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Sample records for kyoto3dii fabry-perot mode

  1. High-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot cavities: stabilization and mode matching analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Ghosh, S.; Alavi, S. K.; Alt, W.; Martinez-Dorantes, M.; Meschede, D.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by micro-machined mirrors on the end-facets of optical fibers, are used in an increasing number of technical and scientific applications, where they typically require precise stabilization of their optical resonances. Here, we study two different approaches to construct fiber Fabry-Perot resonators and stabilize their length for experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics with neutral atoms. A piezo-mechanically actuated cavity with feedback based on the Pound-Drever-Hall locking technique is compared to a novel rigid cavity design that makes use of the high passive stability of a monolithic cavity spacer and employs thermal self-locking and external temperature tuning. Furthermore, we present a general analysis of the mode matching problem in fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, which explains the asymmetry in their reflective line shapes and has important implications for the optimal alignment of the fiber resonators. Finally, we discuss the issue of fiber-generated background photons. We expect that our results contribute toward the integration of high-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot cavities into compact and robust quantum-enabled devices in the future.

  2. CCD system upgrading of the Kyoto3DII and integral field spectroscopic observation with the new system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Takashi; Kamata, Yukiko; Ozaki, Shinobu; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII) is an optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope as a PI-type instrument. Used with AO188, Kyoto 3DII provides us unique opportunities of optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics (AO). While AO works better in redder wavelength regions, quantum efficiency of the previous CCD was low there with optimization for a wider wavelength coverage. To optimize Kyoto 3DII to AO observations, we have newly installed the red-sensitive Hamamatsu fully depleted CCD, which enhances the system efficiency by a factor of 2 in the red wavelength range. Fringes are dramatically reduced, and the readout noise drops to 3:2-3:4e- about two times smaller than previous, due to refrigerator and readout system. With these improvements, we carried out engineering and scientific observations in September 2015, February and March 2016. We measured the system efficiency using a standard star, and confirmed the successful improvement of the system efficiency. We observed galactic nuclei of nearby galaxies in the Natural Guide Star (NGS) and the Laser Guide Star (LGS) modes. We found the spatial resolution of 0.1'' FWHM using a 9.5-magnitude NGS, and 0.2 - 0:4'' in LGS mode. Together with the AO resolution, improved efficiency opens a new window for Kyoto 3DII to carry out high resolution optical IFS targeting faint objects such as high-redshift galaxies as well as faint lines such as [OI] λ6300° A and absorption lines of nearby objects.

  3. Meta-Optics with Nanowire Grid Arrays: Hyperbolic Fabry-Perot Modes and Hyperbolic Tamm Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Keene, David; Lepain, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we introduce a new class of structures - cavities formed by metal-dielectric metasurfaces. These cavities support a zoo of various resonances, including hyperbolic Tamm plasmons and hyperbolic Fabry-Perot modes, which feature anisotropic clover-leaf dispersion parallel to the metasurface and strong coupling between TM and TE polarizations in the modes. The properties and spectrum of the modes are highly tunable by the dimensional and material parameters of the structure and can be used for directional emission, modification of radiation produced by electric dipole emitters into magnetic dipole radiation as well as 90 degree polarization rotators and polarization rotation mirrors.

  4. Analysis of quenching conditions of Fabry-Perot mode lasing in semiconductor stripe-contact lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Slipchenko, S. O. Podoskin, A. A.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Stankevich, A. L.; Leshko, A. Y.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Zabrodskiy, V. V.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2011-10-15

    Radiative characteristics of semiconductor stripe-contact lasers operating under quenching conditions of Fabry-Perot-mode lasing are studied. It is found that reversible turning off of Fabry-Perot-mode lasing is caused by switching to closed-mode lasing. Radiative characteristics of the closed mode are controlled by the mode structure with the close-to-zero loss for radiation output, which covers the entire crystal. The main threshold conditions of closed-mode lasing are a decrease in interband absorption in the passive region and an increase in the modal gain of the closed-mode lasing line. It is shown that a decrease in interband absorption in the passive region can be provided by both spontaneous emission from the injection region and lasing-mode photons. An increase in the modal gain of the closed-mode lasing line is provided by shifting the energy minima of the conduction band and maxima of the valence band of the injection region with respect to the energy bands of the passive region.

  5. Analysis of threshold conditions for generation of a closed mode in a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Slipchenko, S. O. Podoskin, A. A.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Leshko, A. Y.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2011-05-15

    Threshold conditions for generation of a closed mode in the crystal of the Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser with a quantum-well active region are analyzed. It is found that main parameters affecting the closed mode lasing threshold for the chosen laser heterostructure are as follows: the optical loss in the passive region, the optical confinement factor of the closed mode in the gain region, and material gain detuning. The relations defining the threshold conditions for closed mode lasing in terms of optical and geometrical characteristics of the semiconductor laser are derived. It is shown that the threshold conditions can be satisfied at a lower material gain in comparison with the Fabry-Perot cavity mode due to zero output loss for the closed mode.

  6. Doubly-Resonant Fabry-Perot Cavity for Power Enhancement of Burst-Mode Picosecond Ultraviolet Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Abudureyimu, Reheman; Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We report on a first experimental demonstration of locking a doubly-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity to burst-mode picosecond ultraviolet (UV) pulses by using a temperature controlled dispersion compensation method. This technique will eventually enable the intra cavity power enhancement of burst-mode 402.5MHz/50ps UV laser pulses with a MW level peak power required for the laser assisted H- beam stripping experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  7. Self-mode-locked single-section Fabry-Perot semiconductor lasers at 1.56 microm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiguo; Sauer, Nicholas J; Bernasconi, Pietro G; Zhang, Liming

    2007-01-01

    The mode-locking mechanism of a single-section multi-spatial-mode Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser is analyzed by the additive pulse mode-locking (APM) master equation model. Critical parameters of the equivalent saturable absorber as well as the self-phase modulation are estimated. The mode-locking operation regime in terms of pulse chirp and output power is predicted by the APM model and the prediction is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results of a 40 GHz, 6.7 ps pulse width mode-locked operation at 1.56 microm.

  8. Selective excitation of Fabry-Perot or whispering-gallery mode-type lasing in GaN microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Hyun, Jerome K.; Chung, Kunook; Oh, Hongseok; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2014-11-17

    Lasing from long semiconductor nanorods is dictated by Fabry-Perot (FP) resonances whereas that from large-diameter microrods is determined by whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Lengths and diameters intermediate between the two systems represent an important size regime for photonics and electronics, but have not been studied in detail. Here, we report on the detection of FP and WGM lasing emissions from a single GaN microrod, and demonstrate the ability to switch between the two lasing mechanisms by translating the excitation beam along the microrod. The competition between FP and WGM-type lasing was studied by finite-difference time-domain simulation and statistical analysis by measuring microrods of various diameters. Finally, control over the relative lasing intensities originating from either FPs or WGMs was demonstrated by tuning the polarization of the emission.

  9. Multiwavelength generation based on a mode-locked fiber laser using carbon nanotube and fiber Fabry-Perot filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanwu; Xia, Li; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Yating; Li, Lecheng; Xie, Zhenghai; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, a novel and compact configuration of stable multiwavelength generation with a uniform wavelength interval is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. It employs a mode-locked fiber laser using a carbon nanotube and spectrum-slicing technique. A flat rectangular optical output spectrum is demonstrated by adjusting the dispersion value of the fiber-loop cavity and the pump power. With a fiber Fabry-Perot filter, 33 wavelengths with 0.2 nm spacing are obtained among the power uniformity of 2.3 dB. Moreover, the variations of output power at each wavelength are all less than 0.1 dB, which implies excellent stability of the whole structure.

  10. Commissioning MOS and Fabry-Perot modes for the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeslag, A. R.; Williams, T. B.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P. H.; Maartens, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) currently has three instruments: the imaging SALTICAM, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) which is in the process of being commissioned and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). RSS has multiple science modes, of which long slit spectroscopy was originally commissioned; We have commissioned two new science modes: Multi Object Spectroscopy (MOS) and Fabry-Perot (FP). Due to the short track times available on SALT it is vital that acquisition is as efficient as possible. This paper will discuss how we implemented these modes in software and some of the challenges we had to overcome. MOS requires a slit-mask to be aligned with a number of stars. This is done in two phases: in MOS calibration the positions of the slits are detected using a through-slit image and RA/DEC database information, and in MOS acquisition the detector sends commands to the telescope control system (TCS) in an iterative and interactive fashion for fine mask/detector alignment to get the desired targets on the slits. There were several challenges involved with this system, and the user interface evolved to make the process as efficient as possible. We also had to overcome problems with the manufacturing process of the slit-masks. FP requires the precise alignment each of the two etalons installed on RSS. The software makes use of calibration tables to get the etalons into roughly aligned starting positions. An exposure is then done using a calibration arc lamp, producing a ring pattern. Measurement of the rings allows the determination of the adjustments needed to properly align the etalons. The software has been developed to optimize this process, along with software tools that allow us to fine tune the calibration tables. The software architecture allows the complexity of automating the FP calibration and procedures to be easily managed.

  11. On the mechanism of transverse-mode beatings in a Fabry - Perot laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N; Ledenev, V I

    2010-06-23

    The mechanism of emergence of fundamental-mode and first-mode beatings in the case of a step-wise increase in the pump rate is studied under the stationary single-mode lasing conditions. Investigation is based on the numerical solution of nonstationary wave equations in a resonator in the quasi-optic approximation and on the equation for a relaxation-type medium as well as on the use of the first two Hermite - Gaussian polynomials {psi}{sub 0,1}(x) to obtain the distribution projections I{sub 0,1}(t), g{sub 0,1}(t) of the radiation intensity and gain, respectively. It is shown that the transverse-mode beatings emerge at early stages of two-mode lasing, the appearance of radiation intensity oscillations in the active medium preceding the development of the gain oscillations. The time of the passage of two-mode lasing to the stationary regime is determined. The phase shift {pi}/2 between the oscillations I{sub 1}(t) and g{sub 1}(t) is found for the established beating regime and the modulation depth {Delta}I averaged over the output aperture of the radiation intensity in the established two-mode regime is shown to be proportional to the pump rate excess k over the single-mode lasing threshold. A scheme for controlling the mode composition of laser radiation is proposed, which is based on the rules for determining I{sub 0,1}(t) by the sensor signals. The efficiency of the scheme is studied. The scheme employs two field intensity sensors mounted inside the resonator behind the output aperture. (resonators. modes)

  12. Generation of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using a two-mode titanium sapphire laser containing an intracavity Fabry-Perot etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Michael R.; Naftaly, Mira; Miles, Robert E.; Mayorga, Ivan C.; Malcoci, Andrei; Mikulics, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz (THz) radiation was generated by photomixing two modes of a titanium sapphire laser. The laser was induced to oscillate on two modes by placing a Fabry-Perot etalon in the laser resonator. The frequency of terahertz radiation, which was equal to the difference frequency of the two modes, was varied by adjusting the free spectral range (FSR) of the etalon. Photomixing was performed by logarithmic spiral antennas fabricated on low-temperature-grown GaAs; and the emitted THz radiation was characterized. The THz power, measured by a Golay cell, was 1μW at 0.3THz and 0.7μW at 0.5THz. The THz frequency, as determined by a Fourier transform interferometer, was seen to correspond to the etalon FSR. The current-voltage characteristics of photomixers were also determined, and photocurrent modulation was observed by the autocorrelation of the laser beam.

  13. A wavelength tunable ONU transmitter based on multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser and micro-ring resonator for bandwidth symmetric TWDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhensen; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Kaibin

    2016-02-01

    Wavelength tunable optical transmitter is an essential component for the newly standardized time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON), where tunable ONU with 10Gb/s bit rate is desired to provide 40Gb/s symmetric bandwidth. In this paper, a novel wavelength tunable optical transmitter is proposed by reusing legacy low speed multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser and connecting it with an integrated photonic chip with two coupled micro-ring resonators to generate a tunable single mode signal based on Vernier effect for 10Gb/s high speed modulation, which makes it as a promising solution for colorless ONU in future symmetric TWDM-PON.

  14. DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2008-08-18

    A novel optical TDM pulsed carrier with tunable mode spacing matching the ITU-T defined DWDM channels is demonstrated, which is generated from an optically injection-mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) with 10%-end-facet reflectivity. The FPLD exhibits relatively weak cavity modes and a gain spectral linewidth covering >33.5 nm. The least common multiple of the mode spacing determined by both the weak-resonant-cavity FPLD and the fiber-ring cavity can be tunable by adjusting length of the fiber ring cavity or the FPLD temperature to approach the desired 200GHz DWDM channel spacing of 1.6 nm. At a specific fiber-ring cavity length, such a least-common- multiple selection rule results in 12 lasing modes between 1532 and 1545 nm naturally and a mode-locking pulsewidth of 19 ps broadened by group velocity dispersion among different modes. With an additional intracavity bandpass filter, the operating wavelength can further extend from 1520 to 1553.5 nm. After channel filtering, each selected longitudinal mode gives rise to a shortened pulsewidth of 12 ps due to the reduced group velocity dispersion. By linear dispersion compensating with a 55-m long dispersion compensation fiber (DCF), the pulsewidth can be further compressed to 8 ps with its corresponding peak-to-peak chirp reducing from 9.7 to 4.3 GHz.

  15. Sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Anbo; Gollapudi, Sridhar; Murphy, Kent A.; May, Russell G.; Claus, Richard O.

    1992-01-01

    A sapphire optical fiber intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor is demonstrated. A length of multimode sapphire fiber that functions as a Fabry-Perot cavity is spliced to a silica single-mode fiber. The interferometric signals of this sensor are produced by the interference between the reflection from the silica-sapphire fiber splice and the reflection from the free end face of the sapphire fiber. This sensor has been demonstrated for temperature measurement. A resolution of 0.2 C has been obtained over a measurement range of 310 C to 976 C.

  16. Multiplex Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) technique in which one of the etalon plates is moved over a large optical distance while the other remains fixed, thus exploiting the multiplex advantage of the instrument. This technique involves the application of Fourier-transform spectrometer to the multiple harmonics passing through the FPI etalon. It is shown that the multiplex FPI acts as several Michelson interferometers working at the same time, over the same spectral interval, and at different spectral resolutions. A high spectral resolution has been obtained over a large wavenumber interval, while the advantage of a reasonable scan length has been retained.

  17. Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Edward; Laufer, Jan; Beard, Paul

    2008-02-01

    A multiwavelength backward-mode planar photoacoustic scanner for 3D imaging of soft tissues to depths of several millimeters with a spatial resolution in the tens to hundreds of micrometers range is described. The system comprises a tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system that provides nanosecond laser pulses between 600 and 1200 nm for generating the photoacoustic signals and an optical ultrasound mapping system based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor for detecting them. The system enables photoacoustic signals to be mapped in 2D over a 50 mm diameter aperture in steps of 10 microm with an optically defined element size of 64 microm. Two sensors were used, one with a 22 microm thick polymer film spacer and the other with a 38 mum thick spacer providing -3 dB acoustic bandwidths of 39 and 22 MHz, respectively. The measured noise equivalent pressure of the 38 microm sensor was 0.21 kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth. The instrument line-spread function (LSF) was measured as a function of position and the minimum lateral and vertical LSFs found to be 38 and 15 microm, respectively. To demonstrate the ability of the system to provide high-resolution 3D images, a range of absorbing objects were imaged. Among these was a blood vessel phantom that comprised a network of blood filled tubes of diameters ranging from 62 to 300 microm immersed in an optically scattering liquid. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the system to spectroscopic imaging, a phantom comprising tubes filled with dyes of different spectral characteristics was imaged at a range of wavelengths. It is considered that this type of instrument may provide a practicable alternative to piezoelectric-based photoacoustic systems for high-resolution structural and functional imaging of the skin microvasculature and other superficial structures.

  18. Planetary Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Application of high spectral resolution, Earth-based Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of planetary atmospheres, for which current topics are outer planet HD and H2 spectra (atmospheric structure, D/H ratio), Mars CO2, CO, O2, and H2O spectra (atomspheric photochemistry), Venus H2O and HDO, associated laboratory spectroscopy (especially H2 overtone bands, HDO) was accomplished. Monochromatic charge coupled device (CCD) imaging photometry of the Jovian nebula, with images taken in rapid sequence among the diagnostic spectral lines of ionized sulfur species, provided self-supporting snapshots of the Jupiter/Io plasma conditions (spatially resolved electron and ion densities and temperatures), covering the post-Voyager period from 1981 and leading up to the Galileo tour in the early 1990s. High spectral resolution Fabry-Perot/charge coupled device (CCD) imaging of comets (OI, CI, and H2O(+) velocity maps and spatial distriubtions), and Io's charge exchanged neutral jet was studied.

  19. Fabry-Perot interferometry for microplasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, H.; Mase, A.

    2006-10-15

    A new method for determining the electron density of a thin plasma by means of Fabry-Perot interferometry is proposed. The interferometer consists of two plasma layers and dielectric material surrounded by two plasma layers. The transmittance of electromagnetic waves across the interferometer is calculated, and Fabry-Perot resonances are demonstrated. It is shown that the electron density can be determined from the measurement of the Fabry-Perot resonance frequencies. This method can also be applied to the measurement of conduction electron density in semiconductor films.

  20. Design and fabrication of 1.55 μm broad area slotted single-mode Fabry-Perot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengke, Li; Lijun, Yuan; Hongyan, Yu; Qiang, Kan; Shiyan, Li; Junping, Mi; Jiaoqing, Pan

    2016-03-01

    We present a single-mode laser on a p-InP substrate suitable for bonding on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The laser can realize single mode lasing with etching perturbing slots by standard photolithography and an inductively coupled-plasma (ICP) etching technique without any regrowth steps. The parameters were designed using the simulation tool “cavity modeling framework” (CAMFR). The single mode of 1539 nm wavelength at the threshold current of 130 mA with the maximum output power of 3.9 mW was obtained at 10 °C in continuous-wave operation. The simple technology, low cost and the single-mode characteristics make the broad area slotted single-mode FP laser a promising light source on the silicon-based optical interconnection applications.

  1. Curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Catarina; Ferreira, Marta S.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-05-01

    A curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed. A capillary tube of silica is fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing a Fabry-Perot cavity. The light propagates in air, when passing through the capillary tube. Two different cavities are subjected to curvature and temperature. The cavity with shorter length shows insensitivity to both measurands. The larger cavity shows two operating regions for curvature measurement, where a linear response is shown, with a maximum sensitivity of 18.77pm/m-1 for the high curvature radius range. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produces a similar response for different curvature radius, with a sensitivity of 0.87pm/°C.

  2. Commissioning the dual etalon Fabry-Perot modes of the Robert Stobie spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Browne, K.; Makananise, T.; Koeslag, A.; Hettlage, C.; Wiid, E.; Simon, E.; Smith, M. P.; Pietraszewski, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) includes a Fabry-Pérot system that provides spectroscopic imaging over the 8 arcmin diameter science field of view, covering the wavelength range 430-860 nm with spectral resolutions ranging from 300 to10000 in four resolution modes. The higher resolution modes require the simultaneous use of two etalons. We discuss the complications encountered in implementing the dual etalon modes, the mechanical and operational solutions that have been devised, and the first science verification results. We also describe an efficient method for adjusting the parallelism of etalons in situ, and the use of the dual etalon system to determine the transmission of the individual etalons. The new dual etalon system was commissioned in late 2015 and is now producing useful scientific observations.

  3. Theoretical Study of an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Stabilized by an Intracavity Fabry-Perot Etalon: Linear Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    an actively mode-locked fiber laser stabilized by an intracavity Fabry–Perot etalon: linear regime Yurij Parkhomenko,1 Moshe Horowitz,1,* Curtis R... Menyuk ,2 and Thomas F. Carruthers3,4 1Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel 2Department of...Naval Research aboratory. C. R. Menyuk can be reached via e-mail at enyuk@umbc.edu, and T. F. Carruthers can be reached ia e-mail at tcarruth@nsf.gov

  4. Fabry-Perot observations of comet Austin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, David; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.; Li, G.; Harlander, J.; Roberts, T. P. P.; Vandenberk, D.; Nossal, S.; Coakley, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results of a program to observe Comet Austin (1990c1) from 16 April to 4 May and from 11 May to 27 May 1990 using the West Auxiliary of the McMath Solar Telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona were presetned. The observations were made with a 15 cm duel-etalon Fabry-Perot scanning and imaging spectrometer with two modes of operation: a high resolution mode with a velocity resolution of 1.2 km/s and a medium resolution mode with a velocity resolution 10 km/s. Scanning data was obtained with an RCA C31034A photomultiplier tube and imaging data was obtained with a Photometrics LN2 cooled CCD camera with a 516 by 516 Ford chip. The results include: (1) information on the coma outflow velocity from high resolution spectral profiles of (OI)6300 and NH2 emissions, (2) gaseous water production rates from medium resolution observation of (OI)6300, (3) spectra of H2O(+) emissions in order to study the ionized component of the coma, (4) spatial distribution of H2O(+) emission features from sequences of velocity resolved images (data cubes), and (5) spatial distribution of (OI)6300 and NH2 emissions from medium resolution images. The field of view on the sky was 10.5 arcminutes in diameter. In the imaging mode the CCD was binned 4 by 4 resulting in 7.6 sec power pixel and a subarray readout for a field of view of 10.5 min.

  5. Hyperspectral Thermal Fabry-Perot Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slawomir; Zanoni, Vicki; Stanley, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer are simple elegant, tunable filters that can be used to make compact hyperspectral thermal imaging system. To foster the development of these sensors, software tools for the design and simulation of tunable Fabry-Perot infrared imagers have been developed. The tools are provided at three levels: basic, design, and system. Basic tools describe a nearly ideal Fabry-Perot filter with perfectly flat and parallel mirrors in collimated space. Design tools that take into account non-ideal behavior such as mirror and collimation defects calculate free spectral range, finesse, and spectral width of the interferometer. System tools help analyze an integration of the Fabry-Perot filter into a camera system. They include spectral convolution, first-order optical layout, and an estimation of signal-to-noise ratio. The complete set of tools allows for simulations of system operation and performance with various illumination sources. Spectral images generated in such simulations were used to examine applicability of Fabry-Perot system in remote sensing of atmospheric gases including detection of environmental pollutants and hazardous gases. Different operating conditions and system configurations are presented.

  6. Strained layer Fabry-Perot device

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Hammons, Burrell E.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflectance modulator (AFPM) consists of an active region between top and bottom mirrors, the bottom mirror being affixed to a substrate by a buffer layer. The active region comprises a strained-layer region having a bandgap and thickness chosen for resonance at the Fabry-Perot frequency. The mirrors are lattice matched to the active region, and the buffer layer is lattice matched to the mirror at the interface. The device operates at wavelengths of commercially available semiconductor lasers.

  7. Dynamic models of Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    PubMed

    Redding, David; Regehr, Martin; Sievers, Lisa

    2002-05-20

    Long-baseline, high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers can be used to make distance measurements that are precise enough to detect gravity waves. This level of sensitivity is achieved in part when the interferometer mirrors are isolated dynamically, with pendulum mounts and high-bandwidth cavity length control servos to reduce the effects of seismic noise. We present dynamical models of the cavity fields and signals of Fabry-Perot interferometers for use in the design and evaluation of length control systems for gravity-wave detectors. Models are described and compared with experimental data.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature by employing Fabry-Perot interferometer based on pendant polymer droplet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Yiping; Qu, Junle; Liao, Changrui; Yin, Guolu; He, Jun; Zhou, Jiangtao; Tang, Jian; Liu, Shen; Li, Zhengyong; Liu, Yingjie

    2015-02-09

    We investigated a novel and ultracompact polymer-capped Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is based on a polymer capped on the endface of a single mode fiber (SMF). The proposed Fabry-Perot interferometer has advantages of easy fabrication, low cost, and high sensitivity. The variation of the Fabry-Perot cavity length can be easily controlled by using the motors of a normal arc fusion splicer. Moreover, the enhanced mechanical strength of the Fabry-Perot interferometer makes it suitable for high sensitivity pressure and temperature sensing in harsh environments. The proposed interferometer exhibits a wavelength shift of the interference fringes that corresponds to a temperature sensitivity of 249 pm/°C and a pressure sensitivity of 1130 pm/MPa, respectively, around the wavelength of 1560 nm.

  9. Stable fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, T.; Colombe, Y.; Hunger, D.; Haensch, T. W.; Balocchi, A.; Warburton, R. J.; Reichel, J.

    2006-09-11

    The development of a fiber-based, tunable optical cavity with open access is reported. The cavity is of the Fabry-Perot type and is formed with miniature spherical mirrors positioned on the end of single- or multimode optical fibers by a transfer technique, which involves lifting a high-quality mirror from a smooth convex substrate, either a ball lens or microlens. The cavities typically have a finesse of {approx}1000 and a mode volume of 600 {mu}m{sup 3}. The detection of small ensembles of cold Rb atoms guided through such a cavity on an atom chip is demonstrated.

  10. Laser-machined fibers as Fabry-Perot pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart; Gander, Matthew J; MacPherson, William N; Barton, James S; Jones, Julian D C; Klotzbuecher, Thomas; Braune, Torsten; Ott, Johannes; Schmitz, Felix

    2006-08-01

    Cavities have been laser ablated in the ends of single-mode optical fibers and sealed by aluminized polycarbonate diaphragms to produce Fabry-Perot pressure sensors. Both conventional fibers and novel, multicore fibers were used, demonstrating the possibility of producing compact arrays of sensors and multiple sensors on an individual fiber 125 microm in diameter. This high spatial resolution can be combined with high temporal resolution by simultaneously interrogating the sensors by using separate laser sources at three wavelengths. Shock tube tests showed a sensor response time of 3 micros to a step increase in pressure.

  11. Laser profile reshaping in a Fabry-Perot thin film.

    PubMed

    Simon, H J; Andaloro, R V; Deck, R T

    2012-01-15

    We report the observation of non-Gaussian reflected and transmitted laser spatial profiles resulting from the excitation of resonant modes below the critical angle for total reflection in a Fabry-Perot cavity formed by a thin ~7 um air film between two glass prisms. The observations of an interference minimum in the reflected profile and exponential decay in the transmitted profile are new and in excellent agreement with a complex pole theory. Extension of the theory to a larger ~0.7 m cavity at normal incidence predicts similar reshaped profiles.

  12. Photonic-crystal-fiber-enabled micro-Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Joel; Finazzi, Vittoria; Coviello, Gianluca; Pruneri, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    We report on the fabrication of a monolithic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer whose cavity is a microscopic air bubble. The latter is formed when splicing together a conventional single-mode fiber and an index-guiding photonic crystal fiber with the standard arc-discharge technique. Spherical microcavities with diameters ranging from 20 to 58 microm were fabricated with such a technique. The interferometers exhibited low thermal sensitivity (less than 1.0 pm/ degrees C), high mechanical strength, broad operation wavelength range, and fringe contrast in the 8-12 dB range. The applications of the interferometers for strain sensing (up to 5000 micro(epsilon) is demonstrated.

  13. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-05-01

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  14. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-05-15

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  15. Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.

  16. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  17. An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.

  18. Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Wang, D. N.; Chen, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased. Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent-shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost.

  19. Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ye; Wang, D. N.; Chen, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased. Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent-shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost. PMID:27910918

  20. Logically combined photonic crystal - A Fabry Perot optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-11-01

    We address the logical combination, as opposed to the linear superposition, of two one - dimensional photonic crystals of slightly different periodicities. The original short range translational symmetry is destroyed in these quasi - periodic system. This induces a strong coupling between Bloch modes of different translational wavevectors, and results in a large number of slow modes in such logically combined photonic crystal. In this article, we show by exploiting the beating feature characteristics of the topology of our system, that these slow modes can be effectively described as modes of a Fabry Perot optical cavity made of a homogenous metamaterial with a dispersive refractive index. The homogenized refractive index of the equivalent metamaterial can be obtained from the band structure calculations, using an extended zone scheme. The density of the slow modes in the logically combined photonic crystal is inversely proportional to the group index of the equivalent metamaterial.

  1. Millimeter-long fiber Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Ott, Konstantin; Garcia, Sebastien; Kohlhaas, Ralf; Schüppert, Klemens; Rosenbusch, Peter; Long, Romain; Reichel, Jakob

    2016-05-02

    We demonstrate fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) cavities with concave mirrors that can be operated at cavity lengths as large as 1.5 mm without significant deterioration of the finesse. This is achieved by using a laser dot machining technique to shape spherical mirrors with ultralow roughness and employing single-mode fibers with large mode area for good mode matching to the cavity. Additionally, in contrast to previous FFPs, these cavities can be used over an octave-spanning frequency range with adequate coatings. We also show directly that shape deviations caused by the fiber's index profile lead to a finesse decrease as observed in earlier attempts to build long FFP cavities, and show a way to overcome this problem.

  2. High Contrast Fabry-Perot Multiple Quantum Well Modulators and Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Siu Kwan

    Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) symmetric Fabry-Perot optical modulators, which utilize field-induced changes in optical absorption and index of refraction due to the Quantum Confined Stark Effect (QCSE), are presented using InGaAs/GaAs system. An on/off contrast ratio exceeding 1200:1 has been obtained using MBE-grown symmetric Fabry -Perot structure which consists of two AlAs/GaAs quarter -wavelength dielectric mirrors and an InGaAs/GaAs rectangular MQW cavity. A tuning range of about 10 nm has been observed for an applied voltage change of ~15 V. Theoretical and experimental studies, including the excitonic absorption in MQW layers, QCSE, optical characterization and device performance, and system modeling are presented. Analytic expressions have been obtained for the optimal design of the symmetric Fabry-Perot modulators. The calculations are based on the optical transfer matrix and the two effective interfaces approach under the plane wave approximation. Optical characterizations and measurements using Spectrophotometer, Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) and computer -controlled Argon-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser measuring setup are described. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results indicate a 0.037% deviation of the Fabry-Perot mode for the nontunable structure with projected dynamic range of 38.7 dB and a 0.2% deviation for the tunable modulator from the calculated results. The good matchings of the experimental and calculated Fabry-Perot modes indicate the validity of the theoretical models. Related applications, including the design and performance study of Heterostructure Acoustic Charge Transport Spatial Light Modulators (HACT/SLMs), tunable narrowband optical filters and reflectivity-tunable vertical surface emitting laser structures, are also presented.

  3. Analysis of Fabry-Perot Velocimeter Records

    SciTech Connect

    Avara, G

    2001-08-03

    Program demonstration and user instructions are presented for FabryVB5. This computer program was created for use in analyzing Fabry-Perot interferometer records that detail the velocity time histories of fast moving surfaces. Graphical curves representing peak fringe positions and fiducial timing dots are extracted from a digitized film record or from a CCD digital image. An analysis is demonstrated on a sample velocimeter record along with some mathematical formula and routine operations. Routines used to analyze calibration records on streak camera distortions are illustrated in an appendix. This is a Microsoft Visual Basic{trademark} version for the PC.

  4. An economic Fabry-Perot wavelength reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Glenday, Alex; Latham, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Precision radial velocity (PRV) measurements are key in studying exoplanets, and so are wavelength calibrators in PRV instruments. ThAr lamps offer an affordable but somewhat limited solution for the visible passband. Laser frequency combs are ideal calibrators, except the (still) narrow wavelength coverage and large price tag. White light Fabry-Perot (FP) calibrators offer frequency-comb like properties in a more affordable and less complicated package1. Using a commercial solid FP etalon and off-the shelf components we have constructed an economic FP calibrator suitable for observatories on a smaller budget.

  5. All-optical logic gates and wavelength conversion via the injection locking of a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, E.; Pochet, M.; Schmidt, J.; Locke, T.; Naderi, N.; Usechak, N. G.

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the implementation of all-optical logic gates based on optical injection locking (OIL). All-optical inverting, NOR, and NAND gates are experimentally demonstrated using two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode, and an optical band-pass filter. The DFB lasers are externally modulated to represent logic inputs into the cavity of the multi-mode Fabry-Perot slave laser. The input DFB (master) lasers' wavelengths are aligned with the longitudinal modes of the Fabry-Perot slave laser and their optical power is used to modulate the injection conditions in the Fabry-Perot slave laser. The optical band-pass filter is used to select a Fabry- Perot mode that is either suppressed or transmitted given the logic state of the injecting master laser signals. When the input signal(s) is (are) in the on state, injection locking, and thus the suppression of the non-injected Fabry-Perot modes, is induced, yielding a dynamic system that can be used to implement photonic logic functions. Additionally, all-optical photonic processing is achieved using the cavity-mode shift produced in the injected slave laser under external optical injection. The inverting logic case can also be used as a wavelength converter — a key component in advanced wavelength-division multiplexing networks. As a result of this experimental investigation, a more comprehensive understanding of the locking parameters involved in injecting multiple lasers into a multi-mode cavity and the logic transition time is achieved. The performance of optical logic computations and wavelength conversion has the potential for ultrafast operation, limited primarily by the photon decay rate in the slave laser.

  6. Miniature fiber temperature sensor based on Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacik, Daniel; Martincek, Ivan; Tarjanyi, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    We prepared and demonstrated a compact, simple-to-fabricate, air microcavity in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), placed at the end of a single-mode optical fiber. The air microcavity creates a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The length of microcavity changes with change of temperature. So the wavelength shift of reference minima (maxima) of interference pattern corresponds to temperature change. For the operation of the sensor broadband light source and low-resolution optical spectral analyzer can be used. The sensor response for change of temperature is fast and occurs within a few seconds. The temperature sensitivity is 6.1 nm/°C. For optical spectral analyzer resolution 0.1 nm the smallest temperature difference possible to determine is 0.017 °C.

  7. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for curvature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Catarina S.; Ferreira, Marta S.; Silva, Susana O.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-12-01

    A curvature sensor based on an Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer was proposed. A capillary silica tube was fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing an FP cavity. Two FP sensors with different cavity lengths were developed and subjected to curvature and temperature. The FP sensor with longer cavity showed three distinct operating regions for the curvature measurement. Namely, a linear response was shown for an intermediate curvature radius range, presenting a maximum sensitivity of 68.52 pm/m-1. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produced a similar response for different curvature radii, with a sensitivity varying from 0.84 pm/°C to 0.89 pm/°C, which resulted in a small cross-sensitivity to temperature when the FP sensor was subjected to curvature. The FP cavity with shorter length presented low sensitivity to curvature.

  8. Stable CW Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by two methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback. We coupled a nominal 935 run-wavelength Fabry-Perot laser diode to an ultra narrow band (18 pm) FBG. When tuned by varying its temperature, the laser wavelength is pulled toward the centerline of the Bragg grating, and the spectrum of the laser output is seen to fall into three discrete stability regimes as measured by the side-mode suppression ratio.

  9. The Malus Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, M.; Bretenaker, F.; Le Floch, A.; Le Naour, R.; Oger, M.

    1999-09-01

    We describe a general model for the behaviour of a sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer placed between crossed polarizers. Compared to single-pass polarimeters, the sensitivity for the measurement of intracavity anisotropies is shown to be enhanced by a factor of the order of the square of the finesse compared to single-pass polarimeters. Our model, based on a vectorial spatial description of the cavity, predicts the response of the system to circular and/or linear intracavity anisotropies. It also gives the ultimate sensitivity and takes into account the spurious backgrounds. Experimental illustrations are presented for different types of reciprocal and non-reciprocal anisotropies. Moreover, it is shown that the insertion of an optical bias combined with a modulation of the intracavity anisotropies leads to experimental sensitivities limited only by the shot noise level, in agreement with theoretical predictions. We discuss further improvements and potential applications for the polarimeter.

  10. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  11. High-pressure and high-temperature characteristics of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuang; Fu, H Y; Qureshi, Khurram Karim; Guan, Bai-Ou; Tam, H Y

    2011-02-01

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed by splicing a short length of photonic crystal fiber to a standard single-mode fiber. The photonic crystal fiber functions as a Fabry-Perot cavity and serves as a direct sensing probe without any additional components. Its pressure and temperature responses in the range of 0-40 MPa and 25°C-700°C were experimentally studied. The proposed sensor is easy to fabricate, potentially low-cost, and compact in size, which makes it very attractive for high-pressure and high-temperature sensing applications.

  12. The many facets of the Fabry-Perot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Monzón, Juan J.; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-11-01

    We address the response, both in amplitude and intensity, of a Fabry-Perot from a variety of viewpoints. These complementary pictures conspire to achieve a comprehensive and consistent theory of the operation of this system.

  13. An autocorrelator based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    An, Jungkwuen; Pyun, Kyungsuk; Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, Dong Eon

    2013-01-14

    An autocorrelator based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed for ultrashort pulse measurement. Main features of this autocorrelator due to the superposition of multiple pulses were investigated experimentally and theoretically. It turns out that the signal from a Fabry-Perot interferometer can be used as an autocorrelator signal. This autocorrelator provides more compact setup with a much easier alignment than a conventional autocorrelator based on a Michelson interferometer.

  14. Micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.B.; Yu, C.M.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Sheem, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report a dynamic cylinder pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine. The pressure is sensed by measuring the pressure-induced deflection of a membrane via a Fabry-Perot optical interferometric effect. The sensor is micromachined on a silicon wafer to minimize the cost and the size and to enhance the device quality in high-volume production mode. As a preliminary test, they measured the pressure of an air compressor using the micromachined miniature sensor.

  15. Transverse strain response of in-fibre Fabry-Perot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manders, Mark; Partridge, Matthew; Correia, Ricardo N.; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-05-01

    In-fibre microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometers were constructed by splicing single mode fibre to polarisation maintaining photonic crystal fibre (PCF), with the air in the PCF pressurised to 5.000±0.005bar. The response to transverse load was characterised, along with the influence of rotational orientation and the repeatability of the fabrication process. It was found that the features of the channelled reflected spectrum exhibited a blue wavelength shift with increasing applied transverse load.

  16. Temperature-independent refractometer based on fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Wang, Ruohui; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic refractometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head consists of a short section of photonics crystal fiber (PCF) spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF), in which the end-face of the PCF is etched to remove holey structure with hydrofluoric (HF) acid. A Fabry-Perot interference spectrum is achieved based on the reflections from the fusion splicing interface and the end-face of the core of PCF. The interference fringe is sensitive to the external refractive index (RI) with an intensity-referenced sensitivity of 358.27 dB/RIU ranging from 1.33 to 1.38. The sensor has also been implemented for the concentration measurement of λ-phage DNA solution. In addition, the dip intensity is insensitive to the ambient temperature variation, making it a good candidate for temperature-independent bio-sensing area.

  17. Using wavelength-tunable self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser for upstream transmission in hybrid WDM/TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Xiao, Shilin; Guo, Wei; Bi, Meihua; Zhou, Zhao; Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng

    2010-12-01

    We propose a simple configuration of wavelength-tunable self-seeding Fabry-Perot fiber laser at ONUs for upstream transmission in hybrid WDM/TDM PON. The performances of the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR), tuning range, wavelength and power stability for the proposed laser module are experimentally investigated. The performance benefits from the upstream wavelengths sharing are showed via simulations.

  18. Fiber-coupled short Fabry-Perot resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.; Marcuse, D. )

    1989-05-01

    Fabry-Perot resonators intended as filters in wavelength-multiplexed optical communications systems may have to be very short (on the order of 10 {mu}m) in order to increase their free spectral range. Short, yet tunable cavities can be designed as air gaps between two fibers placed in close proximity with highly reflecting mirrors deposited on their ends. However, an air-gap resonator with plane mirrors between closely spaced fiber ends may yield low throughout because of the poor match between the modes of typical single-mode fibers and the resonant mode in the air-gap cavity. The throughput can be improved by confining the resonant mode by means of a hollow dielectric tube placed inside the resonator. This paper compares short fiber-coupled Fabry-Parot resonators with and without an inserted hollow dielectric waveguide and derives expressions for their transmission losses. The authors show that the throughput of both types of resonator can be improved significantly by using a special fiber with large mode size to couple to the resonator. The special fiber is then spliced to a conventional single-mode fiber. They conclude that the resonator with an inserted hollow dielectric waveguide offers increased throughput for resonators with high finesse.

  19. Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Haiyun; Sun, Dongsong; Yang, Yuanhong; Shen, Fahua; Dong, Jingjing; Kobayashi, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Similar in principle to recent implementations of a lidar system at 355 nm [Opt. Lett. 25, 1231 (2000), Appl. Opt. 44, 6023 (2005)], an incoherent-detection Mie Doppler wind lidar at 1064 nm was developed and deployed in 2005 [Opt. Rev. 12, 409 (2005)] for wind measurements in the low troposphere, taking advantage of aerosol scattering for signal enhancement. We present a number of improvements made to the original 1064 nm system to increase its robustness for long-period operation. These include a multimode fiber for receiving the reference signal, a mode scrambler to allow uniform illumination over the Fabry-Perot interferometer, and a fast scannable Fabry-Perot interferometer for calibration and for the determination of outgoing laser frequency during the wind observation. With these improvements in stability, the standard deviation of peak transmission and FWHM of the Fabry-Perot interferometer was determined to be 0.49% and 0.36%, respectively. The lidar wind measurements were validated within a dynamic range of ±40 m/s. Comparison experiments with both wind profiler radar and Vaisala wiresonde show good agreement with expected observation error. An example of 24 h continuous observations of wind field and aerosol backscatter coefficients in the boundary layer with 1 min and 30 m temporal and spatial resolution and 3 m/s tolerated wind velocity error is presented and fully demonstrates the stability and robustness of this lidar.

  20. Fabry-Perot ground-based observations of comets and the Jupiter plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The Wisconsin 150 mm dual etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer is a powerful instrument for the study of diffuse emission sources such as cometary atmospheres, the Jupiter plasma torus, and various emission nebulae. Since 1985, researchers have concentrated their efforts on extensive observations of Comet Halley and the analysis of the data. Images of Comet Halley in (OI)6300 Angstrom emission were analyzed to obtain the spatial distribution of O(1D) in the cometary atmosphere. The narrow spectral bandpass of the Fabry-Perot (0.2 Angstrom) eliminated contamination from terrestrial airglow (OI)6300 and cometary NH2 lines in the nearby spectrum. The results were modelled to provide photodestruction lifetimes of cometary Water abd OH, the predominant parents of O(1D). The Fabry-Perot was also used in the scanning mode to obtain measurements of (OI)6300 and Balmer alpha emissions which were used to determine the H, O(1D) and water production rates as a function of heliocentric distance, both pre-perihelion and post-perihelion. Researchers also analyzed high resolution spectra of the NH2 (0,8,0) band in the 6300 Angstrom region to obtain preliminary values of the NH2 production rate. Assuming NH3 is the major parent of NH2, researchers found that the abundance ratio NH3/water is about (0.12 plus or minus 0.04 percent), assuming thermal equilibrium for the level populations of NH2.

  1. Swift: A Widefield Imaging Fabry Perot for Sofia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, Gordon J.

    1999-01-01

    Contract was to pursue feasibility studies of the SOFIA Widefield Imaging Fabry-Perot (SWIFT). SWIFT was proposed as a two color 18 to 40 microns imaging Fabry-Perot that utilized two Rockwell/Boeing 256 x 256 pixel Si:Sb BIBs as detective devices. The colors were to be split between 26 and 30 microns using a MgO dichroic. The resolution achieving devices were to be a pair of cryogenic fully tunable scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs), two in each band. For high resolving powers, a third, fixed FPI is inserted into the beam. The FPI mirrors were to be made of free standing metal mesh. We also proposed to look into a long wavelength (40 to 210 microns) band during the feasibility study period. We produced a proposal to USRA, submitted in July 1997 that substantially refined our ideas. We decided the long wavelength science was compelling, so the baseline wavelength coverage for SWIFT was widened to 17 to 205 microns. Under typical operations, we proposed to simultaneously image in two bands: 22 to 38 microns, and 50 to 205 microns. The bands were to be split by a cold CaF2 dichroic. The short wavelength (SW) band was to employ a 256 x 256 pixel Boeing/Rockwell Si:Sb BIB array, and the long wavelength (LW) band was to employ a Goddard 6 x 32 (upgradable to 32 x 32) element array of monolithic silicon "pop-up" bolometers as detective devices. The two color capability doubled the data taking efficiency, and ensured "perfect" registration between the images obtained in each band. For the SW band, the beam was to be fully sampled (0.7" pixels, 1.4 in. beam) at 17 microns, and over sampled at longer wavelengths. Even so, SWIFT has a very large (3 ft x 3 ft) field of view. To match the SW and LW fields of view (initially in one dimension only, but in 2-dimensions with 32 x 32 upgrade), SWIFT was to under sample at 63 microns (5.6 in pixels, 5.2 in beam) resulting in a 0.56 x 3 in (upgrade to 3 in x 3 in) field of view. Each band has both Lo-Res (R triple bond

  2. Automated Spectral Reduction in the IRAF Fabry-Perot Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    As introduced at ADASS I and II (Bland-Hawthorn, Shopbell, & Cecil 1992), a Fabry-Perot analysis package for IRAF is under development as a joint effort of ourselves and the IRAF group. In this paper, we describe an important component of the Fabry-Perot package, the fpplot task for spectral plotting and fitting. While this task has many similarities with the familiar splot and specplot tasks in the onedspec package, fpplot has been optimized and extended specifically for use with imaging Fabry-Perot data. The task provides for the display and analysis of grids of spectra, including functions for binning, scaling, masking, and over-plotting spectra. The most important features of fpplot use the IRAF nlfit and inlfit nonlinear fitting libraries to perform both interactive and background fitting of Fabry-Perot spectra. Automated techniques are essential for quantifying the thousands of spectra in a Fabry-Perot data cube for velocity and photometric studies. An example is given from current work involving the starburst galaxy M82. IRAF is distributed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Fabry-Perot microcavity for diamond-based photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janitz, Erika; Ruf, Maximilian; Dimock, Mark; Bourassa, Alexandre; Sankey, Jack; Childress, Lilian

    2015-10-01

    Open Fabry-Perot microcavities represent a promising route for achieving a quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) platform with diamond-based emitters. In particular, they offer the opportunity to introduce high-purity, minimally fabricated material into a tunable, high quality factor optical resonator. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-based microcavity incorporating a thick (>10 μ m ) diamond membrane with a finesse of 17 000, corresponding to a quality factor Q ˜106 . Such minimally fabricated thick samples can contain optically stable emitters similar to those found in bulk diamond. We observe modified microcavity spectra in the presence of the membrane, and we develop analytic and numerical models to describe the effect of the membrane on cavity modes, including loss and coupling to higher-order transverse modes. We estimate that a Purcell enhancement of approximately 20 should be possible for emitters within the diamond in this device, and we provide evidence that better diamond surface treatments and mirror coatings could increase this value to 200 in a realistic system.

  4. Fabrication of Fabry-Perot Interferometer Sensors and Characterization of their Performances for Aircraft Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergrass, LeRuth Q.

    1995-01-01

    This work provides the information for fabricating Fabry-Perot Interferometer sensors and their performances. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer sensors developed here will be used for the detection of flaws in aircraft structures. The sequel also contains discussion of the experimental setups for the Ultrasonic technique and the Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

  5. The South Pole Imaging Fabry Perot Interferometer (SPIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Swain, M. R.; Jackson, J. M.; Bolato, A. D.; Davidson, J. A.; Savage, M.

    1996-01-01

    The design and construction of the South Pole imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (SPIFI) is reported. The SPIFI is a direct detection imaging spectrometer for use in the far infrared and submillimeter bands accessible to the 1.7 m telescope at the South Pole, and in the submillimeter bands accessible to the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), HI. It employs a 5 x 5 silicon bolometer array and three cryogenic Fabry Perot interferometers in series in order to achieve velocity resolutions of between 300 km/s and 30 km/s over the entire field of view with a resolution of up to 1 km/s at the center pixel. The scientific justification for the instrument is discussed, considering the spectral lines available to SPIFI. The optical path, the cryogenic Fabry-Perot, the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and the detector array are described. The instrument's sensitivity is presented and compared with coherent systems.

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Fabry-Perot Electrooptic Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Sharma, A.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research to design a Fabry-Perot electrooptic modulator with an intracavity electrooptically active organic material is based on the initial results of Wang et. al. using poled polymer thin films. The main feature of the proposed device is the observation that in traditional electrooptic modulators like a Pockels cell, it requires few kilovolts of driving voltage to cause a 3 dB modulation even in high figure-of-merit electrooptic materials like LiNbO3. The driving voltage for the modulator can be reduced to as low as 10 volts by introducing the electrooptic material inside the resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot modulator. This is because the transmission of the Fabry-Perot cavity varies nonlinearly with the change of refractive index or phase of light due to applied electric field. We describe in this report the progress made so far in the design and fabrication of the proposed device.

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Fabry-Perot Electrooptic Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Sharma, A.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research to design a Fabry-Perot electrooptic modulator with an intracavity electrooptically active organic material is based on the initial results of Wang et. al. [1] using poled polymer thin films. The main feature of the proposed device is the observation that in traditional electrooptic modulators like a Pockels cell, it requires few kilovolts of driving voltage to cause a 3 dB modulation even in high figure-of-merit electrooptic. materials like LiNbO3. The driving voltage for the modulator can be reduced to as low as 10 volts by introducing the electrooptic material inside the resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot modulator. This is because the transmission of the Fabry-Perot cavity varies nonlinearly with the change of refractive index or phase of light due to applied electric field. We describe in this report the progress made so far in the design and fabrication of the proposed device.

  8. Performance of a dual Fabry-Perot cavity refractometer.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick F; Stone, Jack A; Hendricks, Jay H; Ricker, Jacob E; Scace, Gregory E; Strouse, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    We have built and characterized a refractometer that utilizes two Fabry-Perot cavities formed on a dimensionally stable spacer. In the typical mode of operation, one cavity is held at vacuum, and the other cavity is filled with nitrogen gas. The differential change in length between the cavities is measured as the difference in frequency between two helium-neon lasers, one locked to the resonance of each cavity. This differential change in optical length is a measure of the gas refractivity. Using the known values for the molar refractivity and virial coefficients of nitrogen, and accounting for cavity length distortions, the device can be used as a high-resolution, multi-decade pressure sensor. We define a reference value for nitrogen refractivity as n-1=(26485.28±0.3)×10(-8) at p=100.0000  kPa, T=302.9190  K, and λ(vac)=632.9908  nm. We compare pressure determinations via the refractometer and the reference value to a mercury manometer.

  9. Vibration-induced elastic deformation of Fabry-Perot cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lisheng; Hall, John L.; Ye Jun; Yang Tao; Zang Erjun; Li Tianchu

    2006-11-15

    We perform a detailed numerical analysis of Fabry-Perot cavities used for state-of-the-art laser stabilization. Elastic deformation of Fabry-Perot cavities with various shapes and mounting methods is quantitatively analyzed using finite-element analysis. We show that with a suitable choice of mounting schemes it is feasible to minimize the susceptibility of the resonator length to vibrational perturbations. This investigation offers detailed information on stable optical cavities that may benefit the development of ultrastable optical local oscillators in optical atomic clocks and precision measurements probing the fundamental laws of physics.

