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Sample records for kyasanur forest disease

  1. Kyasanur Forest Disease - First Reported Case in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Shiji, P V; Viswanath, Veena; Sreekumar, Sreena; Sreejith, R; Majeed, Abdul; Udayabhaskaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.

  2. Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD): Rare Disease of Zoonotic Origin.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, M

    2016-09-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease..

  3. Isolation of Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus from Febrile Patient, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Ni, Daxin; Nasci, Roger; Tang, Qing

    2009-01-01

    We recently determined that Nanjianyin virus, isolated from serum of a patient in Yunnan Province, China, in 1989, is a type of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Results of a 1987–1990 seroepidemiologic investigation in Yunnan Province had shown that residents of the Hengduan Mountain region had been infected with Nanjianyin virus. PMID:19193286

  4. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-08-19

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures.

  5. Development of a subgenomic clone system for Kyasanur Forest disease virus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Bradley W M; Nikiforuk, Aidan M; Cutts, Todd A; Kobasa, Darwyn; Court, Deborah A; Theriault, Steven S

    2016-07-01

    Emerging tropical viruses pose an increasing threat to public health because social, economic and environmental factors such as global trade and deforestation allow for their migration into previously unexposed populations and ecological niches. Among such viruses, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) deserves particular recognition because it causes hemorrhagic fever. This work describes the completion of an antiviral testing platform (subgenomic system) for KFDV that could be used to quickly and safely screen compounds capable of inhibiting KFDV replication without the requirement for high containment, as the structural genes have been replaced with a luciferase reporter gene precluding the generation of infectious particles. The coordination of KFDV kinetics with the replication characteristics of the subgenomic system has provided additional insight into the timing of flavivirus replication events, as the genetically engineered KFDV genome began replication as early as 2h post cellular entry. Possession of such antiviral testing platforms by public health agencies should accelerate the testing of antiviral drugs against emerging or recently emerged viruses mitigating the effects of their disease and transmission. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Limited Effects of Type I Interferons on Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Bradley W. M.; Ranadheera, Charlene; Nikiforuk, Aidan M.; Cutts, Todd A.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Court, Deborah A.; Theriault, Steven S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The tick-borne flavivirus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) causes seasonal infections and periodic outbreaks in south-west India. The current vaccine offers poor protection with reported issues of coverage and immunogenicity. Since there are no approved prophylactic therapeutics for KFDV, type I IFN-α/β subtypes were assessed for antiviral potency against KFDV in cell culture. Methodology/Principal Findings The continued passage of KFDV-infected cells with re-administered IFN-α2a treatment did not eliminate KFDV and had little effect on infectious particle production whereas the IFN-sensitive, green fluorescent protein-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-GFP) infection was controlled. Further evaluation of the other IFN-α/β subtypes versus KFDV infection indicated that single treatments of either IFN-αWA and IFN-αΚ appeared to be more effective than IFN-α2a at reducing KFDV titres. Concentration-dependent analysis of these IFN-α/β subtypes revealed that regardless of subtype, low concentrations of IFN were able to limit cytopathic effects (CPE), while significantly higher concentrations were needed for inhibition of virion release. Furthermore, expression of the KFDV NS5 in cell culture before IFN addition enabled VSV-GFP to overcome the effects of IFN-α/β signalling, producing a robust infection. Conclusions/Significance Treatment of cell culture with IFN does not appear to be suitable for KFDV eradication and the assay used for such studies should be carefully considered. Further, it appears that the NS5 protein is sufficient to permit KFDV to bypass the antiviral properties of IFN. We suggest that other prophylactic therapeutics should be evaluated in place of IFN for treatment of individuals with KFDV disease. PMID:27479197

  7. Kyasanur forest disease virus breaking the endemic barrier: An investigation into ecological effects on disease emergence and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Ajesh, K; Nagaraja, B K; Sreejith, K

    2017-02-20

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is found in a limited range of India, but is epidemiologically understudied. The seasonal patterns of KFD are well known; however, the significant concern is on the extent to which changes in epidemiology happen especially under the influence of ecological destructions and by the eventual effects of resulting climate change. Presently, a southward and northward spread of the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) along the Western Ghats has been reported in the adjoining states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Maharashtra. In this review, we investigate the cascade of factors that might have facilitated the resurgence of KFDV among the endemic regions in higher frequency and its recent emergence in the area previously not reported. Utilizing published data, we additionally endeavour to exhibit a portion of the impediments of control systems and embody the powerful option strategies for developing KFDV control.

  8. Diagnosis of Kyasanur forest disease by nested RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Mehla, Rajeev; Barde, Pradip V; Yergolkar, Prasanna N; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Thakare, Jyotsna P; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2012-12-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by infection by a Flavivirus, a member of the family Flaviviridae. KFD is a public health concern in the Karnataka State in southern India. Available conventional diagnostic tests such as virus isolation and serological tests, such as haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests are time consuming. This study reports the development of a nested RT-PCR [nRT-PCR] and a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR and IgM antibodies capture ELISA [MAC-ELISA] for rapid and accurate diagnosis of suspected KFD cases. The nRT-PCR and the TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assays were developed using gene sequences of the NS-5/non-coding region. Both the assays detected KFD viral RNA in acute phase human serum samples and can provide early diagnosis of infection. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than nRT-PCR, which could detect 38 copies of KFDV RNA. MAC-ELISA was developed for the detection of recent infections. Although real-time RT-PCR and nRT-PCR require expensive reagents, expensive equipment and trained personnel, the developed MAC-ELISA can be used easily in the affected areas. These tests add to the existing diagnosis arsenal against haemorrhagic viruses that are prevalent in India. These assays will also help to extend our knowledge of the pathology of KFD virus and its associated clinical features, by measuring the viral titre during infection and at the time of seroconversion. Information, which is not available currently because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic methods. In addition, early laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection will help in the application of appropriate control measures and management of KFD cases.

  9. Climate change and forest diseases

    Treesearch

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods

    2011-01-01

    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  10. Forest fragmentation and Lyme disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. It is associated with human exposure to infected Ixodes ticks which exist even in degraded forest and herbaceous habitat. We provide an overview of the epidemiology, ecology and landscape charact...

  11. Forest fragmentation and Lyme disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. It is associated with human exposure to infected Ixodes ticks which exist even in degraded forest and herbaceous habitat. We provide an overview of the epidemiology, ecology and landscape charact...

  12. Common fungal diseases of Russian forests

    Treesearch

    Evgeny P. Kuz' michevl; Ella s. Sokolova; Elena G. Kulikova

    2001-01-01

    Describes common fungal diseases of Russian forests, including diagnostic signs and symptoms, pathogen biology, damage caused by the disease, and methods of control. The fungal diseases are divided into two groups: those that are the most common in Russian forests and those that are found only in Russia. Within each group, diseases are subdivided by plant organ...

  13. Forest root diseases across the United States

    Treesearch

    I. Blakey Lockman; Holly S. J. Kearns

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance and impacts of root diseases on the forested ecosystems across the United States are documented in this report. Root diseases have long-term impacts on the ecosystems where they reside due to their persistence onsite. As a group of agents, they are a primary contributor to overall risk of growth loss and mortality of trees in the lower 48...

  14. Forest insect & disease conditions in the Northeast - 1956

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters; Alma M. Waterman

    1957-01-01

    This annual report on forest pest conditions in the Northeast combines, for the first time, information about both the major forest insects and the major forest diseases in the region. It was prepared as an aid to those who have a concern for protecting our forests from insect and disease attacks.

  15. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav

    2014-12-01

    Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.

  16. Chapter 8: Simulating mortality from forest insects and diseases

    Treesearch

    Alan A. Ager; Jane L. Hayes; Craig L. Schmitt

    2004-01-01

    We describe methods for incorporating the effects of insects and diseases on coniferous forests into forest simulation models and discuss options for including this capability in the modeling work of the Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) project. Insects and diseases are major disturbance agents in forested ecosystems in the Western United States,...

  17. Knowledge on Lyme disease among foresters.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Warpechowska, Małgorzata; Kurnatowska, Anna J

    2011-03-01

    The first aim was an attempt to evaluate the level of knowledge on Lyme disease among people whose profession involves working in the forest; the second--recognition of the health problems that should be included in health education programmes concerning Lyme disease in this group of professionals. The study was performed on 159 subjects. Only 15% know the etiological factor of disease, 98%--the main cause of infection, and route of pathogen transmission. Propagation of knowledge on Lyme disease, particularly among risk group people, is not satisfactory. Little knowledge on tick risk among secondary school students indicate the necessity for cooperation between teachers, epidemiologists, and health service providers in order to propagate the knowledge on parasites, symptoms, spread and methods of prevention.

  18. Changing forests and forest management policy in relation to dealing with forest diseases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert L

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT The forest landscape of the United States has changed over time, as has public concern for the trees, water, and wildlife. Early in the history of the United States, forests were viewed as an encumbrance and an inexhaustible resource, used to meet the needs of a growing nation. Around 1900, it became clear that old approaches were not sustainable and forest pathology saw its beginning. Annual lumber production increased from 5.4 billion to 44.5 billion board feet. Forest pathologists were called upon to help manage forests for a variety of products, with a focus on decays of wood and wood products. Projection of timber famine stirred public concern, and a number of laws were enacted to deal with the issue. Pathologists were called upon to deal with many of the issues associated with intensive management, and new pests such as chestnut blight and white pine blister rust demanded attention. Then pathologists were called upon to help manage for multiple benefits, and the issues became more complex. Pests such as mistletoes, root diseases, rusts, nursery pests, and urban pests presented new challenges. Concepts such as landscape level assessments, ecosystem management, and multiple-use led to the management of forests to provide for a complex variety of needs. Management objectives vary across the landscape, and pathologists find themselves working with managers who want to maximize fiber production, those that manage areas set aside for special purposes, and all combinations in between. Issues such as acceptable levels of pests, nonnative invasive species, landowner values, visual and watershed quality, and best management practices must be considered in an ever-changing landscape.

  19. A survey of forest tree diseases in the Northeast - 1957

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Zabel; Savel B. Silverborg; Marvin E. Fowler

    1958-01-01

    A serious handicap in planning forestry programs in the Northeast is a lack of basic information about forest diseases and their impact on the forest. Magnitude of disease losses, the relative importance of various diseases, their locations, rates of spread, intensities, and the tree mortality they cause - information on all these factors is basic to the development of...

  20. Forest Insect and Disease Tally System (FINDIT) user manual

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2000-01-01

    FINDIT, the Forest Insect and Disease Tally System, is an easy-to-use tool for analyzing insect and disease population information taken during stand surveys. Incidence of insects, pathogens, and other biotic and abiotic influences on forest ecosystems are summarized using traditional mensurational measurements. Information is summarized by diameter class, tree species...

  1. Annual losses from disease in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    T.W Childs; K.R. Shea

    1967-01-01

    This report presents current estimates of annual disease impact on forest productivity of Oregon and Washington. It is concerned exclusively with losses of timber volumes and of potential timber growth in today's forests.Annual loss from disease in this region is estimated at 3,133 million board feet or 403 million cubic feet. This is about 13 percent...

  2. Payment for multiple forest benefits alters the effect of tree disease on optimal forest rotation length.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Morag F; Kleczkowski, Adam; Healey, John R; Hanley, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Forests deliver multiple benefits both to their owners and to wider society. However, a wave of forest pests and pathogens is threatening this worldwide. In this paper we examine the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length of a single-aged, single rotation forest when a payment for non-timber benefits, which is offered to private forest owners to partly internalise the social values of forest management, is included. Using a generalisable bioeconomic framework we show how this payment counteracts the negative economic effect of disease by increasing the optimal rotation length, and under some restrictive conditions, even makes it optimal to never harvest the forest. The analysis shows a range of complex interactions between factors including the rate of spread of infection and the impact of disease on the value of harvested timber and non-timber benefits. A key result is that the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length is dependent on whether the disease affects the timber benefit only compared to when it affects both timber and non-timber benefits. Our framework can be extended to incorporate multiple ecosystem services delivered by forests and details of how disease can affect their production, thus facilitating a wide range of applications.

  3. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Human Risk of Lyme Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Percent forest-herbaceous edge repeatedly explained most of the variability in reported Lyme disease rates within a rural-to-urban study gradient across central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania. A one-percent increase in forest-herbaceous edge was associated with an increas...

  4. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Human Risk of Lyme Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Percent forest-herbaceous edge repeatedly explained most of the variability in reported Lyme disease rates within a rural-to-urban study gradient across central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania. A one-percent increase in forest-herbaceous edge was associated with an increas...

  5. Approaches to predicting potential impacts of climate change on forest disease: An example with Armillaria root disease

    Treesearch

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Bryce A. Richardson; John E. Lundquist

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will likely have dramatic impacts on forest health because many forest trees could become maladapted to climate. Furthermore, climate change will have additional impacts on forest health through changes in the distribution and severity of forest disease. Methods are needed to predict the influence of climate change on forest disease so that appropriate...

  6. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  7. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  8. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 6. Forest diseases.

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Laurent

    1974-01-01

    The disease problems of old growth are largely being taken care of by cutting. This same cutting is rapidly converting large areas of old growth to reproduction and young growth. It is in these areas of young growth that our disease problems will most probably arise. With a few exceptions the reproduction and young-growth stands appear quite healthy at this time with...

  9. Northwest forest plants defeat pests and diseases!

    Treesearch

    Natasha Vizcarra; Rick Kelsey; Joe. Karchesy

    2017-01-01

    Societies use biologically active chemicals as medicines and pesticides to protect human and agricultural health. But widespread use of synthetic compounds raises concerns about their safety, and resistance development in targeted pests.To find safer alternatives, scientists turned to native plants and trees in Pacific Northwest forests...

  10. Fungi and diseases - natural components of healthy forests

    Treesearch

    M. E. Ostry; G. Laflamme

    2009-01-01

    Forest health is described and perceived in different ways by the general public, land owners, managers, politicians, and scientists, depending on their values and objectives. Native tree pathogens and diseases are often associated with negative impacts even though damage is limited or not widespread. Too often, the concepts of tree...

  11. Forest insect disease conditions in the Northeast - 1959

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters; Paul V. Mook

    1958-01-01

    The one event of 1957 that most affected the forest insect and disease picture in the Northeast was the severe drought. The drought was most serious in New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula; eastern Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York; and central and southern New England. Its duration was generally from mid-May to mid-August. With an area from New York to...

  12. A risk assessment of climate change and the impact of forest diseases on forest ecosystems in the Western United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    John T. Kliejunas

    2011-01-01

    This risk assessment projects the effects of eight forest diseases under two climate-change scenarios (warmer and drier, warmer and wetter). Examples are used to describe how various types of forest diseases may respond to environmental changes. Forest diseases discussed in this report include foliar diseases, Phytophthora diseases, stem rusts,...

  13. Invasive plants, insects, and diseases in the forests of the Anthropocene

    Treesearch

    Alexander M. Evans

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species, non-native plants, insects, and diseases can devastate forests. They outcompete native species, replace them in the ecosystem, and even drive keystone forest species to functional extinction. Invasives have negative effects on forest hydrology, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. The damage caused by invasive species exacerbates the other forest...

  14. Root diseases in coniferous forests of the Inland West: potential implications of fuels treatments

    Treesearch

    Raini C. Rippy; Jane E. Stewart; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Walter G. Thies

    2005-01-01

    After nearly 100 years of fire exclusion, introduced pests, and selective harvesting, a change in forest composition has occurred in many Inland West forests of North America. This change in forest structure has frequently been accompanied by increases in root diseases and/or an unprecedented buildup of fuels. Consequently, many forest managers are implementing plans...

  15. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  16. Western forest diseases and climate relations: General considerations, dwarf mistletoe and stem rusts

    Treesearch

    B. W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    This is a preliminary, draft outline for organizing information on the relation of climate to western forest diseases. The question is how to assess the threat of these diseases under a regime of climate change. Although forest diseases are often important, assessment of disease-climate relations is a challenging problem due to the multiple values at risk and the...

  17. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  18. An emergent disease causes directional changes in forest species composition in coastal California

    Treesearch

    Margaret Metz; Kerri Frangioso; Allison Wickland; Ross Meentemeyer; David Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Non-native forest pathogens can cause dramatic and long-lasting changes to the composition of forests, and these changes may have cascading impacts on community interactions and ecosystem functioning. Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of the emergent forest disease sudden oak death (SOD), has a wide host range, but mortality is concentrated in...

  19. Interacting disturbances: Wildfire severity affected by stage of forest disease invasion

    Treesearch

    Margaret Metz; Kerri Frangioso; Ross Meentemeyer; David Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) is an emerging forest disease causing extensive tree mortality in coastal California forests. Recent California wildfires provided an opportunity to test a major assumption underlying discussions of SOD and land management: SOD mortality will increase fire severity. We examined pre-fire fuels from host species in a forest monitoring plot network...

  20. Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diem; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Guyot, Virginie; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Valladares, Fernando; Stenlid, Jan; Boberg, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree species diversity in different forest types across Europe. We measured the foliar fungal disease incidence on 16 different tree species in 209 plots in six European countries, representing a forest-type gradient from the Mediterranean to boreal forests. Forest plots of single species (monoculture plots) and those with different combinations of two to five tree species (mixed species plots) were compared. Specifically, we analyzed the influence of tree species richness, functional type (conifer vs. broadleaved) and phylogenetic diversity on overall fungal disease incidence. The effect of tree species richness on disease incidence varied with latitude and functional type. Disease incidence tended to increase with tree diversity, in particular in northern latitudes. Disease incidence decreased with tree species richness in conifers, but not in broadleaved trees. However, for specific damage symptoms, no tree species richness effects were observed. Although the patterns were weak, susceptibility of forests to disease appears to depend on the forest site and tree type.

  1. The impact and control of major southern forest diseases

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; Theodor D. Leininger; William J. Otrosina; L. David Dwinell; Nathan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    A variety of forest health issues, concerns, and events have rapidly changed southern forests and plantations in the past two decades. These factors have strongly impacted the ways we manage forest pests in the Southern United States. This trend will no doubt continue to shape forest pest management in the future. The major issues and events of concern include changing...

  2. Approaches to predicting potential impacts of climate change on forest disease: an example with Armillaria root disease

    Treesearch

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Bryce A. Richardson; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Predicting climate change influences on forest diseases will foster forest management practices that minimize adverse impacts of diseases. Precise locations of accurately identified pathogens and hosts must be documented and spatially referenced to determine which climatic factors influence species distribution. With this information, bioclimatic models can predict the...

  3. Wildfire and forest disease interaction lead to greater loss of soil nutrients and carbon.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Richard C; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M

    2016-09-01

    Fire and forest disease have significant ecological impacts, but the interactions of these two disturbances are rarely studied. We measured soil C, N, Ca, P, and pH in forests of the Big Sur region of California impacted by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, and the 2008 Basin wildfire complex. In Big Sur, overstory tree mortality following P. ramorum invasion has been extensive in redwood and mixed evergreen forests, where the pathogen kills true oaks and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus). Sampling was conducted across a full-factorial combination of disease/no disease and burned/unburned conditions in both forest types. Forest floor organic matter and associated nutrients were greater in unburned redwood compared to unburned mixed evergreen forests. Post-fire element pools were similar between forest types, but lower in burned-invaded compared to burned-uninvaded plots. We found evidence disease-generated fuels led to increased loss of forest floor C, N, Ca, and P. The same effects were associated with lower %C and higher PO4-P in the mineral soil. Fire-disease interactions were linear functions of pre-fire host mortality which was similar between the forest types. Our analysis suggests that these effects increased forest floor C loss by as much as 24.4 and 21.3 % in redwood and mixed evergreen forests, respectively, with similar maximum losses for the other forest floor elements. Accumulation of sudden oak death generated fuels has potential to increase fire-related loss of soil nutrients at the region-scale of this disease and similar patterns are likely in other forests, where fire and disease overlap.

