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Sample records for kyotos helte og

  1. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  2. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  3. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  4. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances.

  5. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Goto, S; Sato, K; Fujibuchi, W; Bono, H; Kanehisa, M

    1999-01-01

    Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  6. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  7. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  8. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  9. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  10. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  11. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  12. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  13. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  14. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  15. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  16. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  17. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  18. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  19. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  20. [Kyoto global consensus report for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and its implications for China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan; Lyu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis (Gut, July 2015) is another important international consensus since the European Maastricht Ⅳ consensus was published. Kyoto consensus will improve the etiology-based classification, the diagnostic assessment of gastritis, and the treatment of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and H. pylori gastritis. However, because of high rate of H. pylori infection and antibiotic resistance as well as limited health resources in China, we need to develop our own strategies of H. pylori infection control with the reference of the Kyoto global consensus.

  1. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  2. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  3. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  4. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  5. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  6. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  7. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  8. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  9. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  10. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  11. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-07-15

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

  12. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  13. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in Japan: the first demonstration plant at Kyoto City.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, T; Kimura, T; Kuriyama, Y; Isshiki, Y; Kawano, T; Hirao, T; Masuda, M; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, T; Takeda, M

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste is vigorously promoted in Japan and the necessity of energy recovery from organic waste is increasing. An anaerobic digestion demonstration plant for organic waste in Kyoto City, Japan has been operated for about two years. Three kinds of wastes (garbage and leftovers from hotels, yard waste and used paper) mixed at various ratios are used. The plant has maintained stable operations with each mixture, generating biogas by the decomposition of VS at the rate of about 820 m3N/ton-VS.

  15. High contrast neutron radiography with optical devices in Kyoto University reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Nakano, T.; Hino, M.; Sunohara, H.; Matsushima, U.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-08-01

    The high-contrast neutron radiography has been performed at a VCN guide (VCN) and a supermirror cold neutron guide (CN-3) in Kyoto University Reactor. The large absorption cross-section of very low-energy neutrons can show a slight change of sample which thermal neutrons can not show. The effectiveness is shown in the fields of botany, agriculture and industrial researches. A new spectrum change option using high Qc supermirror ( m=4) is attached. It can change the upper limit of the energy of exposure neutrons by reflections, and gives a high flexibility of the experimental condition.

  16. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  17. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Someya, Azusa; Ito, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikenaga, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors.

  18. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  19. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  1. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively.

  2. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997.

  3. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    PubMed

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  4. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  5. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  6. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  7. CCD system upgrading of the Kyoto3DII and integral field spectroscopic observation with the new system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Takashi; Kamata, Yukiko; Ozaki, Shinobu; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII) is an optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope as a PI-type instrument. Used with AO188, Kyoto 3DII provides us unique opportunities of optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics (AO). While AO works better in redder wavelength regions, quantum efficiency of the previous CCD was low there with optimization for a wider wavelength coverage. To optimize Kyoto 3DII to AO observations, we have newly installed the red-sensitive Hamamatsu fully depleted CCD, which enhances the system efficiency by a factor of 2 in the red wavelength range. Fringes are dramatically reduced, and the readout noise drops to 3:2-3:4e- about two times smaller than previous, due to refrigerator and readout system. With these improvements, we carried out engineering and scientific observations in September 2015, February and March 2016. We measured the system efficiency using a standard star, and confirmed the successful improvement of the system efficiency. We observed galactic nuclei of nearby galaxies in the Natural Guide Star (NGS) and the Laser Guide Star (LGS) modes. We found the spatial resolution of 0.1'' FWHM using a 9.5-magnitude NGS, and 0.2 - 0:4'' in LGS mode. Together with the AO resolution, improved efficiency opens a new window for Kyoto 3DII to carry out high resolution optical IFS targeting faint objects such as high-redshift galaxies as well as faint lines such as [OI] λ6300° A and absorption lines of nearby objects.

  8. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  9. Classical and instrumental conditioning of eyeblink responses in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ricart, Thomas M; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety vulnerability, acquire lever-press avoidance faster than outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Faster avoidance acquisition may reflect an inherent ability to acquire cue-outcome associations, response-outcome associations or both. To evaluate cue-outcome learning, acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink response was compared in SD and WKY rats using a delay-type paradigm (500-ms conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 10-ms unconditional stimulus (US)). WKY rats demonstrated enhanced classical conditioning, with both faster acquisition and greater asymptotic performance in delay-type training than SD rats. To evaluate response-outcome learning, separate SD and WKY rats were given control over US delivery through imposition of an omission contingency into delay-type training (emitting a conditioned response (CR) prevented delivery of the US). The schedule of US delivery derived by these rats became the training regimen for a separate group of SD and WKY rats, yoked within strain. In SD rats, no differences in acquisition were detected between those given control over US delivery and those trained with the same partial reinforcement schedule. Acquisition rates of those WKY rats with control exceeded those trained with a yoked-schedule of US presentation. Collectively, WKY rats exhibit enhanced classical conditioning and sensitivity to schedules of reinforcement compared to outbred SD rats. Anxiety vulnerability, in particular inhibited temperament, may be traced to active processes in the prediction and control of aversive events.

  10. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensitivity of α2-adrenoceptors, as well as the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity on LC neurons of the WKY strain. Methods: For that purpose patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were done in LC slices. Results: The α2-adrenoceptors of LC neurons from WKY rats were less sensitive to the effect induced by the agonist UK 14 304 as compared to that recorded in the Wistar (Wis) control strain. In addition, the GABAergic input to LC neurons of WKY rats was significantly modified compared to that in Wis rats, since the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents was reduced and the half-width increased. On the contrary, no significant alterations were detected regarding glutamatergic input to LC neurons between rat strains. Conclusions: These results point out that in WKY rats the inhibitory control exerted by α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic input onto LC neurons is dysregulated. Overall, this study supports in this animal model the hypothesis that claims an imbalance between the glutamatergic-GABAergic systems as a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25586927

  11. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse.

  12. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  13. WTC deafness Kyoto (dfk): a rat model for extensive investigations of Kcnq1 functions.

    PubMed

    Gohma, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okajima, Ryoko; Tanimoto, Noriaki; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Makiyama, Takeru; Akao, Masaharu; Kita, Toru; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2006-02-14

    KCNQ1 forms K+ channels by assembly with regulatory subunit KCNE proteins and plays a key role in the K+ homeostasis in a variety of tissues. In the heart, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE1 to produce a cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. In the inner ear, the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex maintains the high concentration of K+ in the endolymph. In the stomach, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE2 to form the K+ exflux channel that is essential for gastric acid secretion. In the colon and small intestine, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE3 to play an important role in transepithelial cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion. For further understanding of Kcnq1 function in vivo, an animal model has been required. Here we reported the identification of a coisogenic Kcnq1 mutant rat, named deafness Kyoto (dfk), and the characterization of its phenotypes. WTC-dfk rats carried intragenic deletion at the Kcnq1 gene and showed impaired gain of weight, deafness, and imbalance resulting from the marked reduction of endolymph, prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG), and gastric achlorhydria associated with hypertrophic gastric mucosa. Surprisingly, WTC-dfk rats showed hypertension, which suggested that Kcnq1 might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. These findings suggest that WTC-dfk rats could represent a powerful tool for studying the physiological functions of KCNQ1 and for the establishment of new therapeutic procedures for Kcnq1-related diseases.

  14. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  15. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating.

  16. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  17. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows.

  18. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  19. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  20. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  1. The first back-side illuminated types of Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOIPIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Makoto; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors, called "XRPIX", aiming to extend the frontiers of X-ray astronomy with the wide-band imaging spectroscopy in the 0.5-40 keV band. A dead layer on the X-ray incident surface should ideally be as thin as possible to achieve a high sensitivity below 1 keV, and the depletion layer is required to be thick enough to detect 40 keV X-rays. Thus, we have started developing fully-depleted back-side illuminated (BI) types of XRPIXs. This paper reports on our first two BI devices and their X-ray evaluation (2.6-12 keV). The device named "XRPIX2b-FZ-LA" successfully reaches a full depletion with a thickness of 500 μm. On the other hand, it has a dead layer with a thickness of 1.1-1.5 μm and struggles to achieve the requirement of 1.0 μm. The other device named "XRPIX2b-CZ-PZ", which is applied with a thin Si sensor-layer and an improved back-side process, is found to satisfy the requirement with its thickness of 0.9-1.0 μm, including Al optical blocking filter of 0.2 μm, although the Si sensor-layer is rather thin with 62 μm. We also describe in this paper the X-ray calibration system that we have built for the X-ray evaluation of XRPIXs.