  10. CIV Polarization Measurements Using a Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry Perot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) is developing a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry Perot that will be launched on a sounding rocket for high throughput, high-cadence, extended field of view CIV (155nm) measurements. These measurements will provide (i) Dopplergrams for studies of waves, oscillations, explosive events, and mass motions through the transition region, and, (ii), polarization measurements to study the magnetic field in the transition region. This paper will describe the scientific goals of the instrument, a brief description of the optics and the polarization characteristics of the VUV Fabry Perot.

  11. Intermodal beat length measurement with Fabry-Perot optical fiber cavities.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, M; Chen, C L

    1997-05-20

    We present a new technique for measuring the intermodal beat length of a two-mode optical fiber. We formed a Fabry-Perot fiber cavity by depositing reflective mirrors on the fiber tips. As the fiber is stretched, two series of resonance peaks are observed. One series is due to the resonance of LP(01 q) modes and the other is due to the LP(11 q) modes. From the separation of resonance peaks as a function of cavity length, we deduce the intermodal beat length of the fiber. The measurement principle and the experimental confirmation are discussed.

  12. Simulation experiments to generate broadband chaos using dual-wavelength optically injected Fabry-Perot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaid, Hafiz Muhammad; Khawar Islam, Muhammad; Obaid Ullah, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    Broadband chaos can be generated by beating two wavelengths in a hybrid arrangement of Fabry-Perot (FP) Laser and Fiber ring cavity by injecting dual wavelengths. The bandwidth of generated chaos can be controlled by detuning different modes of FP Laser for beating. The bandwidth of generated chaos increased to many folds depending upon the injected strength and wavelength spacing matched to FP laser modes. The bandwidth enhancement in different simulation experiments conducted is optimized by varying different parameters of FP laser and cavity. The waveforms are analyzed and Lyapunov exponents are calculated in order to validate the existence of high bandwidth non-pulsating chaos.

  13. Photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers with high-reflectance internal mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Hou, Yuanbin; Sun, Wei

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated an in-line micro fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer with an air cavity which was created by multi-step fusion splicing a muti-mode photonic crystal fiber (MPCF) to a standard single mode fiber (SMF). The fringe visibility of the interference pattern was up to 20 dB by reshaping the air cavity. Experimental results showed that such a device could be used as a highly sensitive strain sensor with the sensitivity of 4.5 pm/μɛ. Moreover, it offered some other outstanding advantages, such as the extremely compact structure, easy fabrication, low cost, and high accuracy.

  14. Development of the Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with global warming effects 20 times more detrimental than carbon dioxide. Currently, only aircraft missions measure methane and do not provide continuous monitoring, This presentation will cover the Fabry-Perot spectrometer which will provide continuous monitoring of methane. It will also cover the development of the software used to extract and process the data the spectrometer collects.

  15. Cryogenic far-infrared Fabry-Perot etalon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Pickett, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    A small cryogenic Fabry-Perot etalon was fabricated for the far-infrared region. The design used freestanding metal meshes for the reflecting elements. Using a combination of gold-coated copper mesh on stainless steel. The spacing is reproduced to 1 part in 10 exp 6 with repeated cooling. The properties and methods used for alignment and calibration are presented.

  16. Characterization of a Fabry - Perot - Based electrooptic Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Sharma, A.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An electrooptic modulator using a thin slice of LiNbO3 within the cavity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is designed and fabricated. The modulator is operated with 633 nm light from a He-Ne laser. Results related to characterization of this modulator are presented.

  17. Silicon Carbide Mounts for Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Etalon mounts for tunable Fabry- Perot interferometers can now be fabricated from reaction-bonded silicon carbide structural components. These mounts are rigid, lightweight, and thermally stable. The fabrication of these mounts involves the exploitation of post-casting capabilities that (1) enable creation of monolithic structures having reduced (in comparison with prior such structures) degrees of material inhomogeneity and (2) reduce the need for fastening hardware and accommodations. Such silicon carbide mounts could be used to make lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometers or could be modified for use as general lightweight optical mounts. Heretofore, tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer structures, including mounting hardware, have been made from the low-thermal-expansion material Invar (a nickel/iron alloy) in order to obtain the thermal stability required for spectroscopic applications for which such interferometers are typically designed. However, the high mass density of Invar structures is disadvantageous in applications in which there are requirements to minimize mass. Silicon carbide etalon mounts have been incorporated into a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer of a prior design that originally called for Invar structural components. The strength, thermal stability, and survivability of the interferometer as thus modified are similar to those of the interferometer as originally designed, but the mass of the modified interferometer is significantly less than the mass of the original version.

  18. Far-IR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, H. M.; Peterson, D. B.

    1991-09-01

    The Far Infrared Limb Observing Spectrometer (FILOS) is an instrument designed to measure chemical species in the upper atmosphere using limb emission in the far infrared region of the spectrum. FILOS uses three Fabry-Perot etalons in series to obtain a resolution of 0.0017/cm near 101/cm (99 microns). The instrumental concept and atmospheric measurements are discussed.

  19. Far-IR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.; Peterson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Limb Observing Spectrometer (FILOS) is an instrument designed to measure chemical species in the upper atmosphere using limb emission in the far infrared region of the spectrum. FILOS uses three Fabry-Perot etalons in series to obtain a resolution of 0.0017/cm near 101/cm (99 microns). The instrumental concept and atmospheric measurements are discussed.

  20. A Fabry-Perot Solid Etalon for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, P. J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a solid etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer, discussing free spectral range, instrumental finesse, and temperature effects. Provides schematic of temperature control/display circuit. Explains use of 100 millimeter camera lens and 10 power micrometer eyepiece for resolving rings and measure diameters. (JM)

  1. High-power 1300-nm Fabry-Perot and DFB ridge-waveguide lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, Dmitri Z.; Maiorov, Mikhail A.; Menna, Raymond J.; Komissarov, Anatoly V.; Khalfin, V.; Kudryashov, Igor V.; Lunev, Alexander V.; DiMarco, Louis A.; Connolly, John C.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we summarize the results on the development of high power 1300 nm ridge waveguide Fabry-Perot and distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers. Improved performance of MOCVD grown InGaAsP/InP laser structures and optimization of the ridge waveguide design allowed us to achieve more than 800 mW output power from 1300 nm single mode Fabry-Perot lasers. Despite the fact that the beam aspect ratio for ridge lasers (30 degree(s) x 12 degree(s)) is higher than that for buried devices, our modeling and experiments demonstrated that the fiber coupling efficiency of about 75-80% could be routinely achieved using a lensed fiber or a simple lens pair. Fiber power of higher than 600 mW was displayed. Utilizing similar epitaxial structures and device geometry, the 1300 nm DFB lasers with output power of 500 mW have been fabricated. Analysis of the laser spectral characteristics shows that the high power DFB lasers can be separated into several groups. The single frequency spectral behavior was exhibited by about 20% of all studied DFB lasers. For these lasers, side-mode suppression increases from 45 dB at low current up to 60 dB at maximum current. About 30% of DFB lasers, at all driving currents, demonstrate multi-frequency spectra consisting of 4-8 longitudinal modes with mode spacing larger than that for Fabry-Perot lasers of the same cavity length. Both single frequency and multi frequency DFB lasers exhibit weak wavelength-temperature dependence and very low relative intensity noise (RIN) values. Fabry-Perot and both types of DFB lasers can be used as pump sources for Raman amplifiers operating in the 1300 nm wavelength range where the use of EDFA is not feasible. In addition, the single-mode 1300 nm DFB lasers operating in the 500 mW power range are very attractive for new generation of the cable television transmission and local communication systems.

  2. Characterization of miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors based on hollow silica tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Pinggang; Fang, Guocheng; Wang, Daihua

    2016-09-01

    A miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (MOFPI) fabricated by splicing a hollow silica tube (HST) with inner diameter of 4 µm to the end of a single-mode fiber is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical relationship between the free spectrum range and the length of HST is verified by fabricating several MOFPIs with different lengths. We characterize the MOFPIs for temperature, liquid refractive index, and strain. Experimental results show that the sensitivities of the temperature, liquid refractive index, and strain are 16.42 pm/°C,-118.56 dB/RIU, and 1.21 pm/µɛ, respectively.

  3. Temperature characteristics of silicon core optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaolin; Zhao, Ziwen; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Liu, Yunqi; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-04-01

    Silicon core optical fiber expanded silicon photonics to specialty fiber platform. Although great challenges still exist for the fiber fabrication, the presence of semiconductor material has already given optical fiber new features and enormous possibilities for fiber-based devices and sensors. In this Letter, an all fiber silicon cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer was made by splicing silicon core silica cladding fiber with conventional single-mode silica fiber. The cavity shows high temperature sensitivity around 82 pm/°C due to the larger thermo-optical coefficient of silicon material compared with that of silica material.

  4. Line-shape studies for single- and triple-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer systems.

    PubMed

    Palik, E D; Boukari, H; Gammon, R W

    1995-01-01

    To test the model developed in the preceding paper [Appl. Opt. 34, this issue (1994)] regarding the line shape produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer system in a multipass mode, we have used three Lorentzian line shapes formed in scattering processes and subjected them to single and triple passes with some variation in the pinhole diameter. In most cases we find good agreement with the calculations with the only adjustable parameter being the single-pass contrast C(1). Where differences occur, plausible explanations are offered.

  5. An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Vázquez, Daniel; Estudillo-Ayala, Julián M.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Vargas-Rodríguez, Everardo; Sierra-Hernández, Juan M.; Hernández-García, Juan C.; Mata-Chávez, Ruth I.

    2013-01-01

    In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF). Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed. PMID:23673676

  6. Fabry-Perot cavity based on sapphire-derived fiber for high temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengfei; Pang, Fufei; Zhao, Ziwen; Hong, Lin; Chen, Na; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-09-01

    An optical fiber high temperature sensor is demonstrated by using a special sapphire-derived fiber. An air cavity is easily created through splicing the sapphire-derived fiber with standard single mode fiber (SMF). Utilizing the air cavity as one reflecting face, a Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer is fabricated in the special fiber. Attributed to the high ratio alumina component, the F-P interferometer exhibits high sensitivity response to temperature variation within the range up to 1000 °C. The sensitivity is 15.7 pm/°C.

  7. Measuring strain at extreme temperatures with a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Marta S.; Roriz, Paulo; Bierlich, Jörg; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Katrin; Aichele, Claudia; Schuster, Kay; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor for the measurement of strain at extreme temperatures is proposed. The cavity is formed by splicing a short section of a silica tube between two sections of single mode fiber. The tube, with a cladding ~14 μm thick and a hollow core, presents four small rods, of ~20 μm in diameter each, positioned in in diametrically opposite positions. This design ensures higher mechanical stability of the tube. Strain measurements are performed over a wide range of temperatures, until 900 °C. Some of the annealing effects are addressed in this study.

  8. Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, C; Becker, M; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2012-06-01

    We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings that enclose a subwavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F=86 while the on-resonance transmission is T=11%. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. These characteristics, combined with the demonstrated ease of use and advantageous mode geometry, open a realm of applications.

  9. Analysis of light noise sources in a recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot arms.

    PubMed

    Camp, J B; Yamamoto, H; Whitcomb, S E; McClelland, D E

    2000-01-01

    We present a method by which the effect of laser field variations on the signal output of an interferometric gravitational wave detector is rigorously determined. Using the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) optical configuration of a power recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities as an example, we calculate the excess noise after the input filter cavity (mode cleaner) and the dependence of the detector strain sensitivity on laser frequency and amplitude noise, radio frequency oscillator noise, and scattered-light phase noise. We find that noise on the radio frequency sidebands generally limits the detector's sensitivity.

  10. Spectral engineering by flexible tunings of optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Lin; Song, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2013-11-01

    We present a design for spectral engineering in a metal dual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based structure. Optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity mode, dual windows for light-matter interaction enhancement, can be excited simultaneously and tuned flexibly, including their respective bandwidth and resonant wavelength, due to the variable reflection phase from the outer DBR's internal surface. The design can find applications in solar cells for light trappings. Via calculations of overall absorptivity, the proposed simpler dual-states-based scheme is demonstrated to be almost as effective as the coherent-light-trapping scheme, owing to the dual-states-induced broader-band absorption enhancement.

  11. PCF-based Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor for strain measurement under high-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ming; Tang, Chang-Ping; Zhu, Tao; Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2011-05-01

    We report a simple and robust all-fiber in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with bubble cavity, which is fabricated by directly splicing a mutimode photonic crystal fiber to a conventional single mode fiber by using a commercial splicer. The fabrication process only involves fusion splicing and cleaving. The high-temperature strain characteristic of such a device is evaluated and experimental results shows that this FPI can be used as an ideal sensor for precise strain measurement under high temperatures of up to 750°C. Therefore, such a FPI sensor may find important applications in aeronautics or metallurgy areas.

  12. Circumstellar jets and disk of DL Tau and CW Tau observed with HST/STIS and the GSFC Fabry-Perot imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol; Woodgate, Bruce; Kimble, Randy; Palunas, Povilas; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The pre-main sequence T Tauri stars DL Tau and CW Tau were observed with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager at the Apache Point 3.5-m telescope in their coronagraphic modes. The STIS observation of DL Tau shows a circumstellar disk with a dark ring, and the jet with structure along the length, and a faint counter-jet. On CW Tau, STIS shows a jet with a bright blob about 4 arcsec away, and the Fabry-Perot shows the jet extended in both directions in [SII] to 60 and 90 arcsec from the star.

  13. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  14. Analytical model for low finesse, external cavity, fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers including multiple reflections and angular misalignment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul R; Pratt, Jon R

    2011-08-10

    We present an analytical model for single mode, multiply reflected, external cavity, optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers in the low finesse regime using simple geometry and the Gaussian beam approximation. The multiple reflection model predicts attenuation of the peak-to-peak interference as the fiber to mirror distance approaches zero, as well as fringe asymmetry in the presence of nonabsorbing mirrors. A series of experiments are conducted in which a series of fiber Fabry-Perot cavities are constructed using uncoated, single mode glass fibers, and mirrors of varying reflectivity. The cavity length is swept, and the predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental interferograms.

  15. Fabry-Perot interferometer utilized for displacement measurement in a large measuring range

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-09-15

    The optical configuration of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is uncomplicated. This has already been applied in different measurement systems. For the displacement measurement with the Fabry-Perot interferometer, the result is significantly influenced by the tilt angles of the measurement mirror in the interferometer. Hence, only for the rather small measuring range, the Fabry-Perot interferometer is available. The goal of this investigation is to enhance the measuring range of Fabry-Perot interferometer by compensating the tilt angles. To verify the measuring characteristic of the self-developed Fabry-Perot interferometer, some comparison measurements with a reference standard have been performed. The maximum deviation of comparison experiments is less than 0.3 {mu}m in the traveling range of 30 mm. The experimental results show that the Fabry-Perot interferometer is highly stable, insensitive to environment effects, and can meet the measuring requirement of the submicrometer order.

  16. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, K.; Quick, B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  17. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  18. Photon counting detectors for Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, E. H.; Haviland, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Sealed channel plate photomultipliers with multiple discrete anodes for use as photon counting detectors in the image plane of Fabry-Perot interferometers are described. The influence of design and construction on performance of completed devices is discussed. Effects on spatial resolution, lifetime, and counting efficiency are described. It is shown that devices can be optimized for particular applications. The results should be generally applicable to resistive anode and wedge and strip anode types of sealed detectors.

  19. Micromachined Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Richard; Bier, Alexander; Chen, Tina; DiCamillo, Barbara; Deming, Drake; Greenhouse, Matthew; Henry, Ross; Hewagama, Tilak; Jacobson, Mindy; Loughlin, James; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Micromachined Fabry-Perot tunable filters with a large clear aperture (12.5 to 40 mm) are being developed as an optical component for wide-field imaging 1:1 spectroscopy. This program applies silicon micromachining fabrication techniques to miniaturize Fabry-Perot filters for astronomical science instruments. The filter assembly consists of a stationary etalon plate mated to a plate in which the etalon is free to move along the optical axis on silicon springs attached to a stiff silicon support ring. The moving etalon is actuated electrostatically by electrode pairs on the fixed and moving etalons. To reduce mass, both etalons are fabricated by applying optical coatings to a thin freestanding silicon nitride film held flat in drumhead tension rather than to a thick optical substrate. The design, electro-mechanical modeling, fabrication, and initial results will be discussed. The potential application of the miniature Fabry-Perot filters will be briefly discussed with emphasis on the detection of extra-solar planets.

  20. Long-term stability testing of optical fibre Fabry-Perot temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzos, Dimitrios; Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Applications of fibre optic sensors at high temperatures have gained a huge interest recently, as they appeared to be suitable for temperature recording in harsh environments. In this paper, we are demonstrating two intrinsic Fabry-Perot (F-P) fibre optic sensors for high temperature monitoring. The sensors are consisting of a 125μm diameter single mode fibre (SMF28) and a 125μm diameter PCF ESM-12B pure fused silica fibre spliced to a SMF28, respectively. The result was a low finesse optical SMF-Cr-SMF, and SMF-Cr-PCF, sensor with cavity lengths varying from 50μm to 100μm. Both types of Fabry-Perot sensors were tested in a tube furnace over a temperature range from room temperature up to 1100°C. Following a number of annealing cycles, between the above mentioned temperatures range, very good repeatability of the phase response was achieved. During the cycling process, thermal stress relief takes place which makes the sensors suitable for temperature testing at temperatures just in excess of 1000°C. After initial cycling the sensors are subjected to long term stability tests. The phase response is stable, less than 4°C, over a period of 5 days at a temperature of 1050°C for both sensors. The temperature resolution is around 3°C.

  1. Pulsed laser spectral measurement using a Fabry-Perot interferometer: Limits to resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notari, Anthony; Gentry, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a Doppler lidar system using the edge technique to measure atmospheric wind profiles. The edge technique requires a laser with a narrow spectral bandwidth and a high resolution optical filter. The lidar system will use a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 microns and a high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer for the edge filter. The Doppler shift measurement is made by locating the laser on the edge of the filter's spectral response function. Due to the steep slope on the edge, large changes in the filter transmission will be observed for small changes in frequency. The Doppler shift can be determined from a measurement of this change in filter transmission if the filter spectral response function in the region of the measurement is well known. Recently developed injection seeded solid state lasers have made near transform limited laser output readily available for lidar work. Injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser exhibit single mode output with smooth Gaussian temporal pulse shapes. Results of an experiment we conducted to evaluate the effects of a short Gaussian temporal input pulse on the spectral response of a high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer are presented.

  2. Multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Haus, J. W.; Perez-Maciel, M.; Sierra-Hernandez, J. M.; Avila-Garcia, M. S.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Lopez-Dieguez, Y.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report experimental studies of an erbium-doped fiber laser design that simultaneously emits up to three wavelengths. The laser cavity configuration has an all-fiber, Fabry-Perot interferometer, based on the insertion of air cavities in the fiber, near one end of a conventional single-mode fiber. The laser emissions have a side-mode suppression ratio over 25 dB, wavelength variations around 0.04 nm, and 2 dB power fluctuations. By using a simple, controlled fiber curvature technique cavity losses are varied over a section of convectional single-mode fiber and the laser output is switched between single-, dual-, and triple-wavelength emission. Moreover, by applying a refractive index change over the fiber filter the emission wavelengths are shifted. The fiber laser offers a compact, simple, and low-cost design for a multiple wavelength outputs that can be adopted in future applications.

  3. Multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometer for infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Boyle, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A multichannel design which makes use of the radiation normally rejected in a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is described, with application to infrared astronomy. The present optical design minimizes the diameters of the etalon and optics. The use of spherical mirrors ensures that no radiation is lost through the entrance aperture, and the beams can be completely collimated at the etalon. Laboratory studies demonstrate that the ability to employ eight channels increases by a factor of four the flux integrated during a given time period compared with that of a single-channel instrument. The spectrometer is nondispersive, and the source can be imaged at each of several output spectral positions.

  4. Digital Fringe Counting for Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froggatt, Mark; Melvin, Leland

    1996-01-01

    A digital dual-wavelength method of demodulating long (17cm) Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometers (IFPI) is presented. The method builds upon previous techniques using small shifts in the lasing wavelength of a laser diode induced by changes in the driving current. The intensity of the light reflected from the IFPI is sampled at two carefully selected values of laser diode drive current. Digital logic is then used to count fringes based upon these two sampled values. Experimental verification of the method is described.

  5. Fabry-Perot optical binary switch for aircraft applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhaoxia; Taylor, Henry F

    2006-09-15

    An optical binary switch for aircraft applications is demonstrated. A fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) bonded to a cantilever is used as the sensing element. A white-light interferometry system with two bulk Michelson interferometers sharing the same motor-driven translation stage is utilized to monitor the elongation of the FFPI. The system exhibits excellent linearity as a force sensor; the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculated values. With a properly set threshold value, the system produces a binary output.

  6. Dual-band Fabry-Perot lasing from single ZnO microbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiuxiang; Qin, Feifei; Lu, Junfeng; Zhu, Zhu; Shi, Zengliang; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Dual-band semiconductor microbelt lasing are promising for multifunctional applications ranging from optical communication to spectroscopy analysis. Here, we demonstrated a dual-band Fabry-Perot (F-P) lasing from both length and width directions in a single ZnO microbelt. The lasing performance, spectral variation and mode structure significantly depended on the cavity size, which corresponded to the length and width of the ZnO microbelts. The resonant process and mechanism were investigated systematically through the experimental analysis and numerically FDTD simulation. The results of the dual-band F-P lasing modes and wide lasing wavelength are helpful to design the dual-wavelength electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard; Soskind, Michael G.

    2014-01-20

    In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (∼15 MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.

  8. Narrowband optical filter based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with two waveguide-grating mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Usievich, B A; Sychugov, V A; Nurligareev, J Kh

    2007-05-31

    The operation of a narrowband filter based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer formed by two waveguide-grating mirrors is studied upon normal incidence of light. In this case, two counterpropagating travelling waves and coupled modes are excited in a corrugated waveguide, while only one mode is excited in the case of oblique incidence of light on the filter. It is found that in the case of a small gap between the mirrors, the reflection spectrum of the interferometer depends on the phase shift {Delta}{phi} of one corrugation relative to the other. If light is incident normally on the interferometer, two or three lines appear in the transmission spectrum if {Delta}{phi} {ne} 0 or {Delta}{phi} {ne} {pi}. The appearance of the additional resonances is attributed to symmetry breaking in the system. At large distances between the mirrors, the spectra at {theta} = 0 do not exhibit any peculiarities. (laser devices and elements)

  9. The IRAF Fabry-Perot analysis package: Ring fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cecil, G.

    1992-01-01

    As introduced at ADASSI, a Fabry-Perot analysis package for IRAF is currently under development as a joint effort of ourselves and Frank Valdes of the IRAF group. Although additional portions of the package were also implemented, we report primarily on the development of a robust ring fitting task, useful for fitting the calibration rings obtained in Fabry-Perot observations. The general equation of an ellipse is fit to the shape of the rings, providing information on ring center, ellipticity, and position angle. Such parameters provide valuable information on the wavelength response of the etalon and the geometric stability of the system. Appropriate statistical weighting is applied to the pixels to account for increasing numbers with radius, the Lorentzian cross-section, and uneven illumination. The major problems of incomplete, non-uniform, and multiple rings are addressed with the final task capable of fitting rings regardless of center, cross-section, or completion. The task requires only minimal user intervention, allowing large numbers of rings to be fit in an extremely automated manner.

  10. DEFPOS (Dual Etalon Fabry-Perot Optical Spectrometer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegingil, I.; Kiziloglu, Ü.; Sahan, M.; Akyilmaz, M.; Aksaker, N.

    2004-02-01

    DEFPOS (Dual Etalon Fabry-Perot Optical Spectrometer) has been designed to investigate HII regions by observing Hα emission from the interstellar medium (ISM). More detailed investigations of the characteristics including power consumption, temperature, ionization state, kinematics and spatial distribution of this warm ionized gas have been carried out in the University of Wisconsin by detection of the optical line emissions from these faint sources through Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The facility that also provided a velocity resolved Hα survey of the Galaxy is called WHAM which stands for Wisconsin Hα Mapper. DEFPOS has been designed to carry out a smiliar study by detecting the Hα emission from the selected regions of Galactic ISM observable on the northern sky. It will be used in coudé exit of the 1.5-m telescope (RTT150) located at Bakirlitepe near Antalya. Besides interstellar work, DEFPOS will be used to observe the earth atmosphere to examine the state of telluric hydrogen and its variation. This observation will also help to subtract the atmospheric effect from the interstellar observations.

  11. Hydrocarbon gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Tuohiniemi, Mikko; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näkki, Ismo; Antila, Jarkko

    2013-05-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for hydrocarbon measurements. Fabry-Perot interferometer is a structure where is two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. The manufactured MEMS FPIs have been characterized. The tuning wavelength range of the MEMS FPI is 2.8-3.5 μm and its spectral resolution is 50-60 nm. VTT has designed and manufactured a handheld size demonstrator device based on the technology presented in this abstract. This device demonstrates gas detecting by measuring cigarette lighter gas and various plastic materials transmission spectra. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector and control electronics. It is connected to a laptop by USB connection, additional power supply or connection is not needed.

  12. Diaphragm-free fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on tapered hollow silica tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guocheng; Jia, Pinggang; Liang, Ting; Tan, Qiulin; Hong, Yingping; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-07-01

    A miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by splicing a diaphragm-free hollow silica tube to a single-mode fiber and fusing the inner core to a taper is presented. The tapered zone forces lights to propagate from the fiber core into the silica tube, and the lights is reflected from the end faces of the optical fiber and the hollow silica tube. The contrast ratio of the interference fringe is determined by the minimum inner diameter of hollow silica tube. The responses of the proposed interferometer to high-temperature, gas refractive index, liquid refractive index and pressure were measured and were found to be linear with sensitivities of 16.26 pm/°C, 610.47 nm/RIU, -122.36 dB/RIU and 1.56 pm/kPa, respectively.

  13. Miniature fiber-optic high temperature sensor based on a hybrid structured Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae Young; Park, Kwan Seob; Park, Seong Jun; Paek, Un-Chul; Lee, Byeong Ha; Choi, Eun Seo

    2008-11-01

    A miniature Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric fiber-optic sensor suitable for high-temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor head consists of two FP cavities formed by fusion splicing a short hollow-core fiber and a piece of single-mode fiber at a photonic crystal fiber in series. The reflection spectra of an implemented sensor are measured at several temperatures and analyzed in the spatial frequency domain. The experiment shows that the thermal-optic effect of the cavity material is much more appreciable than its thermal expansion. The temperature measurements up to 1000 degrees C with a step of 50 degrees C confirm that it could be applicable as a high-temperature sensor.

  14. Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming; Tang, Chang-Ping; Zhu, Tao; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Lai-Cai; Han, Meng

    2010-03-20

    We have constructed a novel refractive index (RI) sensor based on a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) by splicing a section of hollow core fiber between a single-mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Owing to the air holes in the cladding of the PCF, various substances, such as liquids and gases with different RI, can enter or leave the in-fiber air cavity, which makes the device usable as a refractometer. In this paper, the fiber optic FPI sensor has been used to monitor the RI changes of air with different pressures, and the experimental results show that such a sensor has an RI sensitivity of 805.1 microm/RIU, and hysteresis is not observed. Moreover, the easy fabrication method gives the in-fiber refractometer many potential applications in the sensing field.

  15. A simple Fabry-Perot pressure sensor fabricated on fiber optic tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Palma, Pasquale; Natale, Daniele; Campopiano, Stefania; Iadicicco, Agostino

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an extrinsic pressure sensor realized on single mode fiber tip by means of simple fabrication steps and with low-cost instrumentations. The sensing element consists in a Fabry-Perot cavity: one reflecting surface is the end of the optical fiber, precisely cut, and the other one is a metallic diaphragm. Under the action of the external pressure, the metallic diaphragm bends changing the optical cavity length and, consequently, the characteristics of the reflected signal. The holder structure, which allows the alignment of the fiber tip and reflecting diaphragm, consists in a commercial zirconia ferule with external diameter of Dex = 2.5 mm. Despite its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, the achieved results show performance comparable to more complex and expensive configurations. By using an aluminum plate as reflecting diaphragm. sensitivity ranging in the 70-130pm/mmHg is experimentally.

  16. A hybrid WDM transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry Perot laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Ma, Hsien-Li; Chuang, Yao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    A hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) for CATV, 256-QAM and OC-48 transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Mutually injection-locked FP LDs as broadband light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. The proposed hybrid WDM transport system employs four filtered wavelengths (modes) to transmit 111 AM-VSB channels, four 256-QAM digital passband channels, and one OC-48 digital baseband channel simultaneously. Since our proposed system does not use multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages.

  17. The MPE/UCB Far-Infrared imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poglitsch, Albrecht; Beeman, J. W.; Geis, N.; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Haller, E. E.; Jackson, J. M.; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Townes, Charles H.

    1990-12-01

    FIFI, an imaging spectrometer with two or three Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI) in series for airborne astronomical observations in the far infrared range (lambda = 40 to 200 microns) is described. It employs 5 by 5 arrays of photoconducting detectors and offers spectral resolutions as small as 2 km/s. Resolution and bandwidth can be set over a wide range to match a variety of astronomical sources. Cryogenic optics minimizes thermal background radiation and provides for inflight step tunable spatial resolution. At 158 microns wavelength the background limited NEP is 3 x 10-15 W/Hz at 40 km/s resolution and with two FPI's; with three FPI's the expected NEP is less than or = 10-15 W/Hz km/s resolution. The frequency shopping mode allows for line detection in extended objects. Absolute internal flux calibration ensures adequate flat fielding of the array elements.

  18. Fabry-Perot interferometers built by photonic crystal fiber pressurization during fusion splicing.

    PubMed

    Favero, Fernando C; Bouwmans, Geraud; Finazzi, Vittoria; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2011-11-01

    We report on a microscopic Fabry-Perot interferometer whose cavity is a bubble trapped inside an optical fiber. The microcavity is formed by pressuring a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with large voids during fusion splicing with a conventional single-mode fiber. The technique allows achieving high repeatability and full control over the cavity size and shape. It was found that the size of the PCF voids contributes to control the cavity size independently of the pressure in the PCF. Our devices exhibit a record fringe contrast of 30 dB (visibility of 0.999) due to the ellipsoidal cavity whose surfaces compensate for the diffraction of the reflected beam. The strain sensitivity of the interferometers is higher when the cavities are ellipsoidal than when they are spherical.

  19. Micro Fabry-Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yun-Jiang; Deng, Ming; Duan, De-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Chen; Zhu, Tao; Cheng, Guang-Hua

    2007-10-17

    Micro Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometers (MFPIs) are machined in a single-mode fiber (SMF) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by using a near-infrared femtosecond laser, respectively. The strain and temperature characteristics of the two MFPIs with an identical cavity length are investigated and the experimental results show that the strain sensitivity of the PCF-based MFPI is smaller than that of the SMF-based MFPI due to their different waveguide structures, while the two MFPIs have close temperature sensitivities due to their similar host materials. These MFPIs in silica fibers are compact, stable, inexpensive, capable for mass-production and easy fabrication, offering great potentials for wide sensing applications.

  20. Continuous-Wave Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking Using Feedback from a Fiber Bragg Grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Single-frequency operation of uncoated Fabry-Perot laser diodes is demonstrated by phase- locking the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding with feedback from a fiber Bragg grating. By precisely tuning the laser temperature so that an axial-mode coincides with the short-wavelength band edge of the grating, the phase of the feedback is made conjugate to that of the axial mode, locking the phase of the laser oscillations to that mode.

  1. Influence of cavity loss on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity intensity-based pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Lű, Tao

    2015-09-01

    We present an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity intensity-based pressure sensor that mainly comprises a single-mode fiber end and an elastic monocrystalline silicon layer bonded to a silicon diaphragm. We investigated the influence of cavity loss on the performance indexes (PIS) of the intensity-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity optical fiber pressure sensor. A buffer unit made of three incompressible oil cavities attenuated outside pressure and transformed pressure information into cavity length microchange information. Experimental results indicated that, under center quadrature-points within the linear regions of adjacent fringes, for an applied 40 kPa external pressure, cavity length was modulated by pressures of 69.9 kPa-109.9 kPa, 150.1 kPa-190 kPa, 220.1 kPa-259.9 kPa, and 279.9 kPa-319.9 kPa, output intensity ranges increased as 1 μW, 1.02 μW, 1.03 μW, and 1.05 μW, sensitivity increased as 0.01909 μW/kPa, 0.01986 μW/kPa, 0.02127 μW/kPa, and 0.02387 μW/kPa, but linearity degraded, as indicated by the standard deviation of linear fits of 0.02607, 0.02664, 0.02935, and 0.04879 due to cavity loss. Furthermore, the pressure ranges within the same quarter period decreased as 40 kPa, 37.45 kPa, 32.4 kPa, and 30.15 kPa. Consequently, the same lengths of linear regions within adjacent fringes of an approximately sinusoidal curve corresponded to different measurement ranges, linearities, and sensitivities. Initial cavity length must be chosen to optimize both signal strength and the PIS studied here in manufacturing this type sensor.

  2. Influence of cavity loss on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity intensity-based pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lż, Tao

    2015-09-01

    We present an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity intensity-based pressure sensor that mainly comprises a single-mode fiber end and an elastic monocrystalline silicon layer bonded to a silicon diaphragm. We investigated the influence of cavity loss on the performance indexes (PIS) of the intensity-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity optical fiber pressure sensor. A buffer unit made of three incompressible oil cavities attenuated outside pressure and transformed pressure information into cavity length microchange information. Experimental results indicated that, under center quadrature-points within the linear regions of adjacent fringes, for an applied 40 kPa external pressure, cavity length was modulated by pressures of 69.9 kPa-109.9 kPa, 150.1 kPa-190 kPa, 220.1 kPa-259.9 kPa, and 279.9 kPa-319.9 kPa, output intensity ranges increased as 1 μW, 1.02 μW, 1.03 μW, and 1.05 μW, sensitivity increased as 0.01909 μW/kPa, 0.01986 μW/kPa, 0.02127 μW/kPa, and 0.02387 μW/kPa, but linearity degraded, as indicated by the standard deviation of linear fits of 0.02607, 0.02664, 0.02935, and 0.04879 due to cavity loss. Furthermore, the pressure ranges within the same quarter period decreased as 40 kPa, 37.45 kPa, 32.4 kPa, and 30.15 kPa. Consequently, the same lengths of linear regions within adjacent fringes of an approximately sinusoidal curve corresponded to different measurement ranges, linearities, and sensitivities. Initial cavity length must be chosen to optimize both signal strength and the PIS studied here in manufacturing this type sensor.

  3. A novel Michelson Fabry-Perot hybrid interference sensor based on the micro-structured fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaxun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Zhihai; Wei, Yong; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Xinghua; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel Michelson Fabry-Perot hybrid fiber interference sensor. By integrating a Michelson interferometer in a two-core fiber and a Fabry-Perot interferometer in a micro silica-capillary, we produce the Michelson Fabry-Perot hybrid interference sensor. Owing to the structure characteristic of the micro-structured fiber, this hybrid fiber interference sensor can achieve the measurement of the axial strain and radial bending simultaneously. The measurement sensitivity of the axial train is 0.015 nm/με and the measurement sensitivity of the radial bending is 1.393 nm/m-1.

  4. Focused ion beam post-processing of optical fiber Fabry-Perot cavities for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    André, Ricardo M; Pevec, Simon; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Marques, Manuel B; Donlagic, Denis; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2014-06-02

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with chemical etching of specifically designed fibers to create Fabry-Perot interferometers. Hydrofluoric acid is used to etch special fibers and create microwires with diameters of 15 μm. These microwires are then milled with a focused ion beam to create two different structures: an indented Fabry-Perot structure and a cantilever Fabry-Perot structure that are characterized in terms of temperature. The cantilever structure is also sensitive to vibrations and is capable of measuring frequencies in the range 1 Hz - 40 kHz.

  5. A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser based on asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity with a SESAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kaiqiang; Li, Qi; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with an asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity based a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proof of concept device consists of a FGB laser with an asymmetric FBG-FP cavity, a SESAM as mode loss modulator, and a intracavity FBG as wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength fiber laser based SESAM with asymmetric FBG-FP cavity and the technical feasibility.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging using an 8-beam Fabry-Perot scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Nam; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward; Cox, Ben; Beard, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The planar Fabry Perot (FP) photoacoustic scanner has been shown to provide exquisite high resolution 3D images of soft tissue structures in vivo to depths up to approximately 10mm. However a significant limitation of current embodiments of the concept is low image acquisition speed. To increase acquisition speed, a novel multi-beam scanner architecture has been developed. This enables a line of equally spaced 8 interrogation beams to be scanned simultaneously across the FP sensor and the photoacoustic signals detected in parallel. In addition, an excitation laser operating at 200Hz was used. The combination of parallelising the detection and the high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the excitation laser has enabled dramatic reductions in image acquisition time to be achieved. A 3D image can now be acquired in 10 seconds and 2D images at video rates are now possible.

  7. Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O.; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B.

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9{\\deg}) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.

  8. On the nonlinear theory of Fabry-Perot semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noppe, Michael G.

    2016-05-01

    Fundamentals of the nonlinear theory of Fabry-Perot semiconductor lasers have been developed, an integral part of which is natural linewidth theory. The formula for gain depending on the energy flux specifies the basic nonlinear effect in a laser. Necessary conditions for stimulated emission of the first and second kind are presented. Maxwell’s equations in the gain medium are applied to obtain equations for energy flux and for the description of non-linear phase effect. Based on the nonlinear theory, a number of experiments have been simulated; it indicates that the nonlinear theory is a new paradigm in laser theory. The nonlinear theory has provided recommendations for the development of lasers with improved properties, such as lasers with increased power and lasers with reduced natural linewidth.

  9. Fabry-Perot observations of Comet Halley H2O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L. D.; Harlander, J.; Magee-Sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer observations of Comet Halley's H2O(+) emissions have yielded 6158.64 and 6158.85 A spin doublet data at distances in the range of 0 to 2 million km from the comet heat in the antisunward direction. Cometary plasma outflow velocities were ascertained on the basis of the emissions' Doppler shifts, yielding results that were mostly but not exclusively consistent with the plasma's constant antisunward acceleration; the acceleration varied from night to night of observations over a 30-300 cm/sec range. The unusual plasma kinematics of December 14-15, 1985, and January 10, 1986, may be associated with the tail-disconnection activity observed by others.

  10. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Anbo

    2007-12-11

    An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

  11. Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene.

    PubMed

    Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9°) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.

  12. Far-IR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.; Peterson, Dean B.

    1993-01-01

    The Far Infrared Limb Observing Spectrometer (FILOS) is an instrument designed to measure chemical species in the upper atmosphere using limb emission in the FIR region of the spectrum. FILOS uses three Fabry-Perot etalons in series to obtain a resolution of 0.0017/cm near 100/cm (100 microns). It is compact and has low power and low data rate requirements so that it may be flown as an auxiliary balloon payload with larger instruments. FILOS has two 0.05/cm bandwidth channels which are currently tuned to a HCl line at 104.2/cm and a pair of OH lines at 101.3/cm. The instrument is described in further detail and results are presented from two recent balloon flights in which OH was measured as a function of time on one hour centers from sunrise to sunset.

  13. Far-IR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.; Peterson, Dean B.

    1993-02-01

    The Far Infrared Limb Observing Spectrometer (FILOS) is an instrument designed to measure chemical species in the upper atmosphere using limb emission in the FIR region of the spectrum. FILOS uses three Fabry-Perot etalons in series to obtain a resolution of 0.0017/cm near 100/cm (100 microns). It is compact and has low power and low data rate requirements so that it may be flown as an auxiliary balloon payload with larger instruments. FILOS has two 0.05/cm bandwidth channels which are currently tuned to a HCl line at 104.2/cm and a pair of OH lines at 101.3/cm. The instrument is described in further detail and results are presented from two recent balloon flights in which OH was measured as a function of time on one hour centers from sunrise to sunset.

  14. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  15. Demonstrations Using a Fabry-Perot. I. Multiple-Slit Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration technique for showing multiple-slit interference patterns with the use of a Fabry-Perot etalon and a laser beam. A simple derivation of the analytical expression for such fringes is presented. (Author/CP)

  16. Flat top liquid crystal tunable filter using coupled Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Alboon, Shadi A; Lindquist, Robert G

    2008-01-07

    In this paper, a coupled Fabry-Perot cavities filter, using the liquid crystal as the tunable medium, is investigate to achieve tunable flat top filtering performance across the C and L bands. A tandem coupled Fabry-Perot is presented for a tunable passband filter with flat top and minimum ripple in the passband. The overall tuning range of the filter is 172 nm. Several designs are shown with comparable performance to the commercial available 100 GHz fixed single channel filters.

  17. Method and apparatus for a Fabry-Perot multiple beam fringe sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Quick, William H. (Inventor); Strahan, Virgil H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A method and, in one embodiment of the invention, the resulting apparatus for implementing a unique multiple beam fringe sensor that is adapted to be interfaced with a low cost, compact fiber optic transmission system in order to provide an accurate digital representation of a physical parameter (e.g. temperature) of a remote sample. The sensor is fabricated so as to include a Fabry-Perot gap formed between the ends of two mated optical fibers. By examining the optical characteristics of light that is transmitted through the Fabry-Perot sensor gap, an indication of gap width can be ascertained. Accordingly, a change in Fabry-Perot sensor gap width is related to a change in the particular physical parameter to be measured. In another embodiment of the invention, a second unique multiple beam fringe sensor having a Fabry-Perot gap is disclosed that is also adapted to provide an accurate digital representation of a physical parameter (e.g. temperature) of a remote sample. The sensor may be fabricated in two segments. A fiber containing segment includes each of a driving optical fiber for supplying incident light signals to the Fabry-Perot gap and a sensing optical fiber for receiving output light signals that have been transmitted twice through the Fabry-Perot gap, the optical characteristics of which output signals provide an indication of the parameter to be sensed. A transducer segment includes the Fabry-Perot gap formed therein and means responsive to the physical parameter for changing the width of the Fabry-Perot gap and, accordingly, the optical characteristics of the light signals passing therethrough.

  18. Compact imaging spectrometer combining Fourier transform spectroscopy with a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo

    2009-05-11

    An imaging spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented. The Fabry-Perot interferometer scans the mirror distance up to contact and the intensity modulated light signal is transformed using a Fourier Transform based algorithm, as the Michelson based Fourier Transform Spectrometers does. The resulting instrument has the advantage of a compact, high numerical aperture, high luminosity hyperspectral imaging device. Theory of operation is described along with one experimental realization and preliminary results.

  19. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to improve dispersive spectrometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Guojun; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chongxi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to achieve a higher spectral resolution compared with that produced by a single grating with the same period. In the hybrid modulator, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter is designed with a long cavity to accommodate a multi-order narrowband pre-filter. A grating is then utilized to separate these multi-orders spatially. Scanning the air gap of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter within 1/2 wavelength, the entire spectrogram can be achieved by compositing each group of transmitted multi-orders. Light passes first through the Fabry-Perot cavity and then into the grating. Thus, all of the light is incident on the Fabry-Perot cavity at a given angle, which can reduce the requirement for incident beam alignment and simplify the operation of the hybrid modulator. The structural matching conditions of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating were presented based on the operating law of the hybrid modulator. In terms of the Rayleigh criterion, the practical spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator can be increased by at least twice that of the single grating. Experiments with a neon lamp revealed that the spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator was nearly double that of a single grating.

  20. Influence of intensity loss in the cavity of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer on interferometric signals

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping; Wang, Yung-Cheng

    2011-06-15

    Fabry-Perot interferometer is often used for the micro-displacement, because of its common optical path structure being insensitive to the environmental disturbances. Recently, the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer has been investigated for displacement measurements in large ranges. The advantages of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer are insensitive to the tilt angle and higher optical resolution. But the design of the optical cavity has become more and more complicated. For this reason, the intensity loss in the cavity will be an important parameter for the distribution of the interferometric intensity. To obtain a more accurate result of such interferometer utilized for displacement measurements, the intensity loss of the cavity in the fabricated folded Fabry-Perot interferometer and the modified equation of the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer will be described. According to the theoretical and experimental results, the presented model is available for the analysis of displacement measurements by a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  1. Influence of intensity loss in the cavity of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer on interferometric signals.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping; Wang, Yung-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer is often used for the micro-displacement, because of its common optical path structure being insensitive to the environmental disturbances. Recently, the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer has been investigated for displacement measurements in large ranges. The advantages of a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer are insensitive to the tilt angle and higher optical resolution. But the design of the optical cavity has become more and more complicated. For this reason, the intensity loss in the cavity will be an important parameter for the distribution of the interferometric intensity. To obtain a more accurate result of such interferometer utilized for displacement measurements, the intensity loss of the cavity in the fabricated folded Fabry-Perot interferometer and the modified equation of the folded Fabry-Perot interferometer will be described. According to the theoretical and experimental results, the presented model is available for the analysis of displacement measurements by a folded Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  2. Analysis of Fabry-Perot optical micro-cavities based on coating-free all-silicon cylindrical Bragg reflectors.

    PubMed

    Malak, Maurine; Gaber, Noha; Marty, Frédéric; Pavy, Nicolas; Richalot, Elodie; Bourouina, Tarik

    2013-01-28

    We study the behavior of Fabry-Perot micro-optical resonators based on cylindrical reflectors, optionally combined with cylindrical lenses. The core of the resonator architecture incorporates coating-free, all-silicon, Bragg reflectors of cylindrical shape. The combined effect of high reflectance and light confinement produced by the reflectors curvature allows substantial reduction of the energy loss. The proposed resonator uses curved Bragg reflectors consisting of a stack of silicon-air wall pairs constructed by micromachining. Quality factor Q ~1000 was achieved on rather large cavity length L = 210 microns, which is mainly intended to lab-on-chip analytical experiments, where enough space is required to introduce the analyte inside the resonator. We report on the behavioral analysis of such resonators through analytical modeling along with numerical simulations supported by experimental results. We demonstrate selective excitation of pure longitudinal modes, taking advantage of a proper control of mode matching involved in the process of coupling light from an optical fiber to the resonator. For the sake of comparison, insight on the behavior of Fabry-Perot cavity incorporating a Fiber-Rod-Lens is confirmed by similar numerical simulations.

  3. Simultaneous translational temperature measurements of different atomic species in plasma flows using scanning Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, Stefan; Lein, Sebastian

    2012-05-15

    A revised scientific instrument to measure simultaneously kinetic temperatures of different atoms from their optical emission profile is reported. Emission lines are simultaneously detected using one single scanning Fabry-Perot-interferometer (FPI) for a combined spectroscopic setup to acquire different emission lines simultaneously. The setup consists in a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer configuration which is combined with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The fast image acquisition mode of an intensified charge coupled device camera allows the detection of a wavelength interval of interest continuously while acquiring the highly resolved line during the scan of the FPI ramp. Results using this new setup are presented for the simultaneous detection of atomic nitrogen and oxygen in a high enthalpy air plasma flow as used for atmospheric re-entry research and their respective kinetic temperatures derived from the measured line profiles. The paper presents the experimental setup, the calibration procedure, and an exemplary result. The determined temperatures are different, a finding that has been published so far as due to a drawback of the experimental setup of sequential measurements, and which has now to be investigated in more detail.

  4. Demonstration of Fabry-Perot interferometric spectrometry technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, T. V.; Makel, D. B.; Thurman, C.

    1993-01-01

    As rocket engine components experience wear or failure, anomalous materials may be entrained in the plume. Historically, visible plume anomalies have preceded many rocket engine failures, some of which have been catastrophic. Development of a small, rugged, high-speed, high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based spectrometer capable of detecting the spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine test and/or flight operations is described. An operational plume spectrometer fabricated with miniaturized optics has been successfully tested. An extensive test series was conducted to define the limits of the spectrometer with respect to time-response and resolution. The data collected during testing were correlated with measurements obtained using sensitive ground equipment in order to benchmark the spectrometer's performance against a known device. The FPI demonstrated the reliability required for a flight instrument by functioning satisfactorily at or near the rocket engine test stand environment. Several of the optical components are interchangeable, allowing collection of a greater variety of plume signals. Also, the FPI's high resolution capabilities suggest it is suitable for application to both absorption and emission spectroscopy.

  5. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2: Airborne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Heaps, W. S.; Mao, J.; Andrews, A. E.; Burris, J. F.; Miodek, M.; Georgieva, E.

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are, however, extremely demanding (precision approximately 0.3%). We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere that should be able to achieve sufficient sensitivity and signal-to-noise to measure column CO2 at the target specification. We are currently constructing a prototype instrument for deployment on aircraft. The aircraft version will measure total column CO2 and CO2 below the aircraft as well as O2, which allows normalization of CO2 column amounts for varying surface height and pressure. This instrument will be a valuable asset in carbon budget field studies as well as a useful tool for evaluating existing and future space-based CO2 measurements. We will present the instrument concept, sensitivity calculations, and the results of testing a bench system in the laboratory and outdoors on the ground. We will also discuss our plan for deployment on the aircraft and potential flight applications to the CO2 budget problem.

  6. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are extremely demanding (precision is less than .3%). No atmospheric chemical species has ever been measured from space with this precision. We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. Preliminary design studies indicate that the method will be able to achieve the sensitivity and signal-to-noise detection required to measure column CO2 at the target specification. The objective of this program is to construct a prototype instrument for deployment on an aircraft to test the instrument performance and our ability to retrieve the data in the real atmosphere. To date we have assembled a laboratory bench system to begin testing the optical and electronic components. We are also undertaking some measurements of signal and noise levels for actual sunlight reflecting from the ground in order to evaluate the potential of some components to meet the exacting requirements of this measurement.

  7. Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 measurements are essential to resolving significant discrepancies in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, hence, humankind's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are extremely demanding (precision approx. 0.3%). No atmospheric chemical species has ever been measured from space with this precision. We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. Preliminary design studies indicate that the method will be able to achieve the sensitivity and signal-to-noise detection required to measure column CO2 at the target specification. The objective of this program is to construct a prototype instrument for deployment on an aircraft to test the instrument performance and our ability to retrieve the data in the real atmosphere. To date we have assembled a laboratory bench system to begin testing the optical and electronic components. We are also measuring signal and noise levels in actual sunlight to evaluate component performance.

  8. Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for microorganism growth detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Luo, Shuyang; Geng, Xiangyi

    2016-07-01

    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) for microorganism growth detection is proposed and demonstrated. The FPI is formed by splicing both ends of a short section of HCPCF to SMFs and cleaving the SMF pigtail to a proper length. By measuring the fringe contrast of interference pattern, the refractive index (RI) changes of analyte during microorganism growth can be obtained. RI response of the sensor was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It shows linear response with sensitivity of -136 dB/RIU and good repeatability. Temperature response was also tested and the result confirms the low temperature cross-sensitivity of the sensor. Detection of yeast growth in liquid medium by the FPI sensor was conducted and the result shows the characteristic of typical yeast growth curve. With its advantages of high RI sensitivity, low temperature cross-sensitivity, capability for real-time measurement and so on, this FPI sensor has great potential in biosensing.