  4. Incidence of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents in Oregon forests.

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Dunham

    2008-01-01

    This report uses data from a network of forest inventory plots sampled at two points in time, annual aerial insect and disease surveys, and specialized pest damage surveys to quantify the incidence and impact of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents on Oregon's forests. The number and volume of trees damaged or killed by various agents is summarized....

  5. Wildfire and forest disease interaction lead to greater loss of soil nutrients and carbon

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    Fire and forest disease have significant ecological impacts, but the interactions of these two disturbances are rarely studied. We measured soil C, N, Ca, P, and pH in forests of the Big Sur region of California impacted by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, and the 2008 Basin wildfire complex. In Big Sur,...

  6. Ecosystem transformation by emerging infectious disease: loss of large tanoak from California forests

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cobb; Joao A.N. Filipe; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Gilligan; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    1. Few pathogens are the sole or primary cause of species extinctions, but forest disease has caused spectacular declines in North American overstorey trees and restructured forest ecosystems at large spatial scales over the past 100 years. These events threaten biodiversity associated with impacted host trees and other resources valued by human societies even when...

  7. Vertebral degenerative disc disease severity evaluation using random forest classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Hector E.; Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Pham, Yasuyuki; Stieger, James; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) develops in the spine as vertebral discs degenerate and osseous excrescences or outgrowths naturally form to restabilize unstable segments of the spine. These osseous excrescences, or osteophytes, may progress or stabilize in size as the spine reaches a new equilibrium point. We have previously created a CAD system that detects DDD. This paper presents a new system to determine the severity of DDD of individual vertebral levels. This will be useful to monitor the progress of developing DDD, as rapid growth may indicate that there is a greater stabilization problem that should be addressed. The existing DDD CAD system extracts the spine from CT images and segments the cortical shell of individual levels with a dual-surface model. The cortical shell is unwrapped, and is analyzed to detect the hyperdense regions of DDD. Three radiologists scored the severity of DDD of each disc space of 46 CT scans. Radiologists' scores and features generated from CAD detections were used to train a random forest classifier. The classifier then assessed the severity of DDD at each vertebral disc level. The agreement between the computer severity score and the average radiologist's score had a quadratic weighted Cohen's kappa of 0.64.

  8. Diseases in Southeastern Forest Nurseries and Their Control

    Treesearch

    Charles S. Hodges

    1962-01-01

    The large increase in planting forest trees in the United States during the last 10 years has resulted in a tremendous increase in the demand for planting stock. This demand has been exceptionally heavy in the South, where favorable growing conditions and the use of fast-growing species have made forest farming a profitable business. Seedling production in southern...

  9. Diseases of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is now given to risks and impacts of exotic pest introductions in forest ecosystems. This concern is for good reason because, once introduced, an exotic pathogen or insect encounters little resistance in the native plant population and can produce catastrophic losses in relatively short periods of time. Most native fungal pathogens of forest trees have...

  10. Invasive Bark Beetles, Forest Insect& Disease Leaflet 176

    Treesearch

    J.C. Lee; R.A. Haack; J.F. Negron; J.J. Witcosky; S.J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Scolytidae) are among the most damaging insects in Northern Hemisphere forests, killing trees by direct feeding and by vectoring fungal pathogens. In addition to an already formidable native bark beetle complex, the number of exotic scolytids in U.S. forests has increased rapidly, with 53 known species established as of June 2007.

  11. A positioning system for forest diseases and pests based on GIS and PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Wang, L. L.; Zhao, F. F.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    Forest diseases and pests cause enormous economic losses and ecological damage every year in China. To prevent and control forest diseases and pests, the key is to get accurate information timely. In order to improve monitoring coverage rate and economize on manpower, a cooperative investigation model for forest diseases and pests is put forward. It is composed of video positioning system and manual labor reconnaissance with mobile GIS embedded in PDA. Video system is used to scan the disaster area, and is particularly effective on where trees are withered. Forest diseases prevention and control workers can check disaster area with PDA system. To support this investigation model, we developed a positioning algorithm and a positioning system. The positioning algorithm is based on DEM and PTZ camera. Moreover, the algorithm accuracy is validated. The software consists of 3D GIS subsystem, 2D GIS subsystem, video control subsystem and disaster positioning subsystem. 3D GIS subsystem makes positioning visual, and practically easy to operate. 2D GIS subsystem can output disaster thematic map. Video control subsystem can change Pan/Tilt/Zoom of a digital camera remotely, to focus on the suspected area. Disaster positioning subsystem implements the positioning algorithm. It is proved that the positioning system can observe forest diseases and pests in practical application for forest departments.

  12. Beech bark disease in West Virginia: status and impact on the Monongahela National Forest

    Treesearch

    Manfred E. Mielke; David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Cryptoeoccus fagisuga has infested over 70,000 acres (28,000 ha) of forest in West Virginia. Beech bark disease is causing heavy mortality in two areas of the Monongahela National Forest and additional scattered mortality. In the areas most affected, per-acre losses total 1,369 board feet of sawtimber and 2.67 cords, with a potential loss of 5,697...

  13. Assessing the impact of emerging forest disease on wildfire using Landsat and KOMPSAT-2 data

    Treesearch

    Gang Chen; Yinan He; Angela De Santis; Guosheng Li; Richard Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2017-01-01

    Environmental disturbance regimes are more frequently being altered by historically novel events and disturbance interactions, which may trigger reorganizations of new ecosystem states and processes. Here we examine synergies between emerging forest disease and wildfire to determine whether disease outbreak changes environmental drivers of burn severity using sudden...

  14. Root disease can rival fire and harvest in reducing forest carbon storage

    Treesearch

    Sean P. Healey; Crystal L. Raymond; I. Blakey Lockman; Alexander J. Hernandez; Chris Garrard; Chengquan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Root diseases are known to suppress forest regeneration and reduce growth rates, and they may become more common as susceptible tree species become maladapted in parts of their historic ranges due to climate change. However, current ecosystem models do not track the effects of root disease on net productivity, and there has been little research on how the dynamics of...

  15. Tree diseases as a cause and consequence of interacting forest disturbances

    Treesearch

    Richard Cobb; Margaret Metz

    2017-01-01

    The disease triangle is a basic and highly flexible tool used extensively in forest pathology. By linking host, pathogen, and environmental factors, the model provides etiological insights into disease emergence. Landscape ecology, as a field, focuses on spatially heterogeneous environments and is most often employed to understand the dynamics of relatively large areas...

  16. Review of literature on climate change and forest diseases of western North America

    Treesearch

    John T. Kliejunas; Brian W. Geils; Jessie Micales Glaeser; Ellen Michaels Goheen; Paul Hennon; Mee-Sook Kim; Harry Kope; Jeff Stone; Rona Sturrock; Susan J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    A summary of the literature on relationships between climate and various types of tree diseases, and the potential effects of climate change on pathogens in western North American forests is provided. Climate change generally will lead to reductions in tree health and will improve conditions for some highly damaging pathogens. Sections on abiotic diseases, declines,...

  17. Native and exotic insects and diseases in forest ecosystems in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Treesearch

    Dwight Scarbrough; Jennifer Juzwik

    2004-01-01

    Various native and exotic insects and diseases affect the forest ecosystems of the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Defoliating insects have had the greatest effects in forests where oak species predominate. Increases in oak decline are expected with the imminent establishment of the European gypsy moth. Insects and pathogens of the pine forests are...

  18. Interacting disturbances: wildfire severity affected by stage of forest disease invasion.

    PubMed

    Metz, Margaret R; Frangioso, Kerri M; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M

    2011-03-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) is an emerging forest disease causing extensive tree mortality in coastal California forests. Recent California wildfires provided an opportunity to test a major assumption underlying discussions of SOD and land management: SOD mortality will increase fire severity. We examined prefire fuels from host species in a forest monitoring plot network in Big Sur, California (USA), to understand the interactions between disease-caused mortality and wildfire severity during the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire. Detailed measurements of standing dead woody stems and downed woody debris 1-2 years prior to the Basin fire provided a rare picture of the increased fuels attributable to SOD mortality. Despite great differences in host fuel abundance, we found no significant difference in burn severity between infested and uninfested plots. Instead, the relationship between SOD and fire reflected the changing nature of the disease impacts over time. Increased SOD mortality contributed to overstory burn severity only in areas where the pathogen had recently invaded. Where longer-term disease establishment allowed dead material to fall and accumulate, increasing log volumes led to increased substrate burn severity. These patterns help inform forest management decisions regarding fire, both in Big Sur and in other areas of California as the pathogen continues to expand throughout coastal forests.

  19. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; Richard Dodd; Jessica W. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most...

  20. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation.

  1. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T S; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-14

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004-2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation.

  2. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation. PMID:28195145

  3. Diagnosis of Annosus Root Disease in Mixed Conifer Forests in the Northwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Craig L. Schmitt

    1989-01-01

    Recognizing annosus root disease affecting conifers in northwestern United States forests is discussed. Field diagnosis can bemade by observing characteristic stand patterns, wood stain and decay, ectotrophic mycelium, and sporophores. Most seriously affected trees include hemlocks, grand fir, white fir and Pacific silver fir. Ponderosa pine and other true firs may...

  4. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  5. Regeneration of Different Plant Functional Types in a Masson Pine Forest Following Pine Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  6. Armillaria root disease affects oak coppice regeneration in upland Missouri Ozark forests

    Treesearch

    J. N. Bruhn; D. C. Dey; K. K. Kromroy; J. D. Mihail; J. M. Kabrick; J. J., Jr. Wetteroff

    2005-01-01

    Coppice regeneration is favored in North America for oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration. Although models of oak stump sprouting do not consider Armillaria root disease, many oak stumps in upland Ozark forest stands carry active Armillaria root crown infections. The spatial pattern of sprouting on oak stumps is...

  7. Observed and anticipated impacts of drought on forest insects and diseases in the United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Kolb; Chris Fettig; Matthew P. Ayres; Barbara J. Bentz; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Robert Mathiasen; Jane E. Stewart; Aaron S. Weed

    2016-01-01

    Future anthropogenic-induced changes to the earth’s climate will likely include increases in temperature and changes in precipitation that will increase the frequency and severity of droughts. Insects and fungal diseases are important disturbances in forests, yet understanding of the role of drought in outbreaks of these agents is limited. Current knowledge...

  8. Exotic ecosystems: where root disease is not a beneficial component of temperate conifer forests

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina

    2003-01-01

    Forest tree species and ecosystems ahve evolved under climatic, geological, and biological forces over eons of time. The present flora represents the sum of these selective forces that have acted upon ancestral and modern species. Adaptations to climatic factors, soils, insects, diseases, and a host of disturbance events, operating at a variety of scales, ahve forged...

  9. Effects of introduced insects and diseases on forest ecosystems in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Gary M; Arthur, Mary A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Griffin, Jacob M

    2013-09-01

    Repeated invasions of non-native insects and pathogens have altered the structure and function of forest ecosystems in the Catskill Mountains of New York State, and will continue to do so in the future. Gypsy moth, beech bark disease, and hemlock woolly adelgid are among the insects and diseases currently established in the Catskills that are having significant effects on forests. Many others, including emerald ash borer, Asian long-horned beetle, Phytophthora ramorum, and Sirex wood wasp, are either very recently established in the Catskills or have been found elsewhere in North America and threaten to spread to this region. Short-term disturbances associated with these pests include reduction of productivity, tree decline and mortality, disruption of nutrient cycles, and reduction of seed production. Longer-term impacts are associated with shifts in tree species composition that alter productivity, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity. Catskill forests at mid to high elevations, such as the New York State Forest Preserve lands, are dominated by sugar maple and are particularly vulnerable to pests that use maple as a host, including the Asian long-horned beetle. The simultaneous effects of multiple invading insects and pathogens, and their interactions with changing climate and air pollution regimes, make it very difficult to predict the future composition of Catskill forests. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Losses Caused by Annosus Root Disease in Pacific Northwest Forests

    Treesearch

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Donald J. Goheen

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease affects three tree species groups in the Pacific Northwest-the hemlocks, the pines, and the true firs. The disease causes significant decay and stem breakage in old growth western hemlock stands but little damage in young managed stands. Losses in ponderosa pine are minor over most of the region but can be substantial in selectively harvested...

  11. Mapping burn severity in a disease-impacted forest landscape using Landsat and MASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-08-01

    Global environmental change has increased forest vulnerability to the occurrence of interacting disturbances, including wildfires and invasive diseases. Mapping post-fire burn severity in a disease-affected forest often faces challenges because burned and infested trees may exhibit a high similarity in spectral reflectance. In this study, we combined (pre- and post-fire) Landsat imagery and (post-fire) high-spectral resolution airborne MASTER data [MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer)/ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer)] to map burn severity in a California coastal forest environment, where a non-native forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) was causing substantial tree mortality. Results showed that the use of Landsat plus MASTER bundle performed better than using the individual sensors in most of the evaluated forest strata from ground to canopy layers (i.e., substrate, shrubs, intermediate-sized trees, dominant trees and average), with the best model performance achieved at the dominant tree layer. The mid to thermal infrared spectral bands (3.0-12.5 μm) from MASTER were found to augment Landsat's visible to shortwave infrared bands in burn severity assessment. We also found that infested and uninfested forests similarly experienced moderate to high degrees of burns where CBI (composite burn index) values were higher than 1. However, differences occurred in the regions with low burn severity (CBI values lower than 1), where uninfested stands revealed a much lower burn effect than that in infested stands, possibly due to their higher resilience to small fire disturbances as a result of higher leaf water content.

  12. Disease of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    SciTech Connect

    Otrosina, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of exotic ecosystems defined as unstable ecosystems arising from edaphic and environmental changes brought about by past land use or current management practices. These are presented in the context of how various silvicultural regimes, disturbances and past land use practices have interacted to create disease problems.

  13. Forest Phytophthora diseases in the Americas: 2007 - 2010

    Treesearch

    S. J. Frankel; E. M. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings, policy, regulation, and management relating to tree disease caused by Phytophthora species in wildlands and nurseries of North and South America are reviewed. These include the isolation of Phytophthora alni uniformis Brasier & S.A.Kirk in Alaska, and detection of population shifts in NA1, NA2 and EU1...

  14. Impact of diseases and other disturbances on non-timber forest resources: A case study involving small mammals

    Treesearch

    John. E. Lundquist; James. P. Jr. Ward

    2004-01-01

    Part of the diversity of a forest is the variety of agents that can kill trees. These agents differ in the nature, magnitude, and patterns of their impacts on forest resources. Diseases, insect pests, and other small-scale disturbances are commonly assessed on the basis of their impacts on timber production. Tree mortality usually means reduced volume of living stems....

  15. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  16. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion.

    PubMed

    Haas, Sarah E; Hooten, Mevin B; Rizzo, David M; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2011-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  17. Fifty-year impacts of the beech bark disease in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Records from the early 1950s on the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire showed that the percentage of American beech trees infected with heavy beech scale and Nectria was up to the 80 to 90% range. An inventory of beech bark disease conditions in three stands in 2004 showed that an older, uneven-aged stand managed by individual tree selection for 50 years had...

  18. Impacts of an exotic disease and vegetation change on foliar calcium cycling in Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael A; Jose, Shibu; White, Peter S

    2007-04-01

    Because of the high calcium content of its foliage, Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) has been described as a calcium "pump" that draws calcium from deeper mineral soil and enriches surface soil horizons. However, over the last two decades an exotic fungal disease (dogwood anthracnose, Discula destructiva) has decimated populations of this once-common understory species. Its loss, combined with forest stand development, could alter intra-stand calcium cycling. We used data from long-term vegetation monitoring plots to examine the ecological role of C. florida in calcium cycling and to identify changes in annual foliar calcium cycling over a 20-year period between two sampling intervals, 1977-1979 (preanthracnose) and 1995-2000 (post-anthracnose). Published equations were used to estimate foliar biomass per species for five forest types: alluvial, typic cove, acid cove, oak-hickory, and oak-pine. Calcium concentrations derived from foliage samples were used to estimate annual foliar calcium production per species for understory woody stems (<20 cm dbh) and total foliar calcium production for overstory stems (> or =20 cm dbh). At a given level of soil calcium availability, C. florida foliage contained greater concentrations of calcium than three other dominant understory species (Tsuga canadensis, Acer rubrum, and Rhododendron maximum). Between 1977-1979 and 1995-2000, the annual calcium contributions of understory woody vegetation declined across all forest types, ranging from 26% in oak-pine stands to 49% in acid coves. Loss of C. florida was responsible for only 13% of this decline in oak-pine stands, but accounted for 96% of the decline in typic coves. In oak-hickory and oak-pine stands, we observed large increases in the foliar biomass of T. canadensis, a species whose calcium-poor foliage increases soil acidity. Increases in overstory foliar biomass and calcium offset understory losses in three forest types (alluvial, typic coves, and oak-pine) but not in oak

  19. Diversifying forest communities may change Lyme disease risk: extra dimension to the dilution effect in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruyts, Sanne C; Ampoorter, Evy; Coipan, Elena C; Baeten, Lander; Heylen, Dieter; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-09-01

    Lyme disease is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex and transmitted by Ixodid ticks. In North America only one pathogenic genospecies occurs, in Europe there are several. According to the dilution effect hypothesis (DEH), formulated in North America, nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) decreases with increasing host diversity since host species differ in transmission potential. We analysed Borrelia infection in nymphs from 94 forest stands in Belgium, which are part of a diversification gradient with a supposedly related increasing host diversity: from pine stands without to oak stands with a shrub layer. We expected changing tree species and forest structure to increase host diversity and decrease NIP. In contrast with the DEH, NIP did not differ between different forest types. Genospecies diversity however, and presumably also host diversity, was higher in oak than in pine stands. Infected nymphs tended to harbour Borrelia afzelii infection more often in pine stands while Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi ss. infection appeared to be more prevalent in oak stands. This has important health consequences, since the latter two cause more severe disease manifestations. We show that the DEH must be nuanced for Europe and should consider the response of multiple pathogenic genospecies.