  2. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  3. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  4. FOREWORD: The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop, 17-19 December 2002, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW2002) was held at the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Kyoto, Japan, on 17-19 December 2002. The GWDAW series is one of the important international conferences supported by the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC). The workshops have been held annually, and the topics covered range from data analyses for all kinds of gravitational wave detectors to theoretical issues on gravitational wave sources. This year's workshop consisted of seven categories of sessions: the status of detectors, space-based detectors, event search, detector characterization, coincidence of detectors and detector network analysis, new methods of analysis, and sources for advanced ground-based detectors. The year 2002 was an epoch-making year for gravitational wave detection experiments. Some of the large-scale ground-based laser interferometric detectors (LIGO, GEO and TAMA) entered their initial or developed stage of observation, performing scientific runs with durations of several weeks. As a result, many of the talks presented at the workshop were based on actual data taken from these experiments, and we were able to have more realistic discussions on gravitational wave detection. Furthermore, the successful operations of these laser interferometric detectors gave the gravitational wave community a strong motive to form a worldwide detector network, as practised by existing resonant-type detectors. In fact, there were reports on the simultaneous operation of five laser interferometric detectors, and a report on a plan for coincidence operations over a month. There were also reports on future space-based detectors and their source studies from aspects of the data analysis. Thanks to well-prepared talks and vivid discussions by the participants, the workshop was extremely fruitful. These proceedings contain refined and updated papers based on the talks given at the workshop and will provide readers of

  5. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference.

  6. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  7. Capping the cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and recycling revenues into land-use projects.

    PubMed

    Schlamadinger, B; Obersteiner, M; Michaelowa, A; Grubb, M; Azar, C; Yamagata, Y; Goldberg, D; Read, P; Kirschbaum, M U; Fearnside, P M; Sugiyama, T; Rametsteiner, E; Böswald, K

    2001-07-14

    There is the concern among some countries that compliance costs with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol may be unacceptably high. There is also the concern that technical difficulties with the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry activities in non-Annex I countries might lead to an effective exclusion of such activities from consideration under the Protocol. This paper is proposing a mechanism that addresses both these concerns. In essence, it is suggested that parties should be able to purchase fixed-price offset certificates if they feel they cannot achieve compliance through other means alone, such as by improved energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, or use of the flexible mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol. These offset certificates would act as a price cap for the cost of compliance for any party to the Protocol. Revenues from purchase of the offset certificates would be directed to forest-based activities in non-Annex I countries such as forest protection that may carry multiple benefits including enhancing net carbon sequestration.

  8. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  9. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  10. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  11. Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...

  12. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  13. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji Era of Japan (part 1: establishment of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2005-09-01

    The Department of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (formerly the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University) was founded by Imperial Ordinance, Article No. 89 issued on April 23, 1906. On May 4, 1906, Dr. Shinichiro Asahara, Assistant Professor of the Department of Surgery, was appointed as the first director of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, Assistant Doctor of the Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical School, Imperial University of Tokyo, was appointed Assistant Professor of Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University in March 1901. From August 1903 to May 1906, he studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany and returned on May 5, 1906. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as the director and chief of the Department on May 13, 1906 and took over Dr. Asahara's position. On June 18, 1906, Dr. Matsuoka started his clinic and began giving lectures on orthopaedic surgery. This was the first department of orthopaedic surgery among the Japanese medical schools. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as Professor in 1907. He had to overcome several obstacles to establish the medical department of a new discipline that had never existed in Japanese medical schools. This article discusses Dr. Matsuoka's contributions to establishing and developing orthopaedic surgery in Japan in the Meiji-era.

  14. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  15. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    PubMed

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  16. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  17. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  18. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  19. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  20. Digitization of clinical and epidemiological data from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos: maternal risk factors and embryonic malformations.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the causes of congenital anomalies is of prime importance to develop management and/or prevention strategies. It is widely accepted that the occurrence of congenital malformations in fetuses and neonates is heavily correlated with maternal genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, very few epidemiologic analyses have been conducted on the embryonic developmental period because of the rarity of data available. Instigated in 1961, the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of embryos and fetuses. The collection's most unique feature is that most specimens were added to the collection along with epidemiologic information on the respective mothers. This is the first report on the digitization of data from the collection. A total of 22,262 embryonic specimens were selected on the basis of data integrity. Data related to the embryos were then classified according to the following criteria: developmental stage, sampling period, geographical area, maternal determinant, and external malformation. Results indicate that 7.8% of the embryos exhibit external anomalies and 92.2% are without anomalies. The three most common anomalies were nuchal bleb, holoprosencephaly and spina bifida. A special emphasis was placed on the potential association between maternal determinants and embryonic external anomalies, allowing for statistical analyses. The present study provides further evidence that this collection represents a unique source of information to conduct epidemiological analyses, not only to further the understanding of congenital anomalies but also to help establish preventive health guidelines for pregnant women.

  1. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  2. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, John S.; Portmann, Robert W.; Grabiel, Peter M.; Moomaw, William R.; Galloway, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  3. Experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system at the Kyoto Univ. critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyeon, C. H.; Yagi, T.; Lim, J. Y.; Misawa, T.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system (ADS) is conducted in the Kyoto Univ. Critical Assembly (KUCA). The experiments are carried out in both the critical and subcritical states for attaining the reaction rates of the thorium capture and fission reactions. In the critical system, the thorium plate irradiation experiment is carried out for the thorium capture and fission reactions. From the results of the measurements, the thorium fission reactions are obtained apparently in the critical system, and the C/E values of reaction rates show the accuracy of relative difference of about 30%. In the ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV protons, the subcritical experiments are carried out in the thorium-loaded cores to obtain the capture reaction rates through the measurements of {sup 115}In(n, {gamma}){sup 116m}In reactions. The results of the experiments reveal the difference between the reaction rate distributions for the change in not only the neutron spectrum but also the external neutron source. The comparison between the measured and calculated reaction rate distributions demonstrates a discrepancy of the accuracy of reaction rate analyses of thorium capture reactions through the thorium-loaded ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons. Hereafter, kinetic experiments are planned to be carried out to deduce the delayed neutron decay constants and subcriticality using the pulsed neutron method. (authors)

  4. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals.

  5. Comparison of modified Celsior solution and M-kyoto solution for pancreas preservation in human islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Jackson, Andrew; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Naoya; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Since the successful demonstration of the Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has advanced significantly on several fronts, including improved pancreas preservation systems. In this study, we evaluated two different types of organ preservation solutions for human islet isolation. Modified Celsior (Celsior solution with hydroxyethyl starch and nafamostat mesilate; HNC) solution and modified Kyoto (MK) solution were compared for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation. Islet yield after purification was significantly higher in the MK group than in the HNC group (MK = 6186 ± 985 IE/g; HNC = 3091 ± 344 IE/g). The HNC group had a longer phase I period (digestion time), a higher volume of undigested tissue, and a higher percentage of embedded islets, suggesting that the solution may inhibit collagenase. However, there was no significant difference in ATP content in the pancreata or in the attainability of posttransplant normoglycemia in diabetic nude mice between the two groups, suggesting that the quality of islets was similar among the two groups. In conclusion, MK solution is better for pancreas preservation before islet isolation than HNC solution due to the higher percentage of islets that can be isolated from the donor pancreas. MK solution should be the solution of choice among the commercially available solutions for pancreatic islet isolation leading to transplantation.

  6. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-24

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  7. The effects of captopril on cardiac regression, blood pressure and bradykinin components in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Kesavarao, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), total urinary kallikrein, total plasma kininogen and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MABP was significantly raised (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats compared to the respective controls. The LVWT was also significantly (P<0.01) increased in diabetic WKY rats than that of control WKY rats. The mean total urinary kallikrein level and the mean total plasma kininogen level were higher (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats, when these rats were treated with captopril (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) against the mean value obtained from control WKY rats. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that diabetes induced in these rats can cause hypertension, increased LVWT and changes in the BK-forming components. Captopril treatment caused reduction in MABP, regression of LVWT and alterations in bradykinin (BK)-forming components. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  8. A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L; Ravishankara, A R; Daniel, John S; Portmann, Robert W; Grabiel, Peter M; Moomaw, William R; Galloway, James N

    2013-03-19

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy.

  9. Avoidance perseveration during extinction training in Wistar-Kyoto rats: an interaction of innate vulnerability and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Minor, Thomas R; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for overall activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron in brain areas linked to anxiety (medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). Consistent with earlier work, WKY rats acquired lever-press avoidance faster and to a greater extent than SD rats. However, the intensity of foot shock did not differentially affect acquisition. Although there were no differences during extinction in SD rats, avoidance responses of WKY rats trained with the higher foot shock perseverated during extinction compared to those WKY rats trained with lower foot shock intensity or SD rats. WKY rats trained with 2.0-mA shock exhibited less GABAergic activation in the basolateral amygdala after extinction. These findings suggest that inhibitory modulation in amygdala is important to ensure successful extinction learning. Deficits in avoidance extinction secondary to lower GABAergic activation in baslolateral amygdala may contribute to anxiety vulnerability in this animal model of inhibited temperament.