  9. Active Sensing with Fabry-Perot Infrared Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we describe an active-sensing framework for infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The goal is to generate a sequence of wavelengths that best discriminates among chemicals. Unlike feature-selection strategies, the sequence is selected on-the-fly as the device acquires data. The framework models the problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which is solved by a greedy myopic algorithm. In previous work [1], we had applied this framework to temperature-modulated metal oxide sensor. Here, we adapt the framework to a tunable IR sensor based on Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI). FPIs provide a low-cost alternative to traditional Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), though at the expense of a narrower effective range and lower spectral resolution. Here, we first test whether the framework can scale up to large problems consisting 27 chemicals with 60 dimensions; our previous work on metal oxide sensors employed three chemicals and 7 dimensions. For this purpose, FPI spectra are simulated from FTIR. Then we validate the framework experimentally on 3 chemicals using a prototype instrument based on FPIs. These preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that the framework is able to solve classification problems of reasonable size.

  10. Fabry Perot sensor for in-pile nuclear reactor metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheymol, Guy; Aubisse, Chloé; Brichard, Benoit; Jacobs, Marijke

    2008-04-01

    Optical fibre sensors are attractive devices that can bring substantial advantages over conventional sensing approaches for fission Material Testing Reactors (MTRs), such as high accuracy capabilities with limited intrusiveness and the ability to withstand high temperature. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation laboratory (JIL), CEA and SCK CEN have joined their resources to develop, in particular, an OFS prototype with the aim to measure dimensional changes on nuclear materials irradiated in MTRs. We briefly present the objectives and the workplan of that project, in which the first phase addressed an analysis of the different measurement systems considered towards the specific environmental conditions encountered in a fission reactor. Among them, radiation is responsible for the biggest error source through the density change of silica glass due to neutron-induced compaction. The analysis has leaded us to focus mainly on an Extrinsic Fabry Perot design based on low coherence interferometry. As part of the current development, we present the results of table top experiments that allow appreciating the variation with different parameters of the response, especially the modulation of the signal returned. That permits to set partially the design and brings some tolerances data. A home made signal conditioning allows to extract the cavity length and then the change in the dimension of the sample to test.

  11. A novel single frequency stabilized Fabry-Perot laser diode at 1590 nm for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Vincent; Boylan, Karl; Corbett, Brian; McDonald, David; O'Gorman, James

    2002-09-01

    A novel single frequency stabilized Fabry-Perot (SFP) laser diode with an emission wavelength of λ=1590 nm for H 2S gas sensing is reported. Sculpting of the multi-mode spectral distribution of a FP laser to achieve single frequency emission is carried out using post growth photolitographic processing of the device. The resulting longitudinal-mode controlled FP laser has a stabilized single frequency emission with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 40 dB. The application of this device to spectroscopic based H 2S sensing is demonstrated by targeting absorption lines in the wavelength range 1588≤ λ≤1591 nm. Using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), a low detection limit of 120 ppm.m.Hz -1/2 was estimated while targeting the absorption line at 1590.08 nm. These initial results demonstrate the potential of the stabilized FP laser diode at this wavelength as a tunable, single frequency source for spectroscopic based gas sensing.

  12. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinghua; Luo, Huan; Bao, Shiwei; Zhou, Yifan; Chen, Sihai

    2011-02-01

    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  13. Application of High-Temperature Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation to the NASA Aeronautics Sensor Working Group the application of a strain sensor is outlined. The high-temperature extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) strain sensor was developed due to a need for robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F. Specifically, the new strain sensor would provide data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Sensor attachment techniques were also developed to improve methods of handling and protecting the fragile sensors during the harsh installation process. It was determined that thermal sprayed attachments are preferable even though cements are simpler to apply as cements are more prone to bond failure and are often corrosive. Previous thermal/mechanical cantilever beam testing of EFPI yielded very little change to 1200 F, with excellent correlation with SG to 550 F. Current combined thermal/mechanical loading for sensitivity testing is accomplished by a furnace/cantilever beam loading system. Dilatometer testing has can also be used in sensor characterization to evaluate bond integrity, evaluate sensitivity and accuracy and to evaluate sensor-to-sensor scatter, repeatability, hysteresis and drift. Future fiber optic testing will examine single-mode silica EFPIs in a combined thermal/mechanical load fixture on C-C and C-SiC substrates, develop a multi-mode Sapphire strain-sensor, test and evaluate high-temperature fiber Bragg Gratings for use as strain and temperature sensors and attach and evaluate a high-temperature heat flux gauge.

  14. Rayleigh Scattering Measurements Using a Tunable Liquid Crystal Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, velocity, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of a tunable liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot etalon in Rayleigh scattering experiments at NASA Glenn Research Center. The LC etalon provides a robust interferometry system that can be tuned rapidly by adjusting the voltage applied to the liquid crystal interface. Tuning the interferometer is often necessary to control the physical locations of the concentric interference fringes when Rayleigh light is imaged through the LC etalon. The LC etalon diagnostic system was tested in a 1-cm diameter nozzle flow in two different scattering configurations to evaluate its usefulness for Rayleigh measurements compared to a traditional non-tunable fused silica Fabry-Perot etalon.

  15. Distributed torsion sensor based on cascaded coaxial cable Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baokai; Zhu, Wenge; Hua, Liwei; Liu, Jie; Li, Yurong; Nygaard, Runar; Xiao, Hai

    2016-07-01

    Cascaded coaxial cable Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) are studied and demonstrated for distributed torsion measurement. Multiple weak reflectors are implemented on a coaxial cable so that any two consecutive reflectors can form a Fabry-Perot cavity. By fixing the cable sensor in a helical form on a shaft, the distributed torsion of the shaft can be measured by the cascaded Fabry-Perot cavities. A test on a single section shows that the sensor has a linear response with a sensitivity of 1.834 MHz (rad/m)-1 in the range of twisted rate from 0 to 8.726 rad m-1. The distributed torsion sensing capability is useful in drilling process monitoring, structure health monitoring and machine failure detection.

  16. Method and apparatus for a Fabry-Perot multiple beam fringe sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Quick, William H. (Inventor); Strahan, Virgil H. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and the resulting apparatus for implementing a unique multiple beam fringe sensor that is adapted to be interfaced with a low cost, compact fiber optic transmission system in order to provide an accurate digital representation of a physical parameter (e.g. temperature) of a remote sample. The sensor is fabricated so as to include a Fabry-Perot gap formed between the ends of two mated optical fibers. By examining the optical characteristics of light that is transmitted through the Fabry-Perot sensor gap, an indication of gap width can be ascertained. Accordingly, a change in Fabry-Perot sensor gap width is related to a change in the particular physical parameter to be measured.

  17. Detecting protostellar jets with the Goddard Fabry-Perot coronagraph, and modification for adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Grady, Carol A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Palunas, Povilas

    2003-01-01

    The Goddard Fabry-Perot has been used at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope to diagnose jets from young Herbig Ae (HD163296) and T Tauri stars (DL Tau and CW Tau), detected by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The additional spectral discrimination of the Fabry-Perot allows these faint jets to be detected from the ground, to obtain velocities and densities, and to find further extensions. In order to plan what measurements require space coronagraphs, we need to explore the extent to which coronagraphic detections can be made from the ground, including using adaptive optics. Modifications to the Fabry-Perot tunable narrow band coronagraph for possible use with the AEOS 3.65-m telescope will be described.

  18. Detecting Protostellar Jets with the Goddard Fabry-Perot Coronagraph, and Modification for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Grady, Carol A.; Wassell, Edward J.; Palunas, Povilas

    2003-01-01

    The Goddard Fabry-Perot has been used at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope to diagnose jets from young Herbig Ae (HD163296) and T Tauri stars (DL Tau and CW Tau), detected by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The additional spectral discrimination of the Fabry-Perot allows these faint jets to be detected from the ground, to obtain velocities and densities, and to find further extensions. In order to plan what measurements require space coronagraphs, we need to explore the extent to which coronagraphic detections can be made from the ground, including using adaptive optics. Modifications to the Fabry-Perot tunable narrow band coronagraph for possible use with the AEOS 3.65-m telescope will be described.

  19. Use of PZT's for adaptive control of Fabry-Perot etalon plate figure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, WIlbert; Niciejewski, R.

    2005-01-01

    A Fabry Perot etalon, consisting of two spaced and reflective glass flats, provides the mechanism by which high resolution spectroscopy may be performed over narrow spectral regions. Space based applications include direct measurements of Doppler shifts of airglow absorption and emission features and the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. The technique requires a high degree of parallelism between the two flats to be maintained through harsh launch conditions. Monitoring and adjusting the plate figure by illuminating the Fabry Perot interferometer with a suitable monochromatic source may be performed on orbit to actively control of the parallelism of the flats. This report describes the use of such a technique in a laboratory environment applied to a piezo-electric stack attached to the center of a Fabry Perot etalon.

  20. Wide field of view spectroscopy using Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoleyczik, Jonathan

    We present a high resolution spectrometer consisting of dual solid Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs). This work is intended to be an all inclusive documentation of the instrument including discussion of the design of this instrument, the methods used in data reduction, and the analysis of these data. Each FPI is made of a single piece of L-BBH2 glass which has a high index of refraction n 2.07 with a thickness on the order of 100 mum. Each is then coated with partially reflective mirrors to create a resonant cavity and thus achieve a spectral resolution of R 30,000. Running the FPIs in tandem reduces the overlapping orders and allows for a much wider free spectral range and higher contrast. We will also discuss the properties of the FPIs which we have measured. This includes the tuning of the FPIs which is achieved by adjusting the temperature and thus changing the FPI gap and the refractive index of the material. The spectrometer then moves spatially in order to get spectral information at every point in the field of view. We select spectral lines for further analysis and create maps of the line depths across the field. Using this technique we are able to measure the fluorescence of chlorophyll in plants and attempt to observe zodiacal light. In the chlorophyll analysis we are able to detect chlorophyll fluorescence using the line depth in a plant using the sky as a reference solar spectrum. This instrument has possible applications in either a cubesat or aerial observations to measure bulk plant activity over large areas.

  1. Wavelength calibration with Fabry Perot Interferometers - yes we can!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franziskus Bauer, Florian; Zechmeister, Mathias; Reiners, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Hollow-cathode lamps (HCLs) are used as default wavelength standard for spectroscopic measurements but have a number of well-known shortcomings. Advancing to cm/s precision in radial velocity experiments requires more stable calibration sources with more uniform line distributions. Fabry Perot Interferometers (FPI) are a practical alternative with a well-suited line distribution at relatively low cost. We present a simple method to characterize FPIs using standard HCLs and including the FPI spectrum in the wavelength calibration process. We propose to use the HCL wavelength solution to define a rough wavelength scale that is used to approximate the FPI peak positions. We assume that the FPI mirror distance is a smooth function of wavelength and utilize the large number of FPI peaks (typically 10^4) to consistently model all FPI peak wavelengths. With this approach, we anchor the dense FPI lines with the absolute HCL-scale combining their precision and accuracy. We test our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compare our wavelength calibration to one derived from a laser frequency comb (LFC) spectrum. Our combined HCL/FPI wavelength calibration removes the known, large-amplitude distortions of 50 m/s that occur in the HCL solution. Direct comparison with the LFC solution bears only small differences between the LFC and the HCL/FPI solutions and demonstrates that the HCL/FPI solution can overcome the most important shortcomings in HCL wavelength solutions. An FPI can provide an economical alternative to LFCs in particular for smaller projects.

  2. Gamma radiation resistant Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1998 completed a study of emerging technologies that could be applicable to measurement systems in nuclear power plants [H. M. Hashemian [et al.], "Advanced Instrumentation and Maintenance Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants," NUREG/CR-5501 (1998)]. This study concluded that advanced fiber optic sensing technology is an emerging technology that should be investigated. It also indicated that there had been very little research related to performance evaluation of fiber optic sensors in nuclear plant harsh environments, although substantial research has been performed on nuclear radiation effects on optical fibers in the last two decades. A type of Fabry-Perot fiber optic temperature sensor, which is manufactured by Fiso Technologies in Canada, is qualified to be a candidate for potential applications in nuclear radiation environment due to its unique signal processing technique and its resistance to power loss. The gamma irradiation effects on this type of sensors are investigated in this article. Two sensors were irradiated in a gamma irradiation field and one of them was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 133 Mrad. The sensor on-line performance was monitored during each gamma irradiation test. Furthermore, the sensor static and dynamic performance before and after each irradiation test were evaluated according to the Standard ISA-dS67.06.01 ("Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety-Related Instrument Channels in Nuclear Power Plants", Standard ISA-dS67.06.01, Draft 7, Instrument Society of America, 1999). Although several abnormal phenomena were observed, analysis shows that gamma irradiation is not accredited to the abnormal behavior, which implies that this type of sensor is suitable to a gamma irradiation environment with a high gamma dose.

  3. Temperature sensitivity characteristics of HCPCF-based Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Song, Furong

    2016-01-01

    Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) formed by splicing hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) to single mode fiber (SMF) are proposed, and the temperature sensitivity characteristics are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Interestingly, the HCPCF-based FPIs with different structures have different responses to temperature: the FPI formed by a short HCPCF and a long SMF pigtail has a linear wavelength response to temperature with a sensitivity of 9.17 pm/°C and its fringe contrast is nearly temperature-insensitive; while the FPI with a long HCPCF and a short SMF cap is temperature-insensitive both for wavelength and fringe contrast. Refractive index (RI) test results show good linear response based on fringe contrast. Thus the HCPCF-based FPI sensors can be applied to temperature detection and RI measurement simultaneously with negligible cross-sensitivity or completely temperature-independent measurement by using different structures. Due to the advantages of small size, robust structure, easy fabrication, low cost and good fringe visibility, the HCPCF-based FPI sensors have broad application prospect in the fields of biology, chemistry and so on.

  4. Optical fibre Fabry-Perot relative humidity sensor based on HCPCF and chitosan film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Geng, Xiangyi

    2016-09-01

    An optical fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) sensor for relative humidity (RH) measurement is proposed. The FPI is formed by splicing a short section of hollow-core photonic crystal fibre(HCPCF) to single mode fibre and covering a chitosan film at the end of HCPCF. The refractive index of chitosan and film thickness will change with ambient RH, leading to the change in the reflected interference spectrum of FPI. RH response of the FPI sensor is analysed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. It shows nonlinear response to RH values from 35 to 95%RH. The interference fringe shifts to shorter wavelength as RH increases with a maximum sensitivity of 0.28 nm/%RH at high RH level. And the fringe contrast also decreases as RH increases with an available maximum sensitivity of 0.5 dB/%RH. The sensor shows good stability and fast response time less than 1 min. With its advantages of compact structure, good performance, simple and safe fabrication, the proposed optical fibre FPI sensor has great potential for RH sensing.

  5. Evaluation of Fabry-Perot polymer film sensors made using hard dielectric mirror deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Jens; Zhang, Edward; Scharfenorth, Chris; Spannekrebs, Bastian; Villringer, Claus; Laufer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Fabry-Perot (FP) polymer film sensors offer high acoustic sensitivity, small element sizes, broadband frequency response and optical transmission to enable high resolution, backward mode photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Typical approaches to sensor fabrication involve the deposition of stacks of alternating dielectric materials to form interferometer mirrors, which are separated by a polymer spacer. If hygroscopic soft dielectric materials are used, a protective polymer layer is typically required. In this study, methods for the deposition of water-resistant, hard dielectric materials onto polymers were explored to improve the robustness and performance of the sensors. This involved the optimisation of the fabrication process, the optical and acoustic characterisation of the sensors, and a comparison of the frequency response with the output of an acoustic forward model. The mirrors, which were separated by a 20 μm Parylene spacer, consisted of eight double layers of Ta2O5 and SiO2 deposited onto polymer substrates using temperature-optimised electron vapour deposition. The free spectral range of the interferometer was 32 nm, its finesse FR = 91, and its visibility V = 0.72. The noise-equivalent pressure was 0.3 kPa (20 MHz bandwidth). The measured frequency response was found to be more resonant at 25 MHz compared to sensors with soft dielectric mirrors, which was also in good agreement with the output of a forward model of the sensor. The sensors were used in a PA scanner to acquire 3-D images in tissue phantoms.

  6. Spheroidal Fabry-Perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing.

    PubMed

    Favero, F C; Araujo, L; Bouwmans, G; Finazzi, V; Villatoro, J; Pruneri, V

    2012-03-26

    All-optical-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) with microcavities of different shapes were investigated. It was found that the size and shape of the cavity plays an important role on the performance of these interferometers. To corroborate the analysis, FPIs with spheroidal cavities were fabricated by splicing a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with large voids and a conventional single mode fiber (SMF), using an ad hoc splicing program. It was found that the strain sensitivity of FPIs with spheroidal cavities can be controlled through the dimensions of the spheroid. For example, a FPI whose cavity had a size of ~10x60 μm exhibited strain sensitivity of ~10.3 pm/με and fringe contrast of ~38 dB. Such strain sensitivity is ~10 times larger than that of the popular fiber Bragg gratings (~1.2 pm/με) and higher than that of most low-finesse FPIs. The thermal sensitivity of our FPIs is extremely low (~1pm/°C) due to the air cavities. Thus, a number of temperature-independent ultra-sensitive microscopic sensors can be devised with the interferometers here proposed since many parameters can be converted to strain. To this end, simple vibration sensors are demonstrated.

  7. In-fiber Fabry-Perot refractometer assisted by a long-period grating.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, L; Sáez-Rodriguez, D; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2010-02-15

    We present an optical fiber refractometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer defined by two fiber Bragg gratings and an intracavity long-period grating that makes the light confined in the resonator interact with the surrounding medium. The external refractive index is monitored by the resonant frequencies of the Fabry-Perot interferometer, which can be measured either in transmission or in reflection. In this first experiment, wavelength shifts measured with a resolution of 0.1 pm have allowed one to establish a refractive index detection limit of 2.1x10(-5).

  8. High temperature Fabry-Perot-based strain sensor for ceramic barrier filters

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, S.J.; Vuppala, V.; Gunther, M.; Wang, A.; Murphy, K.; Claus, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    We report results from a program to develop fiber-optic sensor-based instrumentation methods to allow in-situ analysis of ceramic barrier filters. The sensor was an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity created between ends of two longitudinally aligned fibers. Filters instrumented with these fiber sensors were tested in a combustor simulator. These tests were performed using silica optical fibers capable of withstanding the high temperature and harsh chemical environment of the combustor. The single-ended approach of the reflective Fabry-Perot sensors is well suited for thermal strain measurements. Results from several tests are presented

  9. Optical scanning extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for absolute microdisplacement measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, T; May, R G; Wang, A; Claus, R O

    1997-12-01

    We report an optical-scanning, dual-fiber, extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer system for absolute measurement of microdisplacement. The system involves two air-gapped Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by fiber end faces, functioning as sensing and reference elements. Taking the scanning wavelength as an interconverter to compare the gap length of the sensing head with the reference-cavity length yields the absolute measurement of the sensing-cavity length. The measurement is independent of the wavelength-scanning accuracy, and the reference-cavity length can be self-calibrated simply by one's changing the sensing-head length by an accurate value.

  10. Use of gamma ray radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert R.; Hays, Paul B.; Anderson, Sally M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot etalon is examined. The method for determining the etalon parallelism, and the procedure for irradiating the posts are described. Changes in effective gap for the etalon over the surface are utilized to measure the parallelism of the Fabry-Perot etalon. An example in which this technique is applied to an etalon of fused silica plates, which are 132 mm in diameter and coded with zinc sulfide and cryolite, with Zerodur spaces 2 cm in length. The effect of the irradiation of the posts on the thermal performance of the etalon is investigated.

  11. Electrically induced transmissivity modulation in polymeric thin film Fabry-Perot etalons

    SciTech Connect

    Eldering, C.A.; Kowel, S.T.; Knoesen, A. )

    1989-10-15

    We report the observation of electrically induced changes in transmissivity in Fabry-Perot devices consisting of spin-cast azo-dye/polymer films deposited between gold mirrors. In poled samples the observed modulation shows a linear dependence on the applied modulating voltage. The ratio of the transmissivity modulation observed using incident transverse magnetic polarization to that observed using transverse electric polarization is used to demonstrate that the electrooptic effect dominates the modulation. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported use of a polymeric thin film linear electrooptic material in a Fabry-Perot structure and demonstrates the use of etalons to enhance electrooptic effects in very thin films.

  12. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-10-10

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  13. UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Hao, Yongxin; Zhou, Ruixiang; Yin, Xunli; Shao, Zhihua; Liang, Lei; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-02-17

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and demonstrated for the ultrasound wave (UW) imaging of seismic-physical models. The sensor probe comprises a single mode fiber (SMF) that is inserted into a ceramic tube terminated by an ultra-thin gold film. The probe performs with an excellent UW sensitivity thanks to the nanolayer gold film, and thus is capable of detecting a weak UW in air medium. Furthermore, the compact sensor is a symmetrical structure so that it presents a good directionality in the UW detection. The spectral band-side filter technique is used for UW interrogation. After scanning the models using the sensing probe in air, the two-dimensional (2D) images of four physical models are reconstructed.

  14. UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Hao, Yongxin; Zhou, Ruixiang; Yin, Xunli; Shao, Zhihua; Liang, Lei; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and demonstrated for the ultrasound wave (UW) imaging of seismic-physical models. The sensor probe comprises a single mode fiber (SMF) that is inserted into a ceramic tube terminated by an ultra-thin gold film. The probe performs with an excellent UW sensitivity thanks to the nanolayer gold film, and thus is capable of detecting a weak UW in air medium. Furthermore, the compact sensor is a symmetrical structure so that it presents a good directionality in the UW detection. The spectral band-side filter technique is used for UW interrogation. After scanning the models using the sensing probe in air, the two-dimensional (2D) images of four physical models are reconstructed. PMID:28218658

  15. Demonstration of all-optical two bit digital comparator using self-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakarmi, Bikash; Rakib-Uddin, M.; Won, Yong Hyub

    2012-02-01

    All-optical two bit digital comparator using single mode Fabry-Perot laser diodes (SMFP-LDs) is proposed and demonstrated with 10 Gbps PRBS signal of 231-1. Digital comparators are one of the important components for decision making circuits, threshold detection, which are used in optical signal processing and optical computing. The basic principle of the comparator is based on injection locking, multi-input injection locking and combinational input injection locking (CMIL) to realize the greater than, less than, and equal to function of the basic comparator circuit. These principles are used to realize the different optical logic gates which are combined together to demonstrate optical comparator with the minimum number of components, making the configuration cheaper and simpler. The proposed method draws less current and hence power effective too. Output waveform diagram and output eye diagram for all three cases of comparator are presented to verify all functions of all-optical comparator.

  16. Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with pH sensitive hydrogel film for hazardous gases sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yangzi; Chen, Li Han; Chan, Chi Chiu; Dong, Xinyong; Yang, Jingyi; Tou, Zhi Qiang; So, Ping Lam

    2015-09-01

    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) coated with polyvinyl alcohol/poly-acrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel film for toxic gases measurement has been developed. Splicing a short section of hollow core fiber between two single mode fibers forms the FPI. Dip-coated pH-sensitive PVA/PAA hydrogel film on the fiber end performs as a receptor for binding of volatile acids or ammonia, which makes the sensing film swelling or shrinking and results in the dip wavelength shift of the FPI. By demodulating the evolution of reflection spectrum for various concentrations of volatile acids, a sensitivity of 20.8 nm/ppm is achieved with uniform linearity.

  17. Mathematical modeling of Fabry-Perot resonators: I. Complex-variable analysis by uniformly convergent partial-fraction expansion.

    PubMed

    Song, G Hugh

    2014-02-01

    In the first part of a two-part study on the equivalent-circuit representation of any given Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR) that supports, by nature, infinitely many resonance modes, the complex-variable pole-zero structure of its scattering coefficients is extensively analyzed in general terms through partial-fraction expansion based on a corollary to Mittag-Leffler's theorem for meromorphic functions. By finding the right offset constant in the expansion from the theory, we present two sets of uniformly converging series of partial fractions for the two scattering coefficients. We compare quality of convergence between the two series sets and find that a set obtained by the fraction-reciprocated reflection coefficient for the FPR is relatively better than the other one, which is fortunate for the subsequent work in the second part.

  18. Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Qu, Shiliang

    2014-01-20

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) cavity in a single-mode fiber with two open faces was fabricated by using the method of femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown. Then the FPI cavity was annealed by the arc discharge to greatly smooth its internal surface. The whole fabrication process features simple operation and high efficiency. The fabricated FPI cavity exhibits a perfect interferometer spectrum with reflection loss of only -3 dB and fringe visibility of almost 30 dB. It can be used as a perfectly reliable liquid refractive index sensor, as it exhibits high sensitivity (1147.48 nm/RIU), good linearity (99.93%), good repeatability, high actual measurement accuracy (1.29×10(-4)RIU), large measurement range, and good temperature insensitive characteristic.

  19. A CMOS millimeter-wave transceiver embedded in a semi-confocal Fabry-Perot cavity for molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Brian J; Tang, Adrian; Schlecht, Erich; Brageot, Emily; Gu, Q Jane; Ye, Y; Shu, R; Frank Chang, Mau-Chung; Kim, Y

    2016-08-21

    The extension of radio frequency complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry into millimeter wavelengths promises the extension of spectroscopic techniques in compact, power efficient systems. We are now beginning to use CMOS millimeter devices for low-mass, low-power instrumentation capable of remote or in situ detection of gas composition during space missions. We have chosen to develop a Flygare-Balle type spectrometer, with a semi-confocal Fabry-Perot cavity to amplify the pump power of a mm-wavelength CMOS transmitter that is directly coupled to the planar mirror of the cavity. We have built a pulsed transceiver system at 92-105 GHz inside a 3 cm base length cavity and demonstrated quality factor up to 4680, allowing for modes with 20 MHz bandwidth, with a sufficient cavity amplification factor for mW class transmitters. This work describes the initial gas measurements and outlines the challenges and next steps.

  20. Solar CIV Vacuum-Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; McKay, Jack A.; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: A tunable, high spectral resolution, high effective finesse, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-Perot interferometer (PPI) is designed for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155 nm). Methods: The integral part of the CIV narrow passband filter package (with a 2-10 pm FWHM) consists of a multiple etalon system composed of a tunable interferometer that provides high-spectral resolution and a static low-spectral resolution interferometer that allows a large effective free spectral range. The prefilter for the interferometers is provided by a set of four mirrors with dielectric high-reflective coatings. A tunable interferometer, a VUV piezoelectric-control etalon, has undergone testing using the surrogate F2 eximer laser line at 157 nm for the CIV line. We present the results of the tests with a description of the overall concept for a complete narrow-band CIV spectral filter. The static interferometer of the filter is envisioned as being hudt using a set of fixed MgF2 plates. The four-mirror prefilter is designed to have dielectric multilayer n-stacks employing the design concept used in the Ultraviolet Imager of NASA's Polar Spacecraft. A dual etalon system allows the effective free spectral range to be commensurate with the prefilter profile. With an additional etalon, a triple etalon system would allow a spectrographic resolution of 2 pm. The basic strategy has been to combine the expertise of spaceflight etalon manufacturing with VUV coating technology to build a VUV FPI which combines the best attributes of imagers and spectrographs into a single compact instrument. Results. Spectro-polarimetry observations of the transition region CIV emission can be performed to increase the understanding of the magnetic forces, mass motion, evolution, and energy release within the solar atmosphere at the base of the corona where most of the magnetic field is approximately force-free. The 2D imaging

  1. Enhanced chiral response from the Fabry-Perot cavity coupled meta-surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ze-Jian; Hu, De-Jiao; Gao, Fu-Hua; Hou, Yi-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The circular dichroism (CD) signal of a two-dimensional (2D) chiral meta-surface is usually weak, where the difference between the transmitted (or reflected) right and left circular polarization is barely small. We present a general method to enhance the reflective CD spectrum, by adding a layer of reflective film behind the meta-surface. The light passes through the chiral meta-surface and propagates towards the reflector, where it is reflected back and further interacts with the chiral meta-surface. The light is reflected back and forth between these two layers, forming a Fabry-Perot type resonance, which interacts with the localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) mode and greatly enhances the CD signal of the light wave leaving the meta-surface. We numerically calculate the CD enhancing effect of an L-shaped chiral meta-surface on a gold film in the visible range. Compared with the single layer meta-surface, the L-shaped chiral meta-surface has a CD maximum that is dramatically increased to 1. The analysis of reflection efficiency reveals that our design can be used to realize a reflective circular polarizer. Corresponding mode analysis shows that the huge CD originates from the hybrid mode comprised of FP mode and LSPR. Our results provide a general approach to enhancing the CD signal of a chiral meta-surface and can be used in areas like biosensing, circular polarizer, integrated photonics, etc. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377054).

  2. Effects of parasitic Fabry-Perot cavities in fiber-optic interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, D M; Koo, K P; Bucholtz, F

    1993-03-01

    We show theoretical and experimental evidence for increased quadrature point fluctuations and amplitude and phase noise in interferometric fiber sensors owing to the presence of parasitic Fabry-Perot cavities. We demonstrate greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction of such effects.

  3. Accurate measurement method of Fabry-Perot cavity parameters via optical transfer function

    SciTech Connect

    Bondu, Francois; Debieu, Olivier

    2007-05-10

    It is shown how the transfer function from frequency noise to a Pound-Drever-Hall signal for a Fabry-Perot cavity can be used to accurately measure cavity length, cavity linewidth, mirror curvature, misalignments, laser beam shape mismatching with resonant beam shape, and cavity impedance mismatching with respect to vacuum.

  4. Low-Cost, Single-Frequency Sources for Spectroscopy Using Conventional Fabry-Perot Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Duerksen, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial (uncoated) Fabry-Perot laser diodes are converted to single-frequency spectroscopy sources by passively locking the laser frequency to the band edge of a fiber Bragg grating, which phase-locks the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding.

  5. The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poglitsch, A.; Geis, N.; Genzel, R.; Haggerty, M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    FIFI, an imaging spectrometer with two or three Fabry-Perot interferometers in a series for astronomical observations in the FIR range, is described. Spectral resolutions of 2 km/s can be obtained with FIFI. Design considerations are discussed as well as optics, the detector array, the transimpedance amplifier array, signal demodulation, data acquisition, and instrument control.

  6. Fibre Fabry - Perot cavity-based aperture probe for near-field optical microscopy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Bezverbnyi, A V; Pustovalov, E V; Kuchmizhak, A A; Nepomnyashchii, A V

    2011-03-31

    We report a theoretical analysis and experimental study of the possibility of producing a novel type of interferometric near-field aperture probe for near-field optical microscopy systems using a fibre Fabry - Perot microcavity with a nanometre-scale aperture made in one of its output mirrors. The probe ensures a spatial resolution no worse than {lambda}/14. (fibre optics)

  7. A Green Fabry-Perot Cavity for Jefferson Lab Hall A Compton Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Souder, Paul; Nanda, Sirish

    2009-08-04

    A green laser (CW, 532 nm) based Fabry-Perot cavity for high precision Compton Polarimetry is under development in Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory. In this paper, we present the principle and the preliminary studies for our test cavity.

  8. Low-Cost, Single-Frequency Sources for Spectroscopy using Conventional Fabry-Perot Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial (uncoated) Fabry-Perot laser diodes are converted to single-frequency spectroscopy sources by passively locking the laser frequency to the band edge of a fiber Bragg grating, which phase-locks the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding.

  9. Study on the embedment of fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor in prestressed reinforced concrete bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, WeiMin; Zhu, Yong; Fu, YuMei; Huang, Shanglian

    2004-07-01

    In order to address application problem of fiber optic sensor in concrete, characteristics of concrete was analyzed deeply. Mechanical and metrological characteristics of both bare and packed fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor were also analyzed in details. Modulus requirement and dimensional requirement of fiber strain sensor for concrete was deduced. A special measure of sleeve was proposed to get rid of drawback of packed fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor in concrete. Corresponding procedures was also proposed to ensure survivability of the sensors when embedding fiber sensor into a concrete structure. An application example of fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor network system in the Dafosi Bridge of Yangtze River at Chongqing has been presented to demonstrate the validity of this technique. With help of presented technique, 45 fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensors had been successfully embedded in 5 segments of gird during 9 months construction. The system was put into operation automatically from January 2003. Some typical results recorded by the system were presented. Constructing progress, tardo distortion trend, and temperature dependent fluctuation of gird was revealed in the result.

  10. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  11. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Javier; Capmany, Jose

    1996-12-01

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  12. Magnetic field sensing with an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer based on capillary optical fiber and Terfenol-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouvêa, Paula M. P.; Costa, Greice K. B.; Soares, Larissa M. B.; Pereira, João. M. B.; Fávero, Fernando C.; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Bruno, Antonio C.; Carvalho, Isabel C. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we discuss results obtained with an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) built by splicing a small section of capillary fiber between two pieces of standard single mode fiber, resulting in a rectangular air cavity. The FPIs were characterized regarding sensitivity to temperature and longitudinal strain. The FPIs were bonded to pieces of Terfenol-D, a magnetostrictive alloy, to be used as magnetic field sensors. Fiber Bragg Gratings were also bonded to Terfenol-D for comparison. The FPI based on capillary optical fiber and Terfenol-D showed a higher sensitivity to an applied magnetic field when compared to an FBG.

  13. Spatial and temporal filtering of a 10-W Nd:YAG laser with a Fabry--Perot ring-cavity premode cleaner.

    PubMed

    Willke, B; Uehara, N; Gustafson, E K; Byer, R L; King, P J; Seel, S U; Savage, R L

    1998-11-01

    We report on the use of a fixed-spacer Fabry-Perot ring cavity to filter spatially and temporally a 10-W laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG master-oscillator power amplifier. The spatial filtering leads to a 7.6-W TEM (00) beam with 0.1% higher-order transverse mode content. The temporal filtering reduces the relative power fluctuations at 10 MHz to 2.8x10(-9)/ radicalHz, which is 1 dB above the shot-noise limit for 50 mA of detected photocurrent.

  14. A fabry-perot fibre-optic hydrophone for the characterisation of ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul

    This thesis documents the development of a novel fibre optic hydrophone, for the characterisation of medical ultrasound transducers and the measurement of ultrasound induced temperature rises. The transduction mechanism of the hydrophone is based on the detection of acoustically and thermally induced changes in the optical thickness of a Fabry-Perot interferometer deposited at the tip of a single mode optical fibre. The interferometer comprises a layer of Parylene-C sandwiched between two thin gold mirrors. The design of the sensor was optimised using a numerical model of the interferometer transfer function. Through the use of vacuum deposition techniques, a fabrication procedure has been developed which enables batch production of the sensors. A self contained sensor interrogation system has also been developed. The system uses a rapidly tuneable laser developed originally for the telecoms industry to interrogate the sensor and make acoustic and thermal measurements. Control of the system is achieved via a PC using software written in Labview 8.0. The acoustic performance of the sensors was characterised using a substitution calibration. The frequency response, directivity and sensitivity of the sensor were all investigated. It was found that whilst the sensor offers a wide bandwidth (>50 MHz), the frequency response is significantly non uniform. Using a finite difference model (AFiDS), it was found that diffraction at the sensor tip is the main cause of resonances in the response. The thermal measurement performance of the sensor was investigated in the presence of an ultra sound field. By comparing the temperature measurements from the hydrophone with those obtained from a thin-film thermocouple, it was found that the fibre-optic hydrophone is immune to viscoelastic heating artefacts. Finally, a novel tracking algorithm was developed, allowing the hydrophone to be used to make simultaneous measurements of both acoustic pressures and ultrasound induced

  15. Evaluation of thermal expansion coefficient of Fabry-Perot cavity using an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Šmíd, Radek; Buchta, Zdeněk; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Jedlička, Petr; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2011-05-01

    In construction of highly mechanically stable measuring devices like AFM microscopes or nano-comparators the use of low expansion materials is very necessary. We can find Zerodur ceramics or ULE glasses used as a frame or basement of these devices. The expansion coefficient of such low-expansion materials is lower than 0.01 x 10-6 m•K-1. For example in case of a frame or basement 20 cm long it leads to a dilatation approximately 4 nm per 1 K. For calculation of the total uncertainty of the mentioned measuring devices the knowledge of the thermal expansion coefficient of the frame or basement is necessary. In this work we present a method, where small distance changes are transformed into rf-frequency signal. The frequency of this signal is detected by a counter which measures the value of the frequency with respect to an ultra-stable time-base. This method uses a Fabry-Perot cavity as a distance measuring tool. The spacer of the optical resonator is made from the investigated low-expansion material. It is placed into a vacuum chamber where the inside temperature is controlled. A selected mode of the femtosecond frequency of the femtosecond comb which represent the distance changes of the optical resonator. The frequency is measured by the rf-counter which is synchronized by a time-base signal from an atomic clock. The first results show the resolution of the method in the 0.1 nm order. Therefore the method has a potential in characterisation of materials in the nanoworld.

  16. Measurement of the carrier envelope offset frequency of a femtosecond frequency comb using a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Basnak, D V; Bikmukhametov, K A; Dmitrieva, N I; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Lugovoi, A A; Pokasov, P V; Chepurov, S V

    2010-10-15

    A method for measuring the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency of the femtosecond frequency comb with a bandwidth of less than one octave by using a Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. (laser components)

  17. Stable CW Single Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by tWo methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback'. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback.

  18. Stable CW Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) has been achieved by two methods: (1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element; (2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback.

  19. Effect of the pump rate and loss perturbations on the lasing dynamics of a Fabry-Perot laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N; Ledenev, V I

    2010-11-13

    Transition from generation of the fundamental mode to generation of the fundamental and first modes is studied numerically under the action of nonstationary asymmetric perturbations of pump rate and loss distributions in the active medium layer. It is shown that emergence of perturbations directly leads to excitation of the first mode with significant amplitude. The regime of two-mode lasing in the presence of perturbations is shown to appear at a pump rate that is smaller than the threshold one for two-mode lasing in the absence of perturbations. It is found that the first-mode amplitude has a maximum at a frequency of intermode beatings of an unfilled Fabry-Perot resonator. It is also determined that emergence of nonstationary asymmetric perturbations leads to an increase in the average intensity of the fundamental mode. Various transition regimes to two-mode lasing are compared in different types and periods of perturbations. The operability of the scheme controlling the mode composition of laser radiation is considered. (lasers)

  20. Diaphragm based long cavity Fabry-Perot fiber acoustic sensor using phase generated carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Lin, Jie; Liu, Huan; Ma, Yuan; Yan, Lei; Jin, Peng

    2017-01-01

    A diaphragm based long cavity Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber acoustic sensor is proposed. The Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a flat fiber facet and an ultra-thin silver diaphragm with a 6-meter long fiber inserted in the cavity. A narrow-linewidth ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser is applied to demodulate the sensing signal in the phase generated carrier algorithm. Experimental results have demonstrated that the phase sensitivity is about -140 dB re 1 rad/μPa at 2 kHz. The noise equivalent acoustic signal level is 60.6 μPa/Hz1/2 and the dynamic range is 65.1 dB-SPL at 2 kHz. The sensor is suitable for sensing of weak acoustic signals.

  1. Chronology of Fabry-Perot Interferometer Fiber-Optic Sensors and Their Applications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Rajibul; Ali, Muhammad Mahmood; Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-01-01

    Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed. PMID:24763250

  2. Nonlinear optical processing with Fabry-Perot interferometers containing phase recording media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, B. J.; Lee, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    New techniques in nonlinear optical processing are explored, based on the operation of intensity level selection as performed by a Fabry-Perot interferometer containing a phase object. The image being processed is recorded on a medium between the mirrors as a spatially varying phase shift less than pi. The interferometer only transmits light through those portions of the object that corresponds to a single value of the phase and hence to a single intensity level in the input. More complicated operations such as thresholding and analog-to-digital conversion are performed by modulating the light source as the different levels are selected. Photoresist and lithium niobate have been used as phase objects, and experimental data for both are presented. Three kinds of Fabry-Perot interferometers have been used to demonstrate nonlinear processing using coherent and incoherent light. Color images have been produced with black and white inputs and white light illumination.

  3. Angular sensitivity for a Fabry-Perot structure incorporating different dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shangliang; Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Yanhua; Qiao, Wen; Wang, Yanyan; Luo, Minghui; Chen, Linsen

    2016-11-01

    Color filters based on different Fabry-Perot structures are investigated extensively, and incident angle dependency is an important characteristic in practical applications. Here, we investigated a color filter incorporating a Fabry-Perot structure, discussing its reflective angular sensitivity related to refractive index of its dielectric material. By finite difference time domain(FDTD) theory, the refractive index of the dielectric material is found to influence the angular sensitivity greatly while the optical thickness keeps constant. The simulated results shows that the higher the dielectric layer's refractive index is, the more angular insensitive of the reflection will be obtained and a good angular insensitive will achieved when the refractive index is larger than 2.1. Finally, samples with different dielectric layer are fabricated in experiment and the measured results verify influence of the refractive index of dielectric layer on the spectra angular sensitivity, which is helpful for the application of color filter in color display, image sensors and decoration.

  4. Development of a Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Ultra-Precise Measurements of Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps, William S.

    2005-01-01

    A passive Fabry-Perot based instrument is described for detecting column CO2 through absorption measurements at 1.58 microns . In this design, solar flux reaches the instrument platform and is directed through two channels. In the first channel, transmittance fi5nges from a Fabry-Perot interferometer are aligned with CO2 absorption lines so that absorption due to CO2 is primarily detected. The second channel encompasses the same frequency region as the first, but is comparatively more sensitive to changes in the solar flux than absorption due to CO2. The ratio of these channels is sensitive to changes in the total CO2 column, but not to changes in solar flux. This inexpensive instrument will offer high precision measurements (error 4%) in a compact package. Design of this instrument and preliminary ground-based measurements of column CO2 are presented here as well as strategies for deployment on aircraft and satellite platforms.

  5. Modeling of multi-cavity Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzba, Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Reflectance characteristics of a two-cavity extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor were investigated using computer modeling. Calculations were performed using a plane wave-based approach, selected for clarity of results. Based on the modeling results, it can be concluded that the two-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer can be used to measure two different quantities, such as refractive index and temperature, independently. It is also possible to use one of its cavities as a wavelength or optical path length reference, especially when a tunable laser is used as a light source. Spectral signal processing needed in such sensor is not substantially more complicated than that used in single cavity sensors.

  6. Deep Fabry-Perot imaging of NGC 6240: Kinematic evidence for merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorn, J. Bland; Wilson, A. S.; Tully, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have observed the superluminous, infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (z = 0.025) at H alpha with the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI - Bland and Tully 1989). During the past decade, observational evidence from all wavebands indicates that the unusual appearance of NGC 6240 has resulted from a collision between two gas-rich systems, a view which is supported by our spectrophotometric data. However, the origin of the enormous infrared luminosity (4 times 10(exp 11) solar luminosity) detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) remains highly controversial, where opinions differ on the relative roles of large-scale shocks, massive star formation or a buried 'active' nucleus. These mechanisms are discussed in the light of the author's Fabry-Perot observations.

  7. Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rajibul; Ali, Muhammad Mahmood; Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-04-24

    Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

  8. A hybrid Fabry-Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazão, O.; Silva, S. F.; Viegas, J.; Baptista, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Roy, P.

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid Fabry-Perot/Michelson interferometer sensor using a dual asymmetric core microstructured fiber is demonstrated. The hybrid interferometer presents three waves. Two parallel Fabry-Perot cavities with low finesse are formed between the splice region and the end of a dual-core microstructured fiber. A Michelson configuration is obtained by the two small cores of the microstructured fiber. The spectral response of the hybrid interferometer presents two pattern fringes with different frequencies due to the respective optical path interferometers. The hybrid interferometer was characterized in strain and temperature presenting different sensitivity coefficients for each topology. Due to these characteristics, this novel sensing head is able to measure strain and temperature, simultaneously.

  9. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  10. Sensing Properties of a Fabry-Perot Dielectric Structure and Dimer Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Polemi, A.; Shuford, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of a Fabry-Perot dielectric structure combined with differently shaped nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. In particular, we show how an ideal two-layer Fabry-Perot configuration enhances the local surface field of silver nanoparticles positioned on the surface of the structure. We develop the concept using disc dimers and then extend the discussion to bowtie nanoparticles. The structure is excited by a single emitter, which couples to the nanoparticles through the dielectric layers, producing a wide aperture field that can be used to excite multiple dimers. We show how an array of nanoparticles can be properly arrangedmore » in order to increase the total scattering signal generated from the structure. The layered geometry produces robust field properties in between nanoparticles, making the overall sensing characteristics less sensitive to the interparticle seperation distance and incident polarization.« less

  11. Fiber optic dynamic electric field sensor based on nematic liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2014-05-01

    We propose a fiber-optic dynamic electric field sensor using a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot etalon and a wavelength-swept laser. The transmission wavelength of the NLC Fabry-Perot etalon depends on the applied electric field intensity. The change in the effective refractive index of the NLC is measured while changing the applied electric field intensity. It decreases from 1.67 to 1.51 as the applied the electric field intensity is increased. Additionally, we successfully measure the dynamic variation of the electric field using the high-speed wavelength-swept laser. By measuring the modulation frequency of the transmission peaks in the temporal domain, the frequency of the modulated electric field can be estimated.

  12. Electric field sensor based on cholesteric liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Bong Wan; Jeon, Min Yong

    2015-09-01

    We propose an electric field sensor using a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) Fabry-Perot etalon and a broadband optical source. The CLC cell consists of glass substrates, polyimide layers, electrodes, and CLC layer. There is a threshold behavior for CLC cell and no change in the transmitted wavelength occurs until a threshold value. The threshold value is 0.8 V/μm for fabricated CLC cell in this experiment. The transmitted or reflected wavelength from the CLC Fabry-Perot etalon depends on the applied electric field. The valley wavelengths of the transmitted light from the CLC device are linearly increased from 1303 nm to 1317 nm as the applied electric field to the CLC device is increased from 0.8 V/μm to 1.9 V/μm.

  13. An analytical study on bistability of Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Shuqiang; Yang, Huajun

    2016-09-01

    Optical bistabilities have been considered to be useful for sensor applications. As a typical nonlinear device, Fabry-Perot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FPSOAs) exhibit bistability under certain conditions. In this paper, the bistable characteristics in FPSOAs are investigated theoretically. Based on Adams's relationship between the incident optical intensity I in and the z-independent average intracavity intensity I av, an analytical expression of the bistable loop width in SOAs is derived. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the analytical result.

  14. Resolution and sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a photon-number-resolving detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Chen, Jun; Fan, Jingyun; Migdall, Alan

    2009-10-15

    With photon-number resolving detectors, we show compression of interference fringes with increasing photon numbers for a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This feature provides a higher precision in determining the position of the interference maxima compared to a classical detection strategy. We also theoretically show supersensitivity if N-photon states are sent into the interferometer and a photon-number resolving measurement is performed.

  15. Simple Fabry-Perot based Instrument for Surface Pressure Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2002-01-01

    Mitchel and O'Brien observed in 1989 that a passive satellite measurement using the oxygen A band could exhibit a precision of better than 1% when used to make a surface pressure measurement. I will present a design and performance simulation for a Fabry-Perot interferometer based instrument which should exceed this level of performance. The design is small, inexpensive, and rugged. Preliminary results from a laboratory prototype of the instrument will be presented.

  16. Reduction of CCD observations made with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. III. Wavelength scale refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the recent modifications to the data reduction technique for observations acquired with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) mounted on the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory that allow the wavelength scale to be correctly computed in the case of large mutual offsets of studied objects in interferograms.We examine the parameters of the scanning FPIs used in the SCORPIO-2 multimode focal reducer.

  17. Fabry-Perot-based Fourier-transform hyperspectral imaging allows multi-labeled fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo

    2014-05-10

    We demonstrate the ability of our hyperspectral imaging device, based on a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, to obtain a single hyper-image of a sample marked with different fluorescent molecules, and to unambiguously discriminate them by observing their spectral fingerprints. An experiment carried out with cyanines, fluorescein, and quantum dots emitting in the yellow-orange region, demonstrates the feasibility of multi-labeled fluorescence microscopy without the use of multiple filter sets or dispersive means.

  18. Characteristics of Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric (EFPI) Fiber-Optic Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of the strain-measuring characteristics of one type of commercially available fiber-optic strain sensor with the performance of conventional resistance strain gages. Fabry-Perot type fiber-optic strain sensors were selected for this testing program. Comparative testing is emphasized and includes load testing at room temperature with apparent strain characterization cryogenically and at elevated temperatures. The absolute accuracy of either of these types of strain gages is not addressed.

  19. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  20. FABSOAR--A Fabry-Perot Spectrometer for Oxygen A-band Research Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watchorn, Steven

    2010-09-10

    Because this was a Phase I project, it did not add extensively to the body of A-band knowledge. There was no basic research performed on that subject. The principal addition was that a mechanical and optical design for a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FABSOAR) capable of A-band sensing was sketched out and shown to be within readily feasible instrument fabrication parameters. The parameters for the proposed triple-etalon Fabry-Perot were shown to be very similar to existing Fabry-Perots built by Scientific Solutions. The mechanical design for the FABSOAR instrument incorporated the design of previous Scientific Solutions imagers, condensing the three three-inch-diameter etalons into a single, sturdy tube. The design allowed for the inclusion of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) filter wheel and a thermocooled CCD detector from Andor. The tube has supports to mount to a horizontal or vertical opticaltable surface, and was to be coupled to a Scientific Solutions pointing head at the Millstone Hill Observatory in Massachusetts for Phase II calibration and testing.

  1. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using a Thin-Film Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor was developed that is rugged, compact, stable, and can be inexpensively fabricated. This thin-film interferometric temperature sensor was shown to be capable of providing a +/- 2 C accuracy over the range of -55 to 275 C, throughout a 5000 hr operating life. A temperature-sensitive thin-film Fabry-Perot interferometer can be deposited directly onto the end of a multimode optical fiber. This batch-fabricatable sensor can be manufactured at a much lower cost than can a presently available sensor, which requires the mechanical attachment of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to a fiber. The principal disadvantage of the thin-film sensor is its inherent instability, due to the low processing temperatures that must be used to prevent degradation of the optical fiber's buffer coating. The design of the stable thin-film temperature sensor considered the potential sources of both short and long term drifts. The temperature- sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was a silicon film with a thickness of approx. 2 microns. A laser-annealing process was developed which crystallized the silicon film without damaging the optical fiber. The silicon film was encapsulated with a thin layer of Si3N4 over coated with aluminum. Crystallization of the silicon and its encapsulation with a highly stable, impermeable thin-film structure were essential steps in producing a sensor with the required long-term stability.

  2. Ultrafine measurements of the thermal shift of Fabry-Perot resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, S.; Lemarquis, F.; Lequime, M.