  20. Assessing very high resolution UAV imagery for monitoring forest health during a simulated disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jonathan P.; Watt, Michael S.; Pearse, Grant D.; Heaphy, Marie; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2017-09-01

    Research into remote sensing tools for monitoring physiological stress caused by biotic and abiotic factors is critical for maintaining healthy and highly-productive plantation forests. Significant research has focussed on assessing forest health using remotely sensed data from satellites and manned aircraft. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may provide new tools for improved forest health monitoring by providing data with very high temporal and spatial resolutions. These platforms also pose unique challenges and methods for health assessments must be validated before use. In this research, we simulated a disease outbreak in mature Pinus radiata D. Don trees using targeted application of herbicide. The objective was to acquire a time-series simulated disease expression dataset to develop methods for monitoring physiological stress from a UAV platform. Time-series multi-spectral imagery was acquired using a UAV flown over a trial at regular intervals. Traditional field-based health assessments of crown health (density) and needle health (discolouration) were carried out simultaneously by experienced forest health experts. Our results showed that multi-spectral imagery collected from a UAV is useful for identifying physiological stress in mature plantation trees even during the early stages of tree stress. We found that physiological stress could be detected earliest in data from the red edge and near infra-red bands. In contrast to previous findings, red edge data did not offer earlier detection of physiological stress than the near infra-red data. A non-parametric approach was used to model physiological stress based on spectral indices and was found to provide good classification accuracy (weighted kappa = 0.694). This model can be used to map physiological stress based on high-resolution multi-spectral data.

  1. Random forest-based similarity measures for multi-modal classification of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Katherine R.; Aljabar, Paul; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Hammers, Alexander; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are associated with changes in multiple neuroimaging and biological measures. These may provide complementary information for diagnosis and prognosis. We present a multi-modality classification framework in which manifolds are constructed based on pairwise similarity measures derived from random forest classifiers. Similarities from multiple modalities are combined to generate an embedding that simultaneously encodes information about all the available features. Multimodality classification is then performed using coordinates from this joint embedding. We evaluate the proposed framework by application to neuroimaging and biological data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Features include regional MRI volumes, voxel-based FDG-PET signal intensities, CSF biomarker measures, and categorical genetic information. Classification based on the joint embedding constructed using information from all four modalities out-performs classification based on any individual modality for comparisons between Alzheimer’s disease patients and healthy controls, as well as between mild cognitive impairment patients and healthy controls. Based on the joint embedding, we achieve classification accuracies of 89% between Alzheimer’s disease patients and healthy controls, and 75% between mild cognitive impairment patients and healthy controls. These results are comparable with those reported in other recent studies using multi-kernel learning. Random forests provide consistent pairwise similarity measures for multiple modalities, thus facilitating the combination of different types of feature data. We demonstrate this by application to data in which the number of features differ by several orders of magnitude between modalities. Random forest classifiers extend naturally to multi-class problems, and the framework described here could be applied to distinguish between multiple patient groups in the

  2. Epidemiology of Lyme disease among workers of forest inspectorates in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Anna; Kruba, Zofia; Filip, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis, LB) is a systemic tick-borne disease. Its symptoms include dermatological changes and systemic manifestations such as musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiac. The etiologic agent of LB is a spirochete known as Borrelia burgdorferi (B.b.) with rodents and small mammals as its animal reservoir. In Poland, there are approximately 9-10 cases of the disease per 100,000 inhabitants each year. Analyis of the incidence of Lyme borreliosis and the clinical picture of the disease among foresters. The research material consisted of data collected in a diagnostic survey conducted by use of a survey questionnaire method. The study involved 100 randomly selected workers of the forest inspectorate in Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Group I consisted of men between 30-45 years old with an average length of service of 14 years (48%); group II consisted of men between 45-55 years old with an average length of service of 24 years (52%). Only 25% of the foresters from the first group, younger in age and with shorter service, had never been bitten by a tick, while 60% were bitten once, and 15% had been repeatedly bitten. In the second group, older in age and with longer service, only 3% had never been bitten by a tick, 35% were bitten once, while 62% had been repeatedly bitten. LB was diagnosed in 30% of the research participants from the first group and in 45% from the second group. Most frequently, LB was diagnosed as a result of the presence of erythema migrans (55%), ELISA test (20%), and Western Blot test (22%). The most frequent symptoms among the participants were: erythema migrans (45%), fever and shivers (35%), muscle pain and cramps (15%), other symptoms (5%). Permanent presence of symptoms was reported by 70% of the participants, 25% experienced symptoms periodically, and 5% only sporadically. LB occurs more frequently among foresters older in age and with longer service (45%); in the younger group--30%. Despite knowledge on preventive methods

  3. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  5. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].

  6. Fusiform rust of southern pines: a major success for forest disease management.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert A

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT The effective management of fusiform rust in slash and loblolly pine plantations is a major success story for disease management scientists and practitioners in the southeastern United States. This disease, which reached epidemic proportions by the 1960s, resulted from anthropogenic causes associated with intensive pine culture and greatly inhibited the optimum management of slash and loblolly pine throughout extensive areas of the southern pine region. Successful management of this disease was made possible by the combined resources and personnel of federal and state agencies, universities, and the forest industry. Chief among these personnel were research pathologists, geneticists, and silviculturalists. Following early studies on the biology of the fusiform rust pathosystem, research on epidemiology, host resistance, and pathogen variability slowly but steadily progressed. Testing of pine selections for resistance was facilitated by the establishment of a rust screening center. Fortunately, genetic rust resistance is relatively abundant in both slash and loblolly pines and has become the foundation for the management of the disease. Rust resistant half- and full-sib progeny from resistant parents established in seed orchards are routinely planted, especially in high-rust-hazard areas. Several important lessons in disease management have been learned or remembered during the progress of this research. Perhaps the ecologically fit fusiform rust pathogen will have additional instructions for us in the future, but for now resistance is an effective management strategy.

  7. Seasonal variation in hospitalisation for respiratory diseases in the tropical rain forest of South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Desalu, O O

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal variation in hospitalisation for respiratory disease in a tertiary care centre in the tropical rain forest zone of South Western Nigeria. A retrospective analysis was performed to the determine the seasonal variation of respiratory diseases hospitalised in Federal Medical Centre in Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria from November, 2006 to October 2009. Data were extracted from the medical records of hospitalized patients who had acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Two hundred and thirty three patients aged ≥ 15 years hospitalised for respiratory diseases were analysed, 68(29.2%) had PTB, 66(28.3%) had pneumonia, and 61(26.2%) had asthma while 38(16.3%) people had COPD. The mean age of the patients was 47.8 19.6 years. Monthly mean of hospitalisation for pneumonia (8.00 vs.3.86; p=disease (4.60 vs.2.50; p=O.004) were significantly higher in dry season, while that of asthma (5.29 vs.4.80; p=0.338) and pulmonary tuberculosis (5.71 vs.5.60; p=0.898) were higher in the rainy (wet) season, although seasonality of asthma and PTB was less pronounced and not significant. The hospitalisation of asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis were higher during the rainy (wet) season while pneumonia and acute exacerbation of COPD were higher during the dry season. The outcome of this study may help to identify seasonal disease-modifying factors associated with hospitalisation of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, identifications of these variations are important for efficient allocation of health-care resources based on seasonal hospitalisation trend.

  8. Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (β = 0.15, p-value < 0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (β = −1.03, p-value = 0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention. PMID:16675420

  9. Weather variability, tides, and Barmah Forest virus disease in the Gladstone region, Australia.

    PubMed

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S; McMichael, Anthony J; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-05-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (b=0.15, p-value<0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (b=-1.03, p-value=0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention.

  10. Random forest to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; van der Zande, Jessica J; van Dellen, Edwin; Sommer, Iris E C; Scheltens, Philip; Lemstra, Afina W; Stam, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build a random forest classifier to improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to quantify the relevance of multimodal diagnostic measures, with a focus on electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 66 DLB, 66 AD patients, and 66 controls were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures were combined with clinical, neuropsychological, visual EEG, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data. Variable importance scores were calculated per diagnostic variable. For discrimination between DLB and AD, the diagnostic accuracy of the classifier was 87%. Beta power was identified as the single-most important discriminating variable. qEEG increased the accuracy of the other multimodal diagnostic data with almost 10%. Quantitative EEG has a higher discriminating value than the combination of the other multimodal variables in the differentiation between DLB and AD.

  11. Phytophthora ramorum in Oregon forests: six years of detection, eradication, and disease spread

    Treesearch

    Alan Kanaskie; Everett Hansen; Ellen Goheen; Michael McWilliams; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum was first discovered in Southwest Oregon forests in 2001, where it was killing tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) and infecting Pacific rhododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) and evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum). At that time there were nine infested forest...

  12. Restoring ecosystem resilience to urban forests using Dutch elm disease-tolerant American elm trees

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Flower; Cornelia C. Pinchot; James M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    Urban forests contribute significantly to human health and environmental quality (Sanesi et al. 2011). As such, maintaining healthy urban forests resilient to pollution (atmospheric and soil), high temperatures, compacted soils, and poor drainage is critical. However, these forests have been hard hit by development, pests, and pathogens, consequently reshaping their...

  13. Seroepidemiological investigation of lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis among people living in forest areas of eight provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Geng, Zhen; Hou, Xue Xia; Tian, Zhen; Yang, Xiu Jun; Jiang, Wei Jia; Shi, Yan; Zhan, Zhi Fei; Li, Guo Hua; Yu, De Shan; Wang, Hua Yong; Xu, Jian Guo; Wan, Kang Lin

    2013-03-01

    Lyme disease and Human granulocytic anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum respectively. We have investigated infection and co-infection of the two diseases in the population of forest areas of eight provinces in China by measuring seroprevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum. Forest areas in 8 provinces were chosen for investigation using whole sampling and questionnaire survey methods. 3 669 serum samples from people in the forest areas were tested for the presence of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi was 3% to 15% and against A. phagocytophilum was 2% to 18% in the study sites in the 8 provinces in China. We also found co-infection of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in 7 of the 8 provinces (the exception being the Miyun area in Beijing). The seroprevalence for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher among people exposed to ticks than among people who were not exposed to ticks. We conclude that both pathogens are endemic in the forest areas in the eight provinces, but the prevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum differs between the provinces. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. The health effects of a forest environment on subclinical cardiovascular disease and heath-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nan; Lin, Heng-Lun; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Hsu, Sandy-H J; Chao, Hsing; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chou, Charles-C K; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of health effects of a forest environment is an important emerging area of public health and environmental sciences. To demonstrate the long-term health effects of living in a forest environment on subclinical cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with that in an urban environment. This study included the detailed health examination and questionnaire assessment of 107 forest staff members (FSM) and 114 urban staff members (USM) to investigate the long-term health effects of a forest environment. Air quality monitoring between the forest and urban environments was compared. In addition, work-related factors and HRQOL were evaluated. Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose in the USM group were significantly higher than those in the FSM group. Furthermore, a significantly higher intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery was found in the USM group compared with that in the FSM group. Concentrations of air pollutants, such as NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, CO, PM2.5, and PM10 in the forest environment were significantly lower compared with those in the outdoor urban environment. Working hours were longer in the FSM group; however, the work stress evaluation as assessed by the job content questionnaire revealed no significant differences between FSM and USM. HRQOL evaluated by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire showed FSM had better HRQOL scores in the physical health domain. This study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of forest environments on CVDs and HRQOL.

  15. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Katherine J; Garbelotto, Matteo; Dodd, Richard; Wright, Jessica W

    2013-09-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most susceptible to sudden oak death. We established three experimental populations to assess nursery growth and resistance to Phytophthora ramorum, and correlations between nursery-derived breeding values with seedling survival in a field disease trial. Estimates of nursery traits' heritability were low to moderate, with lowest estimates for resistance traits. Within the field trial, survival likelihood was increased in larger seedlings and decreased with the development of disease symptoms. The seed-parent family wide likelihood of survival was likewise correlated with family predictors for size and resistance to disease in 2nd year laboratory assays, though not resistance in 1st year leaf assays. We identified traits and seedling families with increased survivorship in planted tanoaks, and a framework to further identify seed parents favored for restoration. The additive genetic variation and seedling disease dynamics we describe hold promise to refine current disease models and expand the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of emergent infectious diseases in highly susceptible hosts.

  16. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  17. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  18. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  19. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    Treesearch

    G. Chen; M.R. Metz; D.M. Rizzo; W.W. Dillon; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major...

  20. Biodiversity conservation in the face of dramatic forest disease: an integrated conservation strategy for tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) threatened by sudden oak death

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo; Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; A.N. Filipe João; Christopher A. Gilligan; Whalen W. Dillon; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Yana S. Vlachovic; Ellen Goheen; Tedmund J. Swiecki; Everett M. Hansen; Susan J. Frankel

    2013-01-01

    Non-native diseases of dominant tree species have diminished North American forest biodiversity, structure, and ecosystem function over the last 150 years. Since the mid-1990s, coastal California forests have suffered extensive decline of the endemic overstory tree tanoak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S. H. Oh...

  1. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  2. Uav-Borne Thermal Imaging for Forest Health Monitoring: Detection of Disease-Induced Canopy Temperature Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigaj, M.; Gaulton, R.; Barr, S. L.; Suárez, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has a major influence on forest health and growth, by indirectly affecting the distribution and abundance of forest pathogens, as well as the severity of tree diseases. Temperature rise and changes in precipitation may also allow the ranges of some species to expand, resulting in the introduction of non-native invasive species, which pose a significant risk to forests worldwide. The detection and robust monitoring of affected forest stands is therefore crucial for allowing management interventions to reduce the spread of infections. This paper investigates the use of a low-cost fixed-wing UAV-borne thermal system for monitoring disease-induced canopy temperature rise. Initially, camera calibration was performed revealing a significant overestimation (by over 1 K) of the temperature readings and a non-uniformity (exceeding 1 K) across the imagery. These effects have been minimised with a two-point calibration technique ensuring the offsets of mean image temperature readings from blackbody temperature did not exceed ± 0.23 K, whilst 95.4% of all the image pixels fell within ± 0.14 K (average) of mean temperature reading. The derived calibration parameters were applied to a test data set of UAV-borne imagery acquired over a Scots pine stand, representing a range of Red Band Needle Blight infection levels. At canopy level, the comparison of tree crown temperature recorded by a UAV-borne infrared camera suggests a small temperature increase related to disease progression (R = 0.527, p = 0.001); indicating that UAV-borne cameras might be able to detect sub-degree temperature differences induced by disease onset.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex class II polymorphisms in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) and their probable association with purulent disease.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Wang, B B; Ge, Y F; Wan, Q H

    2014-10-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family are crucial in immune responses because they present pathogenic peptides to T cells. In this study, we analysed the genetic variation in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) MHC II genes and its potential association with musk deer purulent disease. In total, 53 purulent disease-susceptible and 46 purulent disease-resistant individuals were selected for MHC II exon 2 fragment analysis. Among them, 16 DQ alleles and four additional DR alleles were identified, with DQ exon 2 fragments displaying a low level of polymorphism. The nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded the synonymous substitutions in the peptide-binding sites of DQA2, DQB1 and DQB2. Then, 28 MHC II alleles were used to analyse the distribution patterns of purulent disease between the susceptible and resistant groups. Among them, three alleles (DQA1*01, DQA1*02 and DQA2*04) were found to be resistant, and five alleles (DRB3*07, DQA1*03, DQA1*04, DQA2*05 and DQA2*06) were found to increase susceptibility. Additionally, three haplotypes were found to be putatively associated with musk deer purulent disease. However, these three haplotypes were only found in the resistant or susceptible group, and their frequencies were low. The results from our study support a contributory role of MHC II polymorphisms in the development of purulent disease in forest musk deer.

  4. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Alvin D. Yanchuk; John T. Kliejunas; Katharine M. Palmieri; Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Individual papers are available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr240/The Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry: Disease and Insect Resistance in Forest Trees...

  5. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  6. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  7. Keeping Hawai’i’s forest birds one step ahead of avian diseases in a warming world: a focus on Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. A case study from the National Conservation and Training Center Structured Decision Making Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Burgett, Jeff; McDonald-Fadden, Eve; Bean, Ellen; Atkinson, Carter T.; Ball, Donna; Cole, Colleen; Crampton, Lisa H.; Kraus, Jim; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Samuel, Michael D.; Brewer, Donna; Converse, Sarah J.; Morey, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This report is a product of a one-week workshop on using Structured Decision Making to identify and prioritize conservation actions to address the threat of climate change on Hawaii‟s native forest bird community. Specifically, t his report addresses the issue of global warming ‟s likely role in increasing disease prevalence in upper elevation forests of Hawaii, negatively impacting native bird populations susceptible to the disease but currently disease - free because of the cooler temperatures at high elevations. 

  8. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  9. Changes in forest soils as the result of exotic diseases, timber harvest, and fire exclusion and their implications on forest restoration

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2007-01-01

    In the western United States and throughout the world, three general classes of coniferous forests can be identified with each having similar vegetative complexes, native disturbances, and climate (Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968, Hann et al. 1997). Dry forests, often dominated by pines (Pinus), cold forests often dominated by spruces (Picea...

  10. [Relationship between decline disease of exotic pines(Pinus taeda and P. eliottii) and forest stand and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Shu, Q; Zou, Y; Yang, G; Zhu, Q; Huang, C

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between decline disease of exotic pines(Pinus taeda and P. eliottii) plantations in Anhui Province and forest stand status and environmental factors was quantitatively analyzed. Among 18 variable factors from 4 types of factors(climate, soil, stand status, and other diseases and insect pests), 10 factors contributed greatly to the state of illness. These were tree age, stand density, resin-tapping, rainfall, temperature, clay soil, stone soil, soil depth, water-logging, and other diseases and insect pests. Of them soil depth and rainfall negatively, and others positively related with the severity of disease. Accordingly, a linear multiple regression model was derived, which might predict the developmental level of decline disease at any given conditions of exotic pine plantation. In addition, the spiral chart of decline disease was mapped based on the action size and time order of various nosogenetic factors during the incidence of decline disease, which was used to visually describe and quantitatively analyze the disease with complicated causes.

  11. The social impacts of sudden oak death and other forest diseases: a panel discussion

    Treesearch

    Janice Alexander; Chris Lee

    2010-01-01

    This panel aimed to discuss the intersection of biology and society; specifically, how we balance competing social and biological concerns in regards to forest pests and land management in general. Four panelists began the discussion: Janice Alexander, Sudden Oak Death Outreach Coordinator for the University of California (U.C.) Cooperative Extension, Marin County and...

  12. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: the influence of insects and disease.

    Treesearch

    B.E. Wickman

    1992-01-01

    A science perspective of forest health in the Blue Mountains is summarized by using both historical and biological information. Many of the current pest problems are related to human activities that have occurred over the last 90 years. The almost complete loss of periodic low-intensity fires since 1900 plus extensive logging of pine have resulted in many thousands of...

  13. Potential for using Fusarium to control Fusarium disease in forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    The taxon Fusarium oxysporum contains a complex of fungi that are very important pathogens of many plant species worldwide, including seedlings grown in forest nurseries. All members of this complex appear very similar morphologically, and can often be differentiated only on the basis of genetic analyses. Strains of F. oxysporum...