  10. Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz

    2008-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compared to control strains. To further this work, the present study utilized autoradiographic analysis of [3H]-SCH23390 binding to DA D1 receptors in various brain regions of naïve male WKY and Wistar (WIS) rats. The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05). An opposite pattern was found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata where D1 binding was higher in WKY rats compared to WIS rats (p<0.05). Because the D1 receptor represents a critical site where DA acts to modify behavior related to depression, the altered expression of this receptor in the WKY rat found in the present study may be reflective of the depressive susceptibility noted in this strain. PMID:18558411

  11. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries.

    PubMed

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  12. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Datta, Abhijit

    2017-03-01

    The dengue envelope β-OG pocket is a crucial hinge for mediating virus-host fusion via conformational changes in the envelope to the fusion-competent form. The β-OG pocket is a small molecule target site for inhibition of virus-host fusion. As of date, the only structure of the β-OG pocket known is of serotype 2. Studies of β-OG inhibition by small molecules primarily target viral serotype 2. Envelope and β-OG sequence alignments, reveal dissimilarities across serotypes. In light of protein sequence-structure-function correlation, sequence variations suggest serotypic variations in β-OG druggability. This, together with the fact that dengue viral proteins do have serotype-specific variations of structure and function, lead to the study of the serotype-specificity of the dengue β-OG ligand binding behaviour. β-OG druggability was compared using comparative models of envelope proteins containing the β-OG pocket in four serotypes of the dengue virus. β-OG ligand binding was found to vary with respect to hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions with ligands and tightness of the binding site. The study also reports serotype-specific virtual leads identified from a library of 9175 alkaloids, using a consensus docking and scoring approach. The docking algorithms of Glide SP and XP, together with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm were employed for consensus docking. For consensus scoring, the Glide empirical score was employed along with the scoring function of AutoDock. A multi-dimensional lead optimisation approach was performed for optimising affinity, ligand efficiency, lipophilic ligand efficiency, ADMET and molecular torsional strains. The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor.

  13. Effects of Bay K 8644 in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M C; Salaices, M; Ponte, A; Alonso, M J; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Marín, J

    1995-08-01

    1. The Ca(2+)-channel agonist, Bay K 8644, induced small contractions in aortae from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats of 5-week-, 3-month-, 1-year- and 1.5-year-old, which were unaltered with age. These contractions were increased by partial depolarization with 15 mM K+. 2. In segments from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the contractions obtained in both situations were similar and equivalent to those observed in segments from normotensive animals partially depolarized. Responses to Bay K 8644 were modified by age only in tissues from the SHR, the responses to this agent in basal conditions being increased in tissues from 3-month- and 1-year-old animals and depressed in those from 1.5-year SHR. 3. A reduction of the response to Bay K 8644 was observed in partial depolarized endothelium denuded segments from WKY of all ages, and no modification in basal situation. However, the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 in aortae from 3-month- and 1.5-year-old SHR were reduced by endothelium removal. 4. These results suggest that: (a) in the hypertensive strain the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels seem to be partially activated; (b) the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 were unaltered by age in aortae from WKY but increased in tissues from SHR of 3-month-and-1-year old and depressed in those from 1.5 years, and (c) the contractions evoked by Bay K 8644 seem to involve an endothelium-derived contracting factor in aortae from both strains, or the endothelium produces a partial depolarization of vascular smooth muscle that increases the responsiveness to Bay K 8644.

  14. Influence of age on the relaxation induced by nifedipine in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M C; Salaices, M; Arribas, S; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Marín, J

    1995-10-01

    1. Nifedipine induces relaxation in aortic segments from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 5-week-, 3-month-, 6-month- and 1.5-year-old precontracted with 50 mM K+ or 0.1 microM noradrenaline (NA). 2. In WKY rat segments precontracted with K+, nifedipine relaxation was reduced at 1.5 years. However, in SHR segments, the greatest relaxation was observed at 1.5 years. The relaxation elicited by nifedipine in segments from WKY of 6-month and 1.5-year-old precontracted with NA was higher than that reached at 5-week- and 3-month-old. However, the relaxation induced in SHR of 6-month and 1.5-year-old was only higher than that obtained at 5-week-old. 3. Relaxations elicited by nifedipine in segments from WKY precontracted with K+ were smaller than those observed in age-matched SHR segments. 4. The endothelium positively and negatively modulates the relaxation to nifedipine in segments from SHR and WKY rats of different ages precontracted with K+, respectively. However, in segments of both strain precontracted with NA, endothelium removal did not alter the relaxations obtained at different ages. 5. These results suggest that the relaxation elicited by nifedipine: (1) depends on the strain, with a tendency to be greater in the hypertensive strain; (2) is negatively and positively modulated by endothelium in WKY and SHR, respectively, and (3) is influenced by age, and this influence depends on both the contractile agent and the strain.

  15. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  16. Hydrodynamics-based delivery of the viral interleukin-10 gene suppresses experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, N; Maruyama, H; Kuroda, T; Kameda, S; Iino, N; Kawachi, H; Nishikawa, Y; Hanawa, H; Tahara, H; Miyazaki, J; Gejyo, F

    2003-08-01

    Gene therapy is expected to revolutionize the treatment of kidney diseases. Viral interleukin (vIL)-10 has a variety of immunomodulatory properties. We examined the applicability of vIL-10 gene transfer to the treatment of rats with crescentic glomerulonephritis, a T helper 1 (Th 1) predominant disease. To produce the disease, Wistar-Kyoto rats were injected with a rabbit polyclonal anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibody. After 3 h, a large volume of plasmid DNA expressing vIL-10 (pCAGGS-vIL-10) solution was rapidly injected into the tail vein. pCAGGS solution was similarly injected into control rats (pCAGGS rats). We confirmed the presence of vector-derived vIL-10 mainly in the liver and observed high serum vIL-10 levels in pCAGGS-vIL-10-injected rats. Compared with the pCAGGS rats, the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats showed significant therapeutic effects: reduced frequency of crescent formation, decrease in the number of total cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli, decrease in urine protein, and attenuation of kidney dysfunction. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed that this model was Th1-predominant in the glomeruli and that the ratio of the transcripts of CD4, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 to the transcripts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the glomeruli were all significantly lower in the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats than in the pCAGGS rats. These results demonstrate that pCAGGS-vIL-10 gene transfer by hydrodynamics-based transfection suppresses crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  17. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  18. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.

  19. IMPACT OF ISOPRENALINE AND CAFFEINE ON DEVELOPMENT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY AND RENAL HEMODYNAMIC IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar Z A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, Mohammed A; Hashmi, Fayaz; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a compensatory mechanism in response to an increased work load on the heart. This study investigated the impact of chronic isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C model) administration on cardiac geometry, systemic hemodynamic and physiological data in rats as LVH develops. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5 mg/kg s.c. every 72 h) and caffeine (62 mg/L) in drinking water for 14 days to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart weight, LV weight, LV chamber diameter and thickness of myocardium were observed as LVH indicators. MAP was significantly higher (142 ± 13 vs. 119 ± 2 mmHg, respectively) while heart rate (HR) in LVH was lower (314 ± 9 vs. 264 ± 18 BPM) compared to control WKY. Heart weight, LV weight and kidney weight were 31%, 38% and 7%, respectively, greater in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (all p < 0.05).The myocardium thickness was 101% greater while LV chamber diameter was 44% smaller in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (p < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels were significantly reduced while malonodialdehyde (MDA) level increased in LVH as compared to control WKY (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C) induces LVH and cardiac hypertrophy with increases in blood pressure, fluid excretion and reduced renal hemodynamics. Prooxidant mechanism of the body and arterial stiffness are dominant in this disease model. This model of LVH is easily generated and associated with low mortality.

  20. Cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles from Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Kamal, Ali; Keeler, Gerald J; Harkema, Jack R

    2010-05-01

    Toxicological effects have been observed in rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary and systemic effects of CAPs in Detroit. The authors stationed a mobile concentrator at a location near major traffic and industrial sources. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to fine CAPs (diameter < 0.1-2.5 microm) 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days. Animals were implanted with telemeters, and electrocardiogram data were recorded continuously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and plasma were analyzed. Comprehensive exposure monitoring was conducted, including CAPs components. CAPs exposure concentrations were 103-918 microg/m(3) (mean = 502 microg/m(3)). The authors found no statistically significant differences in heart rate or SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals), a measure of heart rate variability, between CAPs-exposed and control rats. The authors found significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein in the serum of CAPs-exposed SH rats compared with air-exposed animals. Protein in BAL fluid was elevated in WKY rats exposed to CAPs. Measurement of trace metals in lung tissue showed elevated concentrations of V, Sb, La, and Ce in CAPs-exposed SH animals versus controls. These elements are generally associated with oil combustion, oil refining, waste incineration, and traffic. Examination of wind rose data from the exposure period confirmed that the predominant wind direction was SSW, the direction of many of the aforementioned sources. These results indicate that ambient particles in Detroit can cause mild pulmonary and systemic changes in rats, and suggest the importance of local PM(2.5) sources in these effects.