    2008-09-01

    The wavelengths associated to the transmission peaks of a Fabry-Perot etalon are directly connected with its optical thickness. As a consequence, any change in the physical thickness or the refractive index of the cavity has a direct influence on the value of these specific wavelengths. This property can be used to determine the thermal characteristics, like the coefficient of thermal expansion or the thermo-optic coefficient, of some materials. However, to be efficient, this method needs a very high accuracy in the determination of these resonant wavelengths. We developed a dedicated measurement set-up, combining a tunable laser source around 850 nm and a high precision wavelength meter to determine with accuracy better than 0.2 pm the resonant wavelengths of a Fabry-Perot etalon. We use a temperature stabilized chamber to avoid temperature fluctuations or, on the contrary, to apply a deterministic temperature change at the cavity level. We describe the structure of our bench and present the results obtained on BK7 windows as well as on an optically contacted ULE Fabry-Perot with silver coatings.

  3. Switchable and multi-wavelength linear fiber laser based on Fabry-Perot and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Gutierrez, J.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Sierra-Hernández, J. M.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Vargas-Treviño, M.; Tepech-Carrillo, L.; Grajales-Coutiño, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript, switchable and multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser arrangement, based on Fabry-Perot (FPI) and Mach-Zehnder (MZI) interferometers is presented. Here, the FPI is composed by two air-microcavities set into the tip of conventional single mode fiber, this one is used as a partially reflecting mirror and lasing modes generator. And the MZI fabricated by splicing a segment of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) between a single-mode fiber section, was set into an optical fiber loop mirror that acts as full-reflecting and wavelength selective filter. Both interferometers, promotes a cavity oscillation into the fiber laser configuration, besides by curvature applied over the MZI, the fiber laser generates: single, double, triple and quadruple laser emissions with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 30 dB. These laser emissions can be switching between them from 1525 nm to 1534 nm by adjusting the curvature radius over the MZI. This laser fiber offers a wavelength and power stability at room temperature, compactness and low implementation cost. Moreover the linear laser proposed can be used in several fields such as spectroscopy, telecommunications and fiber optic sensing systems.

  4. Design and experimental research of a high-precision wavelength controller for tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hai-bing; Wei, Shu-hua; Wei, Chen

    2013-03-01

    A high-precision wavelength controller is presented in this paper. It is necessary to find out the difference between the central wavelength of a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) filter and that of the input laser, while the wavelength controller operates at the states of wavelength-scanning and wavelength-locking modes. Firstly, a dynamic simulation model of tunable FFP filter is established, and the dynamic characteristic of tunable FFP filter modulated by an alternating current (AC) signal is simulated. Then the measuring time at wavelength-scanning mode compared with the theory time is discussed, and this time difference shows the difference between the central wavelength of a tunable FFP filter and that of the input laser. At last, the effects on wavelength-locking precision of time delays, including the time delay of opened-loop circuit, the time constant of the closed-loop circuit and the intrinsic hysteresis of piezoelectric (PZT) element, are analyzed. A wavelength controller of tunable FFP filter is designed and prepared. The experimental results at wavelength-locking mode show that a high locking precision is obtained.

  5. Superluminescent diode versus Fabry-Perot laser diode seeding in pulsed MOPA fiber laser systems for SBS suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, M.; Sousa, J. M.; Salcedo, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of a pulsed superluminescent diode (SLD) through direct current injection modulation as seeding source in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration when compared to a Fabry-Perot (FP) laser diode in the same system. The performance limitations imposed by the use of the Fabry-Perot lasers, caused by the backward high peak power pulses triggered due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) are not observed in the case of the SLD. Compared to conventional Fabry-Perot laser diodes, the SLD provides a smooth and broad output spectrum which is independent of the input pulse parameters. Moreover, the spectrum can be sliced and tailored to the application. Thus, free SBS operation is shown when using the SLD seeder in the same system, allowing for a significant increase on the extractable power and energy.

  6. Study of Fabry-Perot Etalon Stability and Tuning for Spectroscopic Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2010-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating flow properties such as gas velocity and temperature. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused laser beam can be directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector to provide the spectral content of the scattered light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes. The location of the fringes can be changed by altering the etalon?s physical characteristics, such as thickness and index of refraction. For a fused silica solid etalon the physical properties can be adjusted by changing the etalon temperature; hence changing the order of the interference pattern and the physical fringe locations. Controlling the temperature of the etalon can provide for a slow time-response spatial scanning method for this type of etalon system. A custom designed liquid crystal Fabry-Perot (LCFP) can provide for a fast time-response method of scanning the etalon system. Voltage applied to the liquid crystal interface sets the etalon?s properties allowing Rayleigh measurements to be acquired at varying spatial locations across the image of the laser beam over a very short time period. A standard fused silica etalon and a tunable LCFP etalon are characterized to select the system that is best suited for Rayleigh scattering measurements in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A frequency-stabilized laser is used to investigate the apparent frequency stability and temperature sensitivity of the etalon systems. Frequency stability and temperature sensitivity data of the fused silica and LCFP etalon systems are presented in this paper, along with measurements of the LCFP etalon?s tuning capabilities. Rayleigh scattering velocity measurements with both etalon systems are presented, in an effort to determine which etalon is better suited to provide optical flow

  7. Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing spectroscopy: study and implementation for aeronomy applications.

    PubMed

    Coakley, M M; Roesler, F L; Reynolds, R J; Nossal, S

    1996-11-20

    The technique of Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing spectroscopy, with particular emphasis on applications in aeronomy, is discussed. Parameter choices for optimizing performance by the use of a standard format CCD array are detailed. Spectral calibration methods, techniques for determining the ring pattern center, and effects imposed by limited radial resolution caused by superpixel size, variable by on-chip binning, are demonstrated. The technique is carefully evaluated experimentally relative to the conventional scanning Fabry-Perot that uses a photomultiplier detector. We evaluate three extreme examples typical of aeronomical spectroscopy using calculated signal-to-noise ratios. Predicted sensitivity gains of 10-30 are typical. Of the cases considered, the largest savings in integration time are estimated for the day sky thermospheric O(1)D case, in which the bright sky background dominates the CCD read noise. For profile measurements of faint night sky emission lines, such as exospheric hydrogen Balmer-α, long integration times are required to achieve useful signal-to-noise ratios. In such cases, CCD read noise is largely overcome. Predictions of a factor of 10-15 savings in integration time for night sky Balmer-α observations are supported by field tests. Bright, isolated night sky lines such as thermospheric O(1)D require shorter integration times, and more modest gains dependent on signal level are predicted. For such cases it appears from estimate results that the Fabry-Perot CCD annular-summing technique with a conventional rectangular format may be outperformed by a factor of 2-5 by special CCD formats or by unusual optical coupling configurations that reduce the importance of read noise, based on the ideal transmission for any additional optics used in these configurations.

  8. Comparison of winds measured by MU radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer and effect of OI5577 airglow height variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Junsuke; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2004-04-01

    We have compared wind velocities around mesopause height measured by the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (meteor mode) and OI (5577) airglow observation by an Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI), at Shigaraki (34.8°N,136.1°E), Japan, on November 13/14, 1999. When we assume the airglow height is constant throughout the night, it was difficult to find a single height exhibiting small r.m.s. differences between the two methods for both eastward and northward wind velocities. However, in the case we introduce a time variation of the airglow height due to a large-scale gravity wave activity, we have found very small r.m.s. wind difference: The assumptions are of the airglow height variation with an amplitude of 1.5km, a period of 5.7h and a linear trend of -0.19km/h having the average height of 92.8km. Further analysis of time and height variations of the winds and diffusion coefficients measured by the MU radar indicated that a gravity wave with a very similar structure predicted in the above comparison between the FPI and meteor winds has been detected as a dominant wave component. Thus, we conclude that the existence of a gravity wave which can change the airglow height will lead to differences in wind velocities observed with FPI and radar techniques.

  9. Air cavity-based Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor fabricated using a sawing technique for refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Hwang, Sung Hwan; Rho, Byung Sup

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a refractive index sensor based on a fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer with an open air cavity fabricated using a one-step mechanical sawing technique. The sensor head consists of a short FP cavity near the fiber patch cord tip, which was assembled by joining a ceramic ferrule and a single-mode fiber together. Owing to the open air cavity in the sensor head, various liquid samples with different refractive index can fill in-line air cavity, which makes the device usable as a refractometer. Moreover, due to the sensor head encircled with the robust ceramic ferrule, the device is attractive for sensing measurement in harsh environments. The sensor was tested in different refractive index solutions. The experimental result shows that the attenuation peak wavelength of the sensor is shifted toward a shorter wavelength with increasing refractive index, and the refractive index sensitivity is ˜92.5 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) and 73.75 dB/RIU. The proposed sensor can be used as an in-line refractometer for many potential applications in the sensing field.

  10. A Fabry-Perot fiber-optic ultrasonic hydrophone for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul; Hurrell, Andrew; Shaw, Adam; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2009-06-01

    A dual sensing fiber-optic hydrophone that can make simultaneous measurements of acoustic pressure and temperature at the same location has been developed for characterizing ultrasound fields and ultrasound-induced heating. The transduction mechanism is based on the detection of acoustically- and thermally-induced thickness changes in a polymer film Fabry-Perot interferometer deposited at the tip of a single mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a peak noise-equivalent pressure of 15 kPa (at 5 MHz, over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth), an acoustic bandwidth of 50 MHz, and an optically defined element size of 10 microm. As well as measuring acoustic pressure, temperature changes up to 70 degrees C can be measured, with a resolution of 0.34 degrees C. To evaluate the thermal measurement capability of the sensor, measurements were made at the focus of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field in a tissue mimicking phantom. These showed that the sensor is not susceptible to viscous heating, is able to withstand high intensity fields, and can simultaneously acquire acoustic waveforms while monitoring induced temperature rises. These attributes, along with flexibility, small physical size (OD approximately 150 microm), immunity to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), and low sensor cost, suggest that this type of hydrophone may provide a practical alternative to piezoelectric based hydrophones.

  11. High-sensitivity Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor based on a nanothick silver diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Ren, Dongxu; Shi, Xiaolong; Li, Can; Lu, Weiwei; Lu, Lu; Lu, Liang; Yu, Benli

    2012-01-15

    We present a fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer pressure sensor based on a nanothick silver diaphragm. The sensing diaphragm, with a thickness measured in a few hundreds of nanometers, is fabricated by the electroless plating method, which provides a simple fabrication process involving a high-quality diaphragm at a low cost. The sensor exhibits a relatively linear response within the pressure variation range of 0-50 kPa, with a high pressure sensitivity of 70.5 nm/kPa. This sensor is expected to have potential applications in the field of highly sensitive pressure sensors.

  12. Development of an embedded Fabry Perot Fiber Optic Strain Rosette Sensor (FP-FOSRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Gregory P.; Lesko, John J.; Case, Scott W.; Fogg, Brian; Claus, Richard O.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of utilizing a Fabry-Perot Fiber Optic Strain Rosette Sensor (FP-FOSRS) for the evaluation of the internal strain state of a material system. We briefly describe the manufacturing process for this sensor and point out some potential problem areas. Results of an embedded FP-FOSRS in an epoxy matrix with external resistance strain gauges applied for comparative purposes are presented. We show that the internal and external strain measurements are in close agreement. This work lays the foundation for embedding this sensor in actual composite laminas.

  13. Nanodiamonds in Fabry-Perot cavities: a route to scalable quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.

    2016-02-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond has long been identified as a platform for quantum computation. However, despite beautiful proof of concept experiments, a pathway to true scalability has proven elusive. Now a group from Oxford and Grenoble-Alpes have shown coupling between nitrogen-vacancy centres and open Fabry-Perot cavities in a way that proves a clear route to scalable quantum computing (Johnson et al 2015 New J. Phys. 17 122003). And all at the relatively balmy temperature of 77 K.

  14. Linear FBG Temperature Sensor Interrogation with Fabry-Perot ITU Multi-wavelength Reference.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Minho

    2008-10-29

    The equidistantly spaced multi-passbands of a Fabry-Perot ITU filter are used as an efficient multi-wavelength reference for fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation. To compensate for the nonlinear wavelength tuning effect in the FBG sensor demodulator, a polynomial fitting algorithm was applied to the temporal peaks of the wavelength-scanned ITU filter. The fitted wavelength values are assigned to the peak locations of the FBG sensor reflections, obtaining constant accuracy, regardless of the wavelength scan range and frequency. A linearity error of about 0.18% against a reference thermocouple thermometer was obtained with the suggested method.

  15. Femtosecond laser micromachining of Fabry-Perot cavity in fibre Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorin, Rodrigo; Cidade, Fernando N.; Adachi, Jociel L. S.; Rossi, Lucieli; de Oliveira, Valmir; Abe, Ilda; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    A 10 μm (length) × 75 μm (depth) open channel is fabricated in fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) by femtosecond laser micromachining. The FBG Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity formed by this complex structure has a length of 4 mm; value estimated from interference spectrum for the air open channel. Reflection spectra of FBG FP cavity as a function of the temperature shows the cavity phase change. The sensor is thermally characterized by filling polymer in the channel and subsequent UV curing; the results show a period shift of approximately 12 x10-3, value obtained of interferometer pattern for 30°C temperature range.

  16. Organic Fabry-Perot micro-cavity for electro-optic sampling by amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, G.; Martin, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Coutaz, J.-L.; Nguyen, C.; Hierle, R.; Zyss, J.

    2006-02-01

    We present herein a original concept of electro-optic (EO) probe for high frequency electric field measurements. This sensors is based on a thin organic layer of DR1-PMMA embedded in a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. The optimal orientation of DRl molecules, parallel to the face of the micro-cavity, has been obtained thanks to a lateral poling method. A r 33 of 2.5 pm/V has been reached for a 16 μm thick polymer layer. The final probe exhibits high sensitivity of 2V.cm -1.Hz -1/2.

  17. Velocity distribution of neutral species during magnetron sputtering by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, N.; Han, J. G.; Oh, S.-G.

    2008-04-07

    The velocity distribution of a metallic neutral species sputtered in a dc magnetron discharge was measured using a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer and a hollow cathode lamp as a reference source. The measurement was performed under different angles of view relative to the target surface. The velocity distribution function in the direction perpendicular to the target becomes asymmetrical as the Ar pressure decreases, whereas it remains nearly symmetrical when the line of sight is parallel to the target surface. The average velocity of the sputtered Ti atoms was measured to be about 2 km/s.

  18. Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a Double-Etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Drayson, S. Roland; Hays, Paul B.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the global scale distribution of atmospheric ozone and its temporal variability can be achieved using a satellite-based nadir-viewing device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios. This would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface and interfering species. The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. The periodic nature of the Fabry-Perot instrument function can be advantageous when observation of periodic spectra is desired. However, for most applications, additional optical elements are necessary to reduce the effect of unwanted passbands. This is frequently accomplished using additional Fabry-Perot etalons in a series configuration in conjunction with a bandpass filter. This paper discusses a Fabry-Perot interferometer conceptual instrument design to achieve tropospheric and total ozone monitoring capability from a satellite-based nadir-viewing geometry. The design involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). The impact of inter-etalon reflections has been reduced to acceptable levels by placement of a slightly attenuating medium in between the etalons. A passive device is selected for low power consumption, and continuous day/night coverage, independent of solar zenith angle, is enabled by observing within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band. The IR-FPI detection will be performed through implementation of the new Circle to Line Interferometer Optical (CLIO) system, developed by researchers at the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) of the University of Michigan, to accomplish focal plane

  19. Hα kinematics of nearby galaxies using Fabry-Perot and IFU data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; S4G Team; MUSE-GTO Consortium

    2017-03-01

    I present here analysis of the shapes of the rotation curves of a large sample of nearby spiral galaxies with high angular and spectral resolution Hα (Fabry-Perot GHαFaS) kinematics, and the resulting constraints on their total mass distributions. In particular I discuss how their rotation curve shapes relate to key galaxy properties. Finally I present related results from the MUSE Atlas of Disks (MAD) program, which is dissecting the nearby disk population with IFU spectroscopy at ~100pc resolution.

  20. Multiplexed fiber Fabry-Perot temperature sensor system using white-light interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichao; Taylor, Henry F

    2002-06-01

    A novel monitoring system for a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) temperature sensor has yielded a resolution of 0.013 degrees C (0.0025 fringe). Light from a broadband source passes through a scanned Michelson interferometer and is reflected from a FFPI to produce a fringe pattern, the temporal position of which is proportional to a change in the optical length of the fiber interferometer. A second Michelson interferometer with a distributed-feedback laser source is used to correct for variations in the translation rate of the motor-driven scanning mirror. Coherence multiplexing of three such sensors has also been demonstrated.

  1. Linear FBG Temperature Sensor Interrogation with Fabry-Perot ITU Multi-wavelength Reference

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Minho

    2008-01-01

    The equidistantly spaced multi-passbands of a Fabry-Perot ITU filter are used as an efficient multi-wavelength reference for fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation. To compensate for the nonlinear wavelength tuning effect in the FBG sensor demodulator, a polynomial fitting algorithm was applied to the temporal peaks of the wavelength-scanned ITU filter. The fitted wavelength values are assigned to the peak locations of the FBG sensor reflections, obtaining constant accuracy, regardless of the wavelength scan range and frequency. A linearity error of about 0.18% against a reference thermocouple thermometer was obtained with the suggested method. PMID:27873898

  2. UNAM scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (PUMA) for the study of interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langarica, Rosalia; Bernal, Abel; Cobos, Francisco J.; Rosado, Margarita; Tinoco, Silvio; Garfias, Fernando; Tejada, Carlos; Gutierrez, Leonel; Angeles, Fernando

    1994-06-01

    The system called PUMA is an instrument consisting of a focal reducer coupled to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (SFPI), which is being developed for the Observatorio Astronomicao Nacional at San Pedro Martir, B.C. It will be installed at the 2.0 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a focal ratio of F/7.9. It has interference filters, a calibration system, and field diaphragms. The SFPI can be moved out of the optical path in order to acquire direct images. The images produced by this instrument will be focused on an optoelectronic detector, a CCD, or a Mepsicron, depending on the spectral range used.

  3. An optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor using corrugated diaphragm and angle polished fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiali; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lu; Ni, Xiaoqi; Ni, Haibin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a Fabry-Perot pressure sensor using a corrugated diaphragm and angle polished fiber is proposed. A SU-8 structure using two step of lithography is formed to fix the polished fiber, which helps control the cavity length precisely. The fabrication process is described. The characteristics of both pressure and temperature are tested. Also the temperature compensation is realized. Experimental results show that the sensor has high sensitivity and good linearity over the pressure range of 0-0.1 MPa. The sensitivity (change in cavity/loaded pressure) is 705.64 μm/MPa.

  4. Injection locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes for WDM passive optical network spare function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Zhu, Ning-Hua; Xie, Liang; Ren, Min; Sun, Ke; Zhang, Bang-Hong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Hong-Guang

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a protection scheme for transmitters in wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) has been proposed and demonstrated. If any downstream transmitter encounters problems at the central office (CO), the interrupted communication can be restored immediately by injecting a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) with the upstream lightwave corresponding to the failure transmitter. Compared with the conventional methods, this proposed architecture provides a cost-effective and reliable protection scheme employing a common FP-LD. In the experiment, a 1:36 protection capability was implemented with a 2.5 Gbit/s downstream transmission capability.

  5. Ground-based observations of equatorial thermosphere dynamics with a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Biondi, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fabry-Perot determinations of thermospheric temperatures from 630.0 nm nightglow line width measurements were carried out for the period April to August, 1983. The nightly variation of the thermospheric temperature measured on 53 nights is compared with MSIS model predictions and found to agree occasionally with the model but, on the average, to exceed model predictions by approximately 180 K. The largest differences, 400 to 500 K occur during strongly increasing geomagnetic activity. Significant differences occur both during high geomagnetic/low solar activity and during low geomagnetic/high solar activity.

  6. Note: Periodic error measurement in heterodyne interferometers using a subpicometer accuracy Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minhao; Wei, Haoyun; Wu, Xuejian; Li, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Periodic error is the major problem that limits the accuracy of heterodyne interferometry. A traceable system for periodic error measurement is developed based on a nonlinearity free Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer. The displacement accuracy of the F-P interferometer is 0.49 pm at 80 ms averaging time, with the measurement results referenced to an optical frequency comb. Experimental comparison between the F-P interferometer and a commercial heterodyne interferometer is carried out and it shows that the first harmonic periodic error dominates in the commercial heterodyne interferometer with an error amplitude of 4.64 nm.

  7. Effect of small variations in the refractive index of the ambient medium on the spectrum of a bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Gurbatov, S O

    2011-09-30

    The phase of light propagating through a bent optical fibre is shown to depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fibre cladding when there is resonance coupling between the guided core mode and cladding modes. This shifts the spectral maxima in the bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer. The highest phase and spectral sensitivities achieved with this interferometer configuration are 0.71 and 0.077, respectively, and enable changes in the refractive index of the ambient medium down to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to be detected. This makes the proposed approach potentially attractive for producing highly stable, precision refractive index sensors capable of solving a wide range of liquid refractometry problems.

  8. Ultra-Precise Measurement of Distance by Fabry-Perot Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cíp, O.; Petru, F.; Lazar, J.; Buchta, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Length measurements in the region of nanometers by help of laser interferometers are influenced by the nonlinearity of their scale, which is usually ten or more nanometers. We developed and experimentally verified a new method, which has the resolution and linearity of the scale in the order of hundredth part of a nanometer. This method uses an optical Fabry-Perot resonator as a measuring element and by its help it is possible to measure small lengths and to test the nonlinearity of any interferometer with an uncertainty smaller than 0.1 nm The method takes advantage of a direct conversion of the relative changes of the optical path in measuring the arm of the Michelson interferometer to relative changes of the resonant optical frequency of the Fabry-Perot resonator. Frequency changes of the resonator resonance frequency have been monitored by a beat-frequency comparison between tunable He-Ne or semiconductor ECL (Extended Cavity Laser) laser and He-Ne-I2 optical frequency standard at 633 nm.

  9. Modulation response of an injection locked quantum-dash Fabry Perot laser at 1550nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochet, M.; Naderi, N. A.; Grillot, F.; Terry, N.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2009-02-01

    The microwave domain modulation response of an injection-locked laser system is analyzed in the context of a Quantum Dash Fabry-Perot laser. This work demonstrates the applicability of a newly-derived modulation response function by using it to least-squares fit data collected on an injection-locked system with a Quantum-Dash Fabry-Perot semiconductor slave laser. The maximum injection strength, linewidth enhancement factor, coupled phase between the master and slave, and field enhancement factor characterizing the deviation of the locked slave laser from its freerunning value are extracted by least-squares fitting the collected data with the function. The extracted values are then compared with theoretically expected values under the given detuning conditions. The correlation between the frequency of the resonance peak of the modulation response at the positive frequency detuning edge and a pole in the modulation response function under this detuning condition is illustrated. The calculation of the injection strength based on the experimental operating conditions is verified by applying the modulation response function to the experimental data. With the modulation response function, injection-locked behaviors can be accurately simulated in the microwave domain and used to predict operating conditions ideal for high-performance RF links.

  10. Torsion sensors based on the fiber optic Malus Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio-Sánchez, Gilberto; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2004-11-01

    The combination of a Malus and Fabry-Perot interferometers using optic devices has been proven useful to achieve an enhancement in sensitivity to measure changes in circular birefringence. This fiber optic Malus Fabry-Perot interferometer (FOMFPI) allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the polarization of the guided beam due to torsion applied to the fiber, owing to multiple passes of the beam through the sensing area. We present a theoretical analysis based on the Jones calculus showing that it is possible to measure variations in circular birefringence of the fiber upon registering chance in the transmission through this arrangement. The matrix representation developed for the FOMFPI allows for the evaluation of its performance as a function of parameters such as mirror reflectivity, twist rate, and intra-cavity variations. Experimental results using both, bulk optical components and optical fibers, are shown. The dependence of the enhancement factor on the reflectivity of the mirrors is evaluated upon using mirrors with variable reflection coefficient.

  11. Fabry-Perot Based Radiometers for Precise Measurement of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Differential radiometers based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer have been developed and demonstrated that exhibit very great sensitivity to changes in the atmospheric column of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor. These instruments employ a solid Fabry-Perot etalon that is tuned to the proper wavelength by changing the temperature. By choosing the thickness of the etalon its multiple pass bands can be made to align with regularly space absorption features of the molecule under investigation. Use of multiple absorption features improves the optical throughput of the instrument and improves the stability of the instrument response with respect to environmental changes. Efforts are underway at Goddard to extend this technique to the carbon 13 isotope of carbon dioxide and to methane. These instruments are intrinsically rugged and can be made rather small and inexpensively. They therefore hold promise for widespread use in ground based networks for calibration of satellite instruments such as OCO and GOSAT. Results will be presented for ground based and airborne operations for these systems. The effects of atmospheric scattering, pointing errors, pressure broadening and temperature effects will be discussed with regard to achieving precision better than .5% required for validation of carbon dioxide column measured from space. Designs permitting the extension of the technique to an even larger number of atmospheric species will be discussed along with theoretical analysis of potential system performance.

  12. Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging of Flames Using a Spectrally Scanning Fabry-Perot Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, W. T.; Lawrence, W. G.; Marinelli, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Piltch, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The temperatures and compositions of gases in and around flames can be diagnosed using infrared emission spectroscopy to observe molecular band shapes and intensities. We have combined this approach with a low-order scanning Fabry-Perot filter and an infrared camera to obtain spectrally scanned infrared emission images of a laboratory flame and exhaust plume from 3.7 to 5.0 micrometers, at a spectral resolution of 0.043 micrometers, and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The scanning filter or AIRIS (Adaptive Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a Fabry-Perot etalon operating in low order (mirror spacing = wavelength) such that the central spot, containing a monochromatic image of the scene, is viewed by the detector array. The detection system is a 128 x 128 liquid-nitrogen-cooled InSb focal plane array. The field of view is controlled by a 50 mm focal length multielement lens and an V4.8 aperture, resulting in an image 6.4 x 6.4 cm in extent at the flame and a depth of field of approximately 4 cm. Hyperspectral images above a laboratory CH4/air flame show primarily the strong emission from CO2 at 4.3 micrometers, and weaker emissions from CO and H2O. We discuss techniques to analyze the spectra, and plans to use this instrument in microgravity flame spread experiments.

  13. Fabry-Perot Based Differential Radiometers for Precise Determination of Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Wilson, Emily L.; Goergieva, Elena

    2006-01-01

    We have developed at Goddard over the last 5 years a new type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer that has broad applicability to a variety of problems of great current interest. The instrument detects absorption features of various atmospheric trace species in direct or reflected sunlight. The Fabry-Perot offers high resolution and high optical throughput with small size and simplicity of operation. We have developed instruments for use as ground based, airborne and satellite sensors for species such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Our current concentration is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive, ground based device suitable for wide deployment as a validation instrument for the OCO satellite scheduled to launch in 2008. We shall show sensitivity measurements for these three species, compare our water vapor measurements to those obtained using other types of sensors and discuss some of the peculiarities that must be addressed in order to provide the very high quality column measurements required to validate the OCO carbon dioxide measurements.

  14. Single resonance monolithic Fabry-Perot filters formed by volume Bragg gratings and multilayer dielectric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumeau, Julien; Koc, Cihan; Mokhun, Oleksiy; Smirnov, Vadim; Lequime, Michel; Glebov, Leonid B.

    2012-02-01

    High efficiency reflecting volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in PTR glass plates have shown un-preceded performances that make them very good candidates for narrowband spectral filtering with sub-nanometer spectral widths. However, decreasing the bandwidth to value below 30-50 pm is very challenging as it requires increasing the thickness of the RBG to more than 15-20 mm. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new approach which is a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity which consists from a reflecting VBG with a multilayer dielectric mirror (MDM) deposited on its surface. A VBG with a grating vector perpendicular to its surface and a MDM produce a Fabry-Perot resonator with a single transmission band inside of the reflection spectrum of the VBG. We present a theoretical description of this new class of filters that allow achieving a single ultra-narrowband resonance associated with several hundred nanometers rejection band. Then we show the methods for designing and fabricating such filter. Finally, we present the steps that we followed in order to fabricate a first prototype for 852 nm and 1062 nm region that demonstrates a 30 pm bandwidth, 90+% transmission at resonance and a good agreement with theoretical simulation.

  15. Blood pressure manometer using a twin Bragg grating Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Brakel, Adriaan; Swart, Pieter L.; Chtcherbakov, Anatoli A.; Shlyagin, Mikhail G.

    2005-02-01

    We propose the use of optical fiber Bragg gratings in a non-invasive blood pressure waveform monitor. Bragg gratings can be written in a Fabry-Perot interferometric configuration to yield a method of strain measurement that has both a high resolution and a wide unambiguous range. This fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot interferometer (FBGI) can be used as a sensor to detect strain resulting from blood pressure applied to the walls of an artery situated near the patient"s skin. Strain measurements taken on the skin surface, typically over the radial artery at the wrist, are encoded as phase shifts of the FBGI signal. These phase shifts may be obtained by the analytic representation of the interferometer signal in the wavelength domain or by Fourier analysis in the frequency domain. For the proof of concept a realistic physical model was constructed to simulate pressure conditions at the actual sensor location. The operation of the device is demonstrated by measurements of pressure-pulse waveforms obtained in real-time. This sensor was also successfully tested on human patients, and these results are also presented. Since it yields continuous readings of blood pressure non-invasively, further application of the optical manometer may yield an alternative to conventional sphygmomanometry.

  16. From the "Göttingen" Fabry-Perot Interferometer to the GREGOR FPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Kneer, F.; Nicklas, H.; Wittmann, A. D.

    Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) have advantages over slit spectrographs, allowing fast two-dimensional, narrowband imaging and post factum image reconstruction of the spectropolarimetric data obtained. The resulting intensity, velocity and magnetic field maps are a fundamental base for the understanding of the dynamics of the solar atmosphere and its magnetic fields at smallest spatial scales. Efforts are undertaken to provide, with the Göttingen Fabry-Perot interferometer, an up-todate post-focus instrument for the German 1.5 m GREGOR solar telescope. Therefore a renewal of the spectrometer has been achieved during the first half of 2005. First observations at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) reveal new scientific aspects and a very promising outlook for the future at GREGOR. In this contribution a general description of the upgraded spectrometer is given. Its final optical design at GREGOR is described and an optical analysis of the GREGOR FPI is outlined. Latest results with the new instrument obtained at the VTT are presented.

  17. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

  18. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

  19. Compton scattering off polarized electrons with a high-finesse Fabry-Perot Cavity at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas Falletto; Martial Authier; Maud Baylac; M. Boyer; Francois Bugeon; Etienne Burtin; Christian Cavata; Nathalie Colombel; G. Congretel; R. Coquillard; G. Coulloux; Bertrand Couzy; P Deck; Alain Delbart; D. Desforges; A. Donati; B. Duboue; Stephanie Escoffier; F. Farci; Bernard Frois; P Girardot; J Guillotau; C Henriot; Claude Jeanney; M Juillard; J. P. Jorda; P. Legou; David Lhuillier; Y Lussignol; Phillippe Mangeot; X. Martin; Frederic Marie; Jacques Martino; M. Maurier; Bernard Mazeau; J.F. Millot; F. Molinie; J.-P. Mols; Jean-pierre Mouly; M. Mur; Damien Neyret; T. Pedrol; Stephane Platchkov; G. Pontet; Thierry Pussieux; Yannick Queinec; Philippe Rebourgeard; J. C. Sellier; Gerard Tarte; Christian Veyssiere; Andre Zakarian; Pierre Bertin; Alain Cosquer; Jian-ping Chen; Joseph Mitchell; J.-M. Mackowski; L. Pinard

    2001-03-01

    We built and commissioned a new type of Compton polarimeter to measure the electron beam polarization at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Virginia, USA). The heart of this polarimeter is a high-finesse monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. Its purpose is to amplify a primary 300 mW laser beam in order to improve the signal to noise ratio of the polarimeter. It is the first time that a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity is enclosed in the vacuum of a particle accelerator to monitor the beam polarization by Compton polarimetry. The measured finesse and amplification gain of the cavity are F=26000 and G=7300. The electron beam crosses this high-power photon source at an angle of 23 mrad in the middle of the cavity where the photon beam power density is estimated to be 0.85MW/cm2. We have used this facility during the HAPPEX experiment (April-July 1999) and we give a preliminary measurement of Compton scattering asymmetry.

  20. Electrically tunable liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot device for terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Pan, Fan; Liu, Kan; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Yanduo; Xie, Xiaolin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we will present a smart structure based on an electrically controlled liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot to achieve terahertz (THz) filter, which has extremely potential in THz communication. This proposed structure doesn't need any mechanical movements because of adapting LC as a key material to compose the Fabry-Perot device. The THz filter based on LC, which is smart, light and cheap, can be realized to solve that common problem of short of tunable devices in THz radiation. The chosen LC material is E7, which has very stable and good transmissions in THz range. Under the external applied voltage, the alignment of the nematic LC allows the refractive index of the device to be tuned. Because of this feature, the resonant peaks could be shifted by changing the applied voltage. Especially, when the alignment is changed from planar to phototropic, the maximum value of the shift could be realized. The simulation result of the proposed device could be got. And the optimal structural parameters could be also got. Numerical analyses results have shown that the proposed structure has a high narrow transmission band and very sharp edges. This THz filter is novel for compact and smart features, so this kind of proposed THz filter is very attractive in many applications, such as THz communication, and THz spectral imaging.

  1. FaNTOmM: Fabry Perot of New Technology for the Observatoire du mont Megantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Olivier; Gach, Jean-Luc; Carignan, Claude; Boulesteix, Jacques

    2003-03-01

    We present a third generation instrument using a photon counting camera (IPCS) based on an GaAs photo cathode that can achieve quantum efficiency up to 28%, comparable to a thick CCD, but without readout noise. This system is 10 times more sensitive at the Hα wavelength than previous Fabry Perot system used at the Observatoire du mont Mégantic. In terms of S/N ratio, the system outperforms CCD for extremely faint fluxes, included AR coated low noise thin CCDs. This system offers up to 1k x 1k pixels which is the largest monolithic IPCS. An original cooling system is used for camera based on a Ranque-Hilsh vortex tube. The real-time centering is done by a scalable DSP board. FaNTOmM is the association of a focal reducer (PANORAMIX: the 1.6m mont Mégantic OmM telescope focal reducer), a Fabry Perot etalon and an IPCS. Preliminary results obtained with the 1.6m mont Mégantic telescope are presented.

  2. Modified Fabry-Perot interferometer for displacement measurement in ultra large measuring range.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Ping; Tung, Pi-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Wang, Yung-Cheng; Manske, Eberhard

    2013-05-01

    Laser interferometers have demonstrated outstanding measuring performances for high precision positioning or dimensional measurements in the precision industry, especially in the length measurement. Due to the non-common-optical-path structure, appreciable measurement errors can be easily induced under ordinary measurement conditions. That will lead to the limitation and inconvenience for in situ industrial applications. To minimize the environmental and mechanical effects, a new interferometric displacement measuring system with the common-optical-path structure and the resistance to tilt-angle is proposed. With the integration of optomechatronic modules in the novel interferometric system, the resolution up to picometer order, high precision, and ultra large measuring range have been realized. For the signal stabilization of displacement measurement, an automatic gain control module has been proposed. A self-developed interpolation model has been employed for enhancing the resolution. The novel interferometer can hold the advantage of high resolution and large measuring range simultaneously. By the experimental verifications, it has been proven that the actual resolution of 2.5 nm can be achieved in the measuring range of 500 mm. According to the comparison experiments, the maximal standard deviation of the difference between the self-developed Fabry-Perot interferometer and the reference commercial Michelson interferometer is 0.146 μm in the traveling range of 500 mm. With the prominent measuring characteristics, this should be the largest dynamic measurement range of a Fabry-Perot interferometer up till now.

  3. Ultra-high sensitivity Fabry-Perot interferometer gas refractive index fiber sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and Vernier effect.

    PubMed

    Quan, Mingran; Tian, Jiajun; Yao, Yong

    2015-11-01

    An ultra-high sensitivity open-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) gas refractive index (RI) sensor based on the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and Vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor is prepared by splicing a section of PCF to a section of fiber tube fused with a section of single mode fiber. The air holes running along the cladding of the PCF enable the gas to enter or leave the cavity freely. The reflection beam from the last end face of the PCF is used to generate the Vernier effect, which significantly improves the sensitivity of the sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed sensor can provide an ultra-high RI sensitivity of 30899 nm/RIU. This sensor has potential applications in fields such as gas concentration analyzing and humidity monitoring.

  4. Cascaded fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometers with Vernier effect for highly sensitive measurement of axial strain and magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tang, Ming; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Benpeng; Fu, Songnian; Ouyang, Jun; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-08-11

    We report a highly sensitive fiber-optic sensor based on two cascaded intrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (IFFPIs). The cascaded IFFPIs have different free spectral ranges (FSRs) and are formed by a short section of hollow core photonic crystal fiber sandwiched by two single mode fibers. With the superposition of reflective spectrum with different FSRs, the Vernier effect will be generated in the proposed sensor and we found that the strain sensitivity of the proposed sensor can be improved from 1.6 pm/με for a single IFFPI sensor to 47.14 pm/με by employing the Vernier effect. The sensor embed with a metglas ribbon can be also used to measure the magnetic field according to the similar principle. The sensitivity of the magnetic field measurement is achieved to be 71.57 pm/Oe that is significantly larger than the 2.5 pm/Oe for a single IFFPI sensor.

  5. A tunable, solid, Fabry-Perot etalon for solar seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.; Burton, Clive H.; Leistner, Achim J.

    1986-01-01

    A solid etalon has been designed and fabricated from a 50-mm diameter wafer of optical-quality lithium niobate. The finished etalon has a free spectral range of 0.325 nm at 588 nm. The parallel faces are coated with silver, and the central 15-mm aperture of the etalon has a finesse of 18.6. The reflective faces double as electrodes, and application of voltage will shift the passband. This feature was used in a servo circuit to stabilize the passband against temperature and tilt-induced drifts to better than three parts in one billion. Operated in the stabilized mode for day-long sessions, this filter alternately samples the wings of a narrow atomic absorption line in the solar spectrum and produces a signal proportional to velocity on the solar disk. The Fourier transform of this signal yields information on acoustic waves in the solar interior.

  6. Fabry-Perot Interferometer-Based Electrooptic Modulator using LiNbO3 and Organic Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, C.; Frazier, D.; Penn, B.; Abdeldayem, H.; Sharma, A.; Yelleswarapu, C.; Leyderman, Alexander; Correa, Margarita; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the study of a Fabry-Perot electro-optical modulator using thin crystalline film NPP, and Crystalline LiNbO3. We are able to observe 14, and 60 percent degree of modulation. Measurements were carried using a standard lock-in amplifier with a silicon detector. The proposal to design a Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator with an intracavity electro-optically active organic material was based on the initial results using poled polymer thin films. The main feature of the proposed device is the observation that in traditional electrooptic modulators like a Packets cell, it requires few kilovolts of driving voltage to cause a 3 dB modulation even in high figure-of-merit electrooptic materials like LiNbO3. The driving voltage for the modulator can be reduced to as low as 10 volts by introducing the electrooptic material inside die resonant cavity of a Fabry-Perot modulator. This is because the transmission of the Fabry-Perot cavity varies nonlinearly with the change of refractive index or phase of light due to applied electric field.

  7. The comparison of environmental effects on michelson and fabry-perot interferometers utilized for the displacement measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical structure of general commercial interferometers, e.g., the Michelson interferometers, is based on a non-common optical path. Such interferometers suffer from environmental effects because of the different phase changes induced in different optical paths and consequently the measurement precision will be significantly influenced by tiny variations of the environmental conditions. Fabry-Perot interferometers, which feature common optical paths, are insensitive to environmental disturbances. That would be advantageous for precision displacement measurements under ordinary environmental conditions. To verify and analyze this influence, displacement measurements with the two types of interferometers, i.e., a self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercial Michelson interferometer, have been performed and compared under various environmental disturbance scenarios. Under several test conditions, the self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer was obviously less sensitive to environmental disturbances than a commercial Michelson interferometer. Experimental results have shown that induced errors from environmental disturbances in a Fabry-Perot interferometer are one fifth of those in a Michelson interferometer. This has proved that an interferometer with the common optical path structure will be much more independent of environmental disturbances than those with a non-common optical path structure. It would be beneficial for the solution of interferometers utilized for precision displacement measurements in ordinary measurement environments.

  8. A THz plasmonics perfect absorber and Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Silva, Sinhara; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Sang Jun; Ku, Zahyun

    2016-10-01

    The plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is a recently developed branch of metamaterial which exhibits nearly unity absorption within certain frequency range.[1-6] The optically thin MPA possesses characteristic features of angular-independence, high Q-factor and strong field localization that have inspired a wide range of applications including electromagnetic wave absorption,[3, 7, 8] spatial[6] and spectral[5] modulation of light,[9] selective thermal emission,[9] thermal detecting[10] and refractive index sensing for gas[11] and liquid[12, 13] targets. In this work, we demonstrate a MPA working at terahertz (THz) regime and characterize it using an ultrafast THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Our study reveal an ultra-thin Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism compared to the impedance matching mechanism widely adopted in previous study [1-6]. Our results also shows higher-order resonances when the cavities length increases. These higher order modes exhibits much larger Q-factor that can benefit potential sensing and imaging applications. [1] C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers," Advanced Materials, vol. 24, pp. 98-120, Jun 19 2012. [2] M. Hedayati, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, "Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber," Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1221-1248, 2014. [3] N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, p. 207402, May 23 2008. [4] H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, et al., "Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1226, 2014. [5] D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, S. Krishna, and W. J. Padilla, "Four-Color Metamaterial Absorber THz Spatial Light Modulator," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 1, pp. 905-909, 2013. [6] S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial

  9. Development of high reflectivity coatings for large format Fabry-Perot etalons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigwarth, M.; Baumgartner, J.; Bell, A.; Cagnoli, G.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Kentischer, Th. J.; Kestner, B.; Kuschnir, P.; von der Lühe, O.; Pinard, L.; Michel, Ch.; Reichman, W. J.; Sassolas, B.; Scheiffelen, Th.; Schmidt, W.

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a diffraction-limited narrowband tunable instrument for imaging spectropolarimetry in the wavelength range between 520 and 860 nm. It is based on large-format Fabry Perot. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the 4m aperture Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope (DKIST). To provide a field of view of 1 arcmin and a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of about 100.000, the required free aperture of the Fabry Perot is 250mm. The high reflectivity coatings for the Etalon plates need to meet the specifications for the reflectivity over the entire wavelength range and preserve the plate figure specifications of better λ/300, and a micro roughness of < 0.4 nm rms. Coated surfaces with similar specifications have successfully been made for reflecting mirrors on thick substrates but not for larger format Fabry-Perot systems. Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) based coatings provide stable, homogeneous, and smooth coatings. But IBS coatings also introduce stresses to the substrate that influence the plate figure in our case at the nm level. In a joint effort with an industry partner and a French CNRS research laboratory, we developed and tested processes on small and full size substrates, to provide coated Etalon plates to the required specifications. Zygo Extreme Precision Optics, Richmond, CA, USA, is polishing and figuring the substrates, doing the metrology and FE analysis. LMA (Laboratoire Matériaux Avancés, Lyon, France) is designing and making the IBS coatings and investigating the detailed behavior of the coatings and related processes. Both partners provide experience from manufacturing coated plane optics for gravitational wave detection experiments and EUV optics. The Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany is designing and building the VTF instrument and is leading the coating development. We present the characteristics of the coatings and the substrate processing concept, as well as results from tests on

  10. Development of Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers as Stable Near-infrared Calibration Sources for High Resolution Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Hearty, Fred; Wilson, John; Holtzman, Jon; Redman, Stephen; Nave, Gillian; Nidever, David; Nelson, Matt; Venditti, Nick; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Fleming, Scott

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the ongoing development of single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) Interferometers as precise astro-photonic calibration sources for high precision radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. FFPs are simple, inexpensive, monolithic units that can yield a stable and repeatable output spectrum. An FFP is a unique alternative to a traditional etalon, as the interferometric cavity is made of single-mode fiber rather than an air-gap spacer. This design allows for excellent collimation, high spectral finesse, rigid mechanical stability, insensitivity to vibrations, and no need for vacuum operation. The device we have tested is a commercially available product from Micron Optics. Our development path is targeted towards a calibration source for the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around low-mass stars, but this reference could also be used in many existing and planned fiber-fed spectrographs as we illustrate using the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) instrument. With precise temperature control of the fiber etalon, we achieve a thermal stability of 100 $\\mu$K and associated velocity uncertainty of 22 cm s$^{-1}$. We achieve a precision of $\\approx$2 m s$^{-1}$ in a single APOGEE fiber over 12 hours using this new photonic reference after removal of systematic correlations. This high precision (close to the expected photon-limited floor) is a testament to both the excellent intrinsic wavelength stability of the fiber interferometer and the stability of the APOGEE instrument design. Overall instrument velocity precision is 80 cm s$^{-1}$ over 12 hours when averaged over all 300 APOGEE fibers and after removal of known trends and pressure correlations, implying the fiber etalon is intrinsically stable to significantly higher precision.

  11. Faraday-Active Fabry-Perot Resonator: Transmission, Reflection, and Emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liptuga, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, Vasyl; Pipa, Viktor; Venger, Evgen; Kostiuk, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of light within a semiconductor Faraday-active Fabry-Perot resonator (FAFR) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that an external magnetic field radically changes the angular and spectral characteristics of transmission, reflection and emissivity of the resonator not only for polarized, but also for unpolarized light. Suppression of interference patterns and phase inversion of the interference extrema were observed in both monochromatic and polychromatic light. The investigations were carried out for the plane-parallel plates of n-InAs in the spectral range of free charge carrier absorption. The results can be used to create new controllable optical and spectroscopic devices for investigation of Faraday-active material properties and for control of parameters of plane-parallel layers and structures.

  12. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  13. Closed-form expressions to fit data obtained with a multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Boukari, H; Palik, E D; Gammon, R W

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effect of a multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer (FP) on a scattering line. Here we describe a method that we applied to derive a closed-form expression for a line shape obtained with an ideal, multipass FP. The method reduces the convolution problem between the multipass function and the scattering line to the corresponding single-pass problem. We illustrate the method with a Lorentzian and a damped-harmonic-oscillator line passed through a single-, triple-, and quintuple-pass FP. Furthermore we have applied the method to a study of the effect of the collecting pinhole on a sharp line obtained by multipassing. We show how we used these functions to fit the complete spectra obtained with a single- and triple-pass FP.

  14. Array of liquid crystal polymer-based Fabry-Perot resonators for image selection by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Ho; Yu, Eui-Sang; Kim, Se-Um; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate an array of the Fabry-Perot (FP) resonators with a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer inside each resonant cavity for image selection by polarization of the incident light. In our approach, the LCP molecules in the array of the FP resonators for different images are photo-aligned in different directions. Under unpolarized light, no image is observed. For the incident light polarized parallel to the photo-alignment direction, only the image corresponding to the polarization state among the recorded images is visible due to the difference in the effective refractive index between different image regions in the array of the FP resonators. Our approach based on anisotropic FP resonators will be useful for the realization of highly efficient and low-cost anti-counterfeiting systems and security labels.

  15. Development of Ultrasonic and Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Non-Destruction Inspection of Aging Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alphonso C.

    1998-01-01

    Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) sensor detection system was continued and refined modifications were made in the data acquisition and evaluation process during the last year. The ultrasonic and FPI detection system was improved from one to multiple sensor detectors. Physical models were developed to understand the physical phenomenon of this work. Multilayered flawed samples were fabricated for inspection by a prototype ultrasonic and FPI detection. Experimental data was verified with simulated results. Undergraduate students that were associated with this research gained valuable knowledge from this experience. This was a learning process helping students to understand the importance of research and its application to solve important technological problems. As a result of our students exposure to this research two and planning to continue this type of research work in graduate school. A prototype instrument package was laboratory tested an actual airframe structure for documentation purposes.

  16. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-10-29

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding.

  17. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of thermospheric neutral wind gradients and reversals at Arecibo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. F.; Herrero, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Direct measurements of the meridional neutral winds in the thermosphere made with the Fabry-Perot interferometer at the Arecibo Observatory show the postmidnight meridional wind reversal that was inferred from previous incoherent scatter radar ion-drift data and airglow intensity maps and observed in-situ with the Atmosphere Explorer-E satellite. Data for three nights between October 29 and December 9, 1981, are presented. For this period, the meridional wind is observed to be northward after sunset and to turn south before midnight; the velocities often exceed 100 m/sec. After midnight, its direction is seen to reverse to northward for one to two hours. The reversal after midnight is recurrent and propagates from the equator, as predicted on the basis of previous meridional airglow intensity measurements.

  18. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  19. Study on high temperature Fabry-Perot fiber acoustic sensor with temperature self-compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pan; Tong, Xinglin; Zhao, Minli; Deng, Chengwei; Guo, Qian; Mao, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A Fabry-Perot (F-P) fiber acoustic sensor, which can work under high-temperature harsh environment with temperature self-compensation, is designed and prepared. A condenser was used to maintain the sensor to work in a stable temperature environment. Because of the special structure of the sensor and the function of the condenser, the cavity variation of the sensor caused by changes of external temperature from -10°C to 500°C would not exceed 8 nm. The experimental results show that the sensor has a good frequency response in a range of 1 to 5 kHz and the field experiment results show that it could be used for hydraulic decoking online monitoring by judging the acoustic frequency spectrum.

  20. Striped-double cavity fabry-perot interferometers using both glass and air cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S; Steinmetz, L

    1998-07-08

    We have used piezo-driven Fabry-Perot interferometers in the past far many continuous velocity-time measurements of fast moving surfaces. In order to avoid the annoying drift of some of these devices, we have developed and used inexpensive, solid glass, striped etalons with lengths up to 64 mm. Usable apertures are 35 mm by 80 mm with a finess of 25. A roundabout technique was devised for double cavity operation. We built a passive thermal housing for temperature stability, with tilt and height adjustments. We have also developed and used our first fixed etalon air-spaced cavity with a rotatable glass double- cavity insert. The rotation allows the referee cavity fractional order to be adjusted separately from that of the main cavity. It needs very little thermal protection, and eliminates the need for a roundabout scheme for double cavity operation, but is more costly than the solid glass version I

  1. Fabry-Perot observations of NH2 emission from Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee-Sauer, K.; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.; Lutz, Barry L.

    1989-01-01

    The (0,8,0) cometary NH2 band lines have been isolated from both cometary and terrestrial OI 6300 A OH emissions in Fabry-Perot spectra of the emissions of Comet Halley near 6300 A. On the assumption that the major source of NH2 is NH3, these NH2 measurements limit NH3's abundance relative to H2O. The results thus obtained are noted to depend on the NH2 (0,8,0) band fluorescence efficiency factor g(B); using the g(B) value of A'Hearn (1982), the NH3 abundance is found to be about 0.1 percent of that of H2O, while the g(B) value of Tegler and Wyckoff (1989) yields a figure of 0.4 percent. Both results indicate a low NH3 abundance relative to water on Comet Halley.