  14. Investigation into High Barmah Forest Virus Disease Case Numbers Reported in the Northern Territory, Australia in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Nina; Markey, Peter; Draper, Anthony; Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Warchot, Allan; Boyd, Rowena; Stokeld, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    Between October 2012 and October 2013, unprecedented high numbers of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease cases were reported in the Northern Territory (NT). An investigation was launched by the NT Department of Health in cooperation with the Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries and the Department of Land Resource Management to investigate possible causes for this phenomenon. The investigation included virus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Darwin urban areas, BFV antibody testing in peri-urban small mammals and a human BFV disease case series investigation of recent cases. No BFV was isolated from the 4641 mosquitoes tested, none of the mammals tested positive for BFV antibodies, and the high BFV disease case numbers did not correlate with the relatively low mosquito vector numbers trapped in 2012-2013. It was estimated that up to 89% of the 79 human cases investigated did not have an acute arboviral illness and therefore had tested falsely positive. An Alere PanBio BFV immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit is generally used to test for BFV, with the BFV disease case definition based on immunoglobulin M positives only. Other jurisdictions in Australia also reported high numbers of BFV disease cases, with the majority of the cases suspected to be false positives. Therefore, current testing methods need to be revised to reflect the true numbers of BFV disease cases occurring in Australia and to provide correct diagnoses for patients.

  15. Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington. Part 1. Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmkuhl, J.F.; Hessburg, P.F.; Everett, R.L.; Huff, M.H.; Ottmar, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    The authors analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from serial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. The authors described vegetation attributed, landscape patterns, the range of historical variability, scales of change, and disturbance hazards. The distribution of forest age classes and structure has changed, with smaller area in early -seral and old forest stages and greater area in multiple-canopy young and mature stands.

  16. Distribution and Impacts of Annosus Root Disease in Forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease is widely distributed in the northern Rocky Mountains. Stump infection often results in tree mortality occurring in progressively expanding root disease centers, in groups of various sizes, and as scattered individuals.

  17. Thousand cankers disease complex: a forest health issue across the U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) is a disease complex wherein the fungus (Geosmithia morbida), is vectored by the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis). Disease causes mortality primarily of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra), though other walnut species are also susceptible. Eastern bla...

  18. Common factors drive disease and coarse woody debris dynamics in forests impacted by sudden oak death

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Cobb; Maggie N. Chan; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    Disease ecology has made important steps in describing how epidemiological processes control the impact of pathogens on populations and communities but fewer field or theoretical studies address disease effects at the ecosystem level. We demonstrate that the same epidemiological mechanisms drive disease intensity and coarse woody debris (CWD) dynamics...

  19. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    PubMed

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of Phytophthora ramorum at plot and landscape scales for disease control, tanoak conservation, and forest restoration - insights from epidemiological and ecosystem models

    Treesearch

    João A.N. Filipe; Richard C. Cobb; Maëlle Salmon; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum has continued to spread in forests in the western United States, the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, and continues to challenge vegetation and ecosystems in temperate regions (Brasier and Webber 2010, Grünwald et al. 2012). Disease management in the wild has been applied with some success in localized outbreaks in...

  1. Effect of harvesting regime on beech root sprouts and seedlings in a north-central Maine forest long affected by beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    2001-01-01

    Forests in Maine often contain many trees severely damaged by the disease. Methods are needed to reduce numbers of susceptible and increase numbers of resistant trees. This paper describes how commonly-used harvesting systems affect the incidence and growth of beech root sprouts and seedlings. Harvest treatments were clearcutting and thinning in winter and summer, 1991...

  2. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California

    Treesearch

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  3. Landscape risk factors for Lyme disease in the eastern broadleaf forest province of the Hudson River valley and the effect of explanatory data classification resolution.

    PubMed

    Messier, Kyle P; Jackson, Laura E; White, Jennifer L; Hilborn, Elizabeth D

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity) and aggregate classes (e.g., forest, developed). Percent of each landcover type, median income, and centroid coordinates were calculated by census tract. Regression results from individual and aggregate variable models were compared with the dispersion parameter-based R(2) (Rα(2)) and AIC. The maximum Rα(2) was 0.82 and 0.83 for the best aggregate and individual model, respectively. The AICs for the best models differed by less than 0.5%. The aggregate model variables included forest, developed, agriculture, agriculture-squared, y-coordinate, y-coordinate-squared, income and income-squared. The individual model variables included deciduous forest, deciduous forest-squared, developed low intensity, pasture, y-coordinate, y-coordinate-squared, income, and income-squared. Results indicate that regional landscape models for Lyme disease rate are robust to NLCD landcover classification resolution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Silvicultural Practices in Forests of the Southern United States: Insect and Disease Considerations

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker; Theodor D. Leininger; James S. Meadows

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between silvicultural practices, e.g. thinning, and pest organisms (insects and diseases) has been investigated extensively in pine species but to a lesser degree in hardwoods. Of critical interest is the potential negative impact to the residual stand resulting from insect damage and diseases that develop as a consequence of silvicultural practices....

  5. Unravelling and managing fusiform rust disease: a model approach for coevolved forest tree pathosystems.

    Treesearch

    CD Nelson; TL Kubisiak; HV Amerson

    2010-01-01

    Fusiform rust disease remains the most destructive disease in pine plantations in the southern United States. Our ongoing research is designed to identify, map, and clone the interacting genes of the host and pathogen. Several resistance (R) genes have been identified and genetically mapped using informative pine families and single-spore isolate inoculations. In...

  6. Characteristics and consequences of root diseases in forests of Western North America

    Treesearch

    D.J. Goheen; W.J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    Root diseases are somewhat mysterious. Operating as they do within the soil, it is difficult to actually view root pathogens or follow their progress in causing disease. The signs and symptoms that they produce can be quite subtle and variable. Just identifying which pathogen occurs in a specific situation is often challenging. Nevertheless, in the past two decades,...

  7. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon coastal forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliage disease caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, which is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The goal of this study was to reconstruct the history of the disease and determine the climatic conditions that influence the di...

  8. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Haas; Mevin B. Hooten; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the diversity-disease hypothesis for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum...

  9. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon coastal forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliage disease caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, which is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The goal of this study was to reconstruct the history of the disease and determine the climatic conditions that influence the di...

  10. Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Quantify the Effects of Beech Bark Disease on the Structure, Composition, and Function of a Late-Successional Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; Ricart, R. D.; Fahey, R. T.; Fotis, A. T.; Gough, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological theory maintains that as forests age, the rate at which carbon (C) is stored declines because C released through organic matter decomposition offsets declining C sequestration in new vegetative growth. Recent observational studies are challenging this long-held hypothesis, with limited evidence suggesting higher-than-expected rates in late-successional forests could be, counterintuitively, tied to canopy structural changes associated with low intensity tree mortality. As forests age, canopy structural complexity may increase when old trees die and form upper canopy gaps that release subcanopy vegetation. This provides one explanation for observations of sustained high production in old forests. Recent studies have found that this increased structural complexity and resource-use efficiency maintain C storage in mid-successional deciduous forests; whether a similar mechanism extends to late-successional forests is unknown. We will present how a slow, moderate disturbance affects the structure and C sequestration of late-successional forests. Our study site is a forest recently infected by Beech Bark Disease (BBD), which will result in the eventual mortality of American beech trees in this late successional forest in Northern Michigan, at the University of Michigan Biological Station. American Beech, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, and White Pine dominate the landscape, with American Beech making up 30% of the canopy trees on average. At the plot scale American Beech is distributed heterogeneously, comprising 1% to 60% of total plot basal area, making it possible to examine the interplay between disturbance severity, canopy structural change, and primary production resilience in this forest. Within each of the 13 plots, species and stem diameter were collected in 1992, 1994, 2014, and 2016, with future remeasurements planned. We will discuss how ground-based lidar coupled with airborne spectral (IR and RGB) imagery are being used to track canopy BBD

  11. Impacts of an Introduced Forest Pathogen on the Risk of Lyme Disease in California

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Cheryl J.; Lane, Robert S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Global changes such as deforestation, climate change, and invasive species have the potential to greatly alter zoonotic disease systems through impacts on biodiversity. This study examined the impact of the invasive pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD) on the ecology of Lyme disease in California. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in the far western United States by a suite of animal reservoirs including the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and is transmitted by the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Other vertebrates, such as the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), are important tick hosts but are not reservoirs of the pathogen. Previous work found that higher levels of SOD are correlated with greater abundance of P. maniculatus and S. occidentalis and lower N. fuscipes abundance. Here we model the contribution of these tick hosts to Lyme disease risk and also evaluate the potential impact of SOD on infection prevalence of the tick vector. By empirically parameterizing a static model with field and laboratory data on tick hosts, we predict that SOD reduces an important index of disease risk, nymphal infection prevalence, leading to a reduction in Lyme disease risk in certain coastal woodlands. Direct observational analysis of the impact of SOD on nymphal infection prevalence supports these model results. This study underscores the important direct and indirect impacts of invasive plant pathogens on biodiversity, the transmission cycles of zoonotic diseases, and ultimately human health. PMID:22607076

  12. Immunological reaction of the demyelinating Semliki Forest virus with immune serum to glycolipids and its possible importance to central nervous system viral auto-immune disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, H E; Mehta, S; Gregson, N A; Leibowitz, S

    1984-01-01

    The avirulent demyelinating strain A7(74) of Semliki Forest virus after passage through mouse brain in vivo and mouse brain cell cultures has been shown to react immunologically with immune sera against galactocerebroside, glucocerebroside, total ganglioside and GT1b ganglioside but not against myelin or sulphatide . Semliki Forest virus is known to take host membrane glycolipid into its coat. The importance of the findings is discussed in relation to the production of a possible anti-brain cell auto-immune phenomenon and its implication in a disease such as multiple sclerosis.

  13. Environmental Change and Disease Dynamics: Effects of Intensive Forest Management on Puumala Hantavirus Infection in Boreal Bank Vole Populations

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Liina; Savola, Sakeri; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Laakkonen, Juha; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Intensive management of Fennoscandian forests has led to a mosaic of woodlands in different stages of maturity. The main rodent host of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a species that can be found in all woodlands and especially mature forests. We investigated the influence of forest age structure on PUUV infection dynamics in bank voles. Over four years, we trapped small mammals twice a year in a forest network of different succession stages in Northern Finland. Our study sites represented four forest age classes from young (4 to 30 years) to mature (over 100 years) forests. We show that PUUV-infected bank voles occurred commonly in all forest age classes, but peaked in mature forests. The probability of an individual bank vole to be PUUV infected was positively related to concurrent host population density. However, when population density was controlled for, a relatively higher infection rate was observed in voles trapped in younger forests. Furthermore, we found evidence of a “dilution effect” in that the infection probability was negatively associated with the simultaneous density of other small mammals during the breeding season. Our results suggest that younger forests created by intensive management can reduce hantaviral load in the environment, but PUUV is common in woodlands of all ages. As such, the Fennoscandian forest landscape represents a significant reservoir and source of hantaviral infection in humans. PMID:22745755

  14. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  15. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  16. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, Christopher N; Uiterloo, Melvin; Uremaru, Amasina; Plotkin, Mark J; Emanuels-Smith, Gwendolyn; Jitan, Jeetendra

    2009-01-01

    Background The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. Methods The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. Results 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. Conclusion The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications. PMID:19821968

  17. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher N; Uiterloo, Melvin; Uremaru, Amasina; Plotkin, Mark J; Emanuels-Smith, Gwendolyn; Jitan, Jeetendra

    2009-10-12

    The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications.

  18. Phylodiversity-dependent seedling mortality, size structure, and disease in a Bornean rain forest.

    PubMed

    Webb, Campbell O; Gilbert, Gregory S; Donoghue, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Density-dependent models that partition neighbors into conspecifics and heterospecifics ignore the great variation in effect of heterospecifics on focal plants. Both evolutionary theory and empirical results suggest that the negative effect of other plants on a focal plant should be higher for closely related neighbors than for less related neighbors. Using community-wide seedling mortality data from a forest where density dependence has previously been found, we searched for significant phylogenetic neighborhood effects (the "phylodiversity" neighborhood) on seedling (<50 cm tall) survival at various spatial scales. Logistic regression models were used, with 19-mo survival of individual seedlings as the response. We found a significant positive effect of nearest taxon phylodiversity on seedling survival at the 36-m2 scale and the 4-m2 scale, indicating that seedling survival is enhanced by being in a neighborhood where heterospecifics are not closely related. At all scales there was a strong negative effect of conspecific seedling density on focal survival, and at small scales there was also an effect of heterospecific density, indicating generalized competition. We place these results (for seedling dynamics over a relatively short period of time) in the context of changes in phylodiversity between different size classes of plants in the same forest, which integrate the effects of dynamics of all size classes over long time periods. At the 36-m2 scale, there was an increase in nearest taxon phylodiversity (i.e., a decrease in phylogenetic clustering) from the seedlings (<50 cm tall) to the poles (1-5 cm diameter), consistent with the positive effect of local phylodiversity on seedling survival. In contrast, there was a marked decrease in average phylodiversity from seedlings to saplings at the same scale. The trees in the 1600 m2 surrounding the seedling plots had much lower phylodiversity than either the seedlings or saplings. Taken together, these results

  19. Learning and combining image neighborhoods using random forests for neonatal brain disease classification.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Veronika A; Glocker, Ben; Hahner, Nadine; Eixarch, Elisenda; Sanroma, Gerard; Gratacós, Eduard; Rueckert, Daniel; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel; Piella, Gemma

    2017-08-09

    It is challenging to characterize and classify normal and abnormal brain development during early childhood. To reduce the complexity of heterogeneous data population, manifold learning techniques are increasingly applied, which find a low-dimensional representation of the data, while preserving all relevant information. The neighborhood definition used for constructing manifold representations of the population is crucial for preserving the similarity structure and it is highly application dependent. The recently proposed neighborhood approximation forests learn a neighborhood structure in a dataset based on a user-defined distance. We propose a framework to learn multiple pairwise distances in a population of brain images and to combine them in an unsupervised manner optimally in a manifold learning step. Unlike other methods that only use a univariate distance measure, our method allows for a natural combination of multiple distances from heterogeneous sources. As a result, it yields a representation of the population that preserves the multiple distances. Furthermore, our method also selects the most predictive features associated with the distances. We evaluate our method in neonatal magnetic resonance images of three groups (term controls, patients affected by intrauterine growth restriction and mild isolated ventriculomegaly). We show that combining multiple distances related to the condition improves the overall characterization and classification of the three clinical groups compared to the use of single distances and classical unsupervised manifold learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tree-ring based history of climate and disease in western Oregon forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual tree-ring width data are often used to make inferences of past climate and the spatiotemporal climate-growth relationships. However, the climatic signal may be confounded with non-climatic signals such as disease or pest disturbances at unknown times in the past. Signal e...

  1. Tree-ring based history of climate and disease in western Oregon forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual tree-ring width data are often used to make inferences of past climate and the spatiotemporal climate-growth relationships. However, the climatic signal may be confounded with non-climatic signals such as disease or pest disturbances at unknown times in the past. Signal e...

  2. A COMPARISON OF ANALYSIS UNITS FOR ASSOCIATING LYME DISEASE WITH FOREST-EDGE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed the relationship between land-cover pattern and Lyme disease incidence rate when modeled under three designs for data aggregation. Incidence rates were calculated from passive surveillance data reported in 12 Maryland counties during 1996 – 2000. A design usin...

  3. A COMPARISON OF ANALYSIS UNITS FOR ASSOCIATING LYME DISEASE WITH FOREST-EDGE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed the relationship between land-cover pattern and Lyme disease incidence rate when modeled under three designs for data aggregation. Incidence rates were calculated from passive surveillance data reported in 12 Maryland counties during 1996 – 2000. A design usin...

  4. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  5. A multi-scale conceptual model of fire and disease interactions in North American forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. M.; Kreye, J. K.; Sherriff, R.; Metz, M.

    2013-12-01

    One aspect of global change with increasing attention is the interactions between irruptive pests and diseases and wildland fire behavior and effects. These pests and diseases affect fire behavior and effects in spatially and temporally complex ways. Models of fire and pathogen interactions have been constructed for individual pests or diseases, but to date, no synthesis of this complexity has been attempted. Here we synthesize North American fire-pathogen interactions into syndromes with similarities in spatial extent and temporal duration. We base our models on fire interactions with three examples: sudden oak death (caused by the pathogen Phytopthora ramorum) and the native tree tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus); mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and western Pinus spp.; and hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on Tsuga spp. We evaluate each across spatial (severity of attack from branch to landscape scale) and temporal scales (from attack to decades after) and link each change to its coincident effects on fuels and potential fire behavior. These syndromes differ in their spatial and temporal severity, differentially affecting windows of increased or decreased community flammability. We evaluate these models with two examples: the recently emergent ambrosia beetle-vectored laurel wilt (caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola) in native members of the Lauraceae and the early 20th century chestnut blight (caused by the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica) that led to the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata). Some changes (e.g., reduced foliar moisture content) have short-term consequences for potential fire behavior while others (functional extirpation) have more complex indirect effects on community flammability. As non-native emergent diseases and pests continue, synthetic models that aid in prediction of fire behavior and effects will enable the research and management community to prioritize mitigation efforts to realized effects.

  6. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  7. First report of Armillaria sinapina, a cause of armillaria root disease, associated with a variety of forest tree hosts on sites with diverse climates in Alaska

    Treesearch

    N. B. Klopfenstein; J. E. Lundquist; J. W. Hanna; M.-S. Kim; G. I. McDonald

    2009-01-01

    In August of 2007, a preliminary survey was conducted in Alaska to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on forest trees. Armillaria sinapina, a root-disease pathogen, was isolated from conifer and hardwood hosts on climatically diverse sites spanning 675 km from the Kenai Peninsula to the Arctic Circle. Seven isolates (NKAK1, NKAK2, NKAK5, NKAK6, NKAK9F, NKAK13...

  8. Early detection of emerging forest disease using dispersal estimation and ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Meentemeyer, Ross K; Anacker, Brian L; Mark, Walter; Rizzo, David M

    2008-03-01

    Distinguishing the manner in which dispersal limitation and niche requirements control the spread of invasive pathogens is important for prediction and early detection of disease outbreaks. Here, we use niche modeling augmented by dispersal estimation to examine the degree to which local habitat conditions vs. force of infection predict invasion of Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of the emerging infectious tree disease sudden oak death. We sampled 890 field plots for the presence of P. ramorum over a three-year period (2003-2005) across a range of host and abiotic conditions with variable proximities to known infections in California, USA. We developed and validated generalized linear models of invasion probability to analyze the relative predictive power of 12 niche variables and a negative exponential dispersal kernel estimated by likelihood profiling. Models were developed incrementally each year (2003, 2003-2004, 2003-2005) to examine annual variability in model parameters and to create realistic scenarios for using models to predict future infections and to guide early-detection sampling. Overall, 78 new infections were observed up to 33.5 km from the nearest known site of infection, with slightly increasing rates of prevalence across time windows (2003, 6.5%; 2003-2004, 7.1%; 2003-2005, 9.6%). The pathogen was not detected in many field plots that contained susceptible host vegetation. The generalized linear modeling indicated that the probability of invasion is limited by both dispersal and niche constraints. Probability of invasion was positively related to precipitation and temperature in the wet season and the presence of the inoculum-producing foliar host Umbellularia californica and decreased exponentially with distance to inoculum sources. Models that incorporated niche and dispersal parameters best predicted the locations of new infections, with accuracies ranging from 0.86 to 0.90, suggesting that the modeling approach can be used to forecast

  9. Forest development leading to disturbances

    Treesearch

    Clinton E. Carlson; Stephen F. Arno; Jimmie Chew; Catherine A. Stewart

    1995-01-01

    Natural disturbance in western U.S.A. forest ecosystems is related to forest succession, growth, and structural development. Natural disturbance may be biotic (insects and diseases) or abiotic (fire, wind, avalanche, etc.). Natural disturbances are more appropriately thought of as natural processes; disturbance is a social connotation implicating economic loss. Forest...