  1. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; Gajewski, Nicholas D; Mann, Graziella L; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R; Ross, Richard J

    2014-03-03

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval≤3 min) vs. single REMS (interval>3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on Days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0mA, 0.5s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on Days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity.

  2. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  3. Diesel Exhaust Worsens Cardiac Conduction Instability in Dobutamine-Challenged Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M; Farraj, Aimen K; Cascio, Wayne E

    2017-04-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution, particularly from vehicular sources, increases the risk of acute clinical cardiovascular events. However, cardiotoxicity is not always clearly discernible under ambient conditions; therefore, more subtle measures of cardiac dysfunction are necessary to elucidate the latent effects of exposure. Determine the effect of whole diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on reserve of refractoriness (RoR), an intrinsic electrophysiological measure of the heart's minimum level of refractoriness relative to development of electrical conduction instability, in rats undergoing exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters to continuously collect electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate were exposed to 150 µg/m(3) of DE and challenged with dobutamine 24 h later to mimic exercise-induced increases of the heart rate. The Chernyak-Starobin-Cohen (CSC) model was then applied to the ECG-derived QT and RR intervals collected during progressive increases in heart rate to calculate RoR for each rat. Filtered air-exposed WKY and SH rats did not have any decrease in RoR, which indicates increased risk of cardiac conduction instability; however, DE caused a significant decrease in both strains. Yet, the decrease in RoR in SH rats was eight times steeper when compared to WKY rats indicating greater cardiac conduction instability in the hypertensive strain. These data indicate that after exposure to DE, risk of cardiac instability increases during increasing stress, particularly in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the CSC model, which was previously shown to reveal cardiac risk in humans, can be applied to rodent toxicology studies.

  4. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  5. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  6. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  7. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  8. Further dissection of a genomic locus associated with behavioral activity in the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rat, an animal model of hyperkinesis.

    PubMed

    Moisan, M-P; Llamas, B; Cook, M N; Mormède, P

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are a major focus of current research since this syndrome has been shown to be highly heritable.(1) Our approach has been to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a genetic animal model of hyperkinesis, the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rat, by a whole-genome scan analysis. In a previous article, we reported the detection of a major QTL associated with behavioral activity in an F2 cross between WKHA and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strains.(2) Here, we extend our analysis of this cross by adding new genetic markers, now defining a 10 cM interval on rat chromosome 8 associated with ambulatory and exploratory activities. Then we present a replication of this QTL detection, at least for exploratory activity, by a new genetic mapping analysis of an activity QTL in an F2 cross between the WKHA and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains. Overall, the results provide compelling evidence for the presence of gene(s) influencing activity at this locus. The QTL interval has been refined such that the human orthologous region could be defined and tested in human populations for association with ADHD. Ultimately, the improved dissection of this genomic locus should allow the identification of the causal genes.

  9. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yatsunami, Kazuhisa; Ichida, Masatoshi; Onodera, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry (Morus) leaves is discussed. Mulberry leaves were collected from the Center for Bioresource Field Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan on 19 May, 9 July, and 9 August, 2003. Mulberry leaves were extracted with 75% ethanol. The inhibitory activity for rat intestinal crude enzyme was measured using maltose. The content of DNJ in the extracts was measured using HPLC. The mean DNJ content in the 0.04-0.06% range was high in collected samples. The inhibitory activities in July and August were higher (P < 0.01) than in May, and the activity in July was higher (P < 0.01) than in August. A strong correlation (r = 0.901, r (2) = 0.811, n = 15) existed between DNJ content and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in leaves of Morus bombycis harvested in July. Similarly, correlation coefficients of the other mulberry varieties in July were higher than they were in May or August. The inhibitory activity and the DNJ content of Morus latifolia in August were lower than for any other mulberry variety. These results show that the high inhibitory cultivars harvested in July, except for M. latifolia, are more suited to products that contain high DNJ contents.

  10. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  11. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  12. Combination effect of calcium channel blocker and valsartan on cardiovascular event prevention in patients with high-risk hypertension: ancillary results of the KYOTO HEART Study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahisa; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    The ancillary analysis of the KYOTO HEART Study (n = 3031) was designed to assess the combined treatment with calcium channel blocker (CCB) plus valsartan for high-risk hypertension. With-CCB (n = 1807) showed less primary events than without-CCB (n = 1224) (P = .037), in which acute myocardial infarction was significantly reduced. With-CCB plus valsartan (n = 773) showed lower incidence than with-CCB plus non-angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 1034) (P = .0002), in which angina pectoris and heart failure were significantly reduced. Without-CCB plus valsartan (n = 744) was superior to without-CCB plus non-ARB (n = 480) (P = .0013), in which stroke was reduced. CCB-based therapy was useful, and CCB plus valsartan combination provided a more efficient prevention for high-risk hypertensive patients.

  13. PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2005-12-01

    One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. • Mechanical properties of

  14. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  15. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  16. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  17. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  18. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L.; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress. PMID:23533999

  19. Climate change: The impact of the third conference of the parties at Kyoto on the U.S. Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, D.; Nisbet, M.; O`Hare, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper provides, as background, a brief review of the structure of the US cement industry. It outlines the growth trends of the industry over the last 20 years. It describes the sources and significance of cement imports in the US market, and the importance of exports to Canadian cement producers. The sources of CO{sub 2}, the primary greenhouse gas emitted in the cement manufacturing process, are explained and the impact of improved energy efficiency and fuel switching on CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of product are discussed. The aspects of the Kyoto Protocol relevant to the US cement industry are analyzed as are the types of impacts they can be expected to have on: cement trade, domestic cement production, long term growth of the US cement industry, and US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper projects the US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions to 2010, taking into account anticipated improvements in energy efficiency. It discusses manufacturing process and changes that could be made to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper also covers the types of product modifications that might be made to reduce the embodied CO{sub 2} content. Where possible the potential reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from process and product changes are quantified.

  20. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2.

  1. Comparison of constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes between Wistar-Kyoto and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Ito, Sei; Miyata, Misaki; Yoshida, Chiaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-01-01

    Serum total cholesterol amounts in the stroke-prone hypertensive rat (SHRSP) strain are lower than in the normotensive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. To understand the strain difference, constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes in male 8-week-old SHRSP and WKY rats were comparatively examined by DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Of 22 cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme genes, expression levels of 8 genes, Pmvk, Idi1, Fdps, Fdft1, Sqle, Lss, Sc4mol, and Hsd17b7, in SHRSP were less than 50% those of the WKY rats; especially, the expression level of Sqle gene, encoding squalene epoxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, was about 20%. The gene expression level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which functions as a transcription factor upregulating gene expression of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, in SHRSP was about 70% of that in WKY rats. These results demonstrate the possibility that the lower serum total cholesterol level in SHRSP is defined by lower gene expression of most hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. In particular, decreased gene expression level of Sqle gene might be the most essential factor. Moreover, the broad range of lowered rates of these genes in SHRSP suggests that the abnormal function and/or expression not only of SREBP-2 but also of one or more other transcription factors for those gene expressions exist in SHRSP.

  2. Spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats differ in their use of place and response strategies in the water radial arm maze.

    PubMed

    Clements, K M; Saunders, A J; Robertson, B-A; Wainwright, P E

    2007-02-01

    This study further characterises the use of mnemonic systems in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which is frequently used as a rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The objective of this study was to assess the preference of male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for a place or response strategy when trained on an ambiguous T-maze task, and also to examine whether all strains acquired information about both strategies during ambiguous training, regardless of their preferred strategy. In the first experiment, SHR and WKY showed a preference for a response strategy on the ambiguous T-maze task; in contrast, SD displayed a preference for a place strategy. In the second experiment, all strains demonstrated that they learned information about both the response and place strategies during ambiguous training. However, on a conditioned place preference test SHR did not display as strong a preference for the place arm as WKY and SD. This finding supports previous research in a conditioned cue preference test, in which SHR did not display a preference for the cue associated with the platform. These observations that the strains differ with respect to behavioural strategy in a learning task suggest that they differ in the underlying neural circuitry that serves goal-directed behaviour, and are consistent with SHR having deficits associated with the nucleus accumbens.