  2. Development of a Fabry-Perot interferometer for rocket engine plume monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a lightweight, compact, high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based spectrometer capable of detecting the spectral signatures of eroding engine components during test and/or flight operations is discussed. FPI based spectrometers will be designed to be smaller and lighter than grating or prism type devices and to provide greater wavelength resolving capability. The FPI system seeks to combine the features of high line resolution, active background discrimination, smart digital signal processing, and rocket engine flight capability. The design, fabrication, and test of a breadboard FPI spectrometer have been completed and the breadboard instrument has clearly demonstrated the viability of the approach. The breadboard instrument design and test results are also presented.

  3. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of static temperature and velocity for ASTOVL model tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourous, Helen E.; Seacholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrally resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering diagnostic was developed to measure temperature and wing-spanwise velocity in the vicinity of an ASTOVL aircraft model in the Lewis 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The spectrum of argon-ion laser light scattered by the air molecules and particles in the flow was resolved with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Temperature was extracted from the spectral width of the Rayleigh scattering component, and spanwise gas velocity from the gross spectral shift. Nozzle temperature approached 800 K, and the velocity component approached 30 m/s. The measurement uncertainty was about 5 percent for the gas temperature, and about 10 m/s for the velocity. The large difference in the spectral width of the Mie scattering from particles and the Rayleigh scattering from gas molecules allowed the gas temperature to be measured in flow containing both naturally occurring dust and LDV seed (both were present).

  4. Ultra-small Fabry-Perot cavities in tapered optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; André, Ricardo M.; Dellith, Jan; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    The small dimensions of optical fiber sensors are of interest to biological applications, given the ability to penetrate relatively inaccessible regions. However, conventional optical fibers are larger than biological material such as cells, and thus there is a need for further miniaturization. Here we present the fabrication of ultra-small Fabry-Perot cavities written into optical micro-fibers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. We have fabricated cavities as small as 2.8 μm and demonstrated their use for measuring refractive index. In order to achieve sensitive measurements we interrogate at visible wavelengths, thereby reducing the free spectral range of the interferometer (relative to infra-red interrogation), increasing the number of interference fringes, and allowing for the implementation of the Fourier shift method.

  5. Multicavity X-Ray Fabry-Perot Resonance with Ultrahigh Resolution and Contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Huang X. R.; Siddons D.; Macrander, A.T.; Peng, R.W.; Wu, X.S.

    2012-05-31

    Realization of x-ray Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in back-Bragg-reflection crystal cavities has been proposed and explored for many years, but to date no satisfactory performance has been achieved. Here we show that single-cavity crystal resonators intrinsically have limited finesse and efficiency. To break this limit, we demonstrate that monolithic multicavity resonators with equal-width cavities and specific plate thickness ratios can generate ultrahigh-resolution FP resonance with high efficiency, steep peak tails, and ultrahigh contrast simultaneously. The resonance mechanism is similar to that of sequentially cascaded single-cavity resonators. The ultranarrow-bandwidth FP resonance is anticipated to have various applications, including modern ultrahigh-resolution or precision x-ray monochromatization, spectroscopy, coherence purification, coherent diffraction, phase contrast imaging, etc.

  6. Cryogenic monocrystalline silicon Fabry-Perot cavity for the stabilization of laser frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, J.-P.; Hamilton, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    A 1.6 kg silicon monocrystal was used to make a Fabry-Perot optical cavity operated at cryogenic temperatures. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements were made as the silicon cooled to 4.2 K, in order to characterize the cavity as a length reference standard. A helium-neon laser was then locked to a transmission resonance at liquid-helium temperatures, and the laser frequency tracked the cavity resonance with error fluctuations at the level of 10 Hz/sq rt Hz in the bandwidth dc to 1 Hz. Implications of the combined set of data, thermal expansion plus frequency-tracking fluctuations, for using such a system as a frequency standard are discussed.

  7. Advancement of Optical Component Control for an Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Cook, William B.; Flood, Michael A.; Campbell, Joel F.; Boyer, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Risk mitigation activities associated with a prototype imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) system are continuing at the NASA Langley Research Center. The system concept and technology center about enabling and improving future space-based atmospheric composition missions, with a current focus on observing tropospheric ozone around 9.6 micron, while having applicability toward measurement in different spectral regions and other applications. Recent activities have focused on improving an optical element control subsystem to enable precise and accurate positioning and control of etalon plates; this is needed to provide high system spectral fidelity critical for enabling the required ability to spectrally-resolve atmospheric line structure. The latest results pertaining to methodology enhancements, system implementation, and laboratory characterization testing will be reported

  8. Measurement of reflection phase using thick-gap Fabry-Perot etalon.

    PubMed

    Yung, Tsz Kit; Gao, Wensheng; Leung, Ho Ming; Zhao, Qiuling; Wang, Xia; Tam, Wing Yim

    2016-09-10

    We report measurement of the reflection phase of a dielectric (glass)/titanium (Ti) surface in the visible wavelength using a thick-gap Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry technique. Using a two-beam interference model for the reflection peaks and troughs of the FP etalon, we obtain the air-gap spacing of the etalon and, more importantly, the reflection phase of the etalon substrate. We find systematic dependence of the as-measured reflection phase on the air-gap spacing due to the numerical aperture effect of the measuring objective. However, the relative reflection phase of Ti with respect to glass is independent of the air-gap spacing. As a demonstration of our approach in the optical characterization of small metamaterial samples, we also measure the reflection phase of a micron-sized 2D Au sawtooth nanoarray. The experiment is in good agreement with the model simulation.

  9. Self-sustained photothermal oscillations in high-finesse Fabry-Perot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Velez, Juan Gomez; Hopkins, Adam J.; Peiris, Manoj; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Nieves, Yamil; Muller, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We report the experimental investigation of a regime of microscopic Fabry-Perot resonators in which competing light-induced forces—photothermal expansion and photothermal refraction—acting oppositely and on different timescales lead to self-sustained persistent oscillations. Previously concealed as ordinary thermo-optic bistability—a common feature in low-loss resonator physics—these dynamics are visible as fast pulsations in cavity transmission or reflection measurements at sufficiently high time resolution. Their underlying mathematical description is shared by many slow-fast phenomena in chemistry, biology, and neuroscience. Our observations are relevant in particular to microcavity applications in atom optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics, even in nominally rigid structures that have not undergone lithography.

  10. A new Fabry-Perot spectrometer for observations of diffuse near-infrared line emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, M. L.; Jaffe, D. T.; Keller, L. D.; Soojong, Pak

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new Fabry-Perot spectrometer that is optimized for the detection of extended, low-surface-brightness line emission from 1.4 to 2.4 microns. The instrument combines high throughput and high sensitivity, yet limits the background radiation falling on the detector. The instrument has a single 20 sec - 200 sec beam and a resolving power lambda/delta(lambda) approximately 2500. The system is background shot-noise limited in the K window and limited by a combination of read noise, dark-current shot noise, and fluctuations in the OH airglow lines in the H window. We present sample data of some of the lowest-surface-brightness H2 line emission in the near infrared obtained to date.

  11. Optical fiber voltage sensor based on Michelsion interferometer using Fabry-Perot demodulation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinwei; He, Shengnan; Li, Dandan; Wang, Kai; Fan, Yan'en; Wu, Shuai

    2014-11-01

    We present an optical fiber voltage sensor by Michelsion interferometer (MI) employing a Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer and the DC phase tracking (DCPT) signal processing method. By mounting a MI fabricated by an optical fiber coupler on a piezoelectric (PZT) transducer bar, a dynamic strain would be generated to change the optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer when the measured voltage was applied on the PZT. Applying an F-P interferometer to demodulate the optical intensity variation output of the MI, the voltage can be obtained. The experiment results show that the relationship between the optical intensity variation and the voltage applied on the PZT is approximately linear. Furthermore, the phase generate carrier (PGC) algorithm was applied to demodulate the output of the sensor also.

  12. Determination and automatic control of optical thickness of scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Evdokimov, Y.V.; Kravchinskii, L.L.; Shtenger, M.B.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a method and a device for determination and control of the optical thickness of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) of 973 to 29,800 um with a relative error of o.04%. The device scans the optical thickness of the interferometer itself and records the shift of the interference peaks when the interferometer is exposed to radiation containing two wavelengths. The interferometer is exposed to the collimated radiation of a VSB-2 spectroscopic lamp filled with mercury isotopes Hg 198 and Hg 204. A ZS-1 glass filter separates the two wavelengths and the transmitted light at the output of the FPI has an interference pattern formed by two independent systems of rings. It is noted that the disadvantage of the described device is the complexity of preparing interferometer-plate reflecting layers that have high reflection coefficients for the two working wavelengths simultaneously.

  13. On-chip optical phase locking of single growth monolithically integrated Slotted Fabry Perot lasers.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P E; Cotter, W; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B; Osborne, S; Yang, H; O'Callaghan, J; Roycroft, B; Corbett, B; Peters, F H

    2013-07-15

    This work investigates the optical phase locking performance of Slotted Fabry Perot (SFP) lasers and develops an integrated variable phase locked system on chip for the first time to our knowledge using these lasers. Stable phase locking is demonstrated between two SFP lasers coupled on chip via a variable gain waveguide section. The two lasers are biased differently, one just above the threshold current of the device with the other at three times this value. The coupling between the lasers can be controlled using the variable gain section which can act as a variable optical attenuator or amplifier depending on bias. Using this, the width of the stable phase locking region on chip is shown to be variable.

  14. One by N wavelength-selected optical switch based on tunable Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lu, Jialin; Ye, Ailun

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, a kind of tunable wavelength selective optical switch was proposed with two-input/two-output fiber ports. It is based on tunable Fabry-Perot cavity by a pair of multi-layered piezoelectric ceramics. Each fiber carries N wavelengths, one of which can be selected. The tunable span can reach 5.43 nm under 10 V DC voltages. The relation of wavelength tuning ability and driving voltage is linear. The maximum of difference between theoretical and experimental results is less than 0.08nm. The quantities of maximum insertion loss, switching time and on/off ratio are about 3 dB, 1 ms and 28 dB

  15. Monochromatic Studies of the Sun using Fabry-Perot Filters with Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, David; Sanchez-Ibarra, Antonio

    1999-08-01

    We report on three new versions of the ultra-narrowband, Fabry-Perot filter and discuss their performance, optimised configuration and use for monochromatic studies of Solar phenomena. The characteristics of high stability and tunability, together with ease of automation, allow convenient, remote, robotic operation and this is being utilised in the OCA project of the University of Sonora, for which preliminary results will be presented. I trust the technology to be reported in this paper will be of particular interest to amateurs and, because of its dedication, to the symposium. Don Trombino was very involved in co-ordinating the abilities of amateur Solar observers with the professional community, believing, rightly, that they are capable of equally good work given the right equipment and, prior to his untimely death, we were discussing the possibilities that the new versions of the automated filter/telescopes might have in developing the contributions of amateurs even further.

  16. Gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer technology in cell phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Hyypiö, Risto; Korkalainen, Marko; Blomberg, Martti; Kattelus, Hannu; Rissanen, Anna

    2015-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a miniaturized optical sensor for gas detection in a cell phone. The sensor is based on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is a structure with two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. VTT has designed and manufactured a MEMS FPI based carbon dioxide sensor demonstrator which is integrated to a cell phone shield cover. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector, control electronics and two coin cell batteries as a power source. It is connected to the cell phone by Bluetooth. By adjusting the wavelength range and customizing the MEMS FPI structure, it is possible to selectively sense multiple gases.

  17. Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohui; Qiao, Xueguang

    2014-11-10

    We present a hybrid miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature. The interferometer is fabricated by cascading two short sections of capillary tubes with different inner diameters. One extrinsic interferometer is based on the air gap cavity formed by the capillary tube with large diameter. Another section of capillary tube with small inner diameter performs as an intrinsic interferometer and also provides a channel enabling gas to enter and leave the extrinsic cavity freely. The experiment shows that the different dips or peaks in fringe exhibit different responses to the changes in gas refractive index and temperature. Owing to this feature, simultaneous measurement of the gas refractive index and temperature can be realized.

  18. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  19. A polymer-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with 3-D MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping (Cerina); Le, Kevin; Malalur-Nagaraja-Rao, Smitha; Hsu, Lun-Chen; Chiao, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Polymers have been considered as one of the most versatile materials in making optical devices for communication and sensor applications. They provide good optical transparency to form filters, lenses and many optical components with ease of fabrication. They are scalable and compatible in dimensions with requirements in optics and can be fabricated on inorganic substrates, such as silicon and quartz. Recent polymer synthesis also made great progresses on conductive and nonlinear polymers, opening opportunities for new applications. In this paper, we discussed hybrid-material integration of polymers on silicon-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. The motivation is to combine the advantages of demonstrated silicon-based MEMS actuators and excellent optical performance of polymers. We demonstrated the idea with a polymer-based out-of-plane Fabry-Perot filter that can be self-assembled by scratch drive actuators. We utilized a fabrication foundry service, MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Process), to demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of integration. The polysilicon, used as the structural material for construction of 3-D framework and actuators, has high absorption in the visible and near infrared ranges. Therefore, previous efforts using a polysilicon layer as optical interfaces suffer from high losses. We applied the organic compound materials on the silicon-based framework within the optical signal propagation path to form the optical interfaces. In this paper, we have shown low losses in the optical signal processing and feasibility of building a thin-film Fabry-Perot filter. We discussed the optical filter designs, mechanical design, actuation mechanism, fabrication issues, optical measurements, and results.

  20. A Novel, Poly-Etalon, Fabry-Perot for Planetary Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Robert B.; Doe, Richard; Noto, John

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop a mechanically robust, high throughput and solid state spectrometer several liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalons were constructed. The etalons were tested for spectral response, radiation resistance and optical transmission. The first year of this project was spent developing and understanding the properties of the liquid crystal etalons; in the second year an intensified all-sky imaging system was developed around a pair of LC etalons. The imaging system, developed jointly with SRI International represents a unique brassboard to demonstrate the use of LC etalons as tunable filters. The first set of etalons constructed in year one of this project were tested for spectral response and throughput while etalon surrogates were exposed to proton radiation simulating the exposure of an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The 2" diameter etalons had a measure finesse of approximately 10 and were tunable over five orders. Liquid crystals exposed to proton irradiation showed no signs of damage. In year two two larger diameter (3") etalons were constructed with gaps of 3 and 5 microns. This pair of etalons is for use in a high resolution, all-sky spectral imager. The WATUMI imager system follows the heritage of all sky, narrow band, intensified imagers however it includes two LC Fabry-Perot etalons to provide tunability and the ability to switch wavelengths rapidly, an import consideration in auroral airglow imaging. This work also resulted in two publications and one poster presentation. The instrument will be uniquely capable, with superior throughput and speed, to measure optical airglow of multiple emission lines in harsh conditions.

  1. Tuning operating point of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fiber and gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiajun; Zhang, Qi; Fink, Thomas; Li, Hong; Peng, Wei; Han, Ming

    2012-11-15

    Intensity-based demodulation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber-optic sensors requires the light wavelength to be on the quadrature point of the interferometric fringes for maximum sensitivity. In this Letter, we propose a novel and remote operating-point tuning method for EFPI fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fibers (MFs) and gas pressure. We demonstrated the method using a diaphragm-based EFPI sensor with a microstructured lead-in fiber. The holes in the MF were used as gas channels to remotely control the gas pressure inside the Fabry-Perot cavity. Because of the deformation of the diaphragm with gas pressure, the cavity length and consequently the operating point can be remotely tuned for maximum sensitivity. The proposed operating-point tuning method has the advantage of reduced complexity and cost compared to previously reported methods.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature with micro silica sphere cavity hybrid Fabry Perot optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar Naeini, O. R.; Latifi, H.; Zibaii, M. I.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a novel Micro Silica Sphere Cavity Hybrid Fabry Perot optical fiber sensor is reported where refractive index (RI) and temperature can be simultaneously measured. The sensor is based on Micro Silica Sphere that was fabricated using a capillary tube. The micro silica sphere and optical fiber form a Hybrid Fabry Perot cavity. The temperature cross sensitivity of this sensor is small enough to be used for accurate RI measurement. The temperature sensitivity and RI sensitivity are -0.0028 dBm/ºC, -0.0044 dBm/ºC , -24.09 dBm/RIU and -20.6 dBm/RIU respectively, using two selected resonances.

  3. Observations of comet Levy 1990c in the (OI) 6300-A line with an imaging Fabry-Perot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. Debi; Jockers, Klaus; Rauer, H.; Geyer, E. H.

    1992-01-01

    We have observed the comet Levy 1990c during 16-25 August 1990 using the MPAE focal reducer system based Fabry-Perot etalon coupled with the 1 meter telescope of the Observatory of Hoher List. The free spectral range and resolution limit of the interferometer was approximately 2.18 A and approximately 0.171 A respectively. Classical Fabry-Perot fringes were recorded on a CCD in the cometary (OI) 6300 A line. They are well resolved from telluric air glow and cometary NH2 emission. Our observations indicate that the (OI) is distributed asymmetrically with respect to the center of the comet. In this paper we report the spatial distribution of (OI) emission and its line width in the coma of comet Levy.

  4. Fiber Optic Fabry-Perot Current Sensor Integrated with Magnetic Fluid Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Demodulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Qi; Liu, Xu; Luo, Hong

    2015-07-09

    An optical fiber current sensor based on Fabry-Perot interferometer using a fiber Bragg grating demodulation is proposed. Magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium in fiber optical Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity for the optical characteristic of magnetic-controlled refractive index. A Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is connected after the F-P interferometer which is used to reflect the optical power at the Bragg wavelength of the interference transmission spectrum. The corresponding reflective power of the FBG will change with different external current intensity, due to the shift on the interference spectrum of the F-P interferometer. The sensing probe has the advantages of convenient measurement for its demodulation, low cost and high current measurement accuracy on account of its sensing structure. Experimental results show that an optimal sensitivity of 0.8522 nw/A and measurement resolution of 0.001 A is obtained with a FBG at 1550 nm with 99% reflectivity.

  5. High-gain power recycling of a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer for a gravitational-wave antenna.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohashi, M; Fujimoto, M K; Fukushima, M; Waseda, K; Miyoki, S; Mavalvala, N; Yamamoto, H

    2000-09-01

    Power recycling was implemented on a fully suspended prototype interferometer with arm lengths of 20 m. A wave-front-sensing technique for alignment control of the suspended mirrors was also implemented, which allowed for several hours of stable operation. A power-recycling gain of greater than 12 was achieved, a significant increase over the highest gain in a suspended mirror Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer reported to date.

  6. Analysis of performance index of fiber-optic liquid-level sensor based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Tao; Li, Zhengjia; Xia, Danqing

    2008-12-01

    A novel configuration of fiber-optic liquid-level sensor based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity is presented and demonstrated in this paper. The main principle of this sensor is that output intensity will vary linearly in a locally special linear region with liquid-level increasing and cavity length decreasing. The experimental results prove that the actual curve of extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity is approximate cosine curve, and that the peak values of the fringes slowly decrease with increased cavity length. Consequently, cavity length loss influences on performance indexes of extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity optical fiber sensors operating in linear region such as measurement range, sensitivity, minimum resolution, and linearity. To obtain high finesse and throughout for reducing the complexity of signal processing system, the loss must be kept as small as possible by selecting an appropriate cavity length in view of different sensing surface and reflectivity. Otherwise, the sensor with too small initial cavity length can output more intensity, perform wider range of measurands, possess higher minimum resolution, and is more sensitive, but the linearity becomes worse and the measurement errors are maybe unavoidable to rise. On the contrary, with bigger original cavity length, the things are opposite. Hence, the original cavity length and the end reflectivity must be selected appropriately to meet with the requirements for performance indexes of the liquid-level sensor in realistic circumstance.

  7. Response of a New Low-Coherence Fabry-Perot Sensor to Hematocrit Levels in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a low-coherence Fabry-Perot sensor with a spectrally measured signal processing response to the refractive index of liquids is presented. Optical fiber sensors are potentially capable of continuous measuring hematocrit levels in blood. Low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors offer a robust solution, where information about the measurand is encoded in the full spectrum of light reflected from the sensing interferometer. The first step in the research on such sensor is the assessment of its performance under favorable conditions, i.e., using blood samples from healthy volunteers tested in vitro. Such an experiment was conducted using a sensor comprising a superluminescent diode source, an optical spectrum analyzer working as the detection setup and a sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer providing high interference contrast. The response of this sensor was recorded for several samples and compared with the reference laboratory method. The coefficient of determination (R2) for a linear relationship between the results given by both methods was 0.978 and the difference between these results was less than 1%. The presented results suggest that further research into the performance of the sensor is merited. PMID:24755518

  8. Design of multistack Fabry-Perot structure with defect as tunable transmission filter for CWDM using FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Rajorshi; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2015-06-01

    The translational symmetry of the periodicity in a photonic crystal can be disturbed by introducing a controlled defect in its periodicity. The photon localization causes a pass band in the photonic bandgap. Based on this concept, we are proposing the design of a tunable narrow band filter for multiple wavelengths used for coarse wave length division multiplexing (CWDM) system. To achieve that, a multiple stack Fabry Perot structure with suitable stack materials and controllable defect is considered. The proposed Fabry Perot structure consists of periodic layers of electro optic material Lithium Niobate (nH) and Magnesium Fluoride (nL). The optical length of each such layer is their corresponding quarter wave length width at the design wavelength λ0 (1.55 μm). The reflection band of the quarter wavelength multilayer structure is formed due to the periodic repetition of the (LH)NL, where L and H are the quarter wavelength width of the nL and nH material respectively and N is the number of bilayers. A quarter wave layer L is then inserted between the groups of (LH)N and (HL)N to form the Fabry Perot resonator structure which can be used for narrow band transmission filter. The simulation has been carried out in both FDTD and TMM method and compared. As the refractive index of the Lithium Niobate can be tuned electro-optically, the filter can also be made tunable.

  9. First Light from Triple-Etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Atmospheric OI Airglow (6300 A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchorn, S.; Noto, J.; Pedersen, T.; Betremieux, Y.; Migliozzi, M.; Kerr, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Scientific Solutions, Inc. (SSI) has developed a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to observe neutral winds in the ionosphere by measuring neutral oxygen (O I) emission at 630.0 nm during the day. This instrument is to be deployed in the SSI airglow building at the Cerro Tololo observatory (30.17S 70.81W) in Chile, in support of the Comm/Nav Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) project. Post-deployment observation will be made in conjunction with two other Clemson University Fabry-Perots in Peru, creating a longitudinal chain of interferometers for thermospheric observations. These instruments will make autonomous day and night observations of thermospheric dynamics. Instruments of this type can be constructed for a global chain of autonomous airglow observatories. The FPI presented in this talk consists of three independently pressure-controlled etalons, fed collimated light by a front optical train headed by an all-sky lens with a 160-degree field of view. It can be controlled remotely via a web-based service which allows any internet-connected computer to mimic the control computer at the instrument site. In fall 2005, the SSI system was first assembled at the Millstone Hill Observatory in Westford, Massachusetts, and made day and evening observations. It was then moved to the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) site in Gakona, Alaska, to participate in joint optical/ionospheric heating campaigns. Additionally, natural airglow observations were made, both locally and remotely via the internet from Massachusetts. The Millstone and HAARP observations with two etalons yielded strong 630-nm atmospheric Fraunhofer absorption lines, with some suggestion of the Ring effect. By modeling the atmospheric absorption line as the constant times the corresponding solar absorption -- itself modeled as a Gaussian plus a polynomial -- the absorption feature is subtracted, leaving only the emission feature. Software ring-summing tools developed at the

  10. All-optical clock recovery based on simultaneous external injection-locking and self-seeding of a Fabry-Perot laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaohui; Wai, Ping Kong A.; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Qureshi, Khurram K.

    2011-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a novel, simple, and low cost method for all-optical clock recovery based on the switching between two injection-locked longitudinal modes in a dc-biased multi-quantum-well Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD). The dc biased FP-LD is simultaneously injection-locked by a return-to-zero data signal at one of the longitudinal modes of the FP-LD and self-seeded at another longitudinal mode by using a uniform fiber Bragg grating as a feedback component. The powers and detunes of the data signal and self-seeding signal are chosen such that self-seeding is realized in the FP-LD only when data signal power is low. Clock signals of data streams at different data rates can be obtained by tuning the optical delay line in the external self-seeding loop. We have demonstrated all-optical clock recovery at 10 GHz. The pulse width, time-bandwidth product, side mode suppression ration, root mean square timing jitter, and average power of the recovered clock signals are 50 ps, 0.5, 50 dB, 248 fs, and 3.6 dBm, respectively. Clock recovery is possible at wavelength within the gain band of the FP-LD. We also find and explore in the experiment the influence of detune between the external data signal and the nearest FP-LD longitudinal mode to the recovered clock.

  11. Commercial narrowband Fabry-Perot solar filters, methods and instruments for their examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorovsky, Valery; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Tsayukova, Alla

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, Coronado, Lunt, Solar Spectrum, Daystar and Solarscope companies advance available narrowband solar filters. Being installed in small telescopes they allow amateurs not only to admire grand phenomena in the solar atmosphere but also to be involved in scientific observations. The efforts of the companies aimed at achieving extreme values of Fabry-Perot (FP) filter basic parameters such as full width at half-maximum, angular field of view, filter clear aperture and uniformity of passband over the aperture, to make them suitable for scientific observations. Parameters of commercial filters, their compliance with the requirements depend on filter design and technology developed by companies. This study considers narrowband FP filters designs proposed by five leading companies, and some technological problems of their production, which are important for their operation. To use commercial filters in professional research, it is necessary to be sure that the filter parameters declared by companies correspond to real ones. The methods and devices proposed by authors allow high-precision measuring integral and local characteristics of FP filter and its spectral uniformity across the aperture. Also, we can estimate the quality of optical stack and filter suitability for professional solar observations.

  12. Subnanometer absolute displacement measurement using a frequency comb referenced dual resonance tracking Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minhao; Wei, Haoyun; Zhao, Shijie; Wu, Xuejian; Li, Yan

    2015-05-10

    Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometry is a traceable high-resolution method for displacement metrology that has no nonlinearity. Compared with the single resonance tracking F-P interferometry, the dual resonance tracking (DRT) F-P interferometer system is able to realize tens of millimeters measurement range while maintaining the intrinsic high resolution. A DRT F-P system is thus developed for absolute displacement measurement in metrology applications. Two external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) are simultaneously locked to two resonances of a high-finesse F-P cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme. The absolute optical frequencies of the locked ECDLs are measured using a reference diode laser, with the frequency stabilized and controlled by an optical frequency comb. The absolute cavity resonance order numbers are investigated. The measurement range is experimentally tested to achieve 20 mm, while the resolution reaches ~10 pm level, mainly limited by the mechanical stability of the F-P cavity. Compared with the measurement results from a self-developed displacement-angle heterodyne interferometer, the displacement residuals are within 10 nm in the range of 20 mm. This high-resolution interferometer may become a candidate for length metrology such as in Watt balance or Joule balance projects.

  13. Highly compact fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer: A new instrument design.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, B K; Smith, D T; Smith, S T

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, and characterization of a new optical-fiber-based, low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer with a simple cavity formed by two reflecting surfaces (the end of a cleaved optical fiber and a plane, reflecting counter-surface), for the continuous measurement of displacements of several nanometers to several tens of millimeters. No beam collimation or focusing optics are required, resulting in a displacement sensor that is extremely compact (optical fiber diameter 125 μm), is surprisingly tolerant of misalignment (more than 5°), and can be used over a very wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions, including ultra-high-vacuum. The displacement measurement is derived from interferometric phase measurements using an infrared laser source whose wavelength is modulated sinusoidally at a frequency f. The phase signal is in turn derived from changes in the amplitudes of demodulated signals, at both the modulation frequency, f, and its harmonic at 2f, coming from a photodetector that is monitoring light intensity reflected back from the cavity as the cavity length changes. Simple quadrature detection results in phase errors corresponding to displacement errors of up to 25 nm, but by using compensation algorithms discussed in this paper, these inherent non-linearities can be reduced to below 3 nm. In addition, wavelength sweep capability enables measurement of the absolute surface separation. This experimental design creates a unique set of displacement measuring capabilities not previously combined in a single interferometer.

  14. Pressure sensor based on the fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qingxu; Zhou, Xinlei

    2011-03-01

    Pressure sensors based on fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) have been extensively applied in various industrial and biomedical fields. In this paper, some key improvements of EFPI-based pressure sensors such as the controlled thermal bonding technique, diaphragm-based EFPI sensors, and white light interference technology have been reviewed. Recent progress on signal demodulation method and applications of EFPI-based pressure sensors has been introduced. Signal demodulation algorithms based on the cross correlation and mean square error (MSE) estimation have been proposed for retrieving the cavity length of EFPI. Absolute measurement with a resolution of 0.08 nm over large dynamic range has been carried out. For downhole monitoring, an EFPI and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) cascade multiplexing fiber-optic sensor system has been developed, which can operate in temperature 300 °C with a good long-term stability and extremely low temperature cross-sensitivity. Diaphragm-based EFPI pressure sensors have been successfully used for low pressure and acoustic wave detection. Experimental results show that a sensitivity of 31 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 12.7 kHz for aeroacoustic wave detection has been obtained.

  15. Nondestructive and in situ determination of graphene layers using optical fiber Fabry-Perot interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Peng, Xiaobin; Liu, Qianwen; Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao; Fan, Shangchun

    2017-02-01

    Thickness measurement plays an important role for characterizing optomechanical behaviors of graphene. From the view of graphene-based Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensors, a simple, nondestructive and in situ method of determining the thickness of nanothick graphene membranes was demonstrated by using optical fiber F-P interference. Few-layer/multilayer graphene sheets were suspendedly adhered onto the endface of a ferrule with a 125 µm inner diameter by van der Waals interactions to construct micro F-P cavities. Along with the Fresnel’s law and complex index of refraction of the membrane working as a light reflector of an F-P interferometer, the optical reflectivity of graphene was modeled to investigate the effects of light wavelength and temperature. Then the average thickness of graphene membranes were extracted by F-P interference demodulation, and yielded a very strong cross-correlation coefficient of 99.95% with the experimental results observed by Raman spectrum and atomic force microscope. The method could be further extended for determining the number of layers of other 2D materials.

  16. Analytical modelling of a refractive index sensor based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Cano-Contreras, Martin; Gallegos-Arellano, Eloisa; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Hernández-García, Juan C; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    In this work a refractive index sensor based on a combination of the non-dispersive sensing (NDS) and the Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS) principles is presented. Here, in order to have one reference and one measurement channel a single-beam dual-path configuration is used for implementing the NDS principle. These channels are monitored with a couple of identical optical detectors which are correlated to calculate the overall sensor response, called here the depth of modulation. It is shown that this is useful to minimize drifting errors due to source power variations. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of a refractive index sensing setup, based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is described. Here, the changes over the FPI pattern as the exit refractive index is varied are analytically modelled by using the characteristic matrix method. Additionally, our simulated results are supported by experimental measurements which are also provided. Finally it is shown that by using this principle a simple refractive index sensor with a resolution in the order of 2.15 × 10(-4) RIU can be implemented by using a couple of standard and low cost photodetectors.

  17. Microfluidic flowmeter based on micro "hot-wire" sandwiched Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yan, Guofeng; Zhang, Liang; He, Sailing

    2015-04-06

    We present a compact microfluidic flowmeter based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The FPI was composed by a pair of fiber Bragg grating reflectors and a micro Co(2+)-doped optical fiber cavity, acting as a "hot-wire" sensor. Microfluidic channels made from commercial silica capillaries were integrated with the FPIs on a chip to realize flow-rate sensing system. By utilizing a tunable pump laser with wavelength of 1480 nm, the proposed flowmeter was experimentally demonstrated. The flow rate of the liquid sample is determined by the induced resonance wavelength shift of the FPI. The effect of the pump power, microfluidic channel scale and temperature on the performance of our flowmeter was investigated. The dynamic response was also measured under different flow-rate conditions. The experimental results achieve a sensitivity of 70 pm/(μL/s), a dynamic range up to 1.1 μL/s and response time in the level of seconds, with a spatial resolution ~200 μm. Such good performance renders the sensor a promising supplementary component in microfluidic biochemical sensing system. Furthermore, simulation modal was built up to analyze the heat distribution of the "hot-wire" cavity and optimize the FPI structure as well.

  18. Wavelength-switched phase interrogator for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Xiong, Shuidong; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We report on phase interrogation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensors through a wavelength-switched unit with a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG). The measurements at two wavelengths are first achieved in one total-optical path. The reflected peaks of the PMFBG with two natural wavelengths are in mutually perpendicular polarization detection, and they are switched through an electro-optic modulator at a high switching speed of 10 kHz. An ellipse fitting differential cross multiplication (EF-DCM) algorithm is proposed for interrogating the variation of the gap length of the EFPI sensors. The phase demodulation system has been demonstrated to recover a minimum phase of 0.42  μrad/Hz at the test frequency of 100 Hz with a stable intensity fluctuation level of ±0.8  dB. Three EFPI sensors with different cavity lengths are tested at the test frequency of 200 Hz, and the results indicate that the system can achieve the demodulation of EFPI sensors with different cavity lengths stably.

  19. High quality factor polymeric Fabry-Perot resonators utilizing a polymer waveguide.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-10

    Optical resonators are used in a variety of applications ranging from sensors to lasers and signal routing in high volume communication networks. Achieving a high quality (Q) factor is necessary for higher sensitivity in sensing applications and for narrow linewidth light emission in most lasing applications. In this work, we propose a new approach to achieve a very high Q-factor in polymeric Fabry-Perot resonators by conquering light diffraction inside the optical cavity. This can be achieved by inducing a refractive index feature inside the optical cavity that simply creates a waveguide between the two mirrors. This approach eliminates diffraction loss from the cavity and therefore the Q-factor is only limited by mirror loss and absorption. To demonstrate this claim, a device has been fabricated consisting of two dielectric Bragg reflectors with a 100 μm layer of photosensitive polymer between them. The refractive index of this polymer can be modified utilizing standard photo-lithography processes. The measured finesse of the fabricated device was 692 and the Q-factor was 55000.

  20. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications.

  1. Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Sheng, Qiwen; Hou, Weilin; Han, Ming

    2016-11-14

    In practical applications of fiber optic sensors based on Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs), the lead-in optical fiber often experiences dynamic or static bending due to environmental perturbations or limited installation space. Bending introduces wavelength-dependent losses to the sensors, which can cause erroneous readings for sensors based on wavelength demodulation interrogation. Here, we investigate the bending-induced wavelength shift (BIWS) to sensors based on FPIs. Partially explicit expressions of BIWSs for the reflection fringe peaks and valleys have been derived for sensors based on low-finesse FPI. The theoretical model predicts these findings: 1) provided that a fringe peak experiences the same modulation slope by bending losses with a fringe valley, BIWSs for the peak and valley have opposite signs and the BIWS for the valley has a smaller absolute value; 2) BIWS is a linear function of the length of the bending section; 3) a FPI with higher visibility and longer optical path length is more resistant to the influence of bending. Experiments have been carried out and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  2. Wide field of view spectroscopy using solid Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoleyczik, Jonathan; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Harvey; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    We present a high resolution spectrometer consisting of dual solid Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI). Each FPI is made of a single piece of L-BBH2 glass which has a high index of refraction n 2.07. Each is then coated with partially reflective mirrors to achieve a spectral resolution of R 30,000. Running the FPIs in tandem reduces the overlapping orders and allows for a much wider free spectral range and higher contrast. Tuning of the FPIs is achieved by adjusting the temperature and thus changing the FPI gap and the refractive index of the material. The spectrometer then moves spatially in order to get spectral information at every point in the field of view. We select spectral lines for further analysis and create maps of the line depths across the field. Using this technique we are able to measure the fluorescence of chlorophyll in plants and observe zodiacal light. In the chlorophyll analysis we are able to detect chlorophyll fluorescence using the line depth in a plant using the sky as a reference solar spectrum. This instrument has possible applications in either a cubesat or aerial observations to measure bulk plant activity over large areas.

  3. Differential-pressure-based fiber-optic temperature sensor using Fabry-Perot interferometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiegen; Yin, Jinde; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; Zou, Shengliang

    2015-03-15

    We propose a novel fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric (FFPI) temperature sensor based on differential pressure resulting from thermal expansion of sealed air. A thin silicon diaphragm is sandwiched between two micro-circular cavity-structured Pyrex plates to construct a FP and an air cavity. The thermal expansion of sealed air induces differential pressure variation between cavities and thus the deformation of thin diaphragm, which transfers temperature change into cavity length shift of FP interferometer. Theory analysis results indicate that the temperature-sensitivity can be designed flexibly by choosing the parameters of radius and thickness of silicon diaphragm, and the differential pressure between two cavities. Experimental results demonstrate that the temperature sensitivity of 6.07 nm/°C is achieved with the resolution of 0.10°C under the range of -50°C to 100°C, and the response time is around 1.3 s with temperature change from 28°C to 100°C.

  4. High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber-optic thermometer with cascaded Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Sheng, Qiwen; Hou, Weilin; Han, Ming

    2016-11-01

    The paradox between a large dynamic range and a high resolution commonly exists in nearly all kinds of sensors. Here, we propose a fiber-optic thermometer based on dual Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) made from the same material (silicon), but with different cavity lengths, which enables unambiguous recognition of the dense fringes associated with the thick FPI over the free-spectral range determined by the thin FPI. Therefore, the sensor combines the large dynamic range of the thin FPI and the high resolution of the thick FPI. To verify this new concept, a sensor with one 200 μm thick silicon FPI cascaded by another 10 μm thick silicon FPI was fabricated. A temperature range of -50°C to 130°C and a resolution of 6.8×10-3°C were demonstrated using a simple average wavelength tracking demodulation. Compared to a sensor with only the thick silicon FPI, the dynamic range of the hybrid sensor was more than 10 times larger. Compared to a sensor with only the thin silicon FPI, the resolution of the hybrid sensor was more than 18 times higher.

  5. Fabry-Perot measurements and analysis of TOW-2A liner collapse and jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.C.; Winer, K.A.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Avara, G.R.; Baum, D.W.

    1996-07-01

    A TOW-2A 146 mm shaped charge was fired and observed with five beam Fabry-Perot laser velocimetry. The liner collapse velocities were measured at five lines of sight covering the outer half of the liner. A record of 8-10 {mu}s in length was obtained for each sight line The velocity records at late time differ for each location, reflecting the varying charge-to-mass ratio as the end of the liner is approached. The results were analyzed with the CALE-2D hydrodynamic simulation code. The calculations reproduce the jump-off times, the shapes of the velocity jumps and the late time velocity asymptotes, but they underestimate the jump-off velocities by 6-7%. The calculations show that there exist no features in the velocity records that require spallation to account for them. Rather, the standard Steinberg-Guinan material model adequately accounts for the response of this copper liner to LX-14.

  6. Proposal and analysis of two-cavity Fabry-Perot structures based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Feng, Suchun; Jian, Shuisheng

    2009-03-01

    An all-fiber two-cavity Fabry-Perot (FP) configuration based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is proposed. The characteristics of transmission spectra for the two-cavity FP structure are theoretically analyzed and comprehensively modeled. The explicit expression of the transmission coefficient for the structures is derived. The general conditions for the lengths of two cavities and reflectivities of FBGs are presented to produce the single resonant transmission peak at the central wavelength in the FBG stop band. Based on the theoretical analysis, the transmission spectra of symmetric and asymmetric two-cavity FP structures are simulated, and the simulation results are discussed and explained qualitatively. The design guidelines of the device, including the choices of cavity lengths, grating lengths, and index modulation depths, are concluded. The results show that when the increasing of the cavity length of a single-cavity FP structure results in multiple resonant peaks in the stop band, the two-cavity FP structures of the same length can inhibit the secondary resonant peaks and keep the main peak without degrading the performance through appropriately designing the cavity lengths and FBGs. Finally, the fabrication error tolerances of the structures, including inaccurate cavity lengths and reflectivities of FBGs, are calculated and discussed.

  7. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of graphene diaphragm using optical fiber Fabry-Perot interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Qianwen; Peng, Xiaobin; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-07-01

    Application of the Fabry-Perot (FP) interference method for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a graphene diaphragm is investigated in this paper. A miniature extrinsic FP interferometric (EFPI) sensor was fabricated by using an approximate 8-layer graphene diaphragm. The extremely thin diaphragm was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with an inner diameter of 125 μm, and van der Waals interactions between the graphene diaphragm and its substrate created a low finesse FP interferometer with a cavity length of 36.13 μm. Double reference FP cavities using two cleaved optical fibers as reflectors were also constructed to differentially cancel the thermal expansion effects of the trapped gas and adhesive material. A temperature test demonstrated an approximate cavity length change of 166.1 nm °C-1 caused by film thermal expansion in the range of 20-60 °C. Then along with the established thermal deformation model of the suspended circular diaphragm, the calculated CTE ranging from  -9.98  ×  10-6 K-1 to  -2.09  ×  10-6 K-1 conformed well to the previously measured results. The proposed method would be applicable in other types of elastic materials as the sensitive diaphragm of an EFPI sensor over a wide temperature range.

  8. Photodetector based on Vernier-Enhanced Fabry-Perot Interferometers with a Photo-Thermal Coating.

    PubMed

    Chen, George Y; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaokong; Lancaster, David G; Monro, Tanya M; Xu, Haolan

    2017-01-31

    We present a new type of fiber-coupled photodetector with a thermal-based optical sensor head, which enables it to operate even in the presence of strong electro-magnetic interference and in electrically sensitive environments. The optical sensor head consists of three cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers. The end-face surface is coated with copper-oxide micro-particles embedded in hydrogel, which is a new photo-thermal coating that can be readily coated on many different surfaces. Under irradiation, photons are absorbed by the photo-thermal coating, and are converted into heat, changing the optical path length of the probing light and induces a resonant wavelength shift. For white-light irradiation, the photodetector exhibits a power sensitivity of 760 pm/mW, a power detection limit of 16.4 μW (i.e. specific detectivity of 2.2 × 10(5) cm.√Hz/W), and an optical damage threshold of ~100 mW or ~800 mW/cm(2). The response and recovery times are 3.0 s (~90% of change within 100 ms) and 16.0 s respectively.

  9. Measured optical performance of three Fabry-Perot interferometers for use in a tunable ultraviolet filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Socker, Dennis G.

    1993-01-01

    A narrowband ultraviolet (UV) filter would allow the first monochromatic two-dimensional images of astrophysical plasmas to be obtained in UV emission lines. The high etendue and spectral resolving power of the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer make it an excellent candidate for use in a tunable UV filter, provided that adequate optical performance can be obtained. Laboratory measurements of three UV FP interferometers with progressively greater dielectric mirror reflectances are described. The measurements demonstrate the adequate reflectivity, absorption, and small-scale smoothness of currently available coatings and substrates for UV interferometry. The measurements are conducted at 228.8 nm utilizing a cadmium hollow cathode light source. The best performing interferometer has a finesse of 41 and maximum transmittance of 0.38 over a coating-performance-dominated 3-mm-diam subaperture and a finesse of 26 and maximum transmittance of 0.32 over a parabolic-defect-dominated 30-mm-diam aperture. This interferometer is well suited for use in a UV filter system.

  10. Fabry-Perot images of NGC 1275 and its puzzling high-velocity system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caulet, Adeline; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Brown, Larry W.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hintzen, Paul; Lowenthal, James D.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Ziegler, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot imager is used to obtain a velocity sequence of calibrated narrow-band CCD images to cover 3000 km/s velocity space between the redshifted H-alpha emission lines of NGC 1275, its extended associated system of low-velocity (LV) filaments, and the high-velocity (HV) system of knots, projected on the same line of sight in the sky. The lack of intermediate-velocity emission-line gas between the two systems leads to an upper limit of 1.5 x 10 exp -16 ergs/sq cm s sq arcsec (3 sigma) on stripped ionized gas due to the dynamical interaction between NGC 1275 and its HV companion galaxy. It also confirms previous reports that the level of continuum light arising from stellar and nonstellar sources must be very low in otherwise bright, strongly concentrated emission-line knots with unresolved diameters of 425/h pc. The H-alpha luminosities of the emission-line regions of the two systems were measured and star formation rates derived in order to investigate quantitatively the physical relation between the HV galaxy, NGC 1275, and the surrounding cooling flow filaments.

  11. Highly compact fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer: A new instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, B. K.; Smith, D. T.; Smith, S. T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, and characterization of a new optical-fiber-based, low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer with a simple cavity formed by two reflecting surfaces (the end of a cleaved optical fiber and a plane, reflecting counter-surface), for the continuous measurement of displacements of several nanometers to several tens of millimeters. No beam collimation or focusing optics are required, resulting in a displacement sensor that is extremely compact (optical fiber diameter 125 μm), is surprisingly tolerant of misalignment (more than 5°), and can be used over a very wide range of temperatures and environmental conditions, including ultra-high-vacuum. The displacement measurement is derived from interferometric phase measurements using an infrared laser source whose wavelength is modulated sinusoidally at a frequency f. The phase signal is in turn derived from changes in the amplitudes of demodulated signals, at both the modulation frequency, f, and its harmonic at 2f, coming from a photodetector that is monitoring light intensity reflected back from the cavity as the cavity length changes. Simple quadrature detection results in phase errors corresponding to displacement errors of up to 25 nm, but by using compensation algorithms discussed in this paper, these inherent non-linearities can be reduced to below 3 nm. In addition, wavelength sweep capability enables measurement of the absolute surface separation. This experimental design creates a unique set of displacement measuring capabilities not previously combined in a single interferometer.

  12. CIV Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers for Transition-Region Magnetography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter; Li, Jianzhao

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet region allows remote sensing of the upper levels of the solar atmosphere where the magnetic field dominates the physics. Obtaining an imaging interferometer that observes the transition region is the goal of this program. This paper gives a summary of our instrument development program (1998-2005) for a high-spectral-resolution, piezoelectric tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometer (VUV FPI) for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CN (155nm). A VUV interferometer will allow us to observe the magnetic field, flows, and heating events in the mid-transition region. The MSFC VUV FPI has measured values of FWHM approx. 9pm, FSR approx. 62pm, finesse approx. 5.3 and transmittance approx. 50% at 157nm. For the measurements, the University of Toronto's F2 eximer laser was used as an appropriate proxy for CIV 155nm. This has provided the first tunable interferometer with a FWHM compatible to VUV filter magnetograph.

  13. Measurement of frequency swept linearly with Fabry-Perot fiber interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Zhu; Xu, Nan; Liu, De'an; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren

    2009-08-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) used a series of pulses in which the optical frequency was swept linearly in time over a bandwidth greater than several gigahertz. The linearity of such broadly tunable sources is often poor which is leading to phase errors. Many methods are adopted to correct for quadratic and higher-order phase errors such as the reference channel or algorithm for unmatched channel of Aerospace and the reference interferometer of Naval Research Laboratory. If the real value of frequency swept quasi-linearly is measured another direct way to mitigate the waveform linearity problem can be developed. At first the frequency curve is measured with Fabry Perot fiber interferometer. Experiment and results are explained in detail in this paper. The quadratic and higher-order terms of frequency swept are calculated. They may be used to deduce the phase errors directly later. At the same time the wavefront is also measured by a Jamin shearing interferometer through the fringe analysis.

  14. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film-coated optical fiber Fabry-Perot sensor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingshun; Li, Qiu-Shun; Wang, Jun-Nan; Jin, Zhongwei; Sui, Qingmei; Ma, Yaohong; Shi, Jianguo; Zhang, Faye; Jia, Lei; Yao, Wei-Guo; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2013-02-11

    In this paper, a novel TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film coated optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensor had been developed for refractive index (RI) sensing by monitoring the shifts of the fringe contrast in the reflectance spectra. Using in situ liquid phase deposition approach, the TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film could be formed on the fiber surface in a controlled fashion. The optical properties of as-prepared F-P sensors were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicated that the RI sensitivity of F-P sensors could be effectively improved after the deposition of nanoparticle thin-films. It was about 69.38 dB/RIU, which was 2.6 times higher than that of uncoated one. The linear RI measurement range was also extended from 1.333~1.457 to 1.333~1.8423. More importantly, its optical properties exhibited the unique temperature-independent performance. Therefore, owing to these special optical properties, the TiO(2) nanoparticle thin film coated F-P sensors have great potentials in medical diagnostics, food quality testing, environmental monitoring, biohazard detection and homeland security, even at elevated temperature.

  15. Photodetector based on Vernier-Enhanced Fabry-Perot Interferometers with a Photo-Thermal Coating

    PubMed Central

    Chen, George Y.; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaokong; Lancaster, David G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Xu, Haolan

    2017-01-01

    We present a new type of fiber-coupled photodetector with a thermal-based optical sensor head, which enables it to operate even in the presence of strong electro-magnetic interference and in electrically sensitive environments. The optical sensor head consists of three cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers. The end-face surface is coated with copper-oxide micro-particles embedded in hydrogel, which is a new photo-thermal coating that can be readily coated on many different surfaces. Under irradiation, photons are absorbed by the photo-thermal coating, and are converted into heat, changing the optical path length of the probing light and induces a resonant wavelength shift. For white-light irradiation, the photodetector exhibits a power sensitivity of 760 pm/mW, a power detection limit of 16.4 μW (i.e. specific detectivity of 2.2 × 105 cm.√Hz/W), and an optical damage threshold of ~100 mW or ~800 mW/cm2. The response and recovery times are 3.0 s (~90% of change within 100 ms) and 16.0 s respectively. PMID:28139745

  16. Reflection of light by composite volume holograms: Fresnel corrections and Fabry-Perot spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Glebov, Leonid B; Lumeau, Julien; Mokhov, Sergiy; Smirnov, Vadim; Zeldovich, Boris Ya

    2008-03-01

    Effects in composite volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are studied theoretically and experimentally. The mathematics of reflection is formulated with a unified account of Fresnel reflections by the boundaries and of VBG reflection. We introduce the strength S of reflection by an arbitrary lossless element such that the intensity of reflection is R=tanh(2) S. We show that the ultimate maximum/minimum of reflection by a composite lossless system corresponds to addition/subtraction of relevant strengths of the sequential elements. We present a new physical interpretation of standard Fresnel reflection: strength for TE or for TM reflection is given by addition or by subtraction of two contributions. One of them is an angle-independent contribution of the impedance step, while the other is an angle-dependent contribution of the step of propagation speed. We study an assembly of two VBG mirrors with a thin immersion layer between them that constitutes a Fabry-Perot spectral filter. The transmission wavelength of the assembly depends on the phase shift between the two VBGs. Spectral resolution Deltalambda(FWHM)=25 pm at lambda=1063.4 nm is achieved with the device of small total physical thickness 2L=5.52 mm.