  10. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  11. Urban Forests

    Treesearch

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  12. Minnesota's forests 1999-2003 (Part A)

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Keith Jacobson; Gary J. Brand; Ed Jepsen; Dacia Meneguzzo; Manfred E. Mielke; Cassandra Olson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry Tyler Wilson; Christopher Woodall

    2007-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports more than 16.2 million acres of forest land. Additional forest attribute and forest health information is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and diseases.

  13. Forests of the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  14. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  15. Forest hydrology

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  16. Forest Management

    Treesearch

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  17. Arkansas forests

    Treesearch

    William W.S. van Hees

    1980-01-01

    The 1978 Arkansas Forest survey shows a 9 percent reduction in forest land area since 1969. Presently 16.6 million acres, 50 percent of the total State area, are forested. Diversions of forest land to agriculture, particularly to soybean fields in the Delta and to pasture in the Ozarks, account for most of the decline.

  18. Forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  19. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  20. Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington Part I: Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards.

    Treesearch

    J.F. Lehmkuhl; P.F. Hessburg; R.L. Everett; M.H. Huff; R.D. Ottmar

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. We described vegetation attributes, landscape patterns, the range of historical...

  1. Extremely low prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in frog populations from neotropical dry forest of Costa Rica supports the existence of a climatic refuge from disease.

    PubMed

    Zumbado-Ulate, Héctor; Bolaños, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Puschendorf, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Population declines and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians, especially stream-breeding frogs, have been linked to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. In Central America, most of the 34 species of the Craugastor punctariolus species group have disappeared in recent years in high- and low-elevation rainforests. Distribution models for B. dendrobatidis and the continuous presence of the extirpated stream-dwelling species, Craugastor ranoides, in the driest site of Costa Rica (Santa Elena Peninsula), suggest that environmental conditions might restrict the growth and development of B. dendrobatidis, existing as a refuge from chytridiomycosis-driven extinction. We conducted field surveys to detect and quantify the pathogen using Real-time PCR in samples from 15 species of frogs in two locations of tropical dry forest. In Santa Elena Peninsula, we swabbed 310 frogs, and only one sample of the species, C. ranoides, tested positive for B. dendrobatidis (prevalence <0.1%). In Santa Rosa Station, we swabbed 100 frogs, and nine samples from three species tested positive (prevalence = 9.0%). We failed to detect signs of chytridiomycosis in any of the 410 sampled frogs, and low quantities of genetic equivalents (between 0 and 1073) were obtained from the ten positive samples. The difference in the prevalence between locations might be due not only to the hotter and drier conditions of Santa Elena Peninsula but also to the different compositions of species in both locations. Our results suggest that B. dendrobatidis is at the edge of its distribution in these dry and hot environments of tropical dry forest. This study supports the existence of climatic refuges from chytridiomycosis and highlights the importance of tropical dry forest conservation for amphibians in the face of epidemic disease.

  2. Analysis and Recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform and Random Forest in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yiqin; Yan, Hanxia; Yan, Jianjun; Yuan, Fengyin; Xu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Guoping; Xu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research provides objective and quantitative parameters of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pulse conditions for distinguishing between patients with the coronary heart disease (CHD) and normal people by using the proposed classification approach based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and random forest. Methods. The energy and the sample entropy features were extracted by applying the HHT to TCM pulse by treating these pulse signals as time series. By using the random forest classifier, the extracted two types of features and their combination were, respectively, used as input data to establish classification model. Results. Statistical results showed that there were significant differences in the pulse energy and sample entropy between the CHD group and the normal group. Moreover, the energy features, sample entropy features, and their combination were inputted as pulse feature vectors; the corresponding average recognition rates were 84%, 76.35%, and 90.21%, respectively. Conclusion. The proposed approach could be appropriately used to analyze pulses of patients with CHD, which can lay a foundation for research on objective and quantitative criteria on disease diagnosis or Zheng differentiation.

  3. The dynamic response of housing values to a forest invasive disease: evidence from a sudden oak death infestation

    Treesearch

    Kent Kovacs; Thomas P Holmes; Jeffrey E Englin; Janice Alexander

    2011-01-01

    “Sudden Oak Death” (Phytophthora ramorum) is a non-indigenous forest pathogen which causes substantial mortality of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimated the time path of residential property values subject to oak mortality using a dataset that spans more than two decades—including...

  4. Forest Plantations

    Treesearch

    D. Zhang; J.A. Stanturf

    2008-01-01

    Between the extremes of afforestation and unaided naturalregeneration of natural forests, there is a range offorest conditions in which human intervention occurs.Previously, forest plantations were defined as...

  5. Forest Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  6. Georgia's forests

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Herbert A. Knight

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and rangeland renewable resources planning act(RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of Georgia’s forest was expanded to accommodate nontimber as well as timber resources. This report presents the principal findings concerning the extent of condition of forest lands, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals. Nontimber...

  7. Forest ecology

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North

    2014-01-01

    Building on information summaries in two previous general technical reports (PSW-GTR-220 and PSW-GTR-237), this chapter focuses on four topics raised by forest managers and stakeholders as relevant to current forest management issues. Recent studies suggest that the gap size in lower and mid-elevation historical forests with active fire regimes was often about 0.12 to...

  8. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele

    1995-01-01

    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  9. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  10. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  11. The future of southern forest

    Treesearch

    Dave Wear

    2016-01-01

    The southeastern United States contains expansive and diverse forests that provide many values and services. The future of these forests will depend on many factors, including wood products markets, urban growth and development, insects and diseases, and climate changes.

  12. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  13. Proceedings: North American forest insect work conference.

    Treesearch

    D.C. Allen; L.P. Abrahamson

    1992-01-01

    A proceedings of a conference held to stimulate interaction among people working in areas of forest protection and silviculture and on issues of national and international concern relative to forest insect and disease management, education, and research. National issues addressed were forest productivity, stewardship, biological diversity, and new perspectives and how...

  14. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Treesearch

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  15. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  16. Effects of pine wilt disease invasion on soil properties and Masson pine forest communities in the Three Gorges reservoir region, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruihe; Shi, Juan; Huang, Ruifen; Wang, Zhuang; Luo, Youqing

    2015-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) has caused significant Masson pine mortality in the Three Gorges reservoir region in central China. In this study, five uniform Masson pine stand types infected by PWD were selected and surveyed on slopes and aspects with similar environmental conditions. In sites that had been infected, soil bulk density was reduced, and the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at the 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm soil layers, but not at 20–40 cm. Other soil water-related physical properties, excluding noncapillary porosity, significantly differed among the groups in all soil layers. Additionally, the values of available phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were higher in the invaded stands, but the total nitrogen and organic matter contents were lower. Masson pine does not become reestablished following PWD-induced mortality but is instead replaced by broad-leaved tree species. Among the 19 examined environmental variables, five were found to be significantly related with the ordination of plant community structure: Masson pine stumps (MPS), K+, capillary water holding capacity (CWHC), capillary porosity (CP), and soil water content (SWC). Among these factors, the plant community structure was principally related to MPS and K+. The findings of this study show that the outbreak of PWD has impacted Masson pine forest soil properties and altered forest community composition. The disease is negatively related with the presence of Masson pine and positively associated with that of broad-leaved tree species. PMID:25937913

  17. National forests

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; Geoffry M. Blate; Jeremy S. Littell; Steven G. McNulty; Constance I. Millar; Susanne C. Moser; Ronald P. Neilson; Kathy O' Halloran; David L. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) is composed of 155 national forests (NFs) and 20 national grasslands (NGs), which encompass a wide range of ecosystems, harbor much of the nation’s biodiversity, and provide myriad goods and services. The mission of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), which manages the NFS, has broadened from water and timber to sustaining ecosystem health...

  18. Spread of beech bark disease in the eastern United States and its relationship to regional forest composition

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Eugene Luzader

    2007-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-fungus complex involving the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.) and one of two canker fungi. Beech scale was introduced to Halifax, Nova Scotia around 1890, presumably with the fungus Neonectria coccinea var. faginata Lohm. The disease has subsequently spread...

  19. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter

    2010-01-01

    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defoliation...

  20. Ash pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution injury, and chemical injury. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.D.; Leininger, T.D.; Wilson, A.D.; Anderson, R.L.; Thompson, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually threaten their widespread use. Disease, simply stated, is a condition of abnormal growth resulting from infection by a biotic agent (fungus, bacterium, or virus), or induced by an abiotic stress such as drought or air pollution.

  1. Texas' forests, 2008

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  2. Florida's Forest

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Herbert A. Knight

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland renewable Resources planning act (RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of Florida’s forests was expanded to accommodate both timber and nontimber evaluations. This report presents the principal findings of the timber evaluation. The nontimber evaluations will be published separately.

  3. Urban forests

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Trees and forests are resources that significantly affect the health and well-being of people who live in urban areas where more than 80 percent of the U.S. population resides. These trees within our cities and communities provide many ecosystem services and values to both urban and rural populations. Healthy urban and rural forests are critical for sustaining quality...

  4. Louisiana forests

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1965-01-01

    The total amount of forest land in Louisiana is virtually the same today as it was a decade ago. But its distribution has changed noticeably. In the Delta, for example, forest acreage is still declining; between 1954 and 1964, it dropped some 7 percent, thus closely paralleling trends in the Delta sections of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Outside the Delta,...

  5. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  6. Forest resources of the Tonto National Forest

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2004-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Tonto National Forest 1996 inventory...

  7. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  8. Forest health assessment for eastern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Daniel B. Twardus

    1995-01-01

    Information presented here, was obtained generally from 3 sources: the Cooperative Forest Health Protection Program, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program and the National Forest Health Monitoring Program. The Cooperative Forest Health Protection Program is a joint State-Federal effort responsible for forest-wide surveys of forest damage. From these surveys, we...

  9. Forest resources of the Prescott National Forest

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers

    2003-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Prescott National Forest 1996...

  10. A complex rearrangement in GBE1 causes both perinatal hypoglycemic collapse and late-juvenile-onset neuromuscular degeneration in glycogen storage disease type IV of Norwegian forest cats.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; Kurzhals, Rebeccah L; Hawkins, Michelle G; Wang, Ping; Yuhki, Naoya; Giger, Urs; Van Winkle, Thomas J; Haskins, Mark E; Patterson, Donald F; Henthorn, Paula S

    2007-04-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) activity causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), an autosomal recessive error of metabolism. Abnormal glycogen accumulates in myocytes, hepatocytes, and neurons, causing variably progressive, benign to lethal organ dysfunctions. A naturally occurring orthologue of human GSD IV was described previously in Norwegian forest cats (NFC). Here, we report that while most affected kittens die at or soon after birth, presumably due to hypoglycemia, survivors of the perinatal period appear clinically normal until onset of progressive neuromuscular degeneration at 5 months of age. Molecular investigation of affected cats revealed abnormally spliced GBE1 mRNA products and lack of GBE cross-reactive material in liver and muscle. Affected cats are homozygous for a complex rearrangement of genomic DNA in GBE1, constituted by a 334 bp insertion at the site of a 6.2 kb deletion that extends from intron 11 to intron 12 (g. IVS11+1552_IVS12-1339 del6.2kb ins334 bp), removing exon 12. An allele-specific, PCR-based test demonstrates that the rearrangement segregates with the disease in the GSD IV kindred and is not found in unrelated normal cats. Screening of 402 privately owned NFC revealed 58 carriers and 4 affected cats. The molecular characterization of feline GSD IV will enhance further studies of GSD IV pathophysiology and development of novel therapies in this unique animal model.

  11. Avian disease and mosquito vectors in the Kahuku unit of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Ka`u Forest Reserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Egan, Ariel N.

    2015-01-01

    While avian disease has been well-studied in windward forests of Hawai‘i Island, there have been few studies in leeward Ka‘u. We surveyed four altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 m asl in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (Kahuku) and three altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 m asl in the Ka‘u Forest Reserve (Ka‘u) for the prevalence of avian disease and presence of mosquitoes. We collected blood samples from native and non-native forest birds and screened for avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) using PCR diagnostics. We examined birds for signs of avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.), knemidokoptic mange (Knemidokoptes jamaicensis) and feather ectoparasites. We also trapped adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes japonicus japonicus) and surveyed for available larval habitat. Between September, 2012 and October, 2014, we completed 3,219 hours of mist-netting in Kahuku capturing 515 forest birds and 3,103 hours of mist-netting in Ka‘u capturing 270 forest birds. We screened 750 blood samples for avian malaria. Prevalence of avian malaria in all species was higher in Ka‘u than Kahuku when all sites were combined for each tract. Prevalence of avian malaria in resident Hawai‘i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) was greatest at the lowest elevation sites in Kahuku (26%; 1,201 m asl) and Ka‘u (42%; 1,178 m asl) and in general, prevalence decreased with increasing elevation and geographically from east to west. Significantly higher prevalence was seen in Ka‘u at comparable low and mid elevation sites but not at comparable high elevation sites. The overall presumptive pox prevalence was 1.7% (13/785) for both tracts, and it was higher in native birds than non-native birds, but it was not significant. Presumptive knemidokoptic mange was detected at two sites in lower elevation Kahuku, with prevalence ranging from 2‒4%. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites (Analges and Proctophyllodes spp.) was 6.7% (53

  12. [Forest degradation/decline: research and practice].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Feng-Qin

    2007-07-01

    As one of the most critical environmental problems in the 21st century, forest degradation has been facing worldwide. There are many definitions about forest degradation, but its common features are the permanent loss of forests, stand structure destructed, forest quality decreased, and forest functions lowered. Forest decline or tree decline in fact is one of the causes of forest degradation, which includes the general reduction of trees in vigor, low level growth of trees in productivity, death of trees, and even, decline of soil fertility. Many researches indicated that deforestation is the permanent loss of forests in area, which is shifted to other land uses. Deforestation is the product of the interactions between environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given country/region, and thus, more and more attention is focused on the negative socioeconomic and environmental effects after forest degradation, especially on the reduction of forest area induced by deforestation. The effects of any decisions or policies in national and international levels on forest degradation induced by deforestation have been paid attention as well. How to make efforts and strengthen the worldwide cooperation to combat the forest degradation induced by deforestation must be challenged to find appropriate solutions. There are many researches on forest decline, because of its complexity and uncertainties. The major causes of forest decline include: 1) pollution from both industry and agriculture, 2) stress factors, e.g., desiccation, 3) changes in stand dynamics, 4) decline disease of forest or diseases of complex etiology, 5) degradation of productivity and/or soil fertility in pure plantation forests. Forest degradation in China is similar to that all over the world, but with the characteristics in forest components, i.e., 1) secondary forests are the major forest resources, 2) China has the most plantation forests in the world, some of which have

  13. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  14. TICK-BORNE VIRUSES. A REVIEW OF AN ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRUS PROBLEM OF GROWING IMPORTANCE IN THE TROPICS.

    PubMed

    WORK, T H

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses.In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued.

  15. 2004 report on the health of Colorado's forests: Special issue: Ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Paige Lewis; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Dave Leatherman

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Report on the Health of Colorado's Forests begins with an overview of significant incidents and trends in forest insect and disease activity across the state. The remainder of the Report provides an in-depth examination of the ecology, condition and management of Colorado's ponderosa pine forests. Unlike previous editions, which highlighted a range...

  16. Development of new Dutch Elm disease-tolerant selections for restoration of the American Elm in urban and forested landscapes

    Treesearch

    C.C. Pinchot; C.E. Flower; K.S. Knight; C. Marks; R. Minocha; D. Lesser; K. Woeste; P.G. Schaberg; B. Baldwin; D.M. Delatte; T.D. Fox; N. Hayes-Plazolles; B. Held; K. Lehtoma; S. Long; S. Mattix; A. Sipes; J.M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    The goal of our research and development efforts is to restore American elm (Ulmus americana) as a species in both natural and urban landscapes. Accomplishing this goal requires identification/generation of additional American elm cultivars that are tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED) caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, and development of methods to reintroduce...

  17. Exotic pests: major threats to forest health

    Treesearch

    J. Robert Bridges

    1995-01-01

    Over 360 exotic forest insects and about 20 exotic diseases have become established in the U.S. Many of these organisms have become serious pests, causing great economic impacts and irreversible ecological harm. Despite efforts to exclude exotic species, forest insects and disease organisms continue to be introduced at a rather rapid rate. In the last few years, one...

  18. Forest resources of the Clearwater National Forest

    Treesearch

    Ryan P. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Clearwater National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see section "Inventory methods...

  19. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  20. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  1. Effects of an invasive forest pathogen on abundance of ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a California Lyme disease focus.

    PubMed

    Swei, Andrea; Ostfeld, Richard S; Lane, Robert S; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2011-05-01

    Invasive species, including pathogens, can have important effects on local ecosystems, including indirect consequences on native species. This study focuses on the effects of an invasive plant pathogen on a vertebrate community and Ixodes pacificus, the vector of the Lyme disease pathogen (Borrelia burgdorferi) in California. Phytophthora ramorum, the causative agent of sudden oak death, is a non-native pathogen killing trees in California and Oregon. We conducted a multi-year study using a gradient of SOD-caused disturbance to assess the impact on the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), two reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi, as well as the impact on the Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), both of which are important hosts for I. pacificus but are not pathogen reservoirs. Abundances of P. maniculatus and S. occidentalis were positively correlated with greater SOD disturbance, whereas N. fuscipes abundance was negatively correlated. We did not find a change in space use by O. hemionus. Our data show that SOD has a positive impact on the density of nymphal ticks, which is expected to increase the risk of human exposure to Lyme disease all else being equal. A positive correlation between SOD disturbance and the density of nymphal ticks was expected given increased abundances of two important hosts: deer mice and western fence lizards. However, further research is needed to integrate the direct effects of SOD on ticks, for example via altered abiotic conditions with host-mediated indirect effects.

  2. [The Alkhurma virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus): an emerging pathogen responsible for hemorrhage fever in the Middle East].

    PubMed

    Charrel, R N; de Lamballerie, X

    2003-01-01

    To date tick-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans have been isolated in Siberia (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), India (Kyasanur Forest disease virus), and Saudi Arabia (Akhurma virus). Because of their potential use as biological weapons for bioterrorism, these 3 viruses require level 4 biosafety handling facilities and have been listed as hypervirulent pathogens by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Alkhurma virus was isolated in 1995 from patients with hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. Current evidence suggests that transmission to humans can occur either transcutaneously either by contamination of a skin wound with the blood of an infected vertebrate or bites of an infected tick or orally by drinking unpasteurized contaminated milk. To date a total of 24 symptomatic human cases have been recorded with a mortality rate at 25% (6/24). Pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic cases are likely but epidemiologic data are currently unavailable. The complete coding sequence of the prototype strain of Alkhurma virus was determined and published in 2001 based on international research project involving investigators from France, Great Britain, and Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that closest known relative of Alkhurma virus is Kyasanur Forest disease virus and that both viruses share a common ancestor. Genetic analysis of several human strains sequentially isolated over a 5-year period showed a very low diversity. This finding has important potential implications for diagnosis and vaccination.