  3. Effect of sodium depletion on the release of /sup 3/Hnorepinephrine from central and peripheral tissue of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, M.J.; Xue, C.S.; Badino, L.; Westfall, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the relationship between sodium intake, the sympathetic nervous system, and hypertension, a study was made of the effects of a 7-9 day dietary restriction of sodium in three different ages of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Field-stimulated (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ( (/sup 3/H)NE) release was measured in portal vein, anterior hypothalamus, and the A2 region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of 5- to 6-, 10- to 11-, and 28- to 30- week-old SHR and age-matched WKY. A low-sodium diet (0.05% Na+, control 0.5% Na+) significantly lowered stimulated (/sup 3/H)NE release from portal vein and anterior hypothalamus in SHR and WKY at all three ages. However, release from the A2 region was not altered by sodium restriction. The results of the present study suggest that lowered dietary sodium can selectively alter norepinephrine release in both the peripheral and central sympathetic nervous system of SHR and WKY. The results also suggest that the SHR at 5-6 weeks are more sensitive to altered dietary sodium than are age-matched WKY.

  4. Differential responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of antioxidant (honey) treatment.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress.

  5. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  6. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Kyoto University and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji era of Japan (Part 5, Faculty members and training of doctors from Nagoya)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-09-01

    During the years when Dr. M. Matsuoka was professor of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University (June, 1907-January, 1914), seven doctors worked as his faculty members and founded the base of the current development and reputation of the Department. After resignation from their academic positions, they served in orthopaedic practice in several areas in Japan where orthopaedic surgery was not well recognized. In addition, Prof. Matsuoka trained three doctors from the Aichi Prefectural Medical College (School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in the orthopaedic practice, including x-ray technique and they contributed to the development of orthopaedic surgery in the areas of Nagoya city and Tokai. Backgrounds and achievements of these ten doctors are described.

  7. Microarray and synchronization of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databank in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Feng, Wayne

    2012-08-01

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a systems level. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, systems biology analysis, and annotation of pathway function to study nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Cells were cultured to 70%-80% confluence, treated with NGF for 1 or 3 hours (h), and RNA was extracted. Stage 1 data analysis involved analysis of variance (ANOVA), and stage 2 involved cluster analysis and heat map generation. We identified 2020 NGF-induced PC12 genes (1038 at 1 h and 1554 at 3 h). Results showed changes in gene expression over time. We compared these genes with 6035 genes from the KEGG database. Cross-matching resulted in 830 genes. Among these, we identified 395 altered genes (155 at 1 h and 301 at 3 h; 2-fold increase from 1 h to 3 h). We identified 191 biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 showed correlations with neuronal differentiation (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway: 35 genes at 1 h, 54 genes at 3 h; genes associated with axonal guidance: 12 at 1 h, 26 at 3 h; Wnt pathway: 16 at 1 h, 25 at 3 h; neurotrophin pathway: 4 at 1 h, 14 at 3 h). Thus, we identified changes in neuronal differentiation pathways with the KEGG database, which were synchronized with NGF-induced differentiation.

  8. The effect of restraint stress on prepulse inhibition and on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptor gene expression in Wistar-Kyoto and Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jane E.; Burian, Linda C.; Covault, Jonathan; Conti, Lisa H.

    2010-01-01

    Stress plays a role in many psychiatric disorders that are characterized by deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a form of sensorimotor gating. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in behavioral components of the stress response, and central infusion of CRF decreases PPI in rodents. We recently demonstrated that restraint stress decreases PPI and attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing. To broaden our investigation into how restraint affects PPI, we subjected Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Brown Norway (BN) rats to 10 consecutive days of 2-hour restraint, or to brief handling, prior to assessing PPI. We next examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on plasma corticosterone levels in order to determine whether the endocrine response to stress parallels the behavioral effect of stress. Finally, we examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on CRF and CRF receptor gene expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus in order to determine whether a temporal pattern of gene expression parallels the change in the behavioral response to stress. The major findings of the present study are that 1) restraint stress attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing in both WKY and BN rats, and BN rats are more sensitive to the effects of restraint on PPI than WKY rats, 2) restraint-induced increases in corticosterone levels mirror the effect of restraint on PPI in WKY rats but not in BN rats, 3) laterality effects on gene expression were observed for the amygdala, whereby restraint increases CRF gene expression in the left, but not right, amygdala, and 4) some restraint-induced changes in CRF and CRF receptor gene expression precede changes in PPI while other changes coincide with altered PPI in a rat strain- and brain region-dependent manner. PMID:20709096

  9. Intrarenal angiotensin III infusion induces natriuresis and angiotensin type 2 receptor translocation in Wistar-Kyoto but not in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shetal H; Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Keller, Susanna R; Carey, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    In Sprague-Dawley rats, renal angiotensin (Ang) type 2 receptors (AT(2)Rs) mediate natriuresis in response to renal interstitial (RI) D(1)-like receptor stimulation or RI Ang III infusion. After D(1)-like receptor activation, apical membrane (AM) but not total renal proximal tubule cell AT(2)R expression is increased, suggesting that AM AT(2)R translocation may be important for natriuresis. The onset of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) is preceded by defects in renal sodium excretion. The present study examines AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis in response to RI Ang III infusion in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs. WKYs and SHRs received RI Ang III infusion after 24 hours of systemic AT(1)R blockade with candesartan. In WKYs, urine sodium excretion rate increased from 0.043+/-0.01 to 0.191+/-0.06 micromol/min (P<0.05) in response to Ang III infusion, but identical conditions failed to increase the urine sodium excretion rate in SHRs. The increase in the urine sodium excretion rate was blocked by coinfusion of PD-123319, a selective AT(2)R antagonist. On confocal microscopy images, Ang III-infused WKYs demonstrated greater renal proximal tubule cell AM AT(2)R fluorescence intensity compared with SHRs (5385+/-725 versus 919+/-35; P<0.0001), and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased AM (0.050+/-0.003 versus 0.038+/-0.003; P<0.01) but not total cell AT(2)R expression in WKYs. In SHRs, AM AT(2)R expression remained unchanged in response to RI Ang III infusion. Thus, RI Ang III infusion elicits natriuresis and renal proximal tubule cell AT(2)R translocation in WKYs. Identical manipulations fail to induce natriuresis or AT(2)R translocation in SHRs, suggesting that defects in AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis and trafficking may be important to the development of hypertension in SHRs.

  10. StAR expression and the long-term aldosterone response to high-potassium diet in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peters, Barbara; Teubner, Philipp; Clausmeyer, Susanne; Puschner, Tanja; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Wrede, Hans-Josef; Kränzlin, Bettina; Peters, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    ANG II and potassium are known to increase steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) levels. However, a corresponding increase in StAR mRNA levels has so far been observed only in response to ANG II. We therefore studied the regulation of adrenal StAR mRNA expression in the context of dietary potassium-stimulated aldosterone production. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed a diet containing either 1 or 4% KCl for 5 days. The high-potassium diet increased StAR mRNA levels within the zona glomerulosa in both strains, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. However, aldosterone production increased in WKY but not in SHR (WKY: from 22.8 +/- 4.8 to 137 +/- 25 ng/100 ml, P < 0.001, vs. SHR: from 29 +/- 3.8 to 51 +/- 10.2 ng/100 ml, not significant). This increase was associated with an increase in Cyp11b2 mRNA levels in WKY (3-fold; P < 0.001) but not in SHR. In both strains, the 4% KCl diet was associated with increased plasma renin-independent aldosterone production, as indicated by the marked increase of the aldosterone-to-renin ratios (from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 9 +/- 3 in WKY and from 3 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 5 in SHR; P < 0.002). We conclude that an increase of StAR mRNA levels within the outer cortex is involved in the long-term adrenal response to potassium. This increase alone is not sufficient to increase aldosterone production in the presence of normal Cyp11b2 mRNA levels.

  11. Spatial learning/memory and social and nonsocial behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rat strains.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cada, Amy M

    2004-03-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) is often described as less behaviorally reactive than its normotensive strain, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), although results are somewhat inconsistent across studies. In part, this may be due to the lack of a definitive characterization of "reactivity." Still, results from identical behavioral tests of SHR and WKY across studies are sometimes conflicting. Further, few comparisons with other rodent strains are available and these might provide guidance in outlining the meaning of reactivity. Here, social and nonsocial behaviors and spatial learning and memory were measured in male and female SHR, WKY, and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Systolic blood pressure measurements at adulthood confirmed hypertension in the SHR. Juvenile play behavior indicated that SHRs were more sensitive to the strain of their play partner than were the WKY or SD, playing less with different strain partners than with same strain partners. However, adult dominance behavior (restricted access in a water competition test) indicated no strain differences. The SHR appeared to exhibit attenuated acoustic startle relative to the WKY and SD and their prepulse inhibition was substantially less at higher prepulse decibel intensities; however, this decreased prepulse inhibition was not the result of decreased startle during the test. Anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze was most prominent in the SD strain, possibly as a result of poorer motor coordination as measured by rotarod performance. Elevated plus maze behavior as well as motor coordination did not differ between the SHR and WKY strains. Performance in the NCTR complex maze and the Morris water maze was significantly better in the SHR. These results do not support hypotheses of decreased behavioral reactivity in the SHR strain. Rather, they suggest complex interactions between social and nonsocial environments and the behavioral capabilities and requirements of the rat strain.