  17. A Large Aperture Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter Based On Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matt; Mott, Brent; Powell, Dan; Barclay, Rich; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2002-01-01

    A research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) is focused on applying Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems (MOEMS) technology to create a miniature Fabry-Perot tunable etalon for space and ground-based near infrared imaging spectrometer applications. Unlike previous devices developed for small-aperture telecommunications systems, the GSFC research is directed toward a novel 12 - 40 mm aperture for astrophysical studies, including emission line imaging of galaxies and nebulae, and multi-spectral redshift surveys in the 1.1 - 2.3 micron wavelength region. The MOEMS design features integrated electrostatic scanning of the 11-micron optical gap, and capacitance micrometry for closed loop control of parallelism within a 10-nm tolerance. The low thermal mass and inertia inherent in MOEMS devices allows for rapid cooling to the proposed 30 K operating temperature, and high frequency response. Achieving the proposed 6-nm aperture flatness (with an effective finesse of 50) represents the primary technical challenge in the current 12-mm prototype.

  18. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor using a polarization-switched phase interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Yang, Yangyang; Xiong, Shuidong; Luo, Hong; Wei, Wenjian

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a phase variation tracking method for the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) voice sensing system is designed and experimentally demonstrated through a polarization-switched unit based on the combination of polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG). The measurements at two operation wavelengths are firstly achieved in one total-optical path, which eliminates the imbalance of optical power from the external disturbances, optical source fluctuation, different detecting response of photoelectric detector and different background noise. Two operation wavelengths reflected from a PMFBG for interference phase tracking are switched via an electro-optic modulator at a high switching speed of 10 kHz. Besides, an ellipse fitting-differential cross multiplication (EF-DCM) algorithm is proposed and illustrated for interrogating the variation of EFPI cavity gap length of the EFPI voice sensor effectively. Preliminary experimental results have proven that the polarization-switched system based on the EF-DCM algorithm could find potential applications in the fields of marine acoustic, medical science measurements, etc.

  19. Analytical Modelling of a Refractive Index Sensor Based on an Intrinsic Micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Cano-Contreras, Martin; Gallegos-Arellano, Eloisa; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Hernández-García, Juan C.; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work a refractive index sensor based on a combination of the non-dispersive sensing (NDS) and the Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS) principles is presented. Here, in order to have one reference and one measurement channel a single-beam dual-path configuration is used for implementing the NDS principle. These channels are monitored with a couple of identical optical detectors which are correlated to calculate the overall sensor response, called here the depth of modulation. It is shown that this is useful to minimize drifting errors due to source power variations. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of a refractive index sensing setup, based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is described. Here, the changes over the FPI pattern as the exit refractive index is varied are analytically modelled by using the characteristic matrix method. Additionally, our simulated results are supported by experimental measurements which are also provided. Finally it is shown that by using this principle a simple refractive index sensor with a resolution in the order of 2.15 × 10−4 RIU can be implemented by using a couple of standard and low cost photodetectors. PMID:26501277

  20. Hot-wire sandwiched Fabry-Perot interferometer for microfluidic flow rate sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yan, Guofeng; Zhang, Liang; He, Sailing

    2015-08-01

    We present a Fabry-Perot interferometer for microfluidic flow rate sensing. The FPI was composed by a pair of fiber Bragg grating reflectors and a micro Co2+-doped optical fiber cavity, acting as a "hot-wire" sensor. A microfluidic channel made from commercial silica capillary was integrated with the FPIs on a chip to realize flow-rate sensing system. By utilizing a tunable pump laser with wavelength of 1480 nm, the proposed flowmeter was experimentally demonstrated. The flow rate of the liquid sample is determined by the induced resonance wavelength shift of the FPI. The effect of the pump power on the performance of our flowmeter was investigated. The dynamic response was also measured under different flow-rate conditions. The experimental results achieve a sensitivity of 70 pm/(μL/s), a dynamic range up to 1.1 μL/s and response time in the level of seconds. Such good performance renders the sensor a promising supplementary component in microfluidic biochemical sensing system.

  1. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  2. Switchable single-polarization dual-wavelength TDFL using PM Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Yan, Fengping; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Luna; Bai, Zhuoya; Yin, Bin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    A switchable single-polarization (SP), dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser using polarization maintaining (PM) Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter is proposed. A combination of the PM F-P filter, a polarization controller (PC) and a polarizer is used to ensure the SP lasing operation. A stable dual-wavelength lasing operation is obtained at 1941.82 nm and 1942.21 nm. By adjusting the PCs, the proposed laser can achieve SP single-wavelength lasing operation; the polarization extinction ratios are higher than 33 dB. When the pump power is higher than 2.98 W, the optical signal-to-noise ratios of the SP single-wavelength operation can reach 60 dB, and the output power variations are less than 0.32 dB (X-polarization) and 0.30 dB (Y-polarization). The slope efficiencies of SP lasing operation are 6.26% (X-polarization) and 8.79% (Y-polarization), respectively.

  3. A Tiny Fabry-Perot Interferometer with Postpositional Filter for Measurement of the Thermospheric Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Houmao; Wang, Yongmei; Fu, Jianguo

    2016-12-01

    A tiny and low-cost ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) was designed using a filter behind etalon and Galilean telescope system for the thermospheric wind observation with OI 630.0 nm nightglow emissions ( 250 km). Based on the instrument, experiments were carried out at Langfang (39.40° N, 116.65° E) site for a rough comparison and Kelan (38.71° N, 111.58° E) site for a detailed validation. Wind results of Langfang experiment are well consistent with measurements of two other FPIs deployed at Xinglong (40.40° N, 117.59° E) and Kelan which are retrieved by the American National Center for Atmospheric Research (A-NCAR). In Kelan experiment, the averaged wind deviation between our FPI and A-NCAR FPI is 11.8 m/s. The averaged deviation of wind measurement error between them is 2.9 m/s. The comparisons suggest good agreement. Then, the analysis of influencing factors was made. The center determination offset has an exponential relation with wind deviation, while the radius calculation offset is linear with wind deviation.

  4. All-fiber upconversion high spectral resolution wind lidar using a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Mingjia; Xia, Haiyun; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shentu, Guoliang; Zhang, Qiang; Dou, Xiankang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-22

    An all-fiber, micro-pulse and eye-safe high spectral resolution wind lidar (HSRWL) at 1.5 μm is proposed and demonstrated by using a pair of upconversion single-photon detectors and a fiber Fabry-Perot scanning interferometer (FFP-SI). In order to improve the optical detection efficiency, both the transmission spectrum and the reflection spectrum of the FFP-SI are used for spectral analyses of the aerosol backscatter and the reference laser pulse. Taking advantages of high signal-to-noise ratio of the detectors and high spectral resolution of the FFP-SI, the center frequencies and the bandwidths of spectra of the aerosol backscatter are obtained simultaneously. Continuous LOS wind observations are carried out on two days at Hefei (31.843 °N, 117.265 °E), China. The horizontal detection range of 4 km is realized with temporal resolution of 1 minute. The spatial resolution is switched from 30 m to 60 m at distance of 1.8 km. In a comparison experiment, LOS wind measurements from the HSRWL show good agreement with the results from an ultrasonic wind sensor (Vaisala windcap WMT52). An empirical method is adopted to evaluate the precision of the measurements. The standard deviation of the wind speed is 0.76 m/s at 1.8 km. The standard deviation of bandwidth variation is 2.07 MHz at 1.8 km.

  5. A novel fiber optic Fabry-Perot structure with a micrometric diameter tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Zhuang; Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a novel fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) structure with a micrometric diameter tip. The fabrication of micro scale probes has become essential in intracellular surgery, in cell sensing, manipulation, and injection. It is of great importance in many fields, such as genetics, pathology, criminology, pharmacogenetics, and food safety. With such a tiny protrusion, the sensor can be inserted into micron size cells, say, for DNA analysis. With the FP cavity inside the fiber, the change of optical path difference (OPD) caused by the environment can be demodulated. In addition, the structure is intrinsically capable of temperature compensation. What's more, it is simple, cost-efficient, and compact. Last but not the least, the structure shows promise for nanometric protrusion. Once this goal is achieved, the sensor can be inserted into most cells. The sensor could pave the way for faster, more accurate medical diagnostic tests for countless conditions and may ultimately save lives by allowing earlier disease detection and intervention.

  6. Photodetector based on Vernier-Enhanced Fabry-Perot Interferometers with a Photo-Thermal Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, George Y.; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaokong; Lancaster, David G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Xu, Haolan

    2017-01-01

    We present a new type of fiber-coupled photodetector with a thermal-based optical sensor head, which enables it to operate even in the presence of strong electro-magnetic interference and in electrically sensitive environments. The optical sensor head consists of three cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers. The end-face surface is coated with copper-oxide micro-particles embedded in hydrogel, which is a new photo-thermal coating that can be readily coated on many different surfaces. Under irradiation, photons are absorbed by the photo-thermal coating, and are converted into heat, changing the optical path length of the probing light and induces a resonant wavelength shift. For white-light irradiation, the photodetector exhibits a power sensitivity of 760 pm/mW, a power detection limit of 16.4 μW (i.e. specific detectivity of 2.2 × 105 cm.√Hz/W), and an optical damage threshold of ~100 mW or ~800 mW/cm2. The response and recovery times are 3.0 s (~90% of change within 100 ms) and 16.0 s respectively.

  7. An optical fiber Fabry-Perot flow measurement technology based on partial bend structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijia; Jiang, Junfeng; Zhang, Xuezhi; Pan, Yuheng; Zhu, Wanshan; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Tiegen

    2016-08-01

    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) flow measurement technology is presented, which is based on partial bend structure. A 90° partial bend structure is designed to achieve the non-probe flow measurement with a pressure difference. The fluid simulation results of partial bend structure show that the error of the pressure difference is below 0.05 kPa during steady flow. The optical fiber F-P sensor mounted on the elbow with pressure test accuracy of 1% full scale is used to measure the fluid flow. Flow test results show that when the flow varies from 1 m3/h to 6.5 m3/h at ambient temperature of 25 °C, the response time is 1 s and the flow test accuracy is 4.5% of the F-P flow test system, proving that the F-P flow test method based on partial bend structure can be used in fluid flow measurement.

  8. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  9. Principles and promise of Fabry-Perot resonators at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braakman, R.; Blake, G. A.

    2011-03-01

    Fabry-Perot resonators have tremendous potential to enhance the sensitivity of spectroscopic systems at terahertz (THz) frequencies. Increasing sensitivity will be of benefit in compensating for the relatively low power of current high resolution continuous wave THz radiation techniques, and to fully express the potential of THz spectroscopy as source power increases. Improved sensitivities, and thus scanning speeds, will allow detailed studies of the complex vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics that large molecules show at THz wavelengths, and will be especially important in studying more elusive, transient species such as those present in planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. Coupling radiation into the cavity presents unique challenges at THz frequencies, however, meaning that the cavity configurations common in neighboring frequency domains cannot simply be translated. Instead, novel constructions are needed. Here we present a resonator design in which wire-grid polarizers serve as the input and output coupling mirrors. Using this configuration, Q-factors of a few times 105 are achieved near 0.3 THz. To aid future investigations, the parameter space that limits the quality of the cavity is explored and paths to improved performance highlighted. Lastly, the performance of polarizer cavity-based Fourier transform (FT) THz spectrometers is discussed, in particular those design optimizations that should allow for the construction of THz instrumentation that rivals and eventually surpasses the sensitivities achieved with modern FT-microwave cavity spectrometers.

  10. Performance of extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber strain sensors in the presence of cyclic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyprykevich, Peter; Fogg, Brian R.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the utility of in-line optical fiber-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers (EFPIs), in a fatigue environment typical of aircraft structures. Metallic and composite coupons with EFPIs attached to and embedded within were tested in constant amplitude cyclic fatigue at room temperature. An additional composite coupon was tested similarly at an elevated temperature. For the consideration of composite material applications the objectives were to determine the durability of the sensor and its ability to measure strains accurately, even when the EFPI sensor was embedded at an angle with respect to the principal adjacent reinforcing fibers of the composite. For metals, in addition to durability considerations, research was conducted as to how the EFPI sensor may be used to detect crack initiation and growth. The results of the test program have established the excellent durability of the EFPI sensor element for fatigue loading up to 50,000 cycles at R equals 0.1 (tension-tension fatigue) with a maximum strain level of 3,500 microinch/inch, for both attached and embedded sensors, once the optical fiber and sensor survived the composite laminate panel curing process.

  11. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  12. Spectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for Aalto-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Näsilä, Antti; Viherkanto, Kai; Holmlund, Christer; Näkki, Ismo; Saari, Heikki

    2013-09-01

    The Aalto-1 is a 3U-cubesat project coordinated by Aalto University. The satellite, Aalto-1, will be mainly built by students as project assignments and thesis works. The Aalto-1 is planned to launch on 2014. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing the main Earth observation payload, a miniaturized spectral imager unit, for the satellite. The spectral imager unit contains a spectral imager, a visible RGB-camera and control electronics of the cameras. Detailed design of the spectral imager unit has been completed and assembly of the spectral imager unit will be done in the autumn 2013. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by an RGB CMOS image sensor. The FPI consists of two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap and it is based on a piezo-actuated structure. The piezo-actuated FPI uses three piezo-actuators and is controlled in a closed capacitive feedback loop. The spectral resolution of the imager will be 8-15 nm at full width at half maximum and it will operate in the wavelength range 500-900 nm. Imaging resolution of the spectral imager is 1024x1024 pixels and the focal length of the optics is 32 mm and F-number is 3.4. Mass of the spectral imager unit is approximately 600 grams, and dimensions are 97 mm x 97 mm x 48 mm.

  13. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance.

  14. Observing the solar corona with a tunable Fabry-Perot filter.

    PubMed

    Noble, Matthew W; Rust, David M; Bernasconi, Pietro N; Pasachoff, Jay M; Babcock, Bryce A; Bruck, Megan A

    2008-11-01

    A solid Fabry-Perot etalon with a 0.16 A passband was used during the 180 s solar eclipse of 2006 for rapid scans of an emission line of the solar corona. The etalon was a Y-cut lithium niobate wafer coated with reflective and conductive (ITO) layers. Voltage applied perpendicular to the etalon face produced a passband shift of 0.0011 A V(-1). During the eclipse, 18 filtergrams were obtained at six 0.22 A steps across the profile of the forbidden [Fe X] spectral emission line at 6374.4 A, which results from the 10(6) K coronal plasma. The 9.3 x 9.3 arcmin field of view showed the structure of the corona above a newly emerged sunspot region. We discuss tests performed on the etalon before and after the eclipse. We also discuss the coronal observations, which show some features with 10 km s(-1) velocities in the line of sight.

  15. Dual-frequency comb generation with differing GHz repetition rates by parallel Fabry-Perot cavity filtering of a single broadband frequency comb source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildner, Jutta; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Pollinger, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We present a dual-comb-generator based on a coupled Fabry-Perot filtering cavity doublet and a single seed laser source. By filtering a commercial erbium-doped fiber-based optical frequency comb with CEO-stabilisation and 250 MHz repetition rate, two broadband coherent combs of different repetition rates in the GHz range are generated. The filtering doublet consists of two Fabry-Perot cavities with a tunable spacing and Pound-Drever-Hall stabilisation scheme. As a prerequisite for the development of such a filtering unit, we present a method to determine the actual free spectral range and transmission bandwidth of a Fabry-Perot cavity in situ. The transmitted beat signal of two diode lasers is measured as a function of their tunable frequency difference. Finally, the filtering performance and resulting beat signals of the heterodyned combs are discussed as well as the optimisation measures of the whole system.

  16. Storm time response of the midlatitude thermosphere: Observations from a network of Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Meriwether, John W.; Mesquita, Rafael; Sanders, Samuel; Ridley, Aaron J.; Castellez, Michael W.; Ciocca, Marco; Earle, Gregory D.; Frissell, Nathaniel A.; Hampton, Donald L.; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Noto, John; Martinis, Carlos R.

    2014-08-01

    Observations of thermospheric neutral winds and temperatures obtained during a geomagnetic storm on 2 October 2013 from a network of six Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) deployed in the Midwest United States are presented. Coincident with the commencement of the storm, the apparent horizontal wind is observed to surge westward and southward (toward the equator). Simultaneous to this surge in the apparent horizontal winds, an apparent downward wind of approximately 100 m/s lasting for 6 h is observed. The apparent neutral temperature is observed to increase by approximately 400 K over all of the sites. Observations from an all-sky imaging system operated at the Millstone Hill observatory indicate the presence of a stable auroral red (SAR) arc and diffuse red aurora during this time. We suggest that the large sustained apparent downward winds arise from contamination of the spectral profile of the nominal thermospheric 630.0 nm emission by 630.0 nm emission from a different (nonthermospheric) source. Modeling demonstrates that the effect of an additional population of 630.0 nm photons, with a distinct velocity and temperature distribution, introduces an apparent Doppler shift when the combined emissions from the two sources are analyzed as a single population. Thus, the apparent Doppler shifts should not be interpreted as the bulk motion of the thermosphere, calling into question results from previous FPI studies of midlatitude storm time thermospheric winds. One possible source of contamination could be fast O related to the infusion of low-energy O+ ions from the magnetosphere. The presence of low-energy O+ is supported by observations made by the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron spectrometer instruments on the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft, which show an influx of low-energy ions during this period. These results emphasize the importance of distributed networks of instruments in understanding the complex dynamics that occur in the upper atmosphere during

  17. Striped double-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometers using both glass and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosman, David R.; Steinmetz, Lloyd L.; Perry, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    We have used piezo-driven Fabry-Perot interferometers in the past for many continuous velocity-time measurements of fast moving surfaces. In order to avoid the annoying drift of some of these devices, we have developed and used inexpensive, solid glass, striped etalons with lengths up to 64 mm. Useable apertures are 35 mm by 80 mm with a finess of 25. A roundabout technique was devised for double cavity operation. We built a passive thermal housing for temperature stability, with tilt and height adjustments. We have also developed and used our first fixed etalon air-spaced cavity with a rotatable glass double-cavity insert. The rotation allows the referee cavity fractional order to be adjusted separately from that of the main cavity. It needs very little thermal protection, and eliminates the need for a roundabout scheme for double cavity operation, but is more costly than the solid glass version. For a cavity with an air length H, glass length T, index n and wavelength (lambda) , the fringe angles are (root)j(lambda) /(H+T/n) where j is the fractional order plus an integer. This means double cavity fringe patterns plotted vs. velocity will cross if both air and glass are part of the system. This crossing, which is an advantage, will not occur for pure glass or pure air systems. The velocity per fringe is given by c(lambda) /4[H+T(n- (lambda) dn/d(lambda) )] where dn/d(lambda) is the derivative of index with respect to wavelengths. This expression therefore includes the effects of dispersion in the glass. Because the angle depends upon T/n and the velocity upon Tn, there is no equivalent air cavity for a given glass cavity. Very high quality glass is preferable to air, since for a given velocity per fringe, the fringe separation is larger for glass cavities, resulting in less finess degradation due to streak camera spatial resolution.

  18. Fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter for high-speed optical packet switching

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, N.L.; Tenbrink, S.C.; Hsu, K.; Miller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Tunable optical filters are important building blocks for All-Optical systems and networks. Fast optical tuning in several microseconds is necessary to perform high-speed optical packet switching. Multi- Gigabit/sec packet-switching will provide flexibility and higher network throughput when large numbers of users communicate simultaneously. One approach to achieve fast wavelength tuning is to use high-speed piezoelectrically-driven Fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filters (FFP-TFs). The requirement for tuning in microseconds raises a whole new set of challenges, such as ringing, thermostability and mechanical inertia control. It was shown that correlation between the mechanical resonance and optical response of the filter is important for the filter`s speed and for mounting hardware and control circuitry optimization. These features together with the FFP-TF`s high capacitance (approximately 0.25-0.5 microfarad) are being folded into building a special controller to substantially improve the shape of the driving signal and the response of the filter. The resultant controller enables tuning the high-speed FFP-TF three-orders-of- magnitude faster than that possible with standard commercial FFP-TFS. The fastest switching time achieved is 2.5 microseconds. As the result, a new packet-switched media access control protocol is being designed to minimize the searching time. The filter scans only once through the entire optical region and then tunes to all the required channels one after another in a few microseconds. It can help update Rainbow-2 Broadcast-and-Select High-Speed Wavelength Division Multiplexing All-Optical network that currently has a circuit- switched protocol using standard FFP-TFS.

  19. Deep Fabry-Perot Hα observations of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marcelin, M.; Epinat, B.; Carignan, C.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Daigle, O.; Hernandez, O.

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse ionized gas can extend all the way to the end of the H I disc, and even beyond, such as in the case of the warped galaxyNGC 253 (Bland-Hawthorn et al.). Detecting ionized gas at these radii could carry significant implications as to the distribution of dark matter in galaxies. With the aim of detecting this gas, we carried out a deep Hα kinematical analysis of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300. The Fabry-Perot data were taken at the 36-cm Marseille Telescope in La Silla, Chile, offering a large field of view. With almost 20 hours of observations for each galaxy, very faint diffuse emission is detected. Typical emission measures of 0.1 cm-6 pc are reached. For NGC 247, emission extending up to a radius comparable with that of the H I disc (r˜ 13 arcmin) is found, but no emission is seen beyond the H I disc. For NGC 300, we detect ionized gas on the entirety of our field of view (rmax˜ 14 arcmin), and find that the bright H II regions are embedded in a diffuse background. Using the deep data, extended optical rotation curves are obtained, as well as mass models. These are the most extended optical rotation curves thus far for these galaxies. We find no evidence suggesting that NGC 247 has a warped disc, and to account for our non-detection of Hα emission beyond its H I disc, as opposed to the warped galaxy NGC 253, our results favour the model in which, only through a warp, ionization by hot young stars in the central region of a galaxy can let photons escape and ionize the interstellar medium in the outer parts.

  20. Development of the Double Etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Determining Total and Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, William

    1999-01-01

    Measuring and understanding the distribution of ozone through the lower levels of Earth's atmosphere are high priorities in global change and climate research. Of particular interest now is the global distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Global coverage of the stratospheric ozone is feasible only via remote sensing instruments on a space-based platform. And though extensive monitoring tropospheric ozone is possible using instruments flown aboard conventional aircraft, a space-based system would be significantly less costly and provide information over a much broader area and produce more uniform coverage. Here we describe the prototype of an instrument being developed to monitor, from an orbiting spacecraft, the ozone found in Earth's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Our new spectrometer is an infrared Fabry-Perot interferometer which uses two synchrounously tuned etalons: a high resolution narrow band device and a lower resolution broader band filtering etalon. The prototype is a scanning device making use of nearly collimated input radiation and a single element detector. As presently configured, it is capable of providing a resolution better than 0.07/cm with a spectral band width approximately 5/cm wide and centered at 1054.7/cm. For the future space-based emission device a modification of the the prototype was to be made to employ innovative circle-to-line detector optics, those developed or in development at UM/SPRL, and a focal plane array detector. These enhancements would enable a simultaneous recording of the entire spectral range of interest, but with simple detection electronics and a significant gain in signal-to-noise over that of the scanning version.

  1. High time resolution measurements of the thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, E. A. K.; Aruliah, A. L.; Griffin, E. M.; McWhirter, I.

    2007-06-01

    Recent advances in the performance of CCD detectors have enabled a high time resolution study of the high latitude upper thermosphere with Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) to be performed. 10-s integration times were used during a campaign in April 2004 on an FPI located in northern Sweden in the auroral oval. The FPI is used to study the thermosphere by measuring the oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm, which emits at an altitude of approximately 240 km. Previous time resolutions have been 4 min at best, due to the cycle of look directions normally observed. By using 10 s rather than 40 s integration times, and by limiting the number of full cycles in a night, high resolution measurements down to 15 s were achievable. This has allowed the maximum variability of the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and 630.0 nm emission intensities, at approximately 240 km, to be determined as a few minutes. This is a significantly greater variability than the often assumed value of 1 h or more. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with waves with short periods. Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. At high latitudes gravity waves may be generated in-situ by localised auroral activity. Short period waves were detected in all four clear nights when this experiment was performed, in 630.0 nm intensities and thermospheric winds and temperatures. Waves with many periodicities were observed, from periods of several hours, down to 14 min. These waves were seen in all parameters over several nights, implying that this variability is a typical property of the thermosphere.

  2. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Holmlund, Christer; Ojanen, Harri J.; Näsilä, Antti; Saari, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a spectral imager for short-wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength range. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by a commercial InGaAs Camera. The FPI consists of two dielectric coated mirrors separated by a tunable air gap. Tuning of the air gap tunes also transmitted wavelength and therefore FPI acts as a tunable band bass filter. The FPI is piezo-actuated and it uses three piezo-actuators in a closed capacitive feedback loop for air gap tuning. The FPI has multiple order transmission bands, which limit free spectral range. Therefore spectral imager contains two FPI in a stack, to make possible to cover spectral range of 1000 - 1700 nm. However, in the first tests imager was used with one FPI and spectral range was limited to 1100-1600 nm. The spectral resolution of the imager is approximately 15 nm (FWHM). Field of view (FOV) across the flight direction is 30 deg. Imaging resolution of the spectral imager is 256 x 320 pixels. The focal length of the optics is 12 mm and F-number is 3.2. This imager was tested in summer 2014 in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and therefore a size and a mass of the imager were critical. Total mass of the imager is approximately 1200 grams. In test campaign the spectral imager will be used for forest and agricultural imaging. In future, because results of the UAV test flights are promising, this technology can be applied to satellite applications also.

  3. Large-aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer for miniaturized spectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Langner, Andreas; Viherkanto, Kai; Mannila, Rami

    2015-02-01

    VTT's optical MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) are tunable optical filters, which enable miniaturization of spectral imagers into small, mass producible hand-held sensors with versatile optical measurement capabilities. FPI technology has also created a basis for various hyperspectral imaging instruments, ranging from nanosatellites, environmental sensing and precision agriculture with UAVs to instruments for skin cancer detection. Until now, these application demonstrations have been mostly realized with piezo-actuated FPIs fabricated by non-monolithical assembly method, suitable for achieving very large optical apertures and with capacity to small-to-medium volumes; however large-volume production of MEMS manufacturing supports the potential for emerging spectral imaging applications also in large-volume applications, such as in consumer/mobile products. Previously reported optical apertures of MEMS FPIs in the visible range have been up to 2 mm in size; this paper presents the design, successful fabrication and characterization of MEMS FPIs for central wavelengths of λ = 500 nm and λ = 650 nm with optical apertures up to 4 mm in diameter. The mirror membranes of the FPI structures consist of ALD (atomic layer deposited) TiO2-Al2O3 λ/4- thin film Bragg reflectors, with the air gap formed by sacrificial polymer etching in O2 plasma. The entire fabrication process is conducted below 150 °C, which makes it possible to monolithically integrate the filter structures on other ICdevices such as detectors. The realized MEMS devices are aimed for nanosatellite space application as breadboard hyperspectral imager demonstrators.

  4. Micro-Mechanical Voltage Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters Formed in (111) Silicon. Degree awarded by Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1997-01-01

    The MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) technology is quickly evolving as a viable means to combine micro-mechanical and micro-optical elements on the same chip. One MEMS technology that has recently gained attention by the research community is the micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot optical filter. A MEMS based Fabry-Perot consists of a vertically integrated structure composed of two mirrors separated by an air gap. Wavelength tuning is achieved by applying a bias between the two mirrors resulting in an attractive electrostatic force which pulls the mirrors closer. In this work, we present a new micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot structure which is simple to fabricate and is integratable with low cost silicon photodetectors and transistors. The structure consists of a movable gold coated oxide cantilever for the top mirror and a stationary Au/Ni plated silicon bottom mirror. The fabrication process is single mask level, self aligned, and requires only one grown or deposited layer. Undercutting of the oxide cantilever is carried out by a combination of RIE and anisotropic KOH etching of the (111) silicon substrate. Metallization of the mirrors is provided by thermal evaporation and electroplating. The optical and electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices were studied and show promissing results. A wavelength shift of 120nm with 53V applied bias was demonstrated by one device geometry using 6.27 micrometer air gap. The finesse of the structure was 2.4. Modulation bandwidths ranging from 91KHz to greater than 920KHz were also observed. Theoretical calculations show that if mirror reflectivity, smoothness, and parallelism are improved, a finesse of 30 is attainable. The predictions also suggest that a reduction of the air gap to 1 micrometer results in an increased wavelength tuning range of 175 nm with a CMOS compatible 4.75V.

  5. Use of Fabry-Perot annular summing spectroscopy to acquire geocoronal hydrogen Balmer-α line profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, Susan M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Coakley, Monica M.; Reynolds, Ronald J.

    1996-10-01

    A Fabry-Perot annular summing spectroscopy technique has been sued at the University of Wisconsin's Pine Bluff Observatory to acquire geocoronal Balmer-(alpha) line profile data with significantly improved precision and height resolution. The double-etalon Fabry-Perot interference pattern is imaged onto a photometrics PM512 CCD chip, thus enabling light to be gathered in multiple spectral bins simultaneously. In comparison with scanning systems we used earlier, the high quantum efficiency of the CCD and the multi-channel detection associated with the Fabry-Perot annular summing technique have enabled us to save a factor of about 10 in the integration time required for studies of the line profile. As a result, we are now able to both more precisely observe the line shape of the very faint Balmer- (alpha) emission and obtain data using shorter integration times. Our data illustrate the scientific potential for using this technique for the study of very faint extended emission line sources. The increase in the signal-to-noise of our data has enabled us to examine Balmer-(alpha) profile asymmetries which we have found to be compatible with predictions that on the order of 10 percent of the geocoronal Balmer-(alpha) excitation arises from cascades due to higher-member solar Lyman series excitation. This fine structure was overlooked in previous Balmer-(alpha) studies aimed at determining non-Maxwellian dynamical properties of exospheric hydrogen; we find that cascade excitation largely masks the expected very small dynamical perturbations to the line profile at low shadow heights, and must be more thoroughly studied before drawing conclusions about exospheric dynamics. Accounting for cascade laos leads to more realistic determinations of exospheric hydrogen temperatures near the exobase.

  6. Performance analysis of polymer optical fibre based Fabry-Perot sensor formed by two uniform Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospori, A.; Webb, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    The stress sensitivity of polymer optical fibre (POF) based Fabry-Perot sensors formed by two uniform Bragg gratings with finite dimensions is investigated. POF has received high interest in recent years due to its different material properties compared to its silica counterpart. Biocompatibility, a higher failure strain and the highly elastic nature of POF are some of the main advantages. The much lower Young's modulus of polymer materials compared to silica offers enhanced stress sensitivity to POF based sensors which renders them great candidates for acoustic wave receivers and any kind of force detection. The main drawback in POF technology is perhaps the high fibre loss. In a lossless fibre the sensitivity of an interferometer is proportional to its cavity length. However, the presence of the attenuation along the optical path can significantly reduce the finesse of the Fabry-Perot interferometer and it can negatively affect its sensitivity at some point. The reflectivity of the two gratings used to form the interferometer can be also reduced as the fibre loss increases. In this work, a numerical model is developed to study the performance of POF based Fabry-Perot sensors formed by two uniform Bragg gratings with finite dimensions. Various optical and physical properties are considered such as grating physical length, grating effective length which indicates the point where the light is effectively reflected, refractive index modulation of the grating, cavity length of the interferometer, attenuation and operating wavelength. Using this model, we are able to identify the regimes in which the PMMA based sensor offer enhanced stress sensitivity compared to silica based one.

  7. Development of Silicon-substrate Based Fabry-Perot Etalons for far-IR Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose to design, construct and test silicon-substrate-based (SSB) mirrors necessary for high performance Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to be used in the 25-40 um mid-IR band. These mirrors will be fabricated from silicon wafers that are anti-reflection coated (ARC) by micromachining an artificial dielectric meta-material on one side, and depositing optimized gold-metalized patterns on the other. Two mirrors with the metalized surfaces facing one-another form the Fabry-Perot cavity, also known as the FPI etalon. The exterior surfaces of the silicon mirrors are anti-reflection coated for both good transmission in the science band, and to prevent unwanted parasitic FPI cavities from forming between the four surfaces (one anti-reflection coated, one metalized for each mirror) of the FPI etalon. The mirrors will be tested within a Miniature Cryogenic Scanning Fabry-Perot (MCSF) that we have designed through support of a previous NASA grant (NNX09AB95G). This design is based on our long experience in constructing and using scanning FPI in the mid-IR to submm range, and fits within test-beds we have on hand that are suitable for both warm and cold tests. The key technologies are the ARC and tuned mirrors that are enabled by silicon nano-machining techniques. The creation of these SSB mirrors promises greatly improved performance over previous versions of mid-IR to submm-band FPIs that are based on mirrors made from free-standing metal mesh stretched over support rings. Performance is improved both structurally and in terms of sensitivity, and is measured as the product of the cavity finesse times transmission. Our electromagnetic modeling suggests that SSB mirrors will improve this product by a factor of 2 over the best free standing mesh etalons available. This translates into a factor of sqrt(2) improvement in sensitivity per etalon, or a full factor of 2 when used in a tandem (dual etalon) FPI spectrometer. The SSB improvements are due to both the stiff (~ 0

  8. Simultaneous temperature and force measurement using Fabry-Perot interferometer and bandgap effect of a fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Han, Tingting; Liu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Zhifang; Wang, Shuangxia; Li, Shuo

    2012-06-04

    A novel fiber sensor capable of simultaneously measuring force and temperature is proposed and investigated. A section of high-index-fluid-filled photonic bandgap fiber (HIFF-PBGF) is inserted in a fiber loop to act as the sensing head. Photonic bandgap effect of the HIFF-PBGF as well as Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) introduced by controlling the splicing between the HIFF-PBGF and single mode fiber is used for achieving force and temperature discrimination. Taking advantage of the bandgap being high sensitivity to the temperature, a high temperature sensitivity of more than -1.94 dB/°C is achieved, which is the highest based on the intensity measurement, to our best knowledge. Meanwhile, a force sensitivity of 3.25 nm/N (~3.9 pm/με) is obtained, which could be enhanced by controlling the FPI shape. The device also has the strong points of easy fabrication, compact structure and high interference fringe contrast.

  9. Research and investigation of a communication chain on optical fiber with a Fabry-Perot power diode for the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacis, Irina Bristena; Vasile, Alexandru; Ionescu, Ciprian; Marghescu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze different power devices - emitters of optical flow, from the point of view of optical coupling, emitted optical powers, optical fiber losses and receiver. The research and characterization of the transmission through a power optical system is done using a computer system specialized for the automotive industry. This system/platform can deliver current pulses that are controlled by a computer through a software (it is possible to set different parameters such as pulse repetition frequency, duty cycle, and current intensity). For the experiments a power Fabry Perot 1035 laser diode operating in pulse with μφ 1055 nm, Ith = 40 mA, and Iop =750 mA was used with a single-mode SFM 128 optical fiber and an EM type optical coupler connected through alignment. Two types of measurements were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental structure. In the first case the amplitude of the voltage pulses was measured at the output of an optical detector with receiving diode in a built-in amplifier with a 50 kΩ load resistance. In the second stage measurements were conducted to determine the optical power injected in the optical fiber and received at the reception cell of a power meter. Another parameter of optical coupling that can be measured using the experimental structure is irradiation. This parameter is very important to determine the optimum cutting angle of the fiber for continuity welding.

  10. Q-switching of a high-power solid-state laser by a fast scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baburin, N V; Borozdov, Yu V; Danileiko, Yu K; Denker, B I; Ivanov, A D; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Sverchkov, S E; Sidorin, A V; Chikov, V A; Ifflander, R; Hack, R; Kertesz, I; Kroo, N

    1998-07-31

    An investigation was made of the suitability of a Q-switch, based on a piezoelectrically scanned short-base Fabry-Perot interferometer, for an Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser with an average output radiation power up to 2 kW. The proposed switch made it possible to generate of giant pulses of 60 - 300 ns duration at a repetition rate of 20 - 100 kHz. Throughout the investigated range of the pulse repetition rates the average power was at least equal to that obtained by cw lasing. Special requirements to be satisfied by the interferometer, essential for efficient Q-switching, were considered. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. DBR, Sub-wavelength grating, and Photonic crystal slab Fabry-Perot cavity design using phase analysis by FDTD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan Eric; Chrostowski, Lukas; Bisaillon, Eric; Plant, David V

    2007-08-06

    We demonstrate a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) phase methodology to estimate resonant wavelengths in Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity structures. We validate the phase method in a conventional Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) structure using a transfer-matrix method, and compare results with a FDTD reflectance method. We extend this approach to a Sub-Wavelength Grating (SWG) and a Photonic Crystal (Phc) slab, either of which may replace one of the Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) in the VCSEL, and predict resonant conditions with varying lithographic parameters. Finally, we compare the resonant tunabilities of three different VCSEL structures, taking quality factors into account.

  12. Resonant tunneling condition and transmission periodic characteristics for a metal barrier in the Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic tunneling through a metal barrier cladded by dielectric layers is a distortion of the Fabry-Perot echelon. In this research, we clearly defined the distorted region based on the resonant standing wave pattern. For a specific electromagnetic frequency, its transmission oscillates periodically with the dielectric layer thickness and the metal barrier location, respectively. For both cases, the period equals to the corresponding half wavelength in the dielectric material. We formulate the general resonant condition and also discuss the consequence of energy loss in the metal layer. Our results provide new physics insight into this phenomenon and will help engineering design for the potential devices based on this electromagnetic tunneling effect.

  13. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  14. Very-high-resolution tandem Fabry-Perot etalon cylindrical beam volume hologram spectrometer for diffuse source spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Badieirostami, Majid; Momtahan, Omid; Hsieh, Chaoray; Adibi, Ali; Brady, David J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and slitless spectrometer with high resolution formed by cascading a Fabry-Perot etalon (FPE) and a cylindrical beam volume hologram (CBVH). The most significant advantage of this combined spectrometer is that we can independently encode spectral information of a diffuse beam in a 2D plane. Also, we show that in this slitless configuration we can simultaneously benefit from the advantages of both elements: the high resolution of the FPE and the large spectral range of the CBVH. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a spectrometer with better than 0.2 nm resolution.

  15. Parallel demodulation system and signal-processing method for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer and fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo; Liu, Lina; Zha, Ying; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yunxin; Long, Pin

    2005-03-15

    A parallel demodulation system for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented that is based on a Michelson interferometer and combines the methods of low-coherence interference and Fourier transform spectrum. Signals from EFPI and FBG sensors are obtained simultaneously by scanning one arm of a Michelson interferometer, and an algorithm model is established to process the signals and retrieve both the wavelength of the FBG and the cavity length of the EFPI at the same time, which are then used to determine the strain and temperature.

  16. New method to measure the angular antispring effect in a Fabry-Perot cavity with remote excitation using radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Koji; Enomoto, Yutaro; Nakano, Masayuki; Furusawa, Akira; Kawamura, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    In experiments with Fabry-Perot cavities consisting of suspended mirrors, an angular antispring effect on the mirror of the cavity is caused by radiation pressure from resonant light in the cavity. A new method was invented to measure the effect precisely with remote excitation on the mirror using the radiation pressure. This method was found to be available for the suspended 23 mg mirror and improved the measurement accuracy by a factor of two, compared with the previous method. This result leads to stable control systems to eliminate the angular instability of the mirror caused by the effect.

  17. Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and fusion splicing for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Liao, C R; Hu, T Y; Wang, D N

    2012-09-24

    We demonstrate a fiber in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity sensor for refractive index measurement. The interferometer cavity is formed by drilling a micro-hole at the cleaved fiber end facet, followed by fusion splicing. A micro-channel is inscribed by femtosecond laser micromachining to vertically cross the cavity to allow liquid to flow in. The refractive index sensitivity obtained is ~994 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). Such a device is simple in configuration, easy for fabrication and reliable in operation due to extremely low temperature cross sensitivity of ~4.8 × 10(-6) RIU/°C.

  18. SUNLITE program. Sub-Hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode laser pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    Two laser pumped Nd:YAG lasers were frequency stabilized to a commercial 6.327 GHz free spectral range Fabry-Perot interferometer yielding a best case beatnote linewidth of 330 MHz. In addition, a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a free spectral range of 680 MHz, a linewidth of 25 kHz, and a finesse of 27,500 was built, and when it was substituted in place of the commercial interferometer, it produced a robust and easily repeatable beatnote linewidth of 700 MHz.

  19. Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two-diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Timothy; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers have been frequency stabilized to a commercial 6.327-GHz free spectral range Fabry-Perot interferometer yielding a best-case beatnote linewidth of 330 mHz. In addition, a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a free spectral range of 680 MHz, a linewidth of 25 kHz, and a finesse of 27,500 has been built, and when substituted in place of the commercial interferometer produced a robust and easily repeatable beatnote linewidth of 700 MHz.

  20. Composite cavity based fiber optic Fabry Perot strain sensors demodulated by an unbalanced fiber optic Michelson interferometer with an electrical scanning mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Sun, Weimin; Jin, Wencai; Yuan, Libo; Peng, G. D.

    2008-08-01

    A composite cavity based fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor system, interrogated by a white light source and demodulated by an unbalanced fiber optic Michelson interferometer with an electrical scanning mirror, is proposed and demonstrated. Comparing with the traditional extrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor, the potential multiplexing capability and the dynamic measurement range are improved simultaneously. At the same time, the measurement stability of the electrical scanning mirror system is improved by the self-referenced signal of the sensor structure.

  1. Analyzing the applicability of miniature ultra-high sensitivity Fabry-Perot acoustic sensor using a nanothick graphene diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Gao, Xiangyang; Guo, Tingting; Xiao, Jun; Fan, Shangchun; Jin, Wei

    2015-08-01

    A miniature Fabry-Perot interferometric acoustic sensor with an ultra-high pressure sensitivity was constructed by using approximately 13 layers of graphene film as the diaphragm. The extremely thin diaphragm was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule, which had an inner diameter of 125 μm, and van der Waals interactions between the graphene diaphragm and its substrate created a low finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer with a cavity length of 98 μm. Acoustic testing demonstrated a pressure-induced deflection of 2380 nm kPa-1 and a noise equivalent acoustic signal level of ~2.7 mPa/Hz1/2 for a 3 dB bandwidth with a center frequency of 15 kHz. The sensor also exhibited a dynamic frequency response between 1 and 20 kHz, which conformed well to the result obtained by a reference microphone. The use of a suspended graphene diaphragm has potential applications in highly sensitive pressure/acoustic sensors.

  2. Experimental study of the effect of surface defects on the finesse and contrast of a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Palik, E D; Boukari, H; Gammon, R W

    1996-01-01

    While investigating the instrumental function of a Fabry-Perot interferometer [Appl. Opt. 34, 58 (1995), we noticed some variation in finesse and contrast in the measured spectra when a 1.5-mm-diameter aperture was used at various spots within the standard 8-mm aperture. By comparing experimentally determined finesse versus contrast plots for many such spectra with calculated plots, we found spots on the plates that gave non-Airy-function line shapes over the entire order of interference, unlike the Airy line shape we determined previously by using the entire 8-mm aperture. We have reviewed several models that describe the effects of various types of surface defects, such as Gaussian-height distribution of roughness, curvature and tilt of plates, sinusoidal roughness, and asymmetrical roughness on the finesse and contrast. Our experimental results can be accounted for if we assume that the reflectivity is nonuniform over the Fabry-Perot plates and that there is some reasonable contribution that is due to Gaussian roughness, curvature, or tilt.

  3. High flux circularly polarized gamma beam factory: coupling a Fabry-Perot optical cavity with an electron storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovska, I.; Cassou, K.; Chiche, R.; Cizeron, R.; Cornebise, P.; Delerue, N.; Jehanno, D.; Labaye, F.; Marie, R.; Martens, A.; Peinaud, Y.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Cormier, E.; Lhermite, J.; Dolique, V.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Sassolas, B.; Akagi, T.; Araki, S.; Honda, Y.; Omori, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Miyoshi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshitama, H.

    2016-11-01

    We report and discuss high-flux generation of circularly polarized γ-rays by means of Compton scattering. The γ-ray beam results from the collision of an external-cavity-enhanced infrared laser beam and a low emittance relativistic electron beam. By operating a non-planar bow-tie high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot cavity coupled to a storage ring, we have recorded a flux of up to (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 photons per second with a mean measured energy of 24 MeV. The γ-ray flux has been sustained for several hours. In particular, we were able to measure a record value of up to 400 γ-rays per collision in a full bandwidth. Moreover, the impact of Compton scattering on the electron beam dynamics could be observed resulting in a reduction of the electron beam lifetime correlated to the laser power stored in the Fabry-Perot cavity. We demonstrate that the electron beam lifetime provides an independent and consistent determination of the γ-ray flux. Furthermore, a reduction of the γ-ray flux due to intrabeam scattering has clearly been identified. These results, obtained on an accelerator test facility, warrant potential scaling and revealed both expected and yet unobserved effects. They set the baseline for further scaling of the future Compton sources under development around the world.

  4. Shift and elimination of microwave Fabry-Perot resonances in a dielectric covered with a thin metal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragulis, Paulius; Simniškis, Rimantas; Kancleris, Žilvinas

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a plane electromagnetic wave incident onto a dielectric plate, which has one surface covered with a thin layer of metal. An oblique incident angle was considered for the TE (s polarization in optic) and TM (p polarization) plane waves. The thin metal layer is treated as an infinitesimal thickness. It was characterized by a surface conductivity and accounted for by a tangential magnetic field component step induced by the current flow in the metal layer. Compact expressions, which describe the reflection, transmission and absorption in a dielectric plate covered with a thin layer of metal, have been obtained. It was shown that by choosing the appropriate surface conductivity, the Fabry-Perot transmission resonances can be shifted to the position where the maximum reflection is observed in the case of an uncovered dielectric. On the other hand, the elimination of the Fabry-Perot resonances can be also achieved by choosing a proper metal surface conductivity. Measurements of the reflection from the glass covered with a thin layer of metal have been performed in a wide microwave frequency range (2-12 GHz) revealing a large difference in the measured reflection coefficient from the dielectric and metalized surfaces. The measured results fit well with those calculated by employing analytical expressions obtained in this paper.

  5. Airborne Doppler lidar at 532nm based on a tunable dual-channel Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jian-mei; Xing, Ting-wen; Lin, Wi-mei

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore a high-precision, a wide range of a frequency discrimination technique, and to study the application of this technique in the optical air data system (MOADS). To overcome the traditional equipment's shortcomings of short velocity detecting range such as pilot static tubes and wind wane, this technique can provide precision aviation data for various aerocrafts , without influencing pneumatic shape and performance of aerocraft. A tunable dual channel Fabry-Perot interferometer is used as a frequency discriminator in an airborne wind lidar system. This new frequency discriminator has been proposed to overcome the exiting frequency discriminator shortcoming. By adjusting the cavity length of interferometer, the speed of aerocraft can be detected and cut into several dynamic range. By this way, the Doppler wind lidar system can detect atmospheric parameters at the meantime, such as speed of aerocraft and temperature of atmosphere around the aerocraft, by analyzing the information of Rayleigh backscattering light. There are three main contribution in this paper: the first is discussing the basic theory of MOADS, calculational method and mathematic model of relative wind velocity between aircraft and wind are put forward.; the second is the parameter optimization of the dual-channel Fabry-Perot interferometer and the structure design of the interferometer; the third is the simulation of the performance and the accuracy of this system. Theory analysis and simulation results show this method is reasonable and practical.

  6. High flux circularly polarized gamma beam factory: coupling a Fabry-Perot optical cavity with an electron storage ring

    PubMed Central

    Chaikovska, I.; Cassou, K.; Chiche, R.; Cizeron, R.; Cornebise, P.; Delerue, N.; Jehanno, D.; Labaye, F.; Marie, R.; Martens, A.; Peinaud, Y.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Cormier, E.; Lhermite, J.; Dolique, V.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Sassolas, B.; Akagi, T.; Araki, S.; Honda, Y.; Omori, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Miyoshi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshitama, H.

    2016-01-01

    We report and discuss high-flux generation of circularly polarized γ-rays by means of Compton scattering. The γ-ray beam results from the collision of an external-cavity-enhanced infrared laser beam and a low emittance relativistic electron beam. By operating a non-planar bow-tie high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot cavity coupled to a storage ring, we have recorded a flux of up to (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 photons per second with a mean measured energy of 24 MeV. The γ-ray flux has been sustained for several hours. In particular, we were able to measure a record value of up to 400 γ-rays per collision in a full bandwidth. Moreover, the impact of Compton scattering on the electron beam dynamics could be observed resulting in a reduction of the electron beam lifetime correlated to the laser power stored in the Fabry-Perot cavity. We demonstrate that the electron beam lifetime provides an independent and consistent determination of the γ-ray flux. Furthermore, a reduction of the γ-ray flux due to intrabeam scattering has clearly been identified. These results, obtained on an accelerator test facility, warrant potential scaling and revealed both expected and yet unobserved effects. They set the baseline for further scaling of the future Compton sources under development around the world. PMID:27857146

  7. Narrow-band Imagery With The Goddard Fabry-Perot: Probing The Epoch Of Active Accretion For PMS Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.; Grady, C.; Endres, M.; Hilton, G.; Williger, G.

    2006-06-01

    Over the past 5 years we surveyed the STIS coronagraphic imaging sample of PMS stars with the Goddard Fabry-Perot (GFP) interferometer at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope to determine what fraction of the stars drive jets, whether there is any difference in behavior for a group of intermediate-mass stars as compared with T Tauri stars, and to search for evolutionary effects. Compared to broad band imaging, the GFP achieves an emission-line nebulosity-to-star contrast gain of between 500 and 3000, depending upon choice of Fabry-Perot etalon, over a field which is 1.67' in radius. To date, we have detected jets associated with classical T Tauri stars spanning a factor of 280 in mass accretion rate in approximately 50% of the STIS coronagraphic imaging sample. Jets have not been detected in any of the stars with mass accretion rates less than 10$^{-8.5}$ solar masses/year, including objects with IR spectral energy distributions indicating deficits of warm, near-stellar dust. The GFP is also equipped with a simple Lyot coronagraph which allows us to search for similar outflows around brighter objects. To date, we have detected jets or Herbig-Haro knots associated with 5 Herbig Ae stars, all younger than 8 Myr, for a detection fraction which is similar to the T Tauri survey. No jets have been detected for Herbig Ae stars with IR SEDs indicating the presence of central cavities in the disks.

  8. A theoretical performance study of an external cavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Kumar

    The objective of this research is to explore a mathematical model developed by Wilkinson and Pratt for the external cavity fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) and to create a Michelson interferometer setup to validate a frequency modulation component of this model. A laser diode with nominal wavelength 635 nm is modulated by oscillating the diode current of maximum amplitude 22.62 mA to create correspondingly varying wavelength. Experiments are included to evaluate a rotating vector representation of the modulation harmonics in the signal received at the photodetector as of a cube corner translated by a piezo-electric actuator is displaced. Wavelength modulation as a function of diode current, the coherence length of the laser, and characteristics of the modulation harmonics are evaluated. A real time DAQ system and two lock-in amplifiers are utilized for detecting three side-band harmonics of the signal. For short range displacements this interferometer setup is monitored using a capacitance displacement sensor. The capacitance displacement measurement differed from the Michelson interferometer by 160 nm. The piezoelectric stage actuated with a 15 V Ramp signal produced 2.54 mum displacement of the cube corner. The setup is tested with Ramp signals of 75 V to 1.5 V and with the Ramp periods of 1 to 20 seconds to find the resolution of the interferometer, modulation of the wavelength sensitivity and the coherence length of the laser as 10.53 nm, 1.786 nm·A-1 and >1 m respectively. The best quadrature signal achieved corresponded to modulating the laser at amplitude of 18.86 mA at 1 kHz frequency with a path length difference of 6.35 mm. The amplitude comparison of side-band harmonics with Bessel function curves is consistent with a modulation amplitude of 1.28 rad corresponding to amplitude ratios of 0.5 (second and first) , 0.15 (third and second) and 0.06 (third and first) in the first through third Bessel function values.