  3. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  4. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  5. Midsouth forest area trends

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Birdsey; William H. McWilliams

    1986-01-01

    The forest inventory and analysis unit of the southern forest experiment stations (Forest Survey) conducts periodic inventories at approximately 10-year intervals of the forest resources of the Midsouth States (fig. 1). This report contains a summary of forest acreage estimates made between 1950 and 1985. The statistics are based on published forest survey reports and...

  6. Georgia's forests, 2004

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Harper; Nathan D. McClure; Tony G. Johnson; J. Frank Green; James K. Johnson; David B. Dickinson; James L. Chamerlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2009-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2004, the Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted the eighth inventory of Georgia forests. Forest land area remained stable at 24.8 million acres, and covered about two-thirds of the land area in Georgia. About 24.2 million acres of forest land was considered timberland and 92 percent of that was privately owned. Family forest...

  7. Nebraska's forests, 2005

    Treesearch

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; David E. Haugen; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    Results of the first annual inventory of Nebraska's forests (2001-05) show an estimated 1.24 million acres of forest land; 1.17 million acres meet the definition of timberland. Softwood forest types account for one-third of all forest land area, with ponderosa pine being the most prevalent type. Hardwood forest types comprise 58 percent of Nebraska's forest...

  8. Passage and Survival of Chlamydospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, the Causal Agent of Forest Dieback Disease, Through the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Termites and Wild Birds

    PubMed Central

    Keast, D.; Walsh, Leonie G.

    1979-01-01

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands have been shown to survive in the intestinal tracts of termites (Nasutitermes exitiosus) and two species of forest birds indigenous to West Australian jarrah forests. Viable chlamydospores were recovered from bird feces within the normal rate of passage time for food through the gut. The above factors would allow these creatures to function as vectors for the spores. PMID:16345364

  9. Forests & Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are…

  10. Montane forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Brandon M. Collins; Hugh Safford; Nathan L. Stephenson

    2016-01-01

    California’s montane forests include some of the most productive and diverse temperate ecosystems in the world, containing the largest single stem tree (the 1487 m3 General Sherman giant sequoia [Sequoiadendron giganteum]) (Van Pelt 2001) and highest conifer diversity (30 plus species in the Klamath-Siskiyou mountain range) (Sawyer 2006)....

  11. Subalpine forests

    Treesearch

    C.I. Millar; P.W. Rundel

    2016-01-01

    The subalpine forests of California comprise the highest elevation ecosystems that are dominated by upright trees. They are defined as a zone influenced primarily by abiotic controls, including persistent snowpack, desiccating winds, acute and chronic extreme temperatures, soil moisture and evapotranspirative stresses, and short growing seasons. Bounded at the...

  12. Forest Phytophthoras

    Treesearch

    J. L. Parke

    2013-01-01

    Profiles are provided for 5 forest Phytopthora species: P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P.alni, P. cinnamomi, P.katsurae. Also presented are a "Host and Habitat Index for Phytophthora Species in Oregon" and "Histopathological Investigations of the Infection Process and Propagule Development of...

  13. Forest Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  14. USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges

    Treesearch

    Ralph H. Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Forests and Ranges (EF&Rs) have provided and continue to provide scientific information for the management of National Forests, industrial and private lands. In accordance with federal authority 4062.01 of the Forest Service Manual, section 4000 provisions of the Organic Administration Act of 1897 (16 USC 551), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable...

  15. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  16. Western forest, fire risk, and climate change

    Treesearch

    Valerie Rapp

    2004-01-01

    Climate warming may first show up in forests as increased growth, which occurs as warmer temperatures, increased carbon dioxide, and more precipitation encourage higher rates of photosynthesis. The second way that climate change may show up in forests is through changes in disturbance regimes—the long-term patterns of fire, drought, insects, and diseases that are basic...

  17. Western forests, fire risk, and climate change.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2004-01-01

    Climate warming may first show up in forests as increased growth, which occurs as warmer temperatures, increased carbon dioxide, and more precipitation encourage higher rates of photosynthesis. The second way that climate change may show up in forests is through changes in disturbance regimes—the long-term patterns of fire, drought, insects, and diseases that are basic...

  18. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Treesearch

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  19. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Treesearch

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  20. Virginia's forests, 2001

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose

    2007-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2001, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program conducted the seventh inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15,844,000 acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. The majority (12,102,000 acres) of Virginia’s forest land was in nonindustrial private forest ownership. Public ownership and forest industry ranked second...

  1. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  2. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  3. Forest condition in Latvia

    Treesearch

    Madis Sipols

    1998-01-01

    Systematic assessment and observation (survey, inventory) of forests in Latvia has been underway since the 1700's. Latvia's forests are in the boreal/temperate forest zone and cover 44 percent of the country. Forest growing conditions are subdivided into five site class types: forests on dry mineral, wet mineral, wet peat, drained mineral, drained peat soils...

  4. Mississippi's forests, 2006

    Treesearch

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; John W. Coulston; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2009-01-01

    Forest land covers 19.6 million acres in Mississippi, or about 65 percent of the land area. The majority of forests are classed as timberland. One hundred and thirty-seven tree species were measured on Mississippi forests in the 2006 inventory. Thirty six percent of Mississippi's forest land is classified as loblolly-shortleaf pine forest, 27 percent is classified...

  5. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  6. Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    The Wind River Experimental Forest, known as the cradle of forest research in the Pacific Northwest, is a major center for ecological and silvicultural research in west-side Pacific Northwest forests. In the state of Washington, Wind River Experimental Forest is in the south-central area of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, north of the Columbia River Gorge National...

  7. Forest statistics of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1952-01-01

    The Forest Survey is conducted in the various regions by the forest experiment stations of the Forest Service. In Kentucky the project is directed by the Central States Forest Experiment Station with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area, timber volume, timber growth, and timber drain...

  8. Forest statistics of Indiana

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1953-01-01

    The Forest Survey is conducted in the various regions by the forest experiment stations of the Forest Service. In Indiana the project is directed by the Central States Forest Experiment Station with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area timber volume, timber growth, and timber drain...

  9. Forest statistics for Alabama

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Wheeler

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes data on forest acreage, timber volume, growth, and drain1/ collected by the Southern Forest Survey in Alabama, It is primarily the product of the new Forest Survey of the State, made between 1951 and 1953, but it also draws on the first Forest Survey of 1935-36 to show the changes in forest conditions during the intervening...

  10. South Dakota's Forests 2010

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports 1.9 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 68 percent of the total forest land area, with the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounting for 60 percent of the total.

  11. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  12. Forest Statistics for Vermont

    Treesearch

    John R. McGuire; Robert D. Wray; Robert D. Wray

    1952-01-01

    This preliminary report is a product of the forest survey of the Northeast carried on by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station as part of the nation-wide forest survey being made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. A comprehensive report on the results of the forest survey in Vermont will be published later. NOTE: this document was scanned from...

  13. Strong nitrogen retention against the pine-stands dieback by pine-wilt disease in a temperate conifer-deciduous forest in central Japan: Budget and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, N.; Katsuyama, M.; Osaka, K.; Yoneda, S.; Ochiai, N.

    2013-12-01

    Decreased N uptake by tree roots and increased N supply from the litter fall that occurred with the 1992-94 pine dieback caused by pine-wilt disease brought on a threefold and 10 years increase in nitrate concentrations in streamwater and subsurface groundwater in a conifer-deciduous mixed forest catchment (Kiryu Experimental Watershed) in central Japan. The disturbance also resulted in delayed changes of input-output nitrogen balances. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the controls of the hydrological processes by which NO3- concentrations increase in streamwater, 2) to clarify the impacts of soil nitrogen transformation to the streamwater chemistry. It was found that, from 1992 to 1996, seasonal peaks occurred in the stream NO3- concentrations during the rainy season (July to August). This seasonal variation corresponded directly to groundwater levels in the riparian zone near the catchment outlet, suggesting that seasonal changes in groundwater levels were the dominant factor controlling temporal variation in stream NO3- concentrations. The annual N export was 110.0 mol N ha-1 year-1 in pre-disturbance condition and 749.8 mol N ha-1 year-1 in post-disturbance, and had decreased to 37.0 mol N ha-1 year-1 in 2005. N export under dieback influence was estimated to be 3697 mol N ha-1, and N loss due to pine dieback was 2810 mol N ha-1. This was three times larger than baseline N leakage for the disturbed period. The nitrogen contribution to dieback litter inputs was 7.39 kmol ha-1, and N loss from streamwater was less than 0.2-0.75 kmol ha-1 year-1 throughout the observation period. This large discrepancy suggested there was substantial nitrogen retaining mechanisms such as microbial immobilization. Measurements of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification potential of soil using 15N pool dilution method indicated that the soil in this site has very high NH4+ immobilization potential and low nitrification potential. This was one of the evidence

  14. North Carolina's Emerging Forest Threats: Management Options for Healthy Forests

    Treesearch

    Lisa Jennings; Emrys Treasure; Jennifer Moore Myers; Steve McNulty; Sean Brogan; David Jones

    2012-01-01

    Forest landowners are seeing increased pressure from threats like fire, insects, disease, extreme weather, and drought on their land and resources. The last decade has brought record droughts to North Carolina, increasing wildfires, expanding insect and plant invasions, and more intense hurricane and tornado events. Scientists predict increases in temperature and...

  15. Forest biomass sustainability and availability

    Treesearch

    K.E. Skog; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a synthesis of information on potential supply of forest biomass given needs for sustainable development of forestry. Sustainability includes maintenance of water supply, biodiversity, and carbon storage as well as timber products, community development, and recreation. Biomass removals can reduce fire hazard and insect and disease attack, restore...

  16. Enzyme polymorphism in forest trees

    Treesearch

    M. T. Conkle

    1974-01-01

    In studies of genetic differences among trees, forest biologists have found that variations fall into two categories. In the first, characterized by metric traits, the phenotypic response results from the combined activity of many genes having minor effects. In the other, characterized by mutants and some resin and disease resistance factors, the phenotypic response...

  17. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  18. The relevance of forest fragmentation on the incidence of human babesiosis: investigating the landscape epidemiology of an emerging tick-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging arthropod-borne infection that has been increasing in incidence for the last decade in the northeastern United States. Babesiosis may share features of its landscape epidemiology with other arthropod-borne infections transmitted by the same tick vectors in similar geographic spaces. This study examined 11 years of surveillance data in New York State to measure the relationship between forest fragmentation and the incidence of human babesiosis. Adjusted Poisson models showed that increasing edges of contact between forested land and developed land, as measured by their shared perimeters, was associated with a higher incidence of babesiosis cases (incident rate ratio [IRR]=1.015, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.02; p<0.001), even after controlling for the total developed land area and forest density, and temperature and precipitation. Each 10-km increase in perimeter contact between forested land and developed land per county was associated with a 1.5% increase in babesiosis risk. Higher temperature was also strongly associated with increasing babesiosis risk (IRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.10-1.27; p<0.001), wherein each degree Celsius increase was associated with an 18% increase in babesiosis risk. While direct causal conclusions cannot be drawn from these data, these findings do identify a potentially important signal in the epidemiology of babesiosis and suggest that the underlying physical landscape may play a role in shaping points of contact between humans and tick vectors and the subsequent transmission of Babesia microti.

  19. New Hampshire's Forests 2007

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Susan Francher; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Chris W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Hampshire's forests reports nearly 4.8 million acres of forest land with an average volume of nearly 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 53 percent of total forest land area. Fifty-seven percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 32...

  20. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  1. Vermont's Forests 2007

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Robert De Geus; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Richard Widmann; Sandy Wilmot; Chris W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Vermont's forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 70 percent of total forest land area. Sixty-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 27...

  2. Minnesota Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Charles Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel I. Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Minnesota forests reports 17.4 million acres of forest land with an average live tree volume of 1,096 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies 29 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 36 percent sapling/...

  3. New York Forests, 2012

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Sloane Crawford; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Mark D. Nelson; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel. Riemann

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the second annual inventory of New York's forests, conducted in 2008-2012. New York's forests cover 19.0 million acres; 15.9 million acres are classified as timberland and 3.1 million acres as reserved and other forest land. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group that occupies more than half of the forest...

  4. Wisconsin Forests 2014

    Treesearch

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Sally E. Dahir; Andrew M. Stoltman; William H. McWilliams; Brett J. Butler; Mark D. Nelson; Randall S. Morin; Ronald J. Piva; Sarah K. Herrick; Laura J. Lorentz; Mark Guthmiller; Charles H. Perry

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third annual inventory of Wisconsin’s forests, conducted 2009–2014. Wisconsin’s forests cover 17.1 million acres with 16.6 million acres classified as timberland. Forests are bountiful in the north with Florence, Forest, Menominee, and Vilas Counties having over 90 percent forest cover. In the southeastern part of the State, forest cover is...

  5. Wisconsin's Forests 2009

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  6. North Dakota's Forests 2010

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Robert Harsel; Aaron Bergdahl; Tom Claeys; Christopher W. Woodall; Barry T. Wilson; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Mark A. Hatfield; Charles H. Barnett; Grant Domke; Dan Kaisershot; W. Keith Moser; Andrew J. Lister; Dale D. Gormanson

    2013-01-01

    The second annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports more than 772,000 acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 921 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the bur oak forest type, which occupies more than a third of the total forest land area. The poletimber stand-size class represents 39 percent of forest land, followed by...

  7. Oregon Forests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This 39 by 47 km ASTER sub-scene was acquired on May 20, 2000 and shows an area along the west side of the Cascade Range in west central Oregon. Bands 4, 3, and 2 were combined as red, green, and blue. In this composite, snow appears blue, forests are green, and clear-cut areas are orange-pink. The magnitude of logging operations is quite obvious, appearing as a checker board pattern. The image is centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11165

  8. Minnesota forest statistics, 1977.

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    Presents highlights and statistics from the Fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory. Includes detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, net annual growth, timber removals, mortality, and timber products output.

  9. Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests

    Treesearch

    Aaron S. Weed; Matthew P. Ayres; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of North America is forested. These forests are of incalculable value to human society in terms of harvested resources and ecosystem services and are sensitive to disturbance regimes. Epidemics of forest insects and diseases are the dominant sources of disturbance to North American forests. Here we review current understanding of climatic effects...

  10. The use of large-scale aerial color photography for assessing forest tree diseases. I. Basal canker of white pine: a case study

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of aerial color photography to discern symptoms of the disease as it developed over time, the factors contributing to disease development, and the patterns of disease development.

  11. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... variability, insects, disease, fire, and wind. The purpose of the project is to restore forest health, move..., periodic surface fire as an ecological process, as well as reduce the risk of a stand-replacing fire. The... forest plan old growth management allocation goals. In order to meet the purpose, this project includes a...

  12. The influence of forest management on vulnerability of forests to severe weather

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Beach; Erin O. Sills; Tzu-Ming Liu; Subhrendu. Pattanayak

    2010-01-01

    Excessive wind, ice, and snow regularly cause major disturbances to forests in many parts of the world, significantly impacting both ecological conditions and economic returns to forest landowners. These events cause immediate losses for landowners, and the broken and uprooted trees left in the wake of a storm increase the risk that wildfires, disease, and pest...

  13. Lessons from 15 years of monitoring sudden oak death and forest dynamics in California forests

    Treesearch

    Margaret Metz; J. Morgan Varner; Ross Meentemeyer; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring host composition and disease impacts began 15 years ago in what would become a network of permanent forest monitoring plots throughout the known and predicted range of Phytophthora ramorum in California coastal forests. Stretching ~500 miles from Big Sur to the Oregon border, the network captures variation in interactions among...

  14. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Pekka E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S.; Sedjo, Roger A.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations. PMID:17101996

  15. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Pekka E; Ausubel, Jesse H; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S; Sedjo, Roger A; Waggoner, Paul E

    2006-11-14

    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded 4,600 dollars had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.

  16. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  17. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  18. Disturbance and forest health in Oregon and Washington. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, M.H.; Campbell, S.; Liegel, L.

    1996-10-01

    The scope and intensity of disturbance by such agents as fire, insects, diseases, air pollution, and weather in the Pacific Northwest forests suggest that forest health has declined in recent years in many areas. The most significant disturbances and causes of tree mortality or decline in Oregon and Washington are presented and illustrated. We discuss the interrelations of disturbance with forest management activities and the effect on native trees and suggest some solutions for reducing the severity of disturbance. One chapter reports on forest health monitoring pilot project.

  19. Oregon Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 39 by 47 km ASTER sub-scene was acquired on May 20, 2000 and shows an area along the west side of the Cascade Range in west central Oregon. Bands 4, 3, and 2 were combined as red, green, and blue. In this composite, snow appears blue, forests are green, and clear-cut areas are orange-pink. The magnitude of logging operations is quite obvious, appearing as a checker board pattern. The image is centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Forest statistics for Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Wheeler

    1952-01-01

    The Southern Forest Survey, an activity of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, covers the seven States of the Station' territory--Alabama, Arkansas. Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. This Survey is a part of the nation-wide Forest Survey authorized by the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of 1928. Its five-fold purpose is (1) to take...

  1. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  2. Forests of Florida, 2014

    Treesearch

    Mark Brown; J Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  3. Forests of Florida, 2013

    Treesearch

    Mark Brown; J.. Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  4. What is forest restoration?

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf

    2005-01-01

    The need to repair habitat and restore forest structure and funciton is recognized throughout the temperate and boreal zones as a component of sustainable forest management (Krishnaswamy and Hanson 1999; Dobson et al. 1997). Forest restoration is a complex task, complicated by diverse ecological and social conditions, that challenges our understanding of forest...

  5. Maybeso Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Valerie Rapp

    2004-01-01

    The Maybeso Experimental Forest is in southeast Alaska within the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States and home to the Northern Hemi-sphere's largest temperate rain forest. Located about 42 miles west of Ketchikan, Alaska, it is on Prince of Wales Island, the largest island of the Alexander Archipelago and the third largest...

  6. Forests of Florida, 2012

    Treesearch

    M.J. Brown; Jarek. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  7. Forest restoration paradigms

    Treesearch

    John Stanturf; Brian J. Palik; Mary I. Williams; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2 billion ha of forests are degraded globally and global change suggests even greater need for forest restoration. Four forest restoration paradigms are identified and discussed: revegetation, ecological restoration, functional restoration, and forest landscape restoration. Restoration is examined in terms of a degraded starting point and an ending point...

  8. North Carolina's forests, 2002

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown; Barry D. New; Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Victor A. Rudis

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, forests covered 18.3 million acres in North Carolina, of which 17.7 million were classified as timberland. Hardwood forest types prevailed on 72 percent of timberland and planted pine stands occupied 15 percent. Nonindustrial private forest landowners controlled 78 percent of timberland, forest industry holdings declined to 8 percent, and publicly owned...

  9. Indiana Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Gormanson; Joey Gallion; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William Luppold; William McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barbara O' Connell; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel I. Riemann; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Paul A. Sowers; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the third full annualized inventory of Indiana forests conducted from 2009 to 2013 by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. Indiana has nearly 4.9 million acres of forest land with an average of 454 trees per acre. Forest...

