Haploinsufficiency and Triplosensitivity Drive Aneuploidy Patterns to Shape the Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Davoli, Teresa; Xu, Andrew Wei; Mengwasser, Kristen E.; Sack, Laura M.; Yoon, John C.; Park, Peter J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneuploidy has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer for over 100 years, yet no general theory to explain the recurring patterns of aneuploidy in cancer has emerged. Here we develop Tumor Suppressor and Oncogene (TUSON) Explorer, a computational method that analyzes the patterns of mutational signatures in tumors and predicts the likelihood that any individual gene functions as a tumor suppressor (TSG) or oncogene (OG). By analyzing >8200 tumor-normal pairs we provide statistical evidence suggesting many more genes possess cancer driver properties than anticipated, forming a continuum of oncogenic potential. Integrating our driver predictions with information on somatic copy number alterations, we find that the distribution and the potency of TSGs (STOP genes), OGs and essential genes (GO genes) on chromosomes can predict the complex patterns of aneuploidy and copy number variation characteristic of cancer genomes. We propose that the cancer genome is shaped through a process of cumulative haploinsufficiency and triplosensitivity. PMID:24183448

  12. Integrated testing of an electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator /EDC/ and a Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem /BRS/. [in spaceborne oxygen reclamation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1976-01-01

    An oxygen reclamation system (ORS) in a spacecraft has the task to revitalize the spacecraft atmosphere by recovering the elementary oxygen from metabolically produced carbon dioxide and water vapor. Life support subsystems which can form such an ORS are an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator (EDC), a Bosch carbon dioxide reduction subsystem (BRS), and an oxygen generation subsystem (OGS). A total recovery of the oxygen from metabolically generated carbon dioxide can be obtained with the aid of system composed of the considered three subsystems. Attention is given to the control concept which assures an integrated operation of the EDC, BRS, and OGS. A description is presented of the test results obtained during 86 days of testing.

  13. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  14. Using NK Cell Lipid Raft Fractionation to Understand the Role of Lipid Rafts in NK Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts were first defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) due to their relative insolubility in non-ionic detergents. Although they should not be confused with lipid rafts, DRMs are a valuable starting point for the study of these membrane domains and the interactions of proteins with rafts.Here we describe the isolation of DRMs by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, a method we have used to study the role of lipid rafts in NKG2D-mediated signaling. We also describe raft fractionation of NK cells involving the selective solubility of β-octylglucoside (β-OG). OG is a non-ionic detergent that efficiently dissolves DRMs but does not disrupt protein associations with the cytoskeleton. Using these two techniques may yield useful information about the proteins involved in receptor recruitment into lipid rafts and the interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with lipid rafts.

  15. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  16. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients.

  17. CONSTRAINING PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE GEOMETRY WITH {gamma}-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Watters, Kyle P. E-mail: kwatters@stanford.ed

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for quantitatively comparing {gamma}-ray pulsar light curves with magnetosphere beaming models. With the Fermi LAT providing many pulsar discoveries and high-quality pulsar light curves for the brighter objects, such a comparison allows greatly improved constraints on the emission zone geometry and the magnetospheric physics. Here we apply the method to Fermi LAT light curves of a set of bright pulsars known since EGRET or before. We test three approximate models for the magnetosphere structure and two popular schemes for the location of the emission zone, the two pole caustic model and the outer gap (OG) model. We find that OG models and relatively physical B fields approximating force-free dipole magnetospheres are preferred at high statistical significance. An application to the full LAT pulsar sample will allow us to follow the emission zone's evolution with pulsar spindown.

  18. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  19. Zn distribution and speciation in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes by synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Lu, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Zinc is an important element in steelmaking industry not only for its impact on environment but also for its hazardous influence to steel production. Collecting information about the chemical association of zinc in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes is fundamental for monitoring its behavior during further treatment. In the work presented here, the spatial distribution, and chemical forms of zinc in accumulated particles of zinc-containing steelmaking wastes, including electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) and basic oxygen furnace OG sludge (BOF OG), have been investigated using synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy. Results of μ-XRF analysis showed that zinc distributed in two ways. One was shared with iron and its distribution showed a positive correlation with that of iron. The other was accumulated in some well-defined hot spots with high amount and its distribution showed negative correlation with that of iron. For EAFD, results of μ-XANES spectroscopy indicated that zinc was mainly present in the form of ZnFe2O4 within the whole particles no matter the spots with high or low zinc content. Whereas for BOF OG, ZnFe2O4 was the main constituent in well-defined hot spots while in other regions zinc was mainly in the form of zinc carbonate. These results indicated that chemical reaction between zinc and other components occurred during the formation of accumulated OG sludge particles. If the above findings could be confirmed by more systematic investigations, it will provide valuable information for treating and utilizing these metallurgical residues.

  20. 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities in plant mitochondria: interaction via a common coenzyme a pool.

    PubMed

    Dry, I B; Wiskich, J T

    1987-08-15

    2-Oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent O2 uptake by washed or purified turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Massey Gem) leaf mitochondria, in the presence of malonate, was inhibited between 65 and 90% by micromolar levels of pyruvate. The inhibition was not observed in the absence of malonate and was reversed by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. The inhibition was also reversed by oxaloacetate or by malate, but not by any other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The stimulation of O2 uptake by oxaloacetate was half maximal at 8-9 microM and was transient, indicating its action was not mediated through the complete metabolic removal of pyruvate. Pyruvate had not effect on 2-OG oxidation under conditions in which pyruvate dehydrogenase was not active, indicating that pyruvate metabolism, rather than pyruvate itself, was responsible for producing the inhibition of 2-OG oxidation. Similar results were obtained with detergent-treated mitochondrial extracts with the exception that the inhibition of 2-OG oxidation by pyruvate could also be reversed by coenzyme A. The results suggest that pyruvate inhibits 2-oxoglutarate oxidation, in intact plant mitochondria, by sequestering intramitochondrial CoA as acetyl-CoA and, in the absence of citrate synthase activity, reduces the amount of free coenzyme A available for 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. These results indicate that pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase share a common CoA pool within plant mitochondria and that the turnover of the acyl-CoA product of one enzyme will dramatically influence the activity of the other.