  12. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  13. Procedures for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal diseases: a multicenter questionnaire survey of hospitals in the Kyoto Neonatal Disease Study Group, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kousaku; Kawai, Masahiko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Kato, Fumihide; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamakawa, Masaru; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Seiichi; Maeda, Shinji; Okumura, Mitsuyoshi; Kanaoka, Hiroo

    2007-02-01

    To explore clinical protocols for the prevention of early-onset group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) disease of the newborn in Japan, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire survey. Of 32 regional centers participating in the Kyoto Neonatal Study Group, 28 provided usable data concerning prevention practices undertaken between 2000 and 2004. Twenty-three (82%) of the 28 hospitals implemented bacteriological screening to identify maternal GBS carriage, and all 23 hospitals administered intrapartum antibiotics to all screening-positive pregnant women. There were no institutes that used risk-based strategies. In the 23 hospitals, bacteriological screening was conducted mostly by lower vaginal swab alone (n = 18). Eighteen hospitals performed screening once during pregnancy, either before 34 weeks' gestation (n = 6) or between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation (n = 12). Oral antepartum antibiotics, when carriage was identified, were administered at 12 (52%) hospitals. Twenty institutes used penicillins for intrapartum prophylaxis. However, the loading dose for chemoprophylaxis ranged from 0.5 to 2 g, and the interval between repeat administrations ranged from 4 to 12 h. Although the results indicated that more than 80% of the hospitals surveyed had introduced some screening-based prevention practices, the timing of the bacteriological screening during the pregnancy, the number of screenings, and the screening sites, as well as the antibiotics used, and their dosage, varied widely. Because of these highly variable methods, the efficacy of the implementation of preventive practices could not be determined. This study is the first to have described preventive practices for EOGBS disease in Japan in the era of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. In light of the above results, a larger study under a unifying protocol would be warranted.

  14. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  15. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  16. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  17. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  18. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  19. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  20. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    PubMed

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  1. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  2. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  3. Comparison of 5-Year Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Heart Failure Patients With Versus Without Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (from the CREDO-Kyoto CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Tanaka, Shiro; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-08-15

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFrEF) is regarded as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) still has been unclear. We identified 1,877 patients who received isolated CABG of 15,939 patients who underwent first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto (Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto) Registry Cohort-2. Of them, 1,489 patients had normal LV function (LVEF >50% without a history of HF; Normal group), 236 had HFrEF (LVEF ≤50% with HF), and 152 had HFpEF (LVEF >50% with HF). Preoperative LVEF was the lowest in the HFrEF group (62 ± 12%, 36 ± 9%, and 61 ± 7% for the Normal, HFrEF, and HFpEF groups, respectively; p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was the highest in the HFrEF group (0.5%, 3.0%, and 0.7%; p = 0.003). However, cumulative incidences of all-cause death at 5-year was the highest in the HFpEF group (14%, 27%, and 32%, respectively; p <0.001). After adjusting confounders, the risk of all-cause death in the HFpEF group was greater than the Normal group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.97; p = 0.04). The risk of all-cause death was not different between the HFpEF and the HFrEF groups (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.29; p = 0.52). In addition, the risks of cardiac death and sudden death in the HFpEF group were greater than the Normal group (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.49, p = 0.002; and HR 3.60, 95% CI 1.55 to 8.36, p = 0.003, respectively), and the risks of those end points were not different between the HFrEF and the HFpEF groups. Despite low 30-day mortality rate after CABG in patients with HFpEF, HFpEF was associated with high risks of long-term death and cardiovascular events. Patients with HFpEF, as well as HFrEF, should be carefully operated and followed up.

  4. [Analyzing the attributes of surgeons and working environment required for a successful career path and work-life balance: results of a survey administered to doctors working at Kyoto University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Tanabe, Tomoko; Hisamoto, Norio; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We conducted a survey in March 2010 of all physicians at Kyoto University Hospital on working environments, levels of satisfaction, and level of exhaustion. A comparison of surgeons with other physicians showed tendencies among surgeons toward longer working hours and lower income. The findings indicated that surgeons experienced satisfaction from teamwork with fellow physicians, opportunities to manage interesting cases, and patient gratitude. Surgeons tended to have low fatigue level and were satisfied with their working environments, despite their low wages and long working hours. Although surgical treatment is currently built upon the feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction of individual surgeons, there is always a limit to his/her psychological strength. Indeed, the number of young surgeons is not increasing. In the future, efforts must be taken to prevent the departure of currently practicing surgeons. Consideration must also be given to reducing nonsurgical duties by increasing the numbers of medical staff, and making work conditions more appealing to young surgeons by guaranteeing income and prohibiting long working hours, particularly consecutive working hours.

  5. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  6. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs.

  7. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  8. Comparative analysis of the central CCK system in Fawn Hooded and Wistar Kyoto rats: extended localisation of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain using a novel radioligand.

    PubMed

    Lodge, D J; Lawrence, A J

    2001-06-15

    The neuropeptide cholecystokinin has been implicated in the actions of a number of central processes including anxiety and reward. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to compare the density of CCK-A and -B receptors and the mRNA encoding preproCCK throughout the brains of an alcohol-preferring (Fawn Hooded) rat strain with that of a non-alcohol-preferring (Wistar Kyoto) strain of rat. Our study revealed significant differences with regard to the central CCK system of the FH compared to the WKY rat, including differences in CCK-A receptor binding throughout the dorsal medulla, and altered CCK-B binding density throughout the cerebral cortex and reticular nucleus of the thalamus. The most striking result, given the altered behavioural phenotype of the FH rat, was the 33% lower density of CCKmRNA measured throughout the ventral tegmental area of the FH rat when compared to the WKY. This study also reports on a protocol to utilise a novel radioligand, [125I]-D-Tyr-Gly-A-71378, for autoradiographic detection of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain. As previously reported, CCK-A receptors were located throughout the area postrema, interpeduncular nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarii; however, binding to CCK-A receptors was also visualised throughout the medial pre-optic area, the arcuate nucleus and the circumventricular regions of the ventral hypothalamus, regions known to contain CCK-A receptors but which were previously undetectable using autoradiography in rat brain.

  9. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  10. Risk factors for developing colorectal cancer in Japanese patients with ulcerative colitis: a retrospective observational study—CAPITAL (Cohort and Practice for IBD total management in Kyoto-Shiga Links) study I

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Takuya; Nakase, Hiroshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Bamba, Shigeki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kawamura, Takuji; Oki, Teruki; Obata, Hirozumi; Kawanami, Chiharu; Katsushima, Shinji; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Naito, Yuji; Andoh, Akira; Kogawa, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the development of new therapeutic agents. Stratification of the individual UC-patient's risk would be helpful to validate the risk factors for CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of CRC in a large cohort of patients with UC. Methods Data were obtained from 12 hospitals in the Kyoto-Shiga region during 2003–2013. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2137 patients with UC. Results In total, 60 lesions of CRC were detected in 43 (2.0%) of 2137 patients. 30 of the 43 patients were male. The median age was 53 years. The median duration of disease was 13 years, and 67.4% of these patients had a disease duration >10 years. Of the 43 patients, 34 (79.1%) had extensive colitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis was detected in 2 patients (4.7%). The median corticosteroids (CS) dose was 6.4 g, and 4 patients were treated with a total of more than 10 g of CS. 18 of these patients underwent more than 1 year CS treatment. Of all 60 CRC lesions, 43 (71.7%) were located in the distal colon and 35 (58.3%) were of the superficial type. Moreover, the stage of CRC was stage 0 or I in 55.8% of the 43 patients with CRC. Multivariate analysis suggested that extensive colitis could be a risk factor for the development of advanced CRC in patients with UC. Conclusions Our findings indicated that male, extensive colitis, long-term duration of UC and family history of CRC, but not concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis, are important factors for predicting CRC in Japanese patients with UC. Moreover, long-standing extensive colitis might contribute to the progression of CRC. Further studies are required to establish CRC surveillance in Japanese patients with UC. PMID:27933204