  10. Forests of Florida, 2015

    Treesearch

    M.J. Brown; J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  11. Oklahoma's forests, 2014

    Treesearch

    Kerry Dooley; KaDonna. Randolph

    2017-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the 2014 forest inventory of Oklahoma (conducted 2009–2014) and examines changes since the previous survey of Oklahoma in 2008. Topics presented include forest area, volume, biomass, number of trees, growth, mortality, removals, forest health, silvicultural treatments, and forest ownership.

  12. Kane Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    1999-01-01

    The 1,737 acres of forest land that comprise the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF), were originally part of the Allegheny National Forest. On March 23, 1932, the land was formally dedicated to research use for the Allegheny Forest Experiment Station (now the Northeastern Research Station). The KEF was established to promote the study of the unglaciated portion of the...

  13. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  14. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  15. Ohio forests: 2006

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Dan Balser; Charles Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Tonya W. Lister; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes annual forest inventories conducted in Ohio from 2001 to 2006 by the Northern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis unit. Ohio's forest land covers 7.9 million acres or 30 percent of the State's land area, changing little in forest land area since 1991. Of this land, 5.8 million acres (73 percent) are held by family...

  16. Forests and People

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Hoffman; Mark J. Twery; Laura M. Alban; Ralph D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Establishing long-term plans for your forested property is a positive first step toward good forest stewardship. An appropriate management plan considers your needs and desires and helps you achieve them.Conversations with forest landowners have revealed some interesting stories about their likes and dislikes in the forest. Seeing big, healthy trees,...

  17. Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North

    2012-01-01

    There has been widespread interest in applying new forest practices based on concepts presented in U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests." This collection of papers (PSW-GTR-237) summarizes the state of the science in some topics relevant to this forest management approach...

  18. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Treesearch

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  19. Michigan forest statistics, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1996-01-01

    The fifth forest inventory of Michigan's forest reports 36.4 million acres of land, of which 19.3 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and biomass.

  20. Forest farming practices

    Treesearch

    J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...

  1. Bartlett Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Jane Gamal-Eldin

    1998-01-01

    The Bartlett Experimental Forest is a field laboratory for research on the ecology and management of northern forest ecosystems. Research on the Bartlett includes: 1) extensive investigations on structure and dynamics of forests at several levels, and developing management alternatives to reflect an array of values and benefits sought by users of forest lands, 2) a...

  2. New Jersey Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; William. Zipse

    2017-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of New Jersey’s forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 77 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.3 billion cubic feet. Average annual net...

  3. Kansas forests 2005

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; William H. IV Reading; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of Kansas forests reports 2.1 million acres of forest land, roughly 4 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for nearly 5 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 56 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 30 percent of the...

  4. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  5. Nebraska's Forests 2010

    Treesearch

    Dacia M Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Greg C. Liknes; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests reports more than 1.5 million acres of forest land and 39 tree species. Forest land is dominated by the elm/ash/cottonwood and oak/hickory forest types, which occupy nearly half of the total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland currently totals 1.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual...

  6. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  7. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  8. Michigan forests 2014

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Rachel I. Riemann; James E. Smith; James A. Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The eighth inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2014, describes more than 20.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 4,289 forested plots from 2009 to 2014. Timberland accounts for 95 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 19 percent...

  9. Michigan's forests 2004

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  10. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...

  11. New York's Forests 2007

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Sloane Crawford; Charles Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the first full annual inventory of New York's forests, conducted in 2002-2007 by the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. New York's forests cover 19.0 million acres; 15.9 million acres are classified as timberland and 3.1 million acres as reserved and other forest land. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch...

  12. New Jersey's forests, 2008

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall; Bill. Zipse

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Jersey's forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 83 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak-hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.4 billion cubic feet. The average...

  13. Kansas' Forests 2010

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant Domke; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second completed annual inventory of Kansas' forests reports 2.4 million acres of forest land, roughly 5 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for 4.4 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 55 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 32 percent of...

  14. SAR backscatter from coniferous forest gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John L.; Davis, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    is the expression of biological forest processes, such as succession and disease, and physical ones, such as fire and wind-throw, it contains useful information about the forest, and has value in image interpretation and classification. Forest gaps are undoubtedly important contributors to scene variance. By studying the localized effects of gaps on forest backscatter, guided by our qualitative model, we hope to understand more clearly the manner in which spatial heterogeneities in forests produce variations in backscatter, which collectively give rise to scene texture.

  15. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  16. Forest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  17. Forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  18. Diseases

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Hinds

    1985-01-01

    Although many diseases attack aspen, relatively few kill or seriously injure living trees. The common leaf diseases, in general, are widely distributed throughout the range of aspen, whereas there are subtle differences in distribution between the important decay fungi, and apparently entirely different areas of distribution of major cankercausing organisms. However,...

  19. Forest declines in response to environmental change

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; Allan N.D. Auclair

    2000-01-01

    Decline diseases are intimately linked to stress and environmental change. There is strong evidence that, as a category, decline diseases have increased significantly in response to the climate, air chemistry, and other changes documented in the northeastern United States over the past century, and particularly the last two decades. No other forest response to...

  20. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Treesearch

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  1. Forest resources of the Santa Fe National Forest

    Treesearch

    Dana Lambert

    2004-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Santa Fe National Forest 1998...

  2. Productivity of forest birds at Hakalau Forest NWR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Cummins, George C; Kendall, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Hawai‘i has some of the most endangered avian species in the world, which face numerous threats from habitat loss, disease, climate change, and introduced species. This report details the results of a two-year productivity study of all forest bird species at Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island. We found and monitored nests from seven native species and three common non-native species of forest birds at three sites across the refuge. In addition to gathering important baseline information on productivity of forest birds, we examined differences in productivity between years, sites, and as a function of nest height. The weather differed greatly between the two years, with much more rain occurring in 2014. The daily survival rate (DSR) of nests was found to have an inverse relationship with the amount of rainfall, and accordingly was much lower in 2014 compared to 2013. Nest success was lower at a regenerating forest site compared with mature rainforest, indicating negative environmental factors affecting nest success may be exacerbated in reforested areas which have lower canopies. Nest success was also impacted by nest height, with a positive relationship in the drier 2013, and a negative relationship in 2014 for the canopy nesting honeycreepers. The large difference in weather and DSR between years illustrates the need for long term demographic studies that can capture the vital rates of this community of birds.

  3. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  4. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  5. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  6. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    ScienceCinema

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  7. Forest statistics for Massachusetts

    Treesearch

    John R. Peters; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    This report contains data from the second inventory of the forest resources of Massachusetts. The inventory was completed in 1971 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Natural Resources.

  8. Education Highlights: Forest Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Rachel; Canter, Christina

    2016-01-27

    Argonne intern Rachel Barone from Ithaca College worked with Argonne mentor Christina Canter in studying forest biomass. This research will help scientists develop large scale use of biofuels from forest biomass.

  9. The forests of Maine: 2003

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Brett J. Butler; Laurence E. Caldwell; Douglas M. Griffith; Michael L. Hoppus; Kenneth M. Laustsen; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Jacob W. Metzler; Randall S. Morin; Steven A. Sader; Lucretia B. Stewart; James R. Steinman; James, A. Westfall; David A. Williams; Andrew Whitman; Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Maine Forest Service and USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program implemented a new system for inventorying and monitoring Maine's forests. The effects of the spruce budworm epidemic continue to affect the composition, structure, and distribution of Maine's forested ecosystems. The area of forest land in Maine has remained...

  10. Iowa's forest resources, 2005

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Aron Flickinger

    2007-01-01

    Report presents Iowa's annual inventory results for 2005. Estimates show that Iowa has more than 2.8 million acres of forest land. Total live-tree volume on forest land is 4.0 billion cubic feet. Ninety-eight percent of forest land is classified as timberland. Oak/hickory is the predominant forest-type group, representing 54 percent of timberland area. Growing-...

  11. Allegheny National Forest health

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Stout; Christopher A. Nowak; James A. Redding; Robert White; William H. McWilliams; William H. McWilliams

    1995-01-01

    Since 1985 72 percent of the forest land on the Allegheny National Forest has been subject to at least one moderate to severe defoliation from any of three native or three exotic agents. In addition, droughts affected the forest in 1972, 1988 and 1991. As a result, at least 20 percent of the forest shows tree mortality in from 10 to 80 percent of the overstory trees....

  12. Iowa Forests, 2013

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Matt Brewer; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen Matthews; William H. McWilliams; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2009-2013) indicates that just under 3 million acres of forest land exists in the State, 81 percent of which is in family forest ownership. Almost all of Iowa's forest land is timberland (96 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre on timberland and more than 1,...

  13. Maine's forests 2008

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  14. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  15. Forest resources of the Kootenai National Forest

    Treesearch

    Andrea M. Wilson; Patrick D. Miles

    2000-01-01

    THe Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (formerly known as the Intermountain Research Station), as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, entered into a cooperative agreement with the Northern Region (Region 1) for the inventory of its...

  16. Integrating silviculture, forest management, and forest policy

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Oliver

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made in developing and implementing individual silvicultural operations such as regeneration, thinning, and harvesting by various means. Similarly, foresters have made progress at managing flows of timber and other commodity values. Present concern that forests provide an even greater variety of commodity and non-commodity values can be...

  17. Forest decline from air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1984-01-01

    Scientists in West Germany and the USA are involved in intensive efforts to ascertain the cause or causes of the declines in their forests. Ongoing research was discussed at an October 1983 symposium on air pollution and forest productivity, held in Washington, D.C., and sponsored by the Izaak Walton League of America and Pennsylvania State University. The dieback of spruce in the Northeast is relatively well-known. It was revealed at the symposium, however, that forests in other areas of the U.S. may be showing signs of stress and damage and that species other than spruce are affected. Samuel B. McLaughlin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pointed out that red spruce, shortleaf pine, hickory, yellow birch, pitch pine, hemlock, and Fraser fir are declining in East Tennessee. He noted that these decline together with those in New England suggest that decreased productivity in several tree species has been occurring over a broad scale during the past two decades. One commonly held view is that acid deposition is causing the decline of forests in both Europe and the U.S. At the symposium, a number of different opinions about possible causes were expressed, ranging from drought to ozone to combinations of pollutants, including acid deposition, ozone and trace metals. Possible causes that were not subjects of active inquiry were disease and insects. Most researchers in the field believe there is little evidence that one of these is the primary damaging agent.

  18. Arkansas’ forests, 2005

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson; Anita K. Rose

    2010-01-01

    The principal fi ndings of the eighth forest survey of Arkansas are presented. This survey marks a major change in the FIA sampling protocol from a periodic prism sample to an annualized fi xed-plot sample. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality, crown...

  19. Missouri's forest resources, 2005

    Treesearch

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Gary J. Brand; Thomas B. Treiman

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis program is continuing its annual inventory of Missouri's forest resources. This report presents estimates of area, volume, and biomass using data for 2005, and growth, removals, and mortality using data for the most recent remeasurement period. Estimates from this inventory...

  20. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  1. Georgia's forests, 1989

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Tony G. Johnson

    1993-01-01

    This resource bulletin presents the principal findings of the sixth inventory of Georgia's forest resources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected, evaluations of...

  2. Alabama's Forests, 2005

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The principle findings of the eighth forest survey of Alabama (2005) and changes that have occurred since the previous surveys are presented. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth removals, and mortality.

  3. Alabama's forests, 2000

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The principle findings of the seventh forest survey of Alabama (2000) and changes that have occurred since the previous surveys are presented. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  4. Maryland's forest resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; J. Perdue; W. McWilliams; D. Meneguzzo; C. Barnett; B. O’Connell

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maryland based on an annual inventory (2004-2007) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to the last...

  5. Arkansas forest resource patterns

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Van Sickle

    1970-01-01

    A new forest survey of Arkansas reveals that forests cover 55 percent of the land in the State. In all, 18.2 million acres are available for and capable of growing industrial timber. Substantial change has occurred in the timber resource. In the 10 years preceding the new survey, forest area declined by one-eighth . Clearing for cropland and pasture claimed...

  6. Florida's forests, 1987

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Mark J. Brown; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1990-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the sixth inventory of Florida’s forest resources. Data concerning the extent and condition of forest land, as well as associated timber inventory, growth, and removal volumes are presented and analyzed. In accordance with the Forest and rangeland renewable resources planning act of 1974, information on...

  7. North Carolina's forests

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Herbert A. Knight

    1986-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of North Carolina's forests was expanded to accommodate nontimber as well as timber resources. This report presents the principal findings concerning the extent and condition of forest land, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals....

  8. Forests of Indiana, 2013

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Gormanson

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Indiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized strategic sample design and...

  9. Forests of Missouri, 2014

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Missouri based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Estimates are based on field data collected using the annualized sample design and are...

  10. Maryland's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; J. Perdue; A. Lister

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maryland based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  11. Guam's forest resources, 2002.

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sarah L. Butler; Walter Grabowiecki; Bruce A. Hiserote; David. Limtiaco

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program collected, analyzed, and summarized field data on 46 forested plots on the island of Guam. Estimates of forest area, tree stem volume and biomass, the numbers of trees, tree damages, and the distribution of tree sizes were summarized for this statistical sample. Detailed tables and graphical highlights provide a summary of Guam...

  12. Delaware's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; G. Gladders; B. Butler; C. Barnett; B. O' Connell

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Delaware based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to the last page of this...

  13. Michigan's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    S.A. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Michigan based on an annual inventory (2005-2009) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually.

  14. Illinois' forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    S.J. Crocker; D.C. Little

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Illinois based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for Illinois...

  15. Illinois' forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    S.J. Crocker

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Illinois based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  16. Vermont's forest resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; G.M. McCaskill; W. McWilliams; R. De Geus

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 5 of this report....

  17. Iowa's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; M. Brewer; S.J. Crocker

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Iowa based on an annual inventory (2005-2009) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report....

  18. Nebraska's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  19. Iowa's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    S.J. Crocker

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Iowa based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for Iowa,...

  20. Nebraska's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually.

  1. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  2. Illinois' forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    S.J. Crocker

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Illinois based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. Indiana's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; J. Gallion

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually.

  4. Delaware's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; G. Gladders

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  5. Maine's forest resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maine based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. Indiana's Forest Resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; M.N. Webb; J. Gallion

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Indiana based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  7. Delaware's forest resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; G. Gladders; W. McWilliams; D. Meneguzo; C. Barnett; B. O' Connell

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Delaware based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to the last page of this...

  8. Vermont's forest resources, 2012

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report....

  9. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  10. Ohio's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Ohio based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  11. Maryland's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; J. Perdue

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  12. Maine's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based upon an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  13. Nebraska's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  14. Maryland's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; J. Perdue; B. Butler; C. Barnett; B. O' Connell

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maryland based on an annual inventory (2004-2008) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to the last...

  15. Kansas' forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; R.L. Atchison

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  16. Iowa's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; M. Brewer

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Iowa based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  17. Missouri's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; T.B. Treiman

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Missouri based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  18. Indiana's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; J. Gallion

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Indiana based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  19. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  20. Minnesota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    P.D. Miles; D. Heinzen

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Minnesota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  1. Nebraska's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  2. Ohio's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Ohio based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  3. Pennsylvania's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service (NRS-FIA). These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  4. Nebraska's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  5. Vermont's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; R. De Geus

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports...

  6. Minnesota's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    P.D. Miles; D. Heinzen

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Minnesota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  7. Maine's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maine based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  8. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  9. Illinois' Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    S.J. Crocker

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Illinois based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  10. Vermont's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; B.J. Butler; R. De Geus

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  11. The forests of Connecticut

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Richard H. Widmann; Carol L. Alerich; Charles H. Barnett; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Don Smith; Fred Borman

    2004-01-01

    A report on the fourth forest inventory of Connecticut conducted in 1997-98 by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northeastern Research Station. Explains the current condition and changes from previous inventories for forest area, timber volume, biomass, growth and removals, and harvesting. Graphics depict data at the state and geographic-unit level and,...

  12. Forests of Maryland, 2016

    Treesearch

    Tonya W. Lister

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Maryland based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. From 2004-2013, FIA employed an annual inventory measuring data on 20 percent of all sample plots each year in Maryland. Beginning in 2014, FIA is on a 7-year cycle...

  13. Reserved and roadless forests

    Treesearch

    David Azuma; James Menlove; Andrew Gray

    2009-01-01

    Some 74 million acres of forest land, or 10 percent of all U.S. forest land, are permanently reserved from wood product utilization through statute or administrative designation. A large part of these lands is in wilderness areas, national parks, and national monuments. Although the primary reason for protecting many of the areas is not preservation of forest...

  14. Forest resources of Montana

    Treesearch

    S. Blair Hutchinson; Paul D. Kemp

    1952-01-01

    In 1928 Congress passed the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act authorizing a comprehensive survey of the timber supplies in the United States. Responsibility for this survey was assigned to the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture. The work in Montana has been under the direction of the Northern Rockv Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. This is a...

  15. Michigan's Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    S.A. Pugh

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Michigan based on an annual inventory (2003-2007) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  16. Forests of Iowa, 2016

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Tivon E. Feeley; Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  17. Ohio's Forests 2011

    Treesearch

    Richard H Widmann; Cotton K. Randall; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the second full cycle of annual inventories, 2007-2011, of Ohio's forests by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. Since 2006, forest land increased by 2.1 percent and currently totals 8.1 million acres. Net volume of live...

  18. Forests of Minnesota, 2015

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Dennis Kepler

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Minnesota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected during measurement years 2011-2015 with...

  19. Forests of Mississippi, 2015

    Treesearch

    Sonja Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Mississippi based on an inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Mississippi Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA...

  20. Forests of Kentucky, 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt; Consuelo Brandeis

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kentucky based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The estimates presented in this update are...

  1. Forests of Wisconsin, 2016

    Treesearch

    Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample...

  2. Forests of Georgia, 2015

    Treesearch

    Thomas Brandeis; Consuelo Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  3. The Children's Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a unit on rain forests in which first graders studied about rain forests, built a classroom rain forest, and created a bulletin board. They also graphed rainfall, estimated body water, and estimated the number of newspapers that could be produced from one canopy tree. (MKR)

  4. Iowa's forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; M. Brewer; G. Domke

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Iowa based on an annual inventory (2007-2011) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  5. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Treesearch

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  6. Forests of Maine, 2014

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Maine based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  7. Forests of Maine, 2013

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Maine based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  8. Forests of Kentucky, 2013

    Treesearch

    Christopher Oswalt

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry. These estimates, along...

  9. Forests of Maine, 2015

    Treesearch

    Emily S. Huff; William H. McWilliams

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Maine based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  10. Connecticut's forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  11. Vermont's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; M. Nelson; R. De Geus

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report....

  12. Maine's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; R.S. Morin

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Maine based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  13. Vermont's forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; C.W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report....

  14. Vermont's forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; R. De Geus; S. Wilmot

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report....

  15. Massachusetts' forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Massachusetts based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  16. Forests of Vermont, 2014

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; R. Riemann

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Vermont based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2003-2013, the cycle length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2014 inventory,...