  9. Fabry-Perot interferometer-based remote sensing of SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jonas; Bobrowski, Nicole; Lübcke, Peter; Pöhler, Denis; Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Vogel, Leif; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    We studied SO2 degassing from volcanoes and monitored the corresponding SO2 fluxes. Besides the effect on climate and the hazardous effects at a local scale, the absolute magnitude of SO2 fluxes or ratios of SO2 with other volcanic gases can be an indicator for volcanic activity and even help to understand and model processes in the interior of volcanoes. Due to its characteristic absorption structure, high abundance in the volcanic plume and low atmospheric background, SO2 can be easily identified and quantified by remote sensing techniques. DOAS and FTIR became standard techniques for volcanic SO2 measurements. Along with the development of portable devices they offer the advantage of simultaneous measurements of multiple gas species. However, both techniques often need complex data evaluation and observations are usually limited to a single viewing direction. Spatially resolved measurements, which are for instance required to determine gas fluxes, frequently have to be obtained sequentially leading to a relatively low time resolution. A further, today nearly established method to determine SO2 emission fluxes is the "SO2 camera". The SO2 camera has the advantage of a high spatial and temporal resolution, but is very limited in spectral information using only two wavelength channels and thus being less selective. Cross-interferences with volcanic plume aerosol, the ozone background, and other trace gases frequently cause problems in SO2 camera measurements. Here we introduce a novel passive remote sensing method for SO2 measurements in the atmosphere using a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) setup. The transmission profile of this FPI consists of periodic transmission peaks that match the periodic SO2 absorption bands in the UV. In principle, this method allows imaging of two-dimensional SO2 distributions similarly to SO2 cameras. Interferences of standard SO2 cameras are greatly reduced with the FPI method. In addition, this technique can also be applied to other

  10. A tunable electrochromic fabry-perot filter for adaptive optics applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Blaich, Jonathan David; Kammler, Daniel R.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Sweatt, William C.; Verley, Jason C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Yelton, William Graham

    2006-10-01

    The potential for electrochromic (EC) materials to be incorporated into a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter to allow modest amounts of tuning was evaluated by both experimental methods and modeling. A combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and electrochemical methods was used to produce an ECFP film stack consisting of an EC WO{sub 3}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NiO{sub x}H{sub y} film stack (with indium-tin-oxide electrodes) sandwiched between two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric reflector stacks. A process to produce a NiO{sub x}H{sub y} charge storage layer that freed the EC stack from dependence on atmospheric humidity and allowed construction of this complex EC-FP stack was developed. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for each layer in the EC-FP film stack was measured between 300 and 1700 nm. A prototype EC-FP filter was produced that had a transmission at 500 nm of 36%, and a FWHM of 10 nm. A general modeling approach that takes into account the desired pass band location, pass band width, required transmission and EC optical constants in order to estimate the maximum tuning from an EC-FP filter was developed. Modeling shows that minor thickness changes in the prototype stack developed in this project should yield a filter with a transmission at 600 nm of 33% and a FWHM of 9.6 nm, which could be tuned to 598 nm with a FWHM of 12.1 nm and a transmission of 16%. Additional modeling shows that if the EC WO{sub 3} absorption centers were optimized, then a shift from 600 nm to 598 nm could be made with a FWHM of 11.3 nm and a transmission of 20%. If (at 600 nm) the FWHM is decreased to 1 nm and transmission maintained at a reasonable level (e.g. 30%), only fractions of a nm of tuning would be possible with the film stack considered in this study. These tradeoffs may improve at other wavelengths or with EC materials different than those considered here. Finally, based on our limited investigation and material set

  11. Velocity Fields in H II Regions Using High Resolution Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, P.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis comprises of two parts: I. Instrumentation II. Observations, results and discussion. An imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer (IFPS) is designed and constructed for the studies on kinematics of extended astronomical objects (Seema et al., 1992). IFPS comprises of a field aperture, collimating lens and a two dimensional imaging sensor called Imaging Photon Detector (IPD). It is the first time that IPD which uses a resistive anode for position determination is being used in the spectroscopic studies of astronomical objects. Observations were made on Orion and Trifid nebula covering a wide field of view using a 35cm Celestron-14 telescope (f/11 cassegrain) at Gurushikhar, Mt.Abu, India. Orion Nebula: Observations were made in [OIII] 5007A, line with a spectral resolution of 6 km/sec and spatial resolution of 4" covering a field of view of 10.5', to study (i) general velocity flow (ii) high velocity flow and (iii)random motions. Line profiles generated for about 2000 positions showed an asymmetric shape with (a)a narrow component 20 +- 3 km/sec and (b) a broad component 50 +- 3 km/sec. The two components could be interpreted in terms of the interaction of the ionized gas (from the trapezium stars) with the condensations present in the nebula, resulting in the secondary flows. The iso-velocity contour map generated for both the components showed velocity flow in agreement with the champagne flow model (Tenorio-Tagle 1982). A model emission line profile constructed assuming a champagne flow in [OIII] 5007A, line for a position 2' away from theta-1 C Ori showed a reasonably good agreement with the narrow component of the observed profile. Certain high velocity flow (~50 km/s) regions are observed to be superimposed on the main flow of the narrow component. These flows are either radiation pressure driven stellar winds or jets generated during the formation phase of Young stellar objects. The radial velocity was found to be low with no high velocity flow regions in

  12. A Near IR Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Wide Field, Low Resolution Hyperspectral Imaging on the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Satyapal, S.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Barclay, R.; Amato, D.; Arritt, B.; Brown, G.; Harvey, V.; Holt, C.; Kuhn, J.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss work in progress on a near-infrared tunable bandpass filter for the Goddard baseline wide field camera concept of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). This filter, the Demonstration Unit for Low Order Cryogenic Etalon (DULCE), is designed to demonstrate a high efficiency scanning Fabry-Perot etalon operating in interference orders 1 - 4 at 30K with a high stability DSP based servo control system. DULCE is currently the only available tunable filter for lower order cryogenic operation in the near infrared. In this application, scanning etalons will illuminate the focal plane arrays with a single order of interference to enable wide field lower resolution hyperspectral imaging over a wide range of redshifts. We discuss why tunable filters are an important instrument component in future space-based observatories.

  13. Selective reflection by deteriorated phase accumulation in Fabry-Perot cavity with aperiodic metallic nanomesh entry windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianyi; Guo, Chuanfei; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng

    2014-03-01

    A Fabry-Perot reflection filter, consisting of semi-transparent metal and dielectric layers on opaque metals, is featured by selective absorption determined by the phase difference of waves from the two interfaces. In such systems, semi-transparency is usually realized by layers of reflective metals thinner than the penetration depth of the light. Here we present a filter cavity with entry windows not made of traditional thin layers, but of aperiodic metallic random nanomeshes thicker than the penetration depth, fabricated by grain boundary lithography. It is shown that due to the deteriorated phase caused by the interface between the random nanomesh and the dielectric layer, the width and location of the resonances can be tuned by metallic coverage. Further experiments show that this phenomenon can be used in designing aperiodic plasmonic metamaterial structures for visible and infrared applications.

  14. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for three component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Goldman, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  15. Signal processing of white-light interferometric low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot sensors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Wang, Anbo

    2013-01-10

    Signal processing for low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot sensors based on white-light interferometry is investigated. The problem is demonstrated as analogous to the parameter estimation of a noisy, real, discrete harmonic of finite length. The Cramer-Rao bounds for the estimators are given, and three algorithms are evaluated and proven to approach the bounds. A long-standing problem with these types of sensors is the unpredictable jumps in the phase estimation. Emphasis is made on the property and mechanism of the "total phase" estimator in reducing the estimation error, and a varying phase term in the total phase is identified to be responsible for the unwanted demodulation jumps. The theories are verified by simulation and experiment. A solution to reducing the probability of jump is demonstrated.

  16. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  17. Spectral changes produced by an adjustable intra-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer inside an ytterbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, E. B.; de la Cruz-May, L.

    2015-09-01

    The experimental results reported here consist on the intra-cavity introduction of a very simple Fabry-Perot interferometer into a free-running fiber laser. A wide-band free-running fiber laser was first characterized and then compared to its intra-cavity modified version in order to establish differences in performance. The intra-cavity type system presented superior performance in most aspects. For example, the pump power for oscillating decreased, the oscillating bands were sharper and, at a certain degree, it was wavelength-tunable. On the basis of these results we propose this approach that is simple, inserts a minimum cavity loss and is polarization-independent as an alternative to improve performance in some fiber lasers as well as optical fiber sensors.

  18. Analysis of a low-finesse Fabry-Perot sensing interferometer illuminated by a multimode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Pérennès, F; Beard, P C; Mills, T N

    1999-12-01

    A model of the reflected fringe system for an ideal plane-parallel, low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity illuminated by a multimode optical fiber has been developed and experimentally validated. This showed that the phase dispersion within the cavity arising from the divergent nature of the incident illumination significantly degrades the visibility of the reflected fringes. Departures from the ideal FP cavity are also examined. The effect on fringe visibility when the plane of the FP cavity is tilted with respect to the fiber axis and when the cavity surfaces are no longer perfectly parallel to each other has been explored. The analysis described is relevant to the design and the optimization of multimode optical-fiber sensors that use FP sensing cavities.

  19. Interaction of NGC 2276 with the NGC 2300 group - Fabry-Perot observations of the H-alpha velocity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruendl, Robert A.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Davis, David S.; Mulchaey, John S.

    1993-01-01

    We report kinematic observations of H-alpha emission from the spiral galaxy NGC 2276 obtained with a Fabry-Perot Camera. The 'bow shock' appearance and enhanced star formation in NGC 2276 have been attributed by Mulchaey et al. (1993) to a ram-pressure interaction with the dense IGM detected in ROSAT observations of the NGC 2300 group of galaxies. Along the 'bow shock' limb of the galaxy, we observe strong H-alpha emission and significant kinematic perturbations located immediately interior to an abrupt decrease in the scale length of the optical disk. Although ram-pressure forces may be important in the evolution of the outer gaseous disk, the peculiar kinematics and the truncation in the stellar disk are difficult to explain in a ram-pressure model; a more likely cause is tidal interaction, probably with the elliptical galaxy NGC 2300.

  20. A Fabry-Perot plasmonic modulation with graphene-based silicon grating in mid-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaosai; Wang, Jicheng

    2016-11-01

    We propose an ultra-compact graphene-based plasmonic modulation that is compatible with complementary metaloxide- semiconductor processing. The proposed structure uses a monolayer graphene as a mid-infrared surface waveguide, whose optical response is spatially modulated using electric fields to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. By varying the voltage acting on the cavity, the transmitted wavelength of the device could be controled at room temperature. The finite element method (FEM) has been employed to verify our designs. This design has potential applications in the graphene-based silicon optoelectronic devices as it offers new possibilities for developing new ultra-compact spectrometers and low-cost hyperspectral imaging sensors in mid-infrared region.

  1. Narrow-band Imagery with the Goddard Fabry-Perot: Probing the Epoch of Active Accretion for PMS Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.; Grady, C.; Endres, M.; Williger, G.

    2006-01-01

    The STIS coronagraphic imaging sample of I'MS stars was surveyed with the Goddard Fabry-Perot (GFP) interferometer to determine what fraction of the stars drive jets, whether there is any difference in behavior for a group of intermediate-mass stars as compared with T Tauri stars, and to search for evolutionary effects. Compared to broad band imaging, the FGP achieves an emission-line nebulosity-to-star contrast gain of between 500 and 3000. To date, we have detected jets associated with classical T Tauri stars spanning a factor of 280 in mass accretion rate in approximately 50% of the STIS coronagraphic imaging sample. We also detected jets or Herbig-HARO knots associated with 5 Herbig Ae stars, all younger than 8 Myr, for a detection fraction which is smaller than the T Tauri survey.

  2. Long-term stability of a Fabry-Perot interferometer used for measurement of stellar Doppler shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, R. S.; Smith, P. H.; Perry, M. L.; Moore, T. L.; Merline, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a fiber-optic-link CCD-detector Fabry-Perot interferometer (McMillan et al., 1985, 1986, and 1988) to obtain high-accuracy measurements of stellar Doppler shifts at KPNO is described in detail and illustrated with sample data. Particular attention is given to accuracy requirements and techniques for reducing errors, resolution (orders of 50 mA at wavelength 4300 A are separated by 640 mA), CCD sensitivity, observing and data-processing operations, and the control of environmental conditions. Standard-deviation data and statistics on seven solar-type stars are presented in tables, and the time evolution of the radial velocity of Beta Com is shown in a graph.

  3. Cryogenic mechanisms for scanning and interchange of the Fabry-Perot interferometers in the ISO long wavelength spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. R.; Furniss, I.; Patrick, T. J.; Sidey, R. C.; Towlson, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an ESA cornerstone mission for infrared astronomy. Schedules for launch in 1993, its four scientific instruments will provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at wavelengths which are inaccessible using ground-based techniques. One of these, the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), will operate in the 45 to 180 micron region (Emery et. al., 1985) and features two Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted on an interchange mechanism. The entire payload module of the spacecraft, comprising the 60 cm telescope and the four focal plane instruments, is maintained at 2 to 4 K by an onboard supply of liquid helium. The mechanical design and testing of the cryogenic interferometer and interchange mechanisms are described.

  4. Development of a parallel demodulation system used for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer and fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo; Liu, Lina; Zha, Ying; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yunxin; Long, Pin

    2006-01-20

    A parallel demodulation system for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented, which is based on a Michelson interferometer and combines the methods of low-coherence interference and a Fourier-transform spectrum. The parallel demodulation theory is modeled with Fourier-transform spectrum technology, and a signal separation method with an EFPI and FBG is proposed. The design of an optical path difference scanning and sampling method without a reference light is described. Experiments show that the parallel demodulation system has good spectrum demodulation and low-coherence interference demodulation performance. It can realize simultaneous strain and temperature measurements while keeping the whole system configuration less complex.

  5. Mirror Birefringence in a Fabry-Perot Cavity and the Detection of Vacuum Birefringence in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, T. C. P.; Shao, M.; Redding, D.; Gursel, Y.; Boden, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of mirror birefringence in two optical schemes designed to detect the quantum-electrodynamics (QED) predictions of vacuum birefringence under the influence of a strong magnetic field, B. Both schemes make use of a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F-P) to increase the average path length of the light in the magnetic field. The first scheme, which we called the frequency scheme, is based on measurement of the beat frequency of two orthogonal polarized laser beams in the cavity. We show that mirror birefringence contributes to the detection uncertainties in first order, resulting in a high susceptibility to small thermal disturbances. We estimate that an unreasonably high thermal stability of 10-9 K is required to resolve the effect to 0.1%. In the second scheme, which we called the polarization rotation scheme, laser polarized at 45 relative to the B field is injected into the cavity.

  6. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing Determination of Various Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Wilson, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    New type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot inte rferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) is a well known, powerful spectroscopic technique and one of its many applications is to be use d to measure greenhouse gases and also some harmful species in the at mosphere. With this technique, absorption of particular species is me asured and related to its concentration. A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a frequency filter to restrict the measurement to particular absorption bands of the gas of interest. With adjusting the thicknes s of the etalon that separation (in frequency) of the transmitted fri nges can be made equal to the almost constant separation of the gas a bsorption lines. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refi-action of its material, the transmission fring es can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption li nes of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosph ere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The instrument that we have dev eloped detects the absorption of various atmospheric trace gases in d irect or reflected sunlight. Our instrument employing Fabry-Perot interferometer makes use of two features to achieve high sensitivity. The first is high spectral resolution enabling one to match the width of an atmospheric absorption feature by the instrumental band pass. The second is high optical throughput enabled by using multiple spectral lines simultaneously. For any species that one wishes to measure, thi s first feature is available while the use of multiple spectral features can be employed only for species with suitable spectra and freedom from interfering species in the same wavelength region. We have deve loped an instrument for use as ground based

  7. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for 3 component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Goldman, Louis J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  8. How close are ground-based Fabry-Perot thermospheric wind and temperature measurements to exospheric values? A simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormac, F. G.; Killeen, T. L.; Nardi, B.; Smith, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation model of the measurement process for a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been developed and used to study how variations of wind and temperature along the instrument line-of-sight affect the Doppler shift and width of the observed nightglow O(1D) emission line at high spectral resolution. Ground-based-derived temperatures in the nighttime sector of the winter hemisphere are found to give values that are representative of the peak O(1D) emission altitude. However, when the vertical temperature gradients are large, the ground-based FPI temperature measurement may differ by as much as about 12 percent from the temperature at the peak emission height. Simulations of the FPI measurement of nighttime thermospheric temperatures show that ground-based-derived temperatures may be lower by about 10 percent than the corresponding exospheric temperatures in the winter hemisphere and by about 15 percent in the summer hemisphere.

  9. SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.

  10. Interferometric determination of the silicon sphere diameter using a laser frequency tuning system calibrated by a Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Jitao; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    In order to obtain an accurate Avogadro constant with a relative uncertainty of 1×10-8 to redefine the kilogram, the diameter of a perfect single crystal silicon sphere is required with the measurement uncertainty of 0.3 nm using the X-ray crystal density method. To achieve this, phase-shifting interferometers have been developed. A laser frequency tuning system calibrated by a Fabry-Perot cavity is proposed to improve the laser wavelength and the phase-shift accuracy. The laser frequency standard deviation of the beat frequency is 85 kHz with a gate time of 0.1 s. The gap distances in the diameter determination interferometer are measured based on the laser tuning system, which are 275.3 nm and 110.5 nm, respectively.

  11. Comparing the performance of multiple imaging systems with Fabry-Perot interferometers, concentric ring masks, and diffractive multifocal lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedukhin, Andrey G.

    2007-06-01

    Based on the conditions of alowable angular sampling of interfering waves, monochromatic multiple imaging systems with replicating spatial-frequency filters in the form of Fabry-Perot Interferometers, concentric ring masks, and diffractive multifocal lenses are compared with each other in their performance. Though these systems are shown to realize the same effect of multiple equidistant imaging, the forms of manifestation of the effect are not identical due to the difference in spectral content of the wave fields produced by the systems. The most perfect systems are found to be those with pure-phase diffractive multifocal lenses. First of all, they benefits from the extremely high total light efficiency and the sharply defined longitudinal localization of the visualized object space defined by the efficient focal depth. This enhances considerably the brightness of reproduced images and decreases their parasitic diffraction dispersion, background noise, and blurring.

  12. Kerr-induced all-optical switching in a GaInP photonic crystal Fabry-Perot resonator.

    PubMed

    Eckhouse, V; Cestier, I; Eisenstein, G; Combrié, S; Lehoucq, G; De Rossi, A

    2012-04-09

    We describe nonlinear properties of a GaInP photonic crystal Fabry-Perot resonator containing integrated reflectors. The device exhibits an extremely large static nonlinearity due to a thermal effect. Dynamical measurements were used to discriminate between the thermal and Kerr contributions to the nonlinearity. The high frequency nonlinear response is strictly due to the Kerr effect and the efficiency is similar to that obtained in self-phase modulation and four wave mixing experiments. The waveguide dispersion and the wavelength dependent integrated reflectors yield a series of transmission peaks with varying widths which determine the maximum speed at which the device can operate. Switching and wavelength conversion experiments with 92ps and 30ps wide pulses were demonstrated using pulse energies of a few pJ. The switching process is Kerr dominated with the fundamental response being essentially instantaneous so that the obtainable switching speed is strictly determined by the resonator structure.

  13. Dynamic behavior of an injection-locked quantum-dash Fabry-Perot laser at zero-detuning.

    PubMed

    Pochet, M; Naderi, N A; Terry, N; Kovanis, V; Lester, L F

    2009-11-09

    This work investigates the behavior of a zero-detuned optically-injected quantum-dash Fabry-Perot laser as the injected field ratio is increased from near-zero to levels resulting in stable locking. Using a normalized model describing optically-injected semiconductor lasers, variations in the slave laser's free-running characteristics are shown to have a strong impact on the coupled system's behavior. The theoretical model is verified experimentally using a high resolution spectrometer. It is found that the quantum-dash laser has the technological advantage of a low linewidth enhancement factor at low bias currents that suppresses undesirable Period-2 and chaotic behavior. Such observations suggest that optically-injected quantum-dash lasers can be used as an enabling component for tunable photonic oscillators.

  14. Quantum-enhanced metrology based on Fabry-Perot interferometer by squeezed vacuum and non-Gaussian detection

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai

    2014-03-28

    We have investigated the transmission spectra of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with squeezed vacuum state injection and non-Gaussian detection, including photon number resolving detection and parity detection. In order to show the suitability of the system, parallel studies were made of the performance of two other light sources: coherent state of light and Fock state of light either with classical mean intensity detection or with non-Gaussian detection. This shows that by using the squeezed vacuum state and non-Gaussian detection simultaneously, the resolution of the FPI can go far beyond the cavity standard bandwidth limit based on the current techniques. The sensitivity of the scheme has also been explored and it shows that the minimum detectable sensitivity is better than that of the other schemes.

  15. High Resolution Fabry-Perot Spectroscopy Of Comet Fragments 73P/ Schwassmann-Wachmann 3-B,C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Harris, W. M.; Kokorowski, M.; Kidder, A.; Schnackenberg, T.; Carpena Nunez, J.; Hall, T.; Haffner, L.

    2006-09-01

    In May 2006, comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3) made a spectacular close approach to the Earth. During its 1995 apparition, the comet fragmented into several pieces. One of the brighter components, SW3-B, fragmented into dozens of pieces during the 2006 apparition while another bright fragment, SW3-C did not. Understanding the difference between these two fragments will contribute significantly to our understanding of cometary interiors. We performed observations of SW3-B and SW3-C from Kitt Peak using the Fabry-Perot spectrometers at the McMath-Pierce (MMP) telescope from April 29 - May 10 and at the Wisconsin Hydrogen Alpha Mapper (WHαM) from May 1 - 6, 2006. This period is significant due to its proximity to perigee, overlap with complementary observations, and coincidence with the onset and decline-phase of a major outburst/fragmentation event from SW3-B. The MMP and WHAM Fabry-Perot spectrometers made high resolution measurements of [O I] and NH2 emissions near 6300 Å at δV = 5 km/s and 12 km/s with 4.5 arcmin and 1 degree fields of view, respectively. Many of the spectra separate the cometary and terrestrial [O I] lines and allow determination of water production rates. We report the preliminary analysis of these data, including discussion of the radial distribution of emissions, a comparison activity levels between the two fragments, and a comparison with complementary production rate measurements made over the same period. In addition, following the SW3-B May 9 outburst, H20+ measurements near 6200 Å were made to map the acceleration of water ions near the head and down the tail.

  16. A Fabry-Perot etalon-based notch filter for background cleaning in Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Peng; Besner, Sebastien; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In Brillouin scattering imaging, rejection of background noise due to elastic scattering and reflections from optical components is crucial. This is because Brillouin signal is weak, and the signal frequency shift compared with source laser line is very small. Therefore the line of interest is very easy to be contaminated. Whereas physical blocking of undesired component in a dispersed spectrum is used, to filter out background optically provides better stability. Conventional optical filter techniques, such as dielectric-stack filters, holographic volume filters, Lyot fitlers etc. normally have a stopband-width (bandstop filter) or edge-width (edge filter) ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers despite high rejection rate. They cannot be implemented in Brillouin imaging due to the small wavelength shift (< 1 pm). We report a Fabry-Perot etalon-based notch filter for background cleaning in Brillouin imaging. The notch filer takes advantage of multiple reflections of the light beam with a Fabry-Perot etalon to achieve high rejection with narrow bandwidth. The theoretical rejection rate is multiple time of the rejection of one reflection of the etalon. We demonstrated a laser line suppression of > 40 dB while with < 40% power loss with experiments. Width of the stopband at -30 dB rejection level is ~ 1 GHz. This method is not wavelength specific. One etalon may be implanted to a wide spectrum of laser wavelengths. Furthermore, it does not require heating as gaseous notch filters. Our method can also be implemented to Raman scattering, fluorescent imaging and other imaging techniques in which line of interest is close to the laser source.

  17. Linewidth enhancement factor and dynamical response of an injection-locked quantum-dot Fabry-Perot laser at 1310nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochet, M.; Naderi, N. A.; Terry, N.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2010-02-01

    This work investigates the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha-factor) and stability of an optically-injected InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot Fabry-Perot laser. Using the injection-locking technique, the above threshold alpha-factor is measured to be as low as 0.6 at 1.3X the threshold current. The below threshold alpha-factor is also measured using the Hakki-Paoli technique. The measured alpha-factor values are used to simulate the dynamic response (stable locking, period-one, period-doubling, or chaos) in the context of single-mode rate equations under zero-detuning injection conditions for external injected power ratios ranging from -11dB to +15dB and slave current bias levels of 1.3X, 2X, and 2.6X threshold. Legacy literature has shown that optically-injected diode lasers typically follow the period-doubling route into a chaotic region as the injection level is increased. Simulations show that at 2X the threshold current, a small region of period-one operation will be observed followed by stable-locking as the injection ratio is increased. This predominantly stable behavior is driven largely by the low alpha-factor. Experimental results support this prediction, where under zero-detuning conditions, only unlocked and stable-locking operation is observed. Experimentally, periodone operation was not observed at a slave laser bias current of 2X threshold, as it was predicted to occur below an external power ratio of -20 dB, a level which was not attainable in this work. Such findings suggest that a quantum-dot device can be employed in an optically-injected configuration for photonic tunable-clock applications.

  18. Mesopause Winds and OH Intensities at Mid-Latitudes-Fabry-Perot Interferometer Observations of the OH Emission at 8430 A from Bear Lake Observatory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    73 1 5.1 The Fabry-Perot Interferometer ............................................................ 73 5.1.1. The Scanning Mirror System...instrument to view the sky aided by a mirror system, and a Plexiglas dome cover protects the instrument and electronics from the elements. I Because the...sections describe the individual components of the instrument at Bear Lake and refer to Figure 19. I 5.1.1. The Scanning Mirror System The scanning

  19. Using four wavelength-multiplexed self-seeding Fabry-Perot lasers for 10 Gbps upstream traffic in TDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wang, Chia-Husan; Shih, Fu-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Fu; Chi, Sien

    2008-11-10

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally investigate a simple self-injection Fabry-Perot laser scheme on each optical network unit (ONU) for 10 Gbps TDM passive optical networks (PONs). Based on the proposed four wavelength-multiplexed 2.5 Gbps lasers, the 10 Gbps uplink traffic can be achieved at a cost-effective way. The network architecture and performance have also been analyzed and discussed.

  20. A novel down-hole fiber optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot cavity and fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Shao-hua; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Guo; Zhao, Kun

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of fiber optic sensing technology, more and more related monitoring programs begin to play an important role in oil and gas exploration. In the past, down-hole monitoring of temperature and pressure was dependent on pump partner, electronic pressure gauge and the capillary pressure gauge. However, such devices show many disadvantages in stability, reliability, accuracy and so on. In the interest of special anti-corrosion, seals, high temperature, high pressure treatment, and long life, the fiber optic sensor is critically investigated and a new design approach of fiber temperature and pressure sensor based on Fiber Bragg Gratings and Fabry-Perot Cavity is presented, respectively. The temperature and pressure resolution of this sensor can be as high as 0.3°C and 3psi. Meanwhile, the sensor can work under the condition from 0 to 15000psi and from -25 to 300 °C. This paper describes the technical principles, characteristics and field application of the sensor in detail.

  1. Stability of a frequency-comb-based transfer-lock using a passive Fabry-Perot resonator.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sambit B; Lam, Mark M; Dieckmann, K

    2016-12-01

    We report on a transfer-lock laser frequency stabilization that utilizes a frequency comb (FC) and a radio frequency counter referenced to a GPS frequency standard to compensate for the frequency drifts of two lasers, which are locked to a single passive Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR). The method requires only one optical phase lock with the FC and allows transfer locking of lasers at wavelengths beyond the usable range of the FC. To attain a large frequency tuning range for the lasers, we implement optical serrodyning. We further demonstrate an efficient scheme to suppress residual amplitude modulation, thereby improving the stability of the Pound-Drever-Hall lock used in this case. The absolute frequency stability was found to be better than 2×10-13 on timescales up to 300 s. Hence, together with the frequency stability on short timescales provided by the FPR, this scheme facilitates coherent Raman spectroscopy as needed for an example for the production of ultracold dipolar heteronuclear molecules.

  2. In-fiber rectangular air fabry-perot strain sensor based on high-precision fiber cutting platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Mao-qing; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-02-01

    An in-fiber rectangular air Fabry-Perot (FP) strain sensor based on a high-precision fiber cutting platform (HFCP) is proposed. The HFCP consisting of a CCD notation system, a micro-displacement platform, and an optical fiber cleaver can be used to precisely control the length of FP cavity. The microcavity of FP (even only tens of microns) with smooth reflective surface can be realized easily by using this system. The FP structures with different cavity lengths have been fabricated in this paper. Simulation and experimental results prove that the shorter length the cavity has, the higher strain sensitivity and the larger free spectral range (FSR) the sensor obtains. The strain sensitivity and FSR of in-fiber rectangular air FP sensor with a cavity length of 35 μm can be up to 2.23 pm/με and 28.5 nm respectively. Moreover, the proposed FP strain sensor has a negligible temperature sensitivity in the range of 25-75 °C. It is anticipated that such easy making, compact and low-cost fiber-optic strain sensors could find important applications in practice.

  3. A Fabry-Perot interferometer-based long-wavelength infrared spectrometer utilizing a novel PDMS patterning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geon Jung, Dong; Kim, Ho Won; Baek, Sun Min; Bang, Soon Jae; Kong, Seong Ho

    2015-06-01

    We report a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI)-based infrared (IR) spectrometer designed for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region. To fabricate the proposed FPI-based LWIR spectrometer, we developed a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning technique by combining photolithography and dry etching. The proposed PDMS patterning technique has advantages such as clear shape of PDMS pattern and no damage to the silicon (Si) substrate. Especially, the final height of PDMS pattern is easily adjusted by controlling the thickness of spin-coated photoresist. The proposed FPI-based IR spectrometer, which is composed of upper and lower substrate were fabricated separately utilizing newly proposed PDMS patterning technique. Experimental results show that maximum transmittance of filtered wavelength component by the proposed FPI-based IR spectrometer lies at the wavelength of 16 µm. The proposed IR spectrometer can detect a specific wavelength at LWIR region by controlling the air etalon gap that is adjusted by utilizing the proposed PDMS patterning technique.

  4. Intra-Tissue Pressure Measurement in Ex Vivo Liver Undergoing Laser Ablation with Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Probe

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-01-01

    We report the first-ever intra-tissue pressure measurement performed during 1064 nm laser ablation (LA) of an ex vivo porcine liver. Pressure detection has been performed with a biocompatible, all-glass, temperature-insensitive Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometry (EFPI) miniature probe; the proposed methodology mimics in-vivo treatment. Four experiments have been performed, positioning the probe at different positions from the laser applicator tip (from 0.5 mm to 5 mm). Pressure levels increase during ablation time, and decrease with distance from applicator tip: the recorded peak parenchymal pressure levels range from 1.9 kPa to 71.6 kPa. Different pressure evolutions have been recorded, as pressure rises earlier in proximity of the tip. The present study is the first investigation of parenchymal pressure detection in liver undergoing LA: the successful detection of intra-tissue pressure may be a key asset for improving LA, as pressure levels have been correlated to scattered recurrences of tumors by different studies. PMID:27092504

  5. Method of hybrid multiplexing for fiber-optic Fabry-Perot sensors utilizing frequency-shifted interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yiwen; Zhou, Ciming; Zheng, Angui; Cheng, Chunfu; Fan, Dian; Yin, Jiadi; Tian, Hui; Li, Mengmeng; Lu, Ying

    2014-12-10

    Experimental and theoretical research on hybrid multiplexing for fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensors based on frequency-shifted interferometry is presented. Four F-P sensors multiplexed in a hybrid configuration were experimentally investigated. The location of each multiplexed sensor was retrieved by performing the fast Fourier transform, and the reflection spectrum of each sensor was also obtained in spite of the spectral overlap, which was consistent with the results measured by an optical spectrum analyzer. With theoretical modeling, the maximum sensor number of a two-channel hybrid multiplexing system reaches 26 with crosstalk of less than -50  dB and a maximum frequency-domain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ∼25  dB, when the source power is 2 mW and the sensor separation is optimal, i.e., 40 m. And the sensor number is almost twice that multiplexed by a serial system under the same conditions. An SNR improvement of 3.9 dB can be achieved by using a Hamming window in a noise-free system compared with a Hanning window. In addition, we applied the experimental multiplexing system to a strain sensing test. The cavity lengths and cavity-length shifts of the four F-P sensors were demodulated, which was consistent with the actual situation. It provides a new feasible method to multiplex F-P sensors at large scale.

  6. Study on Planetary Wave Propagation in the Lower Thermosphere using wind Measurements from Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoo Lomotey, Solomon; Meriwether, John; Buriti, Ricardo; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Barros Silva, Diego

    2016-07-01

    This research is focused on the study of planetary wave propagation in the lower thermosphere. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is a passive optical sensing instrument used to estimate thermospheric winds and temperature. The data used in this paper were captured by the FPIs which are located at São João do Carirri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) and Cajazeiras (6.9ºS, 38.5ºW). The main objective of this research is looking for periodicities in the wind measurements with periods longer than few days in both component of the wind. This was done by using airglow emission of Atomic Oxygen OI630nm in the red line during the nighttime, i.e., from 20:00 to 03:00 local time (LT). Lomb-Scargle analysis was used to process the thermospheric winds and temperature. Phases (time of maximum) and amplitudes of these oscillations were estimated by using Least Square fitting method (LSF), almost all of periodicities propagation of planetary waves was above 2 days for the Zonal and Meriodional winds. A strong oscillation of quasi eight days were observed from September to December 2003

  7. Simultaneous ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH) and Fabry-Perot Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, C. R.; Harlander, J. M.; Meriwether, J. W.; Brown, C. M.; Drob, D. P.; Emmert, J. T.; Castelaz, M.; Roesler, F. L.

    2011-12-01

    The concept of Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) instruments to measure upper atmospheric winds was initially published in 2006. The DASH approach is identical to the concept of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) except that one interferometer arm includes an additional fixed optical path offset, similar to the phase stepping Michelson technique which was used for the WINDII (Wind Imaging Interferometer) experiment. The advantages of DASH include having no moving parts, high sensitivity, and the ability to simultaneously observe multiple isolated emission lines, including a known light source for real time calibration. Since it was first proposed, the development of the DASH technique has progressed significantly. Major milestones include a proof of concept in the laboratory, the design, fabrication and test of a monolithic DASH interferometer for the thermospheric red line (O I 630nm), and initial ground based thermospheric wind measurements using this interferometer. To further increase the technical readiness level (TRL) of DASH for a future satellite instrument, we have conducted coordinated measurements with a DASH prototype and Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) from the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute in North Carolina in the summer of 2011. We will present a comparison of the two experimental data sets and examine how they compare with the empirical horizontal wind model HWM-07.

  8. Intra-Tissue Pressure Measurement in Ex Vivo Liver Undergoing Laser Ablation with Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Probe.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-04-15

    We report the first-ever intra-tissue pressure measurement performed during 1064 nm laser ablation (LA) of an ex vivo porcine liver. Pressure detection has been performed with a biocompatible, all-glass, temperature-insensitive Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometry (EFPI) miniature probe; the proposed methodology mimics in-vivo treatment. Four experiments have been performed, positioning the probe at different positions from the laser applicator tip (from 0.5 mm to 5 mm). Pressure levels increase during ablation time, and decrease with distance from applicator tip: the recorded peak parenchymal pressure levels range from 1.9 kPa to 71.6 kPa. Different pressure evolutions have been recorded, as pressure rises earlier in proximity of the tip. The present study is the first investigation of parenchymal pressure detection in liver undergoing LA: the successful detection of intra-tissue pressure may be a key asset for improving LA, as pressure levels have been correlated to scattered recurrences of tumors by different studies.

  9. System and method for generating a displacement with ultra-high accuracy using a fabry-perot interferometer

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A system and method for generating a desired displacement of an object, i.e., a target, from a reference position with ultra-high accuracy utilizes a Fabry-Perot etalon having an expandable tube cavity for resolving, with an Iodine stabilized laser, displacements with high accuracy and for effecting (as an actuator) displacements of the target. A mechanical amplifier in the form of a micropositioning stage has a platform and a frame which are movable relative to one another, and the tube cavity of the etalon is connected between the platform and frame so that an adjustment in length of the cavity effects a corresponding, amplified movement of the frame relative to the cavity. Therefore, in order to provide a preselected magnitude of displacement of the stage frame relative to the platform, the etalon tube cavity is adjusted in length by a corresponding amount. The system and method are particularly well-suited for use when calibrating a high accuracy measuring device.

  10. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  11. Bragg grating-based Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated in a polymer fiber for sensing with improved resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.; Mergo, P.; Urbanczyk, W.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a Bragg grating-based Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fabricated in the polymer fiber with a core made of PMMA/PS copolymer and pure PMMA cladding. The FPI was formed by two gratings with the same Bragg wavelength, λ B = 1312 nm, separated by a small gap. The FP cavity was created directly during the grating inscription process by placing a narrow blocking aperture, in the center of the UV beam. Good long-term stability was achieved by fabricating the gratings of type II with long irradiation time (8 min). By choosing an appropriate width of the blocking aperture, we could control the number and the width of interference fringes visible in the grating’s reflection spectrum. Sharp fringes were obtained, of 3 dB width within the range of 50-100 pm, allowing for a significant increase in measurement resolution compared to direct interrogation of a single grating. The proposed interferometer was tested in measurements of strain and temperature in the range of 0-20 mstrain and 20 °C-70 °C, showing the sensitivity of 1.074 nm mstrain-1 and -25.1 pm °C-1, respectively.

  12. Acoustic emission sensor system using a chirped fiber-Bragg-grating Fabry-Perot interferometer and smart feedback control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Yupeng; Luo, Xiangyu; Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-optic acoustic emission (AE) sensor system that is capable of performing AE detection, even when the sensor is experiencing large quasi-static strains. The sensor is a Fabry-Perot interferometer formed by cascaded chirped fiber-Bragg gratings (CFBGs). The reflection spectrum of the sensor features a number of narrow spectral notches equally spaced within the reflection bandwidth of the CFBG. A semiconductor laser whose wavelength can be fast tuned through current injection is used to lock the laser line to the center of a slope of a spectral notch. When the notch is knocked out of the tuning range of the laser, a neighboring notch moves into the range. Through a smart feedback control scheme, the laser is unlocked from the current spectral lock and relocked to the desired point of the new notch. The fast speed of the unlocking/relocking process (<1  ms) ensures that the AE signal is monitored without significant disruption.

  13. Fabrication of short-wavelength infrared dual-band-pass filter based on combination of Fabry-Perot filters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan; Zhou, Sheng; Ma, Xiaofeng; Liu, Dingquan

    2016-11-20

    Dual-band-pass filters are key optical components in dual-spectral detection applications; it is imperative to fabricate them in a relatively simple way for practical use. In this paper, a dual-band-pass filter working in short-wavelength infrared is developed by the combination of two Fabry-Perot (F-P) filters, each having a transparent band. These two filters are designed separately, and deposited at different sides of a substrate. The total layers' number of the dual-band-pass filter is limited to 34; these layers are monitored by the method of direct transmittance level cut monitoring with a single monitor wavelength. The percent of optical extrema monitoring strategy is adopted in the deposition. The spectra of the F-P filters and the dual-band-pass filter are tested. The shorter pass-band's average transmittance is above 84%, the longer one is above 88%, and four of the pass-bands' edge steepness values are 1.4%,2.8%,1.9%, and 1.7%.

  14. Strong fiber Bragg grating based asymmetric Fabry-Perot sensor system with multiple reflections for high sensitivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Zhengliang; Ma, Mingxiang; Lin, Huizu; Hu, Yongming

    2014-03-01

    A fiber Bragg grating based (FBG-based) Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor system utilizing multiple reflections between two strong FBGs with different reflectiveties to enhance the sensitivity is proposed. The different interference signals are obtained by using different multiple-path-matched Michelson interferometers (MIs). The system is lighted by the ultra-narrow line width erbium-doped fiber ring laser and the signal is demodulated by phase-generated carrier (PGC) scheme. The method to choose the optimal parameters of the FBG-based asymmetric FP sensor and the different matching MIs is analyzed. The experimental results show that each matching MI can steadily enhance the sensitivity of the demodulated signal in the bandwidth of 80-8000 Hz. The sensitivity of the system can be enhanced about 19.1 dB when the light reflects nine times between the two FBGs. Further more, this system can be used to extend the dynamic range and the effective working bandwidth and so on.

  15. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-09-09

    We present a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in monostatic coaxial arrangement consisting of off-the-shelf telecom-grade components: a single frequency laser (wavelength λ = 1.5 μm) and a high-finesse scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (sFPI). In contrast to previous 1.5 μm LDV systems based on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter and receiver optics share a common axis reduces the number of components and greatly simplifies the optical alignment. However, the sensitivity to unwanted backreflections is increased. To circumvent this problem, we employ a custom optical circulator design which compared to commercial fiber-optic circulator achieves ~40 dB reduction in strength of unwanted reflections (i.e. leakage) while maintaining high optical efficiency. Experiments with a solid target demonstrate the performance of the sFPI-LDV system with high sensitivity down to pW level at present update rates up to 10 Hz.

  16. Optical Gain in MoS2 via Coupling with Nanostructured Substrate: Fabry-Perot Interference and Plasmonic Excitation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Yun; Kim, Un Jeong; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Lee, Hyangsook; Kim, Min Su; Jin, Youngjo; Ly, Thuc Hue; Lee, Si Young; Roh, Young-Geun; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-09-27

    Despite the direct band gap of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), their optical gain remains limited because of the poor light absorption in atomically thin, layered materials. Most approaches to improve the optical gain of TMDs mainly involve modulation of the active materials or multilayer stacking. Here, we report a method to enhance the optical absorption and emission in MoS2 simply through the design of a nanostructured substrate. The substrate consisted of a dielectric nanofilm spacer (TiO2) and metal film. The overall photoluminescence intensity from monolayer MoS2 on the nanostructured substrate was engineered based on the TiO2 thickness and amplified by Fabry-Perot interference. In addition, the neutral exciton emission was selectively amplified by plasmonic excitations from the local field originating from the surface roughness of the metal film with spacer thicknesses of less than 10 nm. We further demonstrate that the quality factor of the device can also be engineered by selecting a spacer material with a different refractive index.

  17. Dual hollow core fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients of liquids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Ho, Hsuan-Yu; Gu, Jheng-Hong; Yeh, Tung-Yuan; Tseng, Chung-Hao

    2015-02-15

    A microcavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) that is based on dual hollow core fibers (HCFs) is developed for measuring the thermo-optic coefficients (TOCs) of liquids. The proposed MFFPI was fabricated by fusion-splicing a tiny segment of the main-HCF with a diameter D of 30 μm and another section of feeding-HCF with a diameter of 5 μm. Then, the main-HCF was filled with liquid by capillary action through the feeding-HCF by immersing the MFFPI in the liquid. The TOCs of the Cargille liquid (n(D)=1.3), deionized (DI) water, and ethanol were accurately determined from the shift of the interference wavelength, which was due to the temperature variation. Our experimental results were also compared with other published studies to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed sensing scheme. The major advantage is that the miniature MFFPI can achieve the measurement of the TOCs of the liquids with picoliter volume, and the measured liquids also can be sealed off and stored inside the HCF to prevent contamination.

  18. Optimizing the external optical cavity parameters for performance improvement of a fiber grating Fabry-Perot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Hisham Kadhum; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Amouzad Mahdiraji, Ghafour; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2015-04-01

    The effects of the external optical cavity parameters (external optical cavity length ( L ext), amplitude coupling ( C o) and anti-reflection coating (ARC) reflectivity coefficients) on the noise and modulation spectra of a fiber grating Fabry-Perot laser are numerically analyzed for designing a laser that operates in strong feedback regime (Regime V). Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is used as a wavelength selective element to control the properties of the laser output by controlling the external optical feedback (OFB) level. The study is performed by modifying a set of rate equations that are solved by considering the effects of external OFB and ambient temperature ( T) variations. We proposed a model to calculate the temperature dependence (TD) of laser characteristics according to the TD of laser parameters. An accurate analytical expression for the TD of threshold carrier density ( N th,fe) has been derived. The TD of N th,fe was calculated according to the TD of laser cavity parameters instead of using well-known empirical Pankove relationship via the use of characteristics temperature ( T o) and current ( I o). Results show that the optimum external fiber length ( L ext) is 3.1 cm. Also, it is shown that ARC with reflectivity value of 1 × 10-2 is sufficient for the laser to operate at low noise, good modulation response, and low fabrication complexity.

  19. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0-10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation.

  20. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0–10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation. PMID:25126153

  1. Optimization of scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer in the high spectral resolution lidar for stratospheric temperature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiawei; Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2016-08-01

    Although the optimization of a static Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI)-used as a Doppler shift discriminator in wind lidar-has been proposed, it cannot be applied to the scanning FPI used in the high-spectral resolution lidar for temperature detection. After a comparison, the optimal scanning implementation is chosen and a new optimization scheme is proposed. The free spectral range (FSR) of the FPI is determined by the width of the Rayleigh spectrum. Then, for analytical purposes, the transmission of Rayleigh backscattering through an FPI is simplified to be a superposition of a Gaussian function and a constant background. The maximum likelihood estimation and the Cramer-Rao bound theory are used to derive an analytic expression of the temperature error. Thus, the effective reflectance of the FPI can be optimized. Finally, assuming known atmospheric temperature-pressure-density profiles, backscattering raw signals are simulated using the optimized parameters of the FPI and some other key system parameters of our existing lidar system. Comparisons between the assumed and retrieved temperature profiles revealed that error <2 K can be achieved in the altitude range of 15 to 40 km, even with the disturbance of aerosol contamination.

  2. A laser locked Fabry-Perot etalon with 3 cm/s stability for wavelength calibration of Doppler spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Christian; Gurevich, Yulia; Stuermer, Julian; Fuehrer, Thorsten; Lamoreaux, Steve; Walther, Thomas; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Superior wavelength calibration is a major component in attaining Doppler precision of 10 cm/s and better with high resolution spectrographs. To achieve this goal, current calibration methods like thorium-argon lamps and iodine cells need to be replaced by more precise techniques. The ideal wavelength calibrator has a grid of densely spaced, narrow lines of equal brightness and works over a wide wavelength range. Laser frequency combs have received much attention recently, but they are complex and costly. We present an alternative method that builds on the success of passively stabilized Fabry-Perot etalons: we actively stabilize the etalon to an atomic transition, which provides an absolute frequency reference. We use saturated absorption laser spectroscopy to detect the hyperfine transitions of rubidium at 780 nm, a well-established frequency standard. Then we tune an etalon parameter (for instance, temperature) to keep one etalon peak coincident with the rubidium transition. Our setup is designed to be simple and robust, adaptable to various etalons, and to work in the infrared as well as the visible spectral range. We achieve a locking precision that is equivalent to a Doppler precision of better than 3 cm/s over any reasonable integration time.

  3. Damage evaluation of smart composite beams using embedded extrinsic Fabry Perot interferometric strain sensors: bending stiffness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Sim, L. M.; Loughlan, J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on research work which is a comprehensive study involving the design of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric strain sensor (EFPI-SS), the manufacture of smart carbon/epoxy beams preconditioned with artificial delamination, and the testing of these beams in three-point bending. A loading applied to the beams was quasi-static in nature and this was selected in order to facilitate the accurate and reliable control of the beam deformations. The EFPI-SSs were validated for their sensing capacity and survivability via surface mounting and interior embedment. Artificial delaminations of two different sizes were embedded within the host beams to simulate damage. Their effect on the bending stiffness induced by quasi-static loading was examined using the embedded EFPI-SSs along with surface-mounted conventional strain gauges (SGs) on a comparative basis. A linear response was obtained from the EFPI-SSs up to a strain level of 0.5%, and this was in good agreement with interpolated strains as well as those from analytical prediction. It was shown that the embedded EFPI-SSs were able to differentiate the effect of the tensile delaminations on the bending stiffness when the level of strain was substantial. It was noted that the interior strain data from the EFPI-SSs in conjunction with the surface SG data were very useful for extrapolating the strain difference on both sides of the delaminations, so that the possibility of delamination propagation could be deduced.

  4. Tunable Q-switched thulium-doped Fiber Laser using multiwall carbon nanotube and Fabry-Perot Etalon filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Muhamad, A.; Sharbirin, A. S.; Samion, M. Z.; Ismail, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an electro-tunable Thulium-doped Fiber Laser (TDFL) using a voltage-controlled Fabry-Perot Etalon (FPE) filter with passive Q-switching capability, obtained by using a multi-walled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) thin-film as a saturable absorber (SA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a wavelength-tunable Q-switched TDFL using an FPE filter. The tunable TDFL has a wavelength-tuning range of 41.95 nm, from 1965.40 nm up to 2007.35 nm. Q-switching operation starts at a pump power of 94.72 mW and destabilizes at a maximum input pump power of 146.39 mW. By varying the pump power, the repetition rate and the pulse width can be tuned with a maximum tuning range of 15.5 kHz and 7.0 μs respectively. The laser also has a maximum pulse energy of 82.6 nJ and a peak power of 27.52 mW. The use of the MWCNT thin-film as an SA generates a stable Q-switching operation, which is verified by its relatively high signal-to-noise ratio at a value of 55.0 dB.