  11. A Simple Risk Stratification Model for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) from the Combination of Blood Examination Variables: Acute Myocardial Infarction-Kyoto Multi-Center Risk Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Yokota, Isao; Zen, Kan; Yamano, Tetsuhiro; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Jun; Sawada, Takahisa; Kohno, Yoshio; Kitamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Keizo; Matoba, Satoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Many mortality risk scoring tools exist among patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). A risk stratification model that evaluates STEMI prognosis more simply and rapidly is preferred in clinical practice. Methods and Findings We developed a simple stratification model for blood examination by using the STEMI data of AMI-Kyoto registry in the derivation set (n = 1,060) and assessed its utility for mortality prediction in the validation set (n = 521). We selected five variables that significantly worsen in-hospital mortality: white blood cell count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and blood sugar levels at >10,000/μL, <10 g/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, and >200 mg/dL, respectively. In the derivation set, each of the five variables significantly worsened in-hospital mortality (p < 0.01). We developed the risk stratification model by combining laboratory variables that were scored based on each beta coefficient obtained using multivariate analysis and divided three laboratory groups. We also found a significant trend in the in-hospital mortality rate for three laboratory groups. Therefore, we assessed the utility of this model in the validation set. The prognostic discriminatory capacity of our laboratory stratification model was comparable to that of the full multivariable model (c-statistic: derivation set vs validation set, 0.81 vs 0.74). In addition, we divided all cases (n = 1,581) into three thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk index groups based on an In TIME II substudy; the cases were further subdivided based on this laboratory model. The high laboratory group had significantly high in-hospital mortality rate in each TIMI risk index group (trend of in-hospital mortality; p < 0.01). Conclusions This laboratory stratification model can predict in-hospital mortality of STEMI simply and rapidly and might be useful for predicting in-hospital mortality of STEMI by further subdividing the TIMI risk index. PMID

  12. CN-18RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DOSE INTENSITY, TOXICITY, AND OUTCOME IN OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS (OG) TREATED WITH PCV REGIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Reyes-Botero, German; Dehais, Caroline; Daros, Marine; Barrie, Maryline; Matta, Mona; Petrirena, Gregorio; Autran, Didier; Duran, Alberto; Boucard, Celine; Delattre, Jean Yves; Chinot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In grade II and codeleted grade III gliomas, the procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV) combination increase survival when added to radiotherapy as first line treatment, despite the important toxicity of this treatment schedule. Our objective was to analyze the tolerance, feasibility and impact of dose intensity of the PCV regimen on outcome for patients with OG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all grade III OG patients receiving PCV (CCNU:110mg/m2) who were referred to our two institutions. The total dose and dose adaptation, cycle delay, dose intensity, toxicity and premature discontinuation of CCNU were analyzed. Impact of these factors on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 89 patients received PCV. Only 37% completed 6 cycles, whereas 13.4% prematurely discontinued PCV because of toxicity. Cycle delay and dose reduction were observed for 62% and 70% patients, respectively. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 38% and 8% patients, respectively. Among patients who did not progress under PCV regimen, by multivariate analysis, premature discontinuation for toxicity was significantly correlated with poor PFS (p = 0.023, Hazard ratio (HR):2.354) and OS (p = 0.021, HR:5.093). By univariate analyses, absence of CCNU dose adaptation was correlated to poor PFS (p = 0.032). For OS, pejorative factors were high total CCNU dose (p = 0.029), absence of cycle delay (p = 0.009), absence of CCNU dose adaptation (p = 0.020) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.013). High CCNU dose-intensity tended to poorly impact PFS (p = 0.053) and OS (p = 0.112). By multivariate analysis, absence of CCNU dose adaptation remained significant for PFS (p = 0.001), while OS was negatively impacted by the absence of cycle delay (p = 0.049) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Despite the efficacy of the PCV regimen, significant toxicity is associated with this schedule, which appears to impact its feasibility and efficacy. The optimal PCV

  13. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  14. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  15. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  16. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  17. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  18. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements. A case study for the element Og (Z=118)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118) to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  19. Mining Hazards Analysis with Simultaneous Mining Copper Ores and Salt Deposits in LGOM (Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt) Mines with Regard to Dynamic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłeczek, Zdzisław; Niedojadło, Zygmunt; Popiołek, Edward; Skobliński, Wojciech; Sopata, Paweł; Stoch, Tomasz; Wójcik, Artur; Zeljaś, Dagmara

    2016-09-01

    In the case of locating two bedded deposits of different mineral resources in a small vertical distance, additional or increased mining hazards can occur (deformations of the rock mass, crumps and mining shocks, hazards to the land surface). This paper has thoroughly examined the impact of exploitation of the lower-located deposit of copper ore on the higher-located deposit of salt as well as the reverse situation as regards the dynamic phenomena, being the greatest lithospheric hazard in LGOM. At the same time theoretical models of processes were applied, verified by previous observations in situ in mines of Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt.

  20. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  1. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  2. The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiaoBo; Zhao, XiaoHui; Zhang, JianPing; Li, LiangBi; Kuang, TingYun

    2007-08-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b(6)f complexes from different sources ( approximately 200 and approximately 600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b(6)f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b(6)f dissolved in beta-OG, the Cyt b(6)f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, approximately 200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b(6)f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  3. Differences in the carriage and the ability to utilize the serotype associated virulence plasmid in strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium investigated by use of a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669.

    PubMed

    Olsen, John E; Brown, Derek J; Thomsen, Line E; Platt, David J; Chadfield, Mark S

    2004-06-01

    Most strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhimurium (S. typhimurium) naturally harbour a virulence plasmid which carries the salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) genes. However, isolates belonging to certain phage types are generally found without the plasmid. We have utilized a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669 to investigate the effect of introduction of spv genes into strains of such phage types. The use of the co-integrate plasmid, pOG669, was validated on a diverse collection of strains. pOG669 was transferred into strains of serotypes that are normally associated with the possession of virulence plasmids. All strains maintained the wild type level of virulence in a mouse model, except that introduction of pOG669 restored normal virulence levels in an avirulent, plasmid free strain of S. dublin and resulted in a decrease in virulence in a strain of S. dublin from clonal line Du3. S. gallinarum did not become virulent in mice, but pOG669 was functionally interchangeable with the wild type plasmid when strains were tested in a chicken model. Strains of serotypes not normally associated with the carriage of a virulence plasmid did not increase in virulence upon the introduction of pOG669. An IncX plasmid pOG670 that was included as control was incompatible with the virulence plasmid in a strain of S. dublin, demonstrating that the common virulence plasmid of this serotype is of a different incompatibility group than other virulence plasmids. Strains of S. typhimurium from phage types that do not normally carry a virulence plasmid responded differently to attempts to introduce pOG669. No transconjugants were observed with the strains of DT5 and DT21. The introduction of pOG669 did not alter the virulence of JEO3942(DT10), DT35 and JEO3949(DT66) significantly, while DT1 and DT27 became more virulent. DT27 became as virulent as wild type C5, while logVC(10) of DT1 only increased from 4.1 to 5.7. The ability to express spv-genes was

  4. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A patient (OG) with Glanzmann thrombasthenia became refractory to platelet transfusion after the production of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) isoantibody (Ab1) specific for the integrin subunit beta 3. To determine the frequency at which the OG idiotype is found in the general population and in immune-mediated disease states, we developed a rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab2) specific for affinity-purified OG anti-beta 3 Fab. The binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is inhibited by purified alpha IIb beta 3. Ab2 als binds to IgG specific for alpha IIb beta 3 obtained from one nonrelated Glanzmann thrombasthenia patient ES who has developed isoantibodies of similar specificity. On the other hand, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies produced by two Glanzmann thrombasthenia patients, AF and LUC, who have developed isoantibodies with specificities distinct from that of the OG isoantibody. Moreover, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies developed by three representative patients with (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura or six representative patients with alloimmune thrombocytopenias, nor does it bind to IgG from any of 13 nonimmunized individuals. We have found that Ab2 also binds to selected protein ligands of alpha IIb beta 3 namely, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but not to other protein ligands or control proteins, such a fibronectin, type I collagen, and albumin. The epitope(s) recognized by Ab2 on each adhesive protein are either very similar or identical since each protein can inhibit the binding of Ab2 to any of the other proteins. The epitope on fibrinogen recognized by Ab2 resides in the B beta chain, and is likely contained within the first 42 amino acids from the NH2 terminus. Since OG IgG inhibits fibrinogen binding to alpha IIb beta 3, the specificity of the OG idiotype defines a novel binding motif for the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 that is shared by fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but

  5. Differences between rat strains in the development of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors with long-term estrogen treatment: In vitro insulin-like growth factor-1-induced lactotroph proliferation and gene expression are affected in Wistar-Kyoto rats with low estrogen-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tetsuo; Ishida, Maho; Izawa, Michi; Arita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in the susceptibility of rat strains to pituitary growth and lactotroph proliferation caused by long-term treatment with estrogens. To investigate the pituitary mechanism for this strain difference in estrogen-induced lactotroph proliferation, we compared the abilities of 17-β estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to modulate lactotroph proliferation and gene expression in vitro in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. These two strains of rats have a high and very low susceptibility to estrogen, respectively. Long-term in vivo treatment with E2 was confirmed to markedly increase pituitary weight and lactotroph proliferation in ovariectomized Wistar, but not in WKY rats. Pituitary lactotrophs in primary cultures showed similar proliferative responsiveness to the culture condition-dependent, stimulatory and inhibitory actions of E2 in both strains. The only difference in lactotroph proliferation in vitro was a lower response to IGF-1 in WKY cells compared with Wistar cells. This difference in proliferation was associated with strain differences in IGF-1-induced gene expression in Wistar and WKY cultured cells. Of the genes tested, IGF-1-induced expression of the Wnt4, Stc1, Mybl1, and Myc genes was attenuated or abolished in WKY cells. These results suggest that the proliferative response to estrogen in lactotrophs in primary culture does not reflect the proliferative response to long-term estrogen treatment observed in vivo in Wistar and WKY rats. The strain difference in proliferation and gene expression to IGF-1 may be implicated in the variable degree of susceptibility for lactotroph proliferation observed in different strains of rats following long-term estrogen treatment.