  17. Ohio's forest resources, 2012

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann; R.S. Morin

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Ohio based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  18. Forest resources of Missouri

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1948-01-01

    Survey releases have been published for each of the regions (Forest Survey Releases 1 to 5 inclusive) presenting the more significant statistics on forest area and timber volume. This release summarizes these data for the State as a whole. In some instances figures for individual forest types and species may not exactly equal the totals obtained by adding the figures...

  19. Forests of Mississippi, 2014

    Treesearch

    S.N. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Mississippi based on an inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Mississippi Forestry Commission

  20. Forests of Vermont, 2016

    Treesearch

    R.S. Morin; G.M. Domke; B.F. Walters; S. Wilmot

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Vermont based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2003-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  1. Forests of Michigan, 2016

    Treesearch

    Charles Paulson; Scott A. Pugh

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Michigan based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The annual inventory started in 1999. For the 2016...

  2. Forests of Nebraska, 2016

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory...

  3. Forests of Missouri, 2016

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Missouri based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  4. Forests of Maine, 2016

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Maine based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at www.fia.fs.fed.us....

  5. Forests of Indiana, 2016

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Indiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized strategic sample design and...

  6. Forests of Minnesota, 2016

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Susan J. Crocker; Brian F. Walters; Dennis. Kepler

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Minnesota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected during measurement years 2012-2016 with...

  7. Forests of Illinois, 2016

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Crocker

    2017-01-01

    This update provides an overview of forest resources in Illinois following an inventory by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Northern Research Station. Estimates are derived from field data collected using an annualized sample design and are updated yearly. Estimates of current variables such as area, volume, and biomass are based on 5,991...

  8. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2016

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Albright

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. Information about the national and regional...

  9. Forests of Oklahoma, 2015

    Treesearch

    Kerry. Dooley

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources of Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS), and Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS). Data collection and estimates are based on the FIA annualized sample design, and are updated yearly, creating a...

  10. Forests of Ohio, 2016

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Albright

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Ohio based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly.1 Information about the national and regional FIA...

  11. Arkansas’ forests, 2010

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson; Anita K. Rose

    2015-01-01

    The principal findings of the ninth forest survey of Arkansas are presented. The survey examines trends between the 2005 and 2010 surveys. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, crown characteristics, ozone levels, and invasive species.

  12. Trends in Maryland's Forests

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    2002-01-01

    Forests protect watersheds, provide opportunities for recreation and settings for aesthetic enjoyment, serve as habitat for wildlife, and produce wood and other forest products. The forests of Maryland contribute greatly to the quality of life of the State?s residents, making the Old Line State a better place in which to live. Data in this brochure are from reports...

  13. Trends in Delaware's Forests

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Forests protect watersheds, provide opportunities for recreation and settings for aesthetic enjoyment, serve as habitat for wildlife, and produce wood and other forest products. The forests of Delaware contribute greatly to the quality of life of the residents, making the State a better place in which to live. This brochure highlights significant trends in Delaware?s...

  14. Forests of Alabama, 2016

    Treesearch

    A. Hartsell

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  15. Forests of Louisiana, 2014

    Treesearch

    S.N. Oswalt

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Louisiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The estimates presented in this update are for the...

  16. Forests of Virginia, 2015

    Treesearch

    T.J. Brandeis; A.J. Hartsell; C. Brandeis

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Virginia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Forestry. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  17. South Carolina's forests, 1993

    Treesearch

    Roger C. Conner

    1998-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the seventh inventory of South Carolina’s forest re-sources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected,...

  18. Forests of Minnesota, 2014

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Curtis. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Minnesota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected during measurement years 2009-2014 with...

  19. Forests of Alabama, 2014

    Treesearch

    Andy Hartsell

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  20. Forests of Wisconsin, 2014

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Perry

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample...

  1. Forests of Louisiana, 2012

    Treesearch

    S.N. Oswalt

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Louisiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Mississippi Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  2. Kansas' forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; C.H. Barnett; C.M. Kurtz; R.A. Atchison

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  3. Kansas' forest resources, 2012

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; P.D. Miles; R.A. Atchison

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  4. Kansas' forest resources, 2009

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; C.H. Barnett; R.A. Atchison

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  5. Kansas' Forest Resources, 2007

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; R.L. Atchison

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  6. Forests of Kansas, 2013

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo; B.J. Butler

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2009-2013 with comparisons made to data collected from...

  7. Kansas' forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    W.K. Moser; D.E. Haugen; R.A. Atchison

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  8. Forests of Kansas, 2014

    Treesearch

    D.M. Meneguzzo; S.J. Crocker

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from...

  9. Forests of Vermont, 2015

    Treesearch

    Randall Morin; Richard Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Vermont based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2003-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  10. Forests of Maryland, 2015

    Treesearch

    Tonya Lister; Richard Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Maryland based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. From 2004-2013, FIA employed an annual inventory, measuring 20 percent of all sample plots each year in Maryland. Beginning in 2014, FIA is on a 7-year cycle,...

  11. Forests of Delaware, 2015

    Treesearch

    Tonya Lister; Richard Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Delaware based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. From 2004-2013, FIA employed an annual inventory with a cycle length of 5 years, measuring data on 20 percent of all sample plots each year in Delaware. Beginning...

  12. Forests of Nebraska, 2015

    Treesearch

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory...

  13. Forests of Michigan, 2015

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh; Charles Paulson; Brett J. Butler

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Michigan based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The annual inventory started in 1999. For the 2015...

  14. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2015

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly1(see footnote 1, page 2). Information...

  15. Forests of Illinois, 2015

    Treesearch

    Susan Crocker; Brett Butler

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Illinois based on an annual inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. Information about the FIA program is available at...

  16. Forests of Ohio, 2015

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Ohio based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly.1(See footnotes on page 4.) Information about the...

  17. Forests of Missouri, 2015

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Missouri based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  18. Forests of Indiana, 2015

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Gormanson

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Indiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized strategic sample design and...

  19. Forests of Missouri, 2013

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2014-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of forest resources in Missouri based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Estimates are based on field data, collected using the FIA annualized sample design, for the...

  20. Forests of Minnesota, 2013

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Curtis. VanderSchaaf

    2014-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of forest resources in Minnesota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data, collected using the FIA annualized sample design, for the...

  1. Forests of Vermont, 2013

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Scott A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Vermont based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Since 1999, FIA has employed an annual inventory measuring data on a nominal 20 percent of sample plots each year. For the 2013 inventory, estimates for current...

  2. Forests of Michigan, 2013

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Michigan based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Since 1999, FIA has employed an annual inventory measuring data on a nominal 20 percent of sample plots each year. For the 2013 inventory, estimates for current...

  3. Forests of Michigan, 2014

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Pugh

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Michigan based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly.* The annual inventory started in 1999. For the 2014...

  4. Forests of Maryland, 2013

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Maryland based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 2004, FIA has employed an annual inventory measuring data...

  5. Forests of Maryland, 2014

    Treesearch

    T.W. Lister; R.H. Widmann

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in Maryland based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. From 2004-2013, FIA employed an annual inventory measuring data on 20 percent of all sample plots each year in Maryland. Beginning in 2014, FIA is on a 7-year cycle...

  6. Planted forests and plantations

    Treesearch

    Ray Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Currrent resources data and trends...

  7. Forests of Georgia, 2013

    Treesearch

    T.J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  8. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Treesearch

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  9. Forests of Tennessee, 2013

    Treesearch

    Christopher Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the State of Tennessee based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture Division of Forestry....

  10. Forests of Oklahoma, 2013

    Treesearch

    S. Lambert; J.T. Vogt.; J. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station, in cooperation with Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly...

  11. Forests of Alabama, 2013

    Treesearch

    A. Hartsell

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission.

  12. Forecasts of forest conditions

    Treesearch

    Robert Huggett; David N. Wear; Ruhong Li; John Coulston; Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAmong the five forest management types, only planted pine is expected to increase in area. In 2010 planted pine comprised 19 percent of southern forests. By 2060, planted pine is forecasted to comprise somewhere between 24 and 36 percent of forest area.Although predicted rates of change vary, all forecasts reveal...

  13. The central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceous plants, and a large number of animal species.

  14. Forests of Massachusetts, 2016

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Massachusetts based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station.Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2011-2016 with comparisons made to 2007-...

  15. Forests of Georgia, 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  16. Forest insect defoliators

    Treesearch

    Philip T. Marshall

    1989-01-01

    Defoliation is the removal of all or part of the foliage from the tree. Forest insects are the primary agents that can cause defoliation. They produce the widespread, noticeable defoliation that forest landowners, foresters, and the general public can easily recognize.

  17. Forests of Iowa, 2015

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kathryne. Clark

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  18. Forests of Iowa, 2013

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  19. Forest products issue.

    Treesearch

    Thornton T. Munger

    1935-01-01

    This issue of Forest Research Notes is devoted to abstracts of projects under way or recently completed by the Section of Forest Products. This section conducts research designed to contribute to better and more economic utilization of the products of the forest. As shown by the variety of subjects presented in these notes, the projects range from the statistics of...

  20. Connecticut's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Helene F. Hochholzer; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These...

  1. Forests of Connecticut, 2015

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Connecticut based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2010-2015 with comparisons made to 2005-...

  2. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2013

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based upon inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  3. Michigan's forest resources, 2011

    Treesearch

    S.A. Pugh

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Michigan based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report or visit our...

  4. Michigan's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    S.A. Pugh

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Michigan based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report or visit our...

  5. Forests of Connecticut, 2016

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Connecticut based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2011-2016 with comparisons made to 2007-...

  6. Forest-fire models

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  7. Minnesota forest statistics, 1990.

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Chung M. Chen

    1992-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 51.0 million acres of land, of which 16.7 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  8. Michigan's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    S.A. Pugh

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author on August 20, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Michigan based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. Note...

  9. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  10. Massachusetts' Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Charles Burnham; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Massachusetts based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  11. Planted forests and biodiversity

    Treesearch

    Jean-Michel Carnus; John Parrotta; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Michel Arbez; Hervé Jactel; Antoine Kremer; David Lamb; Kevin O’Hara; Bradley. Walters

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of planted forests and intensification of their management has raised concerns among forest managers and the public over the implications of these trends for sustainable production and conservation of forest biological diversity. We review the current state of knowledge on the impacts of plantation forestry on genetic and species diversity at different...

  12. Forest resources and conditions

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  13. Connecticut's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Cassandra Kurtz; Christopher Martin; W. Keith. Moser

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  14. Massachusetts' forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; William N. Hill; Cassandra Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Massachusetts based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. South Carolina's forests

    Treesearch

    John B. Tansey; Cecil C. Hutchins

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the principal findings of the sixth evaluation of South Carolina's forest resources. Data concerning the extent and condition of forest land, associated timber volumes, and rates of growth and removals are included. In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974, the sixth inventory of South Carolina...

  16. Indiana's forest resources, 2010

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; M.N. Webb

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Indiana based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  17. Assessing the south's forests

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2003-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in the Spring of 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends and potential future of southern forests. The southern offices of the USDA Forest Service, U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency, U.S. Fish and wildlife Service, and Tennessee Valley Authority charactered SFRA and it has been...

  18. Forest resources of the Forest resources of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest

    Treesearch

    Paul Rogers

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest...

  19. Inland valley rice production systems and malaria infection and disease in the forest region of western Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the epidemiological impact of rice cultivation in inland valleys on malaria in the forest region of western Côte d’Ivoire. The importance of malaria was compared in terms of prevalence and parasite density of infections and also in terms of clinical malaria incidence between three agro-ecosystems: (i) uncultivated inland valleys, (R0), (ii) inland valleys with one annual rice cultivation in the rainy season, (R1) and (iii) developed inland valleys with two annual rice cultivation cycles, (R2). Methods Between May 1998 and March 1999, seven villages of each agro-ecosystem (R0, R1 and R2) were randomly selected among villages pooled by farming system. In these 21 villages, a total of 1,900 people of all age groups were randomly selected and clinically monitored during one year. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of five consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys. Results Plasmodium falciparum was the principal parasite observed in the three agro-ecosystems. A level of holoendemicity of malaria was observed in the three agro-ecosystems with more than 75% of children less than 12 months old infected. Geometric mean parasite density in asymptomatic persons varied between 180 and 206 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood and was associated with season and with age, but not with farming system. The mean annual malaria incidence rate reached 0.7 (95% IC 0.5-0.9) malaria episodes per person in R0, 0.7 (95% IC 0.6-0.9) in R1 and 0.6 (95% IC 0.5-0.7) in R2. The burden of malaria was the highest among children under two years of age, with at least four attacks by person-year. Then malaria incidence decreased by half in the two to four-year age group. From the age of five years, the incidence was lower than one attack by person-year. Malaria incidence varied with season with more cases in the

  20. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  1. Forested wetland habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  2. A framework for adapting urban forests to climate change

    Treesearch

    Leslie Brandt; Abigail Derby Lewis; Robert Fahey; Lydia Scott; Lindsay Darling; Chris Swanston

    2016-01-01

    Planting urban trees and expanding urban forest canopy cover are often considered key strategies for reducing climate change impacts in urban areas. However, urban trees and forests can also be vulnerable to climate change through shifts in tree habitat suitability, changes in pests and diseases, and changes in extreme weather events. We developed a three-step...

  3. Reintroduction of American Chestnut in the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Cornelia C. Pinchot; Sandra L. Anagnostakis; Michael R. Saunders; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Paul Schaberg; James McKenna; Jane F. Bard; Paul C. Berrang; David M. Casey; Chris E. Casey; Barbara Crane; Brian D. Jackson; Jeff D. Kochenderfer; Russ MacFarlane; Robert Makowske; Mark D. Miller; Jason A. Rodrigue; Jim Stelick; Christopher D. Thornton; Tyler S. Williamson

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut restoration depends on a multitude of biological, administrative, and technological factors. Germplasm traditionally bred for resistance to the chestnut blight disease caused by the exotic pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica has been deployed on national forests in the Eastern and Southern Regions of the National Forest System (NFS) since 2009. Trees...

  4. Mapping multiple forest threats in the northwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Becky K. Kerns; Michelle A. Day; Roger B. Hammer

    2013-01-01

    US forestlands are increasingly subject to disturbances including wildfire, insects and disease, and urban and exurban development. Devising strategies for addressing these “forest threats” depends on anticipating where individual disturbances are most likely and where they might occur in combination. However, many spatial data sets describing forest threats are...

  5. Disturbance and Forest Health in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Leon Liegel

    1996-01-01

    The scope and intensity of disturbance by such agents as fire, insects, diseases, air pollution, and weather in Pacific Northwest forests suggests that forest health has declined in recent years in many areas. The most significant disturbances and causes of tree mortality or decline in Oregon and Washington are presented and illustrated. We discuss the interrelations...

  6. Virginia’s forests, 2007

    Treesearch

    Anita K. Rose

    2009-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2007, the Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program conducted the eighth inventory of the forests of Virginia. About 15.7 million acres, or 62 percent, of Virginia was forested. The majority (12.4 million acres) of Virginia’s forest land was in nonindustrial private forest ownership. Public ownership and forest industry ranked second...

  7. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  8. Forest resources of South Carolina's national forests, 2001

    Treesearch

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2005-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the Francis Marion and Sumter National Forests in the State of South Carolina. It is based on sampling from the eighth forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis Research Work Unit. Findings suggest that South Carolina’s national...

  9. Forest resources of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Treesearch

    Jim Steed

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Medicine Bow National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see "Inventory methods"...

  10. Forest resources of the Idaho Panhandle National Forest

    Treesearch

    Joshua C. Holte

    2012-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Idaho Panhandle National Forest (IPNF) using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see "The inventory...

  11. Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest

    Treesearch

    Michele Disney

    2010-01-01

    As part of a National Forest System cooperative inventory, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service conducted a forest resource inventory on the Nez Perce National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see the section "Inventory methods"). This report presents highlights...

  12. Forest resources of the Black Hills National Forest

    Treesearch

    Larry T. DeBlander

    2002-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Black Hills National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see section "How was the inventory...

  13. The effects of forest fragmentation on forest stand attributes

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes

    2002-01-01

    For two study areas in Minnesota, USA, one heavily forested and one sparsely forested, maps of predicted proportion forest area were created using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, forest inventory plot data, and a logistic regression model. The maps were used to estimate quantitative indices of forest fragmentation. Correlations between the values of the indices and...

  14. Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Treesearch

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Martin Dovciak; Scott W. Bailey; Michael R. Antidormi; Michael R. Zarfos

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in...

  15. Genetic control of interactions among individuals: contrasting outcomes of indirect genetic effects arising from neighbour disease infection and competition in a forest tree.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M; Bijma, Piter; Kerr, Richard J; Pilbeam, David J

    2013-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of individuals on trait values of their conspecifics. IGEs may substantially affect response to selection, but empirical studies on IGEs are sparse and their magnitude and correlation with direct genetic effects are largely unknown in plants. Here we used linear mixed models to estimate genetic (co)variances attributable to direct and indirect effects for growth and foliar disease damage in a large pedigreed population of Eucalyptus globulus. We found significant IGEs for growth and disease damage, which increased with age for growth. The correlation between direct and indirect genetic effects was highly negative for growth, but highly positive for disease damage, consistent with neighbour competition and infection, respectively. IGEs increased heritable variation by 71% for disease damage, but reduced heritable variation by 85% for growth, leaving nonsignificant heritable variation for later age growth. Thus, IGEs are likely to prevent response to selection in growth, despite a considerable ordinary heritability. IGEs change our perspective on the genetic architecture and potential response to selection. Depending on the correlation between direct and indirect genetic effects, IGEs may enhance or diminish the response to natural or artificial selection compared with that predicted from ordinary heritability.

  16. Dynamics of foci of forest pest insects in Russia over the last decade

    Treesearch

    E. G. Mozolevskaya; I. A. Utkina; L. S. Matusevich

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining data about the sanitary state of forests in Russia are discussed briefly. The single parameter of official statistical accounts is the area of forests that have been killed or that serve as foci for pest and disease outbreaks. However, this scant information allows us to observe the variation over time of forested areas that have been killed by...

  17. Research gap analysis for application of biotechnology to sustaining US forests

    Treesearch

    R.W. Whetten; R. Kellison

    2010-01-01

    The expanding human population of the world is placing greater demand on forest resources, both natural forests and plantations. Both types of forests are being adversely affected in North America as well as in other parts of the world, due to the globalization of trade and to climate change and associated changes in pest and disease incidence. Biotechnology may help...

  18. Back to the future: assessing accuracy and sensitivity of a forest growth model

    Treesearch

    Susan Hummel; Paul. Meznarich

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a widely used computer model that projects forest growth and predicts the effects of disturbances such as fire, insects, harvests, or disease. Land managers often use these projections to decide among silvicultural options and estimate the potential effects of these options on forest conditions. Despite FVS's popularity,...

  19. Screening for resistance to fusiform rust in southern United States forest trees

    Treesearch

    Josh Bronson

    2012-01-01

    The Resistance Screening Center (RSC) is operated by the Forest Health Protection unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, State and Private Forestry. The RSC is located at the Bent Creek Experimental Forest near Asheville, North Carolina. The center evaluates seedlings for resistance to disease, primarily fusiform rust (caused by...

  20. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Treesearch

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...