  5. A simple fiber-optic humidity sensor based on extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity constructed by cellulose acetate butyrate film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Wo-Bin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Yu, Chang-yuan

    2013-12-01

    A fiber-optic relative humidity sensor with an extrinsic micro Fabry-Perot cavity constructed with a thin layer of cellulose acetate butyrate coated on a fiber end is presented. Its operational principle is based on the relative-humidity-dependent wavelength shift of the interference fringes formed by Fresnel reflections from both interfaces of the thin film. Both the experimental and theoretical analyses are investigated in detail. The experimental data for relative humidity ranging from 8.8% to 88.1% are measured in the both humidification and dehumidification processes, which fits the linear equation very well with a value of R2 = 0.9946. As observed, it shows a high sensitivity of 0.307 nm/%RH with a high resolution of 0.06%. The time-dependent response of the sensor is estimated. The long term stability of the sensor is also addressed with high precision of ±0.03% over 100 min. The proposed relative humidity sensor has a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  6. Nanoantenna-induced fringe splitting of Fabry-Perot interferometer: a model study of plasmonic/photonic coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Erouel, Mohsen; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Harouri, Abdelmounaim; Benyattou, Taha; Orobtchouk, Régis; Milord, Laurent; Belarouci, Ali; Letartre, Xavier; Jamois, Cécile

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we present a simple approach to study the coupling mechanisms between a plasmonic system consisting of bowtie nanoantennas and a photonic structure based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The nanoantenna array is represented by an equivalent homogeneous layer placed at the interferometer surface and yielding the effective dielectric function of the NA resonance. A phase matching model based on thin film interference is developed to describe the multi-layer interferences in the device and to analyze the fringe variations induced by the introduction of the plasmonic layer. The general model is validated by an experimental system consisting of a bowtie nanoantenna array and a porous-silicon-based interferometer. The optical response of this hybrid device exhibits both the enhancement induced by the nanoantenna resonance and the fringe pattern of the interferometer. Using the phase matching model, we demonstrate that strong coupling can occur in such a system, leading to fringe splitting. A study of the splitting strength and of the coupling behavior is given. The model study performed in this work enables to gain deeper understanding of the optical behavior of plasmonic/photonic hybrid devices.

  7. Development of low-cost sky-scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers for airglow and auroral studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Oyama, S.; Nozawa, S.; Satoh, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Meriwether, J.

    2012-11-01

    We have developed new Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) that are designed to measure thermospheric winds and temperatures as well as mesospheric winds through the airglow/aurora emissions at wavelengths of 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm, respectively. One FPI (FP01), possessing a large aperture etalon (diameter: 116 mm), was installed at the EISCAT Tromsø site in 2009. The other FPIs, using 70-mm diameter etalons, were installed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Australia in 2010-2011 (FP02-FP04) by the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, and in Peru (Nazca and Jicamarca) and Alaska (Poker Flat) by Clemson University. The FPIs with 70-mm etalons are low-cost compact instruments, suitable for multipoint network observations. All of these FPIs use low-noise cooled-CCD detectors with 1024 × 1024 pixels combined with a 4-stage thermoelectric cooling system that can cool the CCD temperature down to -80°C. The large incident angle (maximum: 1.3°-1.4°) to the etalon achieved by the use of multiple orders increases the throughput of the FPIs. The airglow and aurora observations at Tromsø by FP01 show wind velocities with typical random errors ranging from 2 to 13 m s-1 and from 4 to 27 m s-1 for mesosphere (557.7 nm) and thermosphere (630.0 nm) measurements, respectively. The 630.0-nm airglow observations at Shigaraki, Japan, by FP02-FP04 and by the American FPI instruments give thermospheric wind velocities with typical random errors that vary from 2 m s-1 to more than 50 m s-1 depending on airglow intensity.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of White Light Fabry-Perot Interferometry Fiber-Optic Strain Gages when Measuring Small Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Cyr, William; Figueroa, Fernando; VanDyke, David; McVay, Greg; Mitchell, Mark

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate whether fiber optic strain gages (FOSG) are "better" sensors than typical foil gages. A particularly attractive feature of FOSG was their specified resolution of 0.01% of full-scale (0.1 micro strain for 1000 micro strain full-scale). This feature would make FOSG practical tank level sensors, by measuring very small strains on the support structure of a tank. A specific application in mind was to measure liquid oxygen tank level, with support beams that were predicted to contract approximately 11 micro strain as the tank goes from empty to full. Among various fiber optic technologies currently available, Fabry-Perot Interferometry using white light was selected. This technology exhibits highly desirable feature such as absolute strain measurement, linearity over its full-scale, and temperature compensation. However, experiment results suggest that the resolution is 0.8 micro strain, at best, calibration from one sensor to another can be off by 2.4 - 11.2%, and that temperature compensation is not fully predictable, with errors of up to 3.5 micro strain over an 11C range. Hence, when compared with classic foil gages, FOSG possess less accuracy, similar resolution and repeatability (precision), and superior linearity over their entire operating range. They are immune to EMI and their signals suffer minimal degradation over long distances. It is also expected that drift with time will be minimal in FOSG whereas the gage factor of foil sensors changes over time when exposed to varying environmental conditions. In conclusion, FOSG are "better" than foil gages as long as the application allows calibration of individual units as installed for operation.

  9. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry for noncontact temperature control of nanoliter-volume enzymatic reactions in glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Wavering, Thomas A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2005-02-15

    Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI) was investigated as a noncontact temperature sensor and utilized for regulating the temperature of small-volume solutions in microchips. Interference pattern analysis determined the optical path lengths (OPL) associated with reflections from various surfaces on or in the microchip, in particular, from gold sputtered on the bottom of a microchannel. Since OPL is directly proportional to refractive index, which is dependent on solution temperature, the EFPI sensor was capable of noncontact monitoring of solution temperature simply from alterations in the measured path length. Calibration of the sensor against a thermocouple was performed while heating the microchip in a noncontact manner with an IR lamp. The combination of EFPI temperature sensor, IR-mediated heating, and air cooling allowed a fully noncontact system for small-volume temperature control in microchip structures, and its utility was illustrated by optimal digestion of DNA by a temperature-dependent restriction endonuclease in 320 nL. The functionality and simplicity of the microchip EFPI temperature sensor was enhanced by replacing the prebonding sputtered gold with a tunable, chemically plated semireflective silver coating created in situ after chip fabrication. This provided an 8-fold improvement in the lowest detectable temperature change (deltaT = 0.1 degrees C), facilitated primarily by enhanced reflection from both the bottom and top surfaces of the microchannel. This approach for controlling micro- and nanoscale reactions--with heating, cooling, and temperature control being carried out in a completely noncontact fashion--provides an accurate and sensitive method for executing chemical and biochemical reactions in microchips.

  10. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  11. An arrayed infrared filter based on liquid crystal Fabry-Perot effect for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiuning; Tong, Qing; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    An arrayed electrically tunable infrared (IR) filter based on the key structure of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) working in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully. According to the electrically controlled birefringence characteristics of nematic LC molecules, the refractive index of LC materials filled into a prefabricated microcavity can be adjusted by the spatial electric field stimulated between the top aluminum electrode patterned by conventional UV-photolithography and the bottom aluminum electrode in the LC-FP. The particular functions including key spectral selection and spectral adjustment, can be performed by the developed LC-FP filter driven and controlled electrically. Our experiments show that the maximum transmittance of the transmission peaks is ~24% and the peaks of transmission spectrum shift through applying different voltage signals with a root mean square (RMS) value ranging from 0 to ~21.7Vrms. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation according to the model constructed by us. As a 4-channel array-type IR filter, the top electrode of the device is composed of four same sub-electrodes, which is powered, respectively, to select desired transmission spectrum. Each of the units in the device is operated separately and synchronously, which means that spectral images of the same object can be obtained with different wavelengths in one shot. Without any mechanical parts, the developed LC-FP filter exhibits several advantages including ultra-small size, low cost, high reliability, high spectral selectivity, and compact integration.

  12. Observations of storm time midlatitude ion-neutral coupling using SuperDARN radars and NATION Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. P.; H. Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D. J.; Harding, B. J.; Frissell, N. A.; Thomas, E. G.

    2015-10-01

    Ion drag is known to play an important role in driving neutral thermosphere circulation at auroral latitudes, especially during the main phase of geomagnetic storms. During the recovery phase, the neutrals are known to drive the ions and generate ionospheric electric fields and currents via the disturbance dynamo mechanism. At midlatitudes, the precise interplay between ions and neutrals is less understood largely because of the paucity of measurements that have been available. In this work, we investigate ion-neutral coupling at middle latitudes using colocated ion drift velocity measurements obtained from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars and neutral wind velocity and temperature measurements obtained from the North American Thermosphere Ionosphere Observing Network (NATION) Fabry-Perot interferometers. We examine one recent storm period on 2-3 October 2013 during both the main phase and late recovery phase. By using ion-neutral momentum exchange theory and a time-lagged correlation analysis, we analyze the coupling time scales and dominant driving mechanisms. We observe that during the main phase the neutrals respond to the ion convection on a time scale of ˜84 min which is significantly faster than what would be expected from local ion drag momentum forcing alone. This suggests that other storm time influences are important for driving the neutrals during the main phase, such as Joule heating. During the late recovery phase, the neutrals are observed to drive the ion convection without any significant time delay, consistent with the so-called "neutral fly wheel effect" or disturbance dynamo persisting well into the late recovery phase.

  13. Fabry-Perot Laser Ultrasonic Elastic Anisotropy Measurements on a Moving Paper Web

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, John Bradley; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Gerhardstein, J. P.; Pufahl, B. M.; Habeger, C. C; Lafond, E. M.; Brodeur, P. H.

    1999-07-01

    On-line measurement of material properties is a goal of many manufacturers to improve production and quality. The elastic stiffness of paper is important for the paper industry. Currently, the elastic constants of paper are measured offline with contact ultrasonic methods [1-4]. Piezoelectric transducers are placed in contact with the paper surface to generate and detect plate wave modes, known as Lamb wave modes [5-7]. At low frequencies, where the wavelength of the elastic wave is larger than the paper thickness, two wave modes dominate in the paper, an anti-symmetric or flexural mode and a symmetric or thickness mode. Measurements of the phase velocities of these modes along both the machine direction (MD) and the perpendicular cross direction (CD) of the paper web provide an important parameter revealing the increased stiffness in the paper along the MD direction.

  14. Active Q-switching of a fiber laser using a modulated fiber Fabry-Perot filter and a fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Manuel, Rodolfo; Kaboko, J. J. M.; Shlyagin, M. G.

    2016-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and robust actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring cavity laser. The Q-switching is based on dynamic spectral overlapping of two filters, namely a fiber Bragg grating-based filter and a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter. Using 3.5 m of erbium-doped fiber and a pump power of only 60 mW, Q-switched pulses with a peak power of 9.7 W and a pulse duration of 500 ns were obtained. A pulse repetition rate can be continuously varied from a single shot to a few KHz.

  15. Analytical description of a Fabry-Perot spectrometer 6: minimum number of samples required in the determination of Doppler widths and shifts.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, G

    1982-05-01

    The minimum number of samples required to obtain the least uncertainties of determination for measurements of temperature and winds with a Fabry-Perot photoelectric spectrometer are derived. The specific cases for a spectrometer optimized for Doppler width (temperature) and Doppler shift (winds) determinations are treated where the minimum (critical) number of equidistant samples per free spectral range is found to be equal to 14 and 8, respectively. An approximate empirical criterion to derive the number of samples in terms of effective finesse N(e) has been obtained and is equal to approximately 4N(e) for practical spectrometer and source widths.

  16. The introduction of spurious models in a hole-coupled Fabry-Perot open resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Long, Kenwyn J.; Heinen, Vernon O.; Stankiewicz, Norbert

    1992-01-01

    A hemispherical open resonator has previously been used to make relative comparisons of the surface resistivity of metallic thin-film samples in the submillimeter wavelength region. This resonator is fed from a far-infrared laser via a small coupling hole in the center of the concave spherical mirror. The experimental arrangement, while desirable as a coupling geometry for monitoring weak emissions from the cavity, can lead to the introduction of spurious modes into the cavity. Sources of these modes are identified, and a simple alteration of the experimental apparatus to eliminate such modes is suggested.

  17. Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, Thomas; Ottaway, David; Innerhofer, Edith; Pelc, Jason; Mavalvala, Nergis

    2006-08-15

    We report on experimental observation of radiation-pressure induced effects in a high-power optical cavity. These effects play an important role in next-generation gravitational wave detectors, as well as in quantum nondemolition interferometers. We measure the properties of an optical spring, created by coupling of an intense laser field to the pendulum mode of a suspended mirror, and also the parametric instability (PI) that arises from the coupling between acoustic modes of the cavity mirrors and the cavity optical mode. We measure an unprecedented optical rigidity of K=(3.08{+-}0.09)x10{sup 4} N/m, corresponding to an optical rigidity that is 6000 times stiffer than the mechanical stiffness, and PI strength R{approx_equal}3. We measure the unstable nature of the optical spring resonance, and demonstrate that the PI can be stabilized by feedback to the frequency of the laser source.

  18. 1.5 MU M Fabry-Perot Microcavities Based on Hydrogenated Silicon and Related Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    limited by sensitivity of InGaAs photodiode. A sharp 1.54 jtm peak corresponds to a resonant mode of the MC. 167 168 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal A C B...transmission spectra are found to be close to each other in agreement with our theoretical analysis. 170 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal 2. Conclusions In

  19. Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630-nm OI line-shape profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, A. J.; Meriwether, J. W.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we present both night and day thermospheric wind observations made with the Second-generation, Optimized, Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI), a novel triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed to make 24-h measurements of thermospheric winds from OI 630-nm emission. These results were obtained from the northeastern United States and from under the magnetic equator at Huancayo, Peru and demonstrate the current instrument capability for measurements of Doppler shifts for either night or day. We found the uncertainties in the measurements agree with expected values based upon forward modeling calculations; nighttime wind components having an uncertainty of ~20-m s-1 at 30-min resolution and daytime wind components having an uncertainty of ~70-m s-1 at 20-min resolution. The nighttime uncertainties are typically larger than those seen with traditional single-etalon FPIs, which occur at the cost of being able to achieve daytime measurements. The thermospheric wind measurements from Huancayo replicate recently reported CHAMP zonal winds and are in disagreement with current empirical wind climatologies. In addition, we discuss the incorporation of how multiple point heads in the SOFDI instrument will allow for unique studies of gravity wave activity in future measurements.

  20. ZnO coated Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber for detection of gasoline blend vapors: Refractive index and fringe visibility manipulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Dnyandeo; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles-coated Fabry-Perot interferometer based optical fiber sensor is demonstrated to detect different gasoline blend concentrations in ethanol. Different gasoline blends (with ethanol varying from 0% (E0) to 100% (E100)) have been subjected to the sensor to observe the change in refractive index of the material that leads to the wavelength shift and fringe visibility change of the interference spectrum. The sensor shows the remarkable response with different gasoline blend mixtures within the time span of 0-60 s in terms of wavelength and Intensity (power) shift. The maximum wavelength shift of 12.1 nm is observed for E0 mixture and least of 3 nm for E100 in 60 s, respectively. A fast response time and recovery time of 5 s and 9 s, respectively, are obtained for E0 mixture. The results are related to the formation of interference pattern due the ZnO-mediated-Fabry-Perot cavity, changes in refractive index with the change in external gaseous environment, changes in fringe visibility of the spectrum and the interaction of oxygen vacancies on ZnO surface with the gasoline moieties. The rates of sensing and recovery times are related to the Reid vapor pressures of ethanol and gasoline. Hence a dual scale of sensing, both in terms of wavelength shift (refractive index) and intensity shift (fringe visibility) has been proposed for gasoline blend sensing.

  1. Polar cap mesosphere wind observations: comparisons of simultaneous measurements with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G M; Killeen, T L; Wu, Q; Reeves, J M; Hays, P B; Gault, W A; Brown, S; Shepherd, G G

    2000-08-20

    Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (approximately 86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 degrees N, 94.9 degrees W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

  2. MWIR/LWIR filter based on Liquid-Crystal Fabry-Perot structure for tunable spectral imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Muhammad, Afzal; Luo, Jun; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-03-01

    An electrically tunable medium-wave infrared (MWIR)/long-wave infrared (LWIR) filter based on the key structure of Liquid-Crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot (FP), which works in the wavelength range from 2.5 μm to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully in this paper. According to the optical interference principle of the FP cavity and electrically controlled birefringence of nematic LC molecules, the particular functions including spectral selection and spectral staring and spectral adjustment, can be realized by the developed MWIR/LWIR filter driven and controlled electrically. As to the LC-FP filter, both planar reflective mirrors are shaped by depositing a layer of aluminum (Al) film (∼60 nm) over one side of double-side polished Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) wafer (∼1 mm), and then polyimide (PI) layer with the thickness of ∼100 nm is coated directly on Al film. With typical sandwich architecture, the depth of the cavity with nematic LC molecules sealed in is ∼7.5 μm. To make sure the LC molecules parallel aligned and twist regularly under voltage driving signal applied on Al film, which also acts as electrode, the V-grooves are formed in PI layer with the depth of ∼90 nm and the width of ∼350 nm at average by strong rubbing. The typical transmission spectrum in MWIR&LWIR wavelength range and several spectral images in MWIR wavelength range based on the fabricated LC-FP filter, have been obtained through applying a voltage driving-signal with different root-means-square (RMS) value over the electrodes of LC-FP filter in the selected voltage range from 0VRMS to 19.8VRMS. The testing result demonstrates a prospect of realization smart spectral imaging and further integrating the LC-FP filter with infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) to achieve the purpose infrared multispectral imaging. The developed MWIR&LWIR LC-FP filters show some obvious advantages such as wide working wavelength range, electrically tunable spectral selection, ultra-compact, low cost, being

  3. Electrically tunable infrared filter based on the liquid crystal Fabry-Perot structure for spectral imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaidong; Muhammmad, Afzal; Luo, Jun; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2014-09-01

    An electrically tunable infrared (IR) filter based on the liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot (FP) key structure, which works in the wavelength range from 5.5 to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully. Both planar reflective mirrors with a very high reflectivity of ∼95%, which are shaped by depositing a layer of aluminum (Al) film over one side of a double-sided polished zinc selenide wafer, are coupled into a dual-mirror FP cavity. The LC materials are filled into the FP cavity with a thickness of ∼7.5  μm for constructing the LC-FP filter, which is a typical type of sandwich architecture. The top and bottom mirrors of the FP cavity are further coated by an alignment layer with a thickness of ∼100  nm over Al film. The formed alignment layer is rubbed strongly to shape relatively deep V-grooves to anchor LC molecules effectively. Common optical tests show some particular properties; for instance, the existing three transmission peaks in the measured wavelength range, the minimum full width at half-maximum being ∼120  nm, and the maximum adjustment extent of the imaging wavelength being ∼500  nm through applying the voltage driving signal with a root mean square (RMS) value ranging from 0 to ∼19.8  V. The experiment results are consistent with the simulation, according to our model setup. The spectral images obtained in the long-wavelength IR range, through the LC-FP device driven by the voltage signal with a different RMS value, demonstrates the prospect of the realization of smart spectral imaging and further integrating the LC-FP filter with IR focal plane arrays. The developed LC-FP filters show some advantages, such as electrically tunable imaging wavelength, very high structural and photoelectronic response stability, small size and low power consumption, and a very high filling factor of more than 95% compared with common MEMS-FP spectral imaging approaches.

  4. Equatorial thermospheric winds: New results using data from a network of three Fabry-Perot interferometers located in central Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Dominquez, L. N.; Milla, M. A.; Chau, J. L.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new observing strategy aimed at improving our understanding of the properties of the equatorial thermosphere wind field, such as the vorticity and divergence, has been developed to generate maps of the thermospheric wind field. Estimates of the neutral wind are obtained from measurements of the Doppler shift of the thermospheric 630.0-nm emission obtained from a sequence of eight evenly spaced azimuthal directions for each of the three Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observatories located in central Peru (Jicamarca, Nazca, and Arequipa). Measurements towards the zenith and a frequency-stabilized laser reference are also included in each sequence, which takes ~25 minutes to complete. Six of the off-zenith observing directions from the Nazca FPI observatory are used to make common volume (CV) measurements, where two of the FPIs observe the same thermospheric volume with a centroid height of ~250 km at orthogonal angles. These CV positions are located ~225 km north and south of the Nazca FPI observatory. The data obtained during a coordinated observation of the two FPIs observing the same CV location are used to compute estimates of the zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components. The set of Doppler shifts measured by the three FPIs during a single sequence is used to produce a map of the neutral wind field for that period of time. The construction of this map is based upon the use of a first-order polynomial expansion of the neutral wind field relative to the site coordinates of each FPI location. This expansion includes the first-order gradients of u and v with respect to the zonal (x) and meridional (y) directions. Computation of the best fit in a linear least squares sense of the model expansion parameters to the Doppler shift data for all three sites determines the values of these gradient parameters. Results obtained for mid-winter 2013 show the anti-cyclonic circulation expected near the terminator generated by the day-to-night pressure gradient. Sequences

  5. Active cancellation of residual amplitude modulation in a frequency-modulation based Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinan; Wang, Yicheng; Pratt, Jon R.

    2016-03-01

    Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) is one of the most common noise sources known to degrade the sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy. RAM can arise as a result of the temperature dependent birefringence of the modulator crystal, which causes the orientation of the crystal's optical axis to shift with respect to the polarization of the incident light with temperature. In the fiber-based optical interferometer used on the National Institute of Standards and Technology calculable capacitor, RAM degrades the measured laser frequency stability and correlates with the environmental temperature fluctuations. We have demonstrated a simple approach that cancels out excessive RAM due to polarization mismatch between the light and the optical axis of the crystal. The approach allows us to measure the frequency noise of a heterodyne beat between two lasers individually locked to different resonant modes of a cavity with an accuracy better than 0.5 ppm, which meets the requirement to further determine the longitudinal mode number of the cavity length. Also, this approach has substantially mitigated the temperature dependency of the measurements of the cavity length and consequently the capacitance.

  6. Decoding the spectra of low-finesse extrinsic optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Dong, Bo; Gong, Jianmin; Wang, Anbo

    2011-11-21

    A theoretical model is developed to address the fringe visibility and additional phase in the interference spectra of low-finesse extrinsic optical fiber excited Fabry-Pérot interferometers. The model described in the paper applies to both single-mode and multimode fiber excitations; according to the theory, the fringe visibility and additional phase term are primarily determined by the working wavelength and angular power density distribution outputting from the excitation fiber, rather than based on spatial and temporal degree of coherence. Under certain approximations, the output interference intensity and the spatial power density distribution projected onto the fiber axis form a Fourier-transform pair, which potentially provides a tool for spatial density distribution analysis of fiber output. With excellent agreement with experiments, the theory presented in this paper leads to design guidelines for Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors and insightful physical understanding of such devices.

  7. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    PubMed

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  8. FIFTH SEMINAR IN MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Dynamics of a Fabry-Perot cavity in the field of a plane gravitational wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarabrin, S. P.

    2007-12-01

    The interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a Fabry-Perot cavity is analysed beyond the long-wavelength approximation in the input-mirror locally Lorentzian frame of reference taking the light pressure into account. The generalised expressions are obtained for the coefficient of pondermotive optical rigidity, the motion law of the moving mirror of the cavity and the response function of the cavity. It is shown that the latter is a sum of two phase shifts of a circulating light wave: the phase incursion after reflection from the moving mirror and the phase incursion due to the direct interaction of gravitational and light waves in the cavity. The possibility of the resonance detection of high-frequency gravitational waves by using the optical rigidity effect is considered.

  9. Hydrogen-doping stabilized metallic VO{sub 2} (R) thin films and their application to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances in the terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yong; Pan, Xuan; Bernussi, Ayrton A.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Karaoglan-Bebek, Gulten; Holtz, Mark

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate that catalyst-assisted hydrogen spillover doping of VO{sub 2} thin films significantly alters the metal-insulator transition characteristics and stabilizes the metallic rutile phase at room temperature. With hydrogen inserted into the VO{sub 2} lattice, high resolution X-ray diffraction reveals expansion of the V-V chain separation when compared to the VO{sub 2}(R) phase. The donated free electrons, possibly from O-H bond formation, stabilize the VO{sub 2}(R) to low temperatures. By controlling the amount of dopants to obtain mixed insulating and metallic phases, VO{sub 2} resistivity can be continuously tuned until a critical condition is achieved that suppresses Fabry-Perot resonances. Our results demonstrate that hydrogen spillover is an effective technique to tune the electrical and optical properties of VO{sub 2} thin films.

  10. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field.

  11. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwolek, J. M.; Wells, J. E.; Goodman, D. S.; Smith, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca+ ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  12. Microfiber Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by taper-drawing technique and its application as a radio frequency interrogated refractive index sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiejun; Sun, Qizhen; Liang, Ruibing; Wo, Jianghai; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry

    2012-07-15

    We propose a novel fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) that incorporates a length of microfiber as its cavity and two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as reflectors. The microfiber FPI is simply fabricated by flame-heated taper-drawing the central spot of an FBG into a section of microfiber. Ambient refractive index (RI) influences the effective index of microfiber, and thus the free spectrum range of the microfiber FPI, resulting in RI sensing. A dual-wavelength fiber laser based on the microfiber FPI is constructed, enabling radio frequency interrogation with high resolution. RI sensitivity of 911 MHz/RIU is experimentally demonstrated for microfiber FPI with equivalent diameter of 1.455 μm. Simulation results indicate that the sensitivity can be further enhanced by reducing the diameter of the microfiber.

  13. A New Remote Sensing Filter Radiometer Employing a Fabry-Perot Etalon and a CCD Camera for Column Measurements of Methane in the Earth Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Huang, W.; Heaps, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    A portable remote sensing system for precision column measurements of methane has been developed, built and tested at NASA GSFC. The sensor covers the spectral range from 1.636 micrometers to 1.646 micrometers, employs an air-gapped Fabry-Perot filter and a CCD camera and has a potential to operate from a variety of platforms. The detector is an XS-1.7-320 camera unit from Xenics Infrared solutions which combines an uncooled InGaAs detector array working up to 1.7 micrometers. Custom software was developed in addition to the graphical user basic interface X-Control provided by the company to help save and process the data. The technique and setup can be used to measure other trace gases in the atmosphere with minimal changes of the etalon and the prefilter. In this paper we describe the calibration of the system using several different approaches.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and refractive index using focused ion beam milled Fabry-Perot cavities in optical fiber micro-tips.

    PubMed

    André, Ricardo M; Warren-Smith, Stephen C; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M I; Latifi, H; Marques, Manuel B; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-06-27

    Optical fiber micro-tips are promising devices for sensing applications in small volume and difficult to access locations, such as biological and biomedical settings. The tapered fiber tips are prepared by dynamic chemical etching, reducing the size from 125 μm to just a few μm. Focused ion beam milling is then used to create cavity structures on the tapered fiber tips. Two different Fabry-Perot micro-cavities have been prepared and characterized: a solid silica cavity created by milling two thin slots and a gap cavity. A third multi-cavity structure is fabricated by combining the concepts of solid silica cavity and gap cavity. This micro-tip structure is analyzed using a fast Fourier transform method to demultiplex the signals of each cavity. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index is then demonstrated, presenting sensitivities of - 15.8 pm/K and -1316 nm/RIU, respectively.

  15. RESONANT STRUCTURE IN THE DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES, USING PHASE REVERSALS IN STREAMING MOTIONS FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL H{alpha} FABRY-PEROT SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Fathi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Leonel; Hernandez, Olivier E-mail: jeb@iac.es E-mail: kambiz@astro.su.se E-mail: hernandez@astro.umontreal.ca

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a technique for finding resonance radii in a disk galaxy. We use a two-dimensional velocity field in H{alpha} emission obtained with Fabry-Perot interferometry, derive the classical rotation curve, and subtract it off, leaving a residual velocity map. As the streaming motions should reverse sign at corotation, we detect these reversals and plot them in a histogram against galactocentric radius, excluding points where the amplitude of the reversal is smaller than the measurement uncertainty. The histograms show well-defined peaks which we assume to occur at resonance radii, identifying corotations as the most prominent peaks corresponding to the relevant morphological features of the galaxy (notably bars and spiral arm systems). We compare our results with published measurements on the same galaxies using other methods and different types of data.

  16. Signal extraction in a power-recycled michelson interferometer with fabry-perot arm cavities by use of a multiple-carrier frontal modulation scheme.

    PubMed

    Sigg, D; Mavalvala, N; Giaime, J; Fritschel, P; Shoemaker, D

    1998-08-20

    We present a signal extraction scheme for longitudinal sensing and control of an interferometric gravitational-wave detector based on a multiple-frequency heterodyne detection technique. Gravitational-wave detectors use multiple-mirror resonant optical systems where resonance conditions must be satisfied for multiple degrees of freedom that are optically coupled. The multiple-carrier longitudinal-sensing technique provides sensitive signals for all interferometric lengths to be controlled and successfully decouples them. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a tabletop-scale power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities, and the experimentally measured values of the length-sensing signals are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  17. Combined incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of frictional heating effects over Millstone Hill during March 7-10, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, M.E.; Sipler, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors introduce a methodology to calculate the effects of frictional heating associated with geomagnetic activity using simultaneous incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Vector measurements of ion drift from radar backscatter and neutral wind from optical shifts in the atomic oxygen red line over Millstone Hill, Massachusetts (43{degree}N) for the nights of March 7-10, 1989 are presented and are characterized by the magnetic storm activity which prevailed. They combine these measurements to calculate differences in the ion and neutral velocity fields which approach 350 m/s during the most geomagnetically active period that they monitored near 01 UT on March 9. This velocity difference results in a 110{degree}K heating of the ion gas at that time.

  18. Ground-Based Fabry-Perot Interferometry of the Terrestrial Nightglow with a Bare Charge-Coupled Device: Remote Field Site Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, Rick; Killeen, Timothy L.; Turnbull, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to the study of upper atmosphere thermodynamics has largely been restricted by the very low light levels in the terrestrial airglow as well as the limited range in wavelength of photomultiplier tube (PMT) technology. During the past decade, the development of the scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) has progressed to the stage in which this detector has become the logical replacement for the PMT. Small fast microcomputers have made it possible to "upgrade" our remote field sites with bare CCDs and not only retain the previous capabilities of the existing FPls but expand the data coverage in both temporal and wavelength domains. The problems encountered and the solutions applied to the deployment of a bare CCD, with data acquisition and image reduction techniques, are discussed. Sample geophysical data determined from the FPI fringe profiles are shown for our stations at Peach Mountain, Michigan, and Watson Lake, Yukon Territory.

  19. MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer-based spectrometer demonstrator for 7.5 μm to 9.5 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkynen, Jussi H.; Tuohiniemi, Mikko; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Antila, Jarkko E.

    2014-03-01

    VTT Technical research centre of Finland has developed a MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for the wavelength range from 7.5 μm to 9.5 μm. The device consists of two Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) manufactured with MEMS processing techniques. The full width half maximum of the transmission peak is 150nm. This transmission peak can be tuned from 7.5 μm to 9.5 μm by applying a control voltage from 0 V to 30 V. A laboratory demonstrator has been put together to show the use of this module as a part of a spectral measurement setup. Several gas samples have been measured with the setup and compared against measurement results found in literature.

  20. Ultraviolet high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar with a dual-pass Fabry-Perot etalon for measuring atmospheric temperature profiles of the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Hua, Dengxin; Uchida, Masaru; Kobayashi, Takao

    2004-05-15

    We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of measurement of tropospheric temperature profiles in daytime by use of a high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar at an eye-safe wavelength of 355 nm. Atmospheric temperature is determined from the linewidth of the Rayleigh spectrum. Two Rayleigh signals are detected with Fabry-Perot etalon filters with a dual-pass optical layout. The Mie signal is detected with a third etalon filter for correcting the Mie component in the Rayleigh signals. The temperature statistical uncertainties are below 1 K up to a height of 3 km in nighttime and 2 km in daytime with a relatively compact system that uses laser energy of 180 mJ and a 25-cm telescope. Good agreement between lidar and radiosonde measurements is obtained.

  1. Ultraviolet Rayleigh-Mie lidar with Mie-scattering correction by Fabry-Perot etalons for temperature profiling of the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Hua, Dengxin; Uchida, Masaru; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-03-01

    A Rayleigh-Mie-scattering lidar system at an eye-safe 355-nm ultraviolet wavelength that is based on a high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is demonstrated for measuring the vertical temperature profile of the troposphere. Two Rayleigh signals, which determine the atmospheric temperature, are filtered with two Fabry-Perot etalon filters. The filters are located on the same side of the wings of the Rayleigh-scattering spectrum and are optically constructed with a dual-pass optical layout. This configuration achieves a high rejection rate for Mie scattering and reasonable transmission for Rayleigh scattering. The Mie signal is detected with a third Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is centered at the laser frequency. The filter parameters were optimized by numerical calculation; the results showed a Mie rejection of approximately -45 dB, and Rayleigh transmittance greater than 1% could be achieved for the two Rayleigh channels. A Mie correction method is demonstrated that uses an independent measure of the aerosol scattering to correct the temperature measurements that have been influenced by the aerosols and clouds. Simulations and preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the performance of the dual-pass etalon and Mie correction method is highly effective in practical applications. Simulation results have shown that the temperature errors that are due to noise are less than 1 K up to a height of 4 km for daytime measurement for 300 W m(-2) sr(-1) microm(-1) sky brightness with a lidar system that uses 200 mJ of laser energy, a 3.5-min integration time, and a 25-cm telescope.

  2. Direct-detection Doppler wind measurements with a Cabannes Mie lidar: A. Comparison between iodine vapor filter and Fabry Perot interferometer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Chiao-Yao; Yue, Jia; Yan, Zhao-Ai; Hair, Johnathan W.; Guo, Jin-Jia; Wu, Song-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Shen

    2007-07-01

    Atmospheric line-of-sight (LOS) wind measurement by means of incoherent Cabannes-Mie lidar with three frequency analyzers with nearly the same maximum transmission of ˜80% that could be fielded at different wavelengths is analytically considered. These frequency analyzers are (a) a double-edge Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at 1064 nm (IR-FPI), (b) a double-edge Fabry-Perot interferometer at 355 nm (UV-FPI), and (c) an iodine vapor filter (IVF) at 532 nm with two different methods, using either one absorption edge, single edge (se-IVF), or both absorption edges, double edge (de-IVF). The effect of the backscattered aerosol mixing ratio, Rb, defined as the ratio of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient to molecular volume backscatter coefficient, on LOS wind uncertainty is discussed. Assuming a known aerosol mixing ratio, Rb, and 100,000 photons owing to Cabannes scattering to the receiver, in shot-noise-limited detection without sky background, the LOS wind uncertainty of the UV-FPI in the aerosol-free air (Rb=0), is lower by ˜16% than that of de-IVF, which has the lowest uncertainty for Rb between 0.02 and 0.08; for Rb>0.08, the IR-FPI yielded the lowest wind uncertainty. The wind uncertainty for se-IVF is always higher than that of de-IVF, but by less than a factor of 2 under all aerosol conditions, if the split between the reference and measurement channels is optimized. The design flexibility, which allows the desensitization of either aerosol or molecular scattering, exists only with the FPI system, leading to the common practice of using IR-FPI for the planetary boundary layer and using UV-FPI for higher altitudes. Without this design flexibility, there is little choice but to use a single wavelength IVF system at 532 nm for all atmospheric altitudes.

  3. Experimental study into single-longitudinal-mode Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tong-Yu; Han, Liu; Yao, Bao-Quan; Ju, You-Lun; Yu, Kuai-Kuai; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2015-11-01

    The single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers were achieved by microchip configuration and double Fabry-Perot structure at room temperature. In the case of the microchip configuration laser, the maximum SLM power up to 17 mW was obtained on 2052.4 nm at 15 °C. In order to improve the output power of the SLM laser, it was implemented that the configuration of double Fabry-Perot etalons was used into the study of Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers. Utilizing such configuration, the laser generated up to 95 mW output power in SLM at the wavelength of 2051.3 nm. With the angle of the Fabry-Perot etalons varied, the wavelength of the SLM laser could be turned from 2050.4 nm to 2051.3 nm, corresponding to a turning frequency of -64 GHz.

  4. The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry-Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musha, Mitsuru; Kanaya, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-09-01

    We have developed a wideband frequency-stabilized injection-locked Nd:YAG laser as a light source for the laser interferometric gravitational wave detector, in which short-term frequency stability of the laser improves the sensitivity of the interferometer and the long-term frequency stability aims for the stable long-time operation of the interferometer. The frequency of a 2-W injection-locked laser is locked to both a rigid Fabry-Perot cavity with ULE spacer and saturated absorption line of 127I2 simultaneously with two nested servo loops, and the long-term as well as short-term frequency stability are obtained. The drift of the resonant frequency of the rigid Fabry-Perot cavity is measured and the stability of the Fabry-Perot cavity is estimated to be 20× f-1 [Hz/√Hz]. The predicted frequency stabilities of the present dual-reference-locked laser are numerically simulated. Our wideband frequency-stabilized laser is also available for the high-resolution spectroscopy.

  5. 2.3 µm range InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Muneeb, Muhammad; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-09-05

    Heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II quantum well Fabry-Perot lasers on a silicon waveguide circuit emitting in the 2.3 µm wavelength range are demonstrated. The devices consist of a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well gain section, III-V/silicon spot size converters and two silicon Bragg grating reflectors to form the laser cavity. In continuous-wave (CW) operation, we obtain a threshold current density of 2.7 kA/cm2 and output power of 1.3 mW at 5 °C for 2.35 μm lasers. The lasers emit over 3.7 mW of peak power with a threshold current density of 1.6 kA/cm2 in pulsed regime at room temperature. This demonstration of heterogeneously integrated lasers indicates that the material system and heterogeneous integration method are promising to realize fully integrated III-V/silicon photonics spectroscopic sensors in the 2 µm wavelength range.

  6. Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry-Perot spectrometers of λ630 nm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greet, P. A.; Conde, M. G.; Dyson, P. L.; Innis, J. L.; Breed, A. M.; Murphy, D. J.

    1999-09-01

    The thermopheric oxygen λ630 nm emission has been observed using high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectrometers at Mawson (67.6°S, 62.9°E) and Davis (68.6°S, 78.0°E), Antarctica. A new technique, combining the results from the two instruments, is used to derive vector wind fields. The technique is described and applied to five nights of simultaneous cardinal point data obtained in 1997. Solar flux was low during this interval, typically F10.7=75. Of the five nights two were magnetically disturbed and three were quiet. The observations for the disturbed nights were compared to a TIEGCM model run and reasonable agreement was found in the first half of the night. On one of the disturbed nights a closed evening circulation cell and cross-polar jet could be identified in our data. On none of the nights was a morning circulation cell evident. Auroral imager data were used to locate the auroral oval. For several hours around magnetic midnight the auroral oval produces doldrums in the thermospheric winds that are not described by the model. Auroral doldrums are also seen on the quiet nights which otherwise maintain a flow approximately consistent with a pressure-gradient driver.

  7. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGES

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Nanda, Sirish K.; ...

    2016-03-31

    Here, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement ofmore » 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.0 GeV and 50 μA.« less

  8. Quasi-analytical synthesis of continuous phase correcting structures to increase the directivity of circularly polarized Fabry-Perot resonator antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Afzal, Muhammad U. Esselle, Karu P.

    2015-06-07

    This paper presents a quasi-analytical technique to design a continuous, all-dielectric phase correcting structures (PCSs) for circularly polarized Fabry-Perot resonator antennas (FPRAs). The PCS has been realized by varying the thickness of a rotationally symmetric dielectric block placed above the antenna. A global analytical expression is derived for the PCS thickness profile, which is required to achieve nearly uniform phase distribution at the output of the PCS, despite the non-uniform phase distribution at its input. An alternative piecewise technique based on spline interpolation is also explored to design a PCS. It is shown from both far- and near-field results that a PCS tremendously improves the radiation performance of the FPRA. These improvements include an increase in peak directivity from 22 to 120 (from 13.4 dBic to 20.8 dBic) and a decrease of 3 dB beamwidth from 41.5° to 15°. The phase-corrected antenna also has a good directivity bandwidth of 1.3 GHz, which is 11% of the center frequency.

  9. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, M.; Nanda, S.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Cates, G. D.; Dalton, M. M.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Michaels, R. W.; Nelyubin, V.; Parno, D. S.; Paschke, K. D.; Quinn, B. P.; Souder, P. A.; Tobias, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement of 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.06 GeV and 50 μA.

  10. The Effect of Viscous Air Damping on an Optically Actuated Multilayer MoS2 Nanomechanical Resonator Using Fabry-Perot Interference

    PubMed Central

    She, Yumei; Li, Cheng; Lan, Tian; Peng, Xiaobin; Liu, Qianwen; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomechanical resonator by using optical Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometric excitation and detection. The thin circular MoS2 nanomembrane with an approximate 8-nm thickness was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with an inner diameter of 125 μm, which created a low finesse F-P interferometer with a cavity length of 39.92 μm. The effects of temperature and viscous air damping on resonance behavior of the resonator were investigated in the range of −10–80 °C. Along with the optomechanical behavior of the resonator in air, the measured resonance frequencies ranged from 36 kHz to 73 kHz with an extremely low inflection point at 20 °C, which conformed reasonably to those solved by previously obtained thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2. Further, a maximum quality (Q) factor of 1.35 for the resonator was observed at 0 °C due to viscous dissipation, in relation to the lower Knudsen number of 0.0025~0.0034 in the tested temperature range. Moreover, measurements of Q factor revealed little dependence of Q on resonance frequency and temperature. These measurements shed light on the mechanisms behind viscous air damping in MoS2, graphene, and other 2D resonators. PMID:28335290

  11. Mid-latitude thermospheric dynamics as observed by the North American Thermosphere-Ionosphere Observing Network of imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, J. J.; Meriwether, J. W.; Ridley, A. J.; Castellaz, M. W.; Ciocca, M.; Fisher, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    In June and July of 2012, three new imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) were installed at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory in Urbana, IL (University of Illinois), Peach Mountain Observatory in Pinkney, MI (University of Michigan), and Richmond, KY (Eastern Kentucky University). Together with the existing FPI operating at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute in Rosman, NC (Clemson University), these FPIs form the initial deployment of the North American Thermosphere-Ionosphere Observing Network (NATION). NATION represents a new midlatitude chain of instruments capable of providing measurements of the thermospheric neutral winds and temperatures through observations of the redline emission at 630.0 nm. We present results from the first five months of operations of these instruments. The capabilities of the network are also demonstrated, first with each instrument operating as a stand alone observatory and then with each instrument operating in concert with one another to form a distributed sensing system capable of providing temperature and horizontal vector wind measurements over the midwestern United States.

  12. Analysis on error of laser frequency locking for fiber optical receiver in direct detection wind lidar based on Fabry-Perot interferometer and improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Shu, Zhifeng; Xia, Haiyun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Hu, Dongdong; Shangguan, Mingjia

    2014-12-01

    Direct detection Doppler wind lidar (DWL) has been demonstrated for its capability of atmospheric wind detection ranging from the troposphere to stratosphere with high temporal and spatial resolution. We design and describe a fiber-based optical receiver for direct detection DWL. Then the locking error of the relative laser frequency is analyzed and the dependent variables turn out to be the relative error of the calibrated constant and the slope of the transmission function. For high accuracy measurement of the calibrated constant for a fiber-based system, an integrating sphere is employed for its uniform scattering. What is more, the feature of temporally widening the pulse laser allows more samples be acquired for the analog-to-digital card of the same sampling rate. The result shows a relative error of 0.7% for a calibrated constant. For the latter, a new improved locking filter for a Fabry-Perot Interferometer was considered and designed with a larger slope. With these two strategies, the locking error for the relative laser frequency is calculated to be about 3 MHz, which is equivalent to a radial velocity of about 0.53 m/s and demonstrates the effective improvements of frequency locking for a robust DWL.

  13. Design of an NDIR gas sensor with two non-symmetric Fabry-Perot absorber-structures working as IR-emitter and IR-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrwöger, Johann; Reichl, Wolfgang; Krutzler, Christian; Jakoby, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Every gas (e.g. CO2) absorbs IR-radiation at individual gas specific IR-wavelengths. Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas sensors exploit this property for gas monitoring. Such sensors are used in various applications, e.g. for control of air quality in office buildings or cars. This is a big market for low cost sensors. A NDIR sensor consists basically of three components: an IR-emitter, a chamber containing the sample gas, and an IR-detector with a filter for the observed wavelength. Commercially available systems use broadband IR-emitters (e.g.: micro-lamps) in combination with thermopile or pyroelectric detectors fabricated with a narrowband gas-specific IR-filter, e.g., an interference filter. We devised a concept for a simple and cost-effective NDIR-gas sensor based on two non-symmetric Fabry-Perot absorberstructures as IR-emitter and as IR-detector where no additional interference filter is needed. The presented sensor combines thin layer technology with optical sensing techniques. The system was first analyzed using ray tracing models based on a Monte Carlo method in order to model the response function of the system's sample chamber. For our results, the sample gas is CO2 where the major absorption is centered around 4.26μm.

  14. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Nanda, Sirish K.; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Camsonne, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon D.; Dalton, Mark M.; Franklin, Gregg B.; Friend, Megan L.; Michaels, Robert W.; Nelyubin, Vladimir V.; Parno, Diana S.; Paschke, Kent D.; Quinn, Brian P.; Souder, Paul A.; Tobias, W. Al

    2016-03-31

    Here, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement of 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.0 GeV and 50 μA.

  15. Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterka, Pavel; Navrátil, Petr; Dussardier, Bernard; Slavík, Radan; Honzátko, Pavel; Kubecek, Václav

    2012-06-01

    Rare-earth doped fiber lasers are subject to instabilities and various self-pulsed regimes that can lead to catastrophic damage of their components. An interesting self-pulsing regime accompanied with laser wavelength drift with time is the so called self-induced laser line sweeping (SLLS). Despite the early observations of the SLLS in solid-state ruby lasers, in fiber lasers it was first time mentioned in literature only in 2009 where such a laser wavelength drift with time was observed in a relatively broad range of about 1076 -1084 nm in ring ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL). The main characteristic of the SLLS is the scanning of the laser wavelength from shorter to longer wavelength, spanning over large interval of several nanometers, and instantaneous bounce backward. The period of this sweeping is usually quite long, of the order of seconds. This spectacular effect was attributed to spatial-hole burning caused by standing-wave in the laser cavity. In this paper we present experimental investigation of the SLLS in YDFLs in Fabry-Perot cavity and ring cavities. The SLLS was observed also in erbium-doped fiber laser around 1560 nm. We present for the first time observation of the laser wavelength sweep in reverse direction, i.e., from longer towards shorter wavelengths. It was observed in YDFL around 1080 nm.

  16. Optical Fabry-Perot filter based on photonic band gap quasi-periodic one-dimensional multilayer according to the definite Rudin-Shapiro distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, a new type of optical filter using photonic band gap materials has been suggested. Indeed, a combination of periodic H(LH)J and Rudin-Shapiro quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic multilayer systems (RSM) were used. SiO2 (L) and TiO2 (H) were chosen as two elementary layers with refractive indexes nL = 1.45 and nH = 2.30 respectively. The study configuration is H(LH)J[RSM]PH(LH)J, which forms an effective Fabry-Perot filter (FPF), where J and P are respectively the repetition number of periodic and (RSM) stacks. We have numerically investigated by means of transfer-matrix approach the transmission properties in the visible spectral range of FPF system. We show that the number and position of resonator peaks are dependent on the (RSM) repetition number P and incidence angle of exciting light. The effect of these two parameters for producing an improved polychromatic filter with high finesse coefficient (F) and quality factor (Q) is studied in details.

  17. Ultraviolet Rayleigh-Mie lidar by use of a multicavity Fabry-Perot filter for accurate temperature profiling of the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Hua, Dengxin; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-10-20

    A UV Rayleigh-Mie scattering lidar system at 355 nm has been upgraded for more-accurate temperature profiling of the troposphere by use of a new multicavity Fabry-Perot etalon (MCFPE) filter. The MCFPE filter, which was designed to improve the stability and operational characteristics of the lidar system, has three filter bandpass functions and separates one Mie scattering and two Rayleigh scattering signals from the lidar return signal and simultaneously acts as a laser frequency discriminator to lock the laser frequency. Moreover, a high-resolution grating is employed to block signal interference from Raman scattering and the solar background. A practical lidar system, which features strong system stabilization and high measurement accuracy, has been built, and the performance of the lidar system has been verified by comparison of temperature profiling between the lidar and a radiosonde. Good agreement between the two instrument measurements was obtained in terms of lapse rate and inversion layer height. Statistical temperature errors of less than 1 K up to a height of 3 km are obtainable with 5 min observation time for daytime measurements.

  18. High-resolution Brillouin spectroscopy with angular dispersion-type Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application to a quartz crystal.

    PubMed

    Ike, Y; Tsukada, S; Kojima, S

    2007-07-01

    Although the multichannel Brillouin spectroscopy with an angular dispersion-type Fabry-Perot interferometer (ADFPI) becomes a powerful tool for quick measurements, its resolution and contrast are not enough for the study of single crystals. A highly sensitive multichannel detector enables the ADFPI to use a solid etalon with high reflectivity (99.5%); hence, the high resolution and the high contrast of a spectrum are achieved. The finesse, the inverse of the resolution, reaches 100 with a 10 mm diameter of aperture size. The highest finesse of 140 is obtained by using a smaller diameter of 2 mm. The accuracy is examined by the measurement of a quartz crystal. The improvement in the resolution and contrast enables investigations of weak attenuation in a quartz crystal. The elastic anomaly of the alpha-beta transition of a quartz crystal is clearly observed both in sound velocity and attenuation. From the elastic constant c(11), the critical parameter K=0.76 is determined.

  19. Characterization of Single-Mode Chalcogenide Glass Waveguides at 8.35 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Qiao, Hong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2009-05-01

    Laser-written single-mode waveguides in As2Se3/As2S3 films were characterized at 8.35 μm using the Fabry-Perot technique. Waveguide loss and refractive index were measured as a function of writing dose and compared to modeling results.

  20. Observations of the storm time response of the mid-latitude thermosphere made by a network of Fabry-Perot interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Jonathan J.; Ridley, Aaron; Hampton, Don; Gerrard, Andrew; Meriwether, John; Harding, Brian; Mesquita, Rafael; Sanders, Samuel; Castellez, Michael; Ciocca, Marco; Earle, Gregory; Frissell, Nathaniel

    We present observations of the thermospheric neutral winds and temperatures obtained from a network of five Fabry-Perot interferometers deployed in the Midwest United States. During a geomagnetic storm on 2 October 2013, the network observed a surge in the westward and equatorward horizontal winds. Coincident with this surge in the horizontal winds, an apparent downward wind of approximately 100 m/s lasting for 6 hours was observed. We interpret the large sustained apparent downward winds as being caused by contamination of the spectral profile of the nominal 630.0-nm emission due dissociative recombination of O2+ by fast O related to the infusion of low-energy O+ ions during the storm. Data from the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron spectrometer instruments on the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft support this interpretation, showing a large influx of low-energy ions during the period of apparent downward winds. Temperature measurements indicate an increase in the thermospheric temperatures greater than 400 K during the storm. Coordinated observations of the same thermospheric volume by different FPIs in the network indicate an anisotropy in the temperature measurements, with observations made using lines-of-site close to parallel to the magnetic field lines resulting in hotter temperatures. This effect is also consistent with the infusion of low-energy O+ into the thermosphere. In addition to elucidating important aspects of the mid-latitude thermospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm, this study emphasizes the importance of coordinated observations by networks of instruments in studying spatio-temporal dynamics of the thermosphere.