  6. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.

  7. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  8. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells.

  9. Applying the General Regression Neural Network to Ground Motion Prediction Equations of Induced Events in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiszniowski, Jan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the nonlinear estimation of the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) using neural networks. The general regression neural network (GRNN) was chosen for its high learning rate. A separate GRNN was tested as well as a GRNN in cascade connection with linear regression (LR). Measurements of induced seismicity in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District were used in this study. Various sets of input variables were tested. The basic variables used in every case were seismic energy and epicentral distance, while the additional variables were the location of the epicenter, the location of the seismic station, and the direction towards the epicenter. The GRNN improves the GMPE. The best results were obtained when the epicenter location was used as an additional input. The GRNN model was analysed for how it can improve the GMPE with respect to LR. The bootstrap re-sampling method was used for this purpose. It proved the statistical significance of the improvement of the GMPE. Additionally, this method allows the determination of smoothness parameters for the GRNN. Parameters derived through this method have better generalisation capabilities than the smoothness parameters estimated using the holdout method.

  10. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  11. INHALED ENVIRONMENTAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES CAUISE MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN THE WISTAR KYOTO RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, direct experimental evidence showing causality and pathogenesis of PM-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We ...

  12. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  13. Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto. Peace Education Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    Conference sessions of the Peace Education Commission (PEC), a transnational network of people interested in peace education and research related to peace education, are reported in this document. Following an introductory overview of the conference as a whole, the report is divided into four parts. The first part contains three area studies; that…

  14. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

  15. Population health needs beyond ratifying the Kyoto Protocol: a look at occupational deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R B

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic impact of climate change is physically and economically affecting the world, a consequence of neglecting scientific information known since the 1960s and 1970s. International discussion has focused on the needs of the physical environment and general health concerns (such addressing greenhouse gas production and population health issues); however, little acknowledgement has yet been made of local human issues, such as the effect of climate change on the mental health of those in rural communities. This commentary takes an occupational science perspective to describe new ways of classifying potential mental health problems associated with climate change and its impact on the rural environment. It challenges policy makers to take a proactive approach to addressing the current impacts of climate change on the future mental health of individuals in rural communities.

  16. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  17. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  18. Appendix E. The Path I Have Followed ---at Shimogamo, Kyoto, in April 1974---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, H.

    This is an English translation, adopted from an essay written in Japanese as the preface to the book, Order and Chaos (on Hideki Yukawa), by Sosuke Taka-uchi; it was published by Kosakusha, Tokyo in 1974 and in 1979 (enlarged revised edition). For his book, Taka-uchi, a poet, was awarded a prize by the (well-known) Rekitei group of poets. Translated by M. Konuma by kind permission of Professor H. Yukawa and the publisher.

  19. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive ana...

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CARBARYL IN BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are crucial for quantitative human health risk assessment. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have long been used in studies on the etiology and mechanisms of hypertension and are known to be prone to oxidative stress. Previous studies indica...

  1. Vascular reconstruction and complications in living donor liver transplantation in infants weighing less than 6 kilograms: the Kyoto experience.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Kasahara, Mureo; Morioka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Taira, Kaoru; Uryuhara, Kenji; Ogawa, Kohei; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; Tanaka, Koichi

    2006-08-01

    Smaller-size infants undergoing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are at increased risks of vascular complications because of their smaller vascular structures in addition to vascular pedicles of insufficient length for reconstruction. Out of 585 child patients transplanted between June 1990 and March 2005, 64 (10%) weighing less than 6 kg underwent 65 LDLTs. Median age and weight were 6.9 months (range: 1-16 months) and 5 kg (range: 2.8-5.9 kg), respectively. Forty-five lateral segment, 12 monosegment, and 8 reduced monosegment grafts were adopted, and median graft-to-recipient weight ratio was 4.4% (range: 2.3-9.7). Outflow obstruction occurred in only 1 patient (1.5%). Portal vein complication occurred in 9 (14%) including 5 with portal vein thrombosis. Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) occurred in 5 (7.7%). Patient and graft survivals were 73% and 72% at 1 yr, and 69% and 68% at 5 yr after LDLT, respectively. Thirteen of 22 grafts (58%) lost during the follow-up period occurred within the first 3 months posttransplantation. Overall graft survival in patients with and without portal vein complication was 67% and 65%, respectively (P = 0.54). Overall graft survival in patients with and without HAT was 40% and 67%, respectively. HAT significantly affected graft survival (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our surgical technique for smaller-size recipients resulted in an acceptable rate of vascular complications. Overcoming early posttransplantation complications will further improve outcomes in infantile LDLT.

  2. Phase I/II Study of Temozolomide Plus Nimustine Chemotherapy for Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: Kyoto Neuro-oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Tomokazu; ARAKAWA, Yoshiki; UEBA, Tetsuya; ODA, Masashi; NISHIDA, Namiko; AKIYAMA, Yukinori; TSUKAHARA, Tetsuya; IWASAKI, Koichi; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this phase I/II study was to examine the efficacy and toxicity profile of temozolomide (TMZ) plus nimustine (ACNU). Patients who had received a standard radiotherapy with one or two previous chemo-regimens were enrolled. In phase I, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) by TMZ (150 mg/m2/day) (Day 1–5) plus various doses of ACNU (30, 35, 40, 45 mg/m2/day) (Day 15) per 4 weeks was defined on a standard 3 + 3 design. In phase II, these therapeutic activity and safety of this regimen were evaluated. Forty-nine eligible patients were enrolled. The median age was 50 years-old. Eighty percent had a KPS of 70–100. Histologies were glioblastoma (73%), anaplastic astrocytoma (22%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (4%). In phase I, 15 patients were treated at four cohorts by TMZ plus ACNU. MTD was TMZ (150 mg/m2) plus ACNU (40 mg/m2). In phase II, 40 patients were treated at the dose of cohort 3 (MTD). Thirty-five percent of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities, mainly hematologic. The overall response rate was 11% (4/37). Sixty-eight percent (25/37) had stable disease. Twenty-two percent (8/37) showed progression. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% (95% CI, 12–35%) and 8% (95% CI, 4–15%). Median PFS was 13 months (95% CI, 9.2–17.2 months). Overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 were 78% (95% CI, 67–89%) and 49% (95% CI, 33–57%). Median OS was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.2–14.5 months). This phase I/II study showed a moderate toxicity in hematology and may has a promising efficacy in OS, without inferiority in PFS. PMID:27725524

  3. Current status and expected future direction of the prosthodontic speciality in India. JPS Global Workshop Kyoto 2012.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Udey Vir

    2014-07-01

    A person with a basic bachelors degree, BDS, from a college/university recognized by the Dental Council of India (DCI) becomes eligible for a Master of Dental Surgery (MDS) in prosthodontics at a college/university recognized by DCI. For this three (3) years Programme of Master of Dental Surgery course with a dissertation, the student/resident has to go through a syllabus as set by the university and approved by the DCI. The continued official approval/certification thereafter is not present in India but all dentists have to get 20 Continued Education points every year for renewal of their DCI registration (though it's only on trial basis right now). Although prosthodontists are officially approved in India but still the common man does not recognize who a prosthodontist is because of lack of awareness. Most general dentists do their prosthetic work themselves, only a small number of them ask for a prosthodontist. Referral to another office is rare, usually the prosthodontist visits the GP's office for consultation and treatment. There is undoubtedly need of continuous certification/evaluation system of the prosthodontists and so is the need of making the masses aware of presence and role of such specialists in India. The Indian Prosthodontic Society is taking initiative to address this issue.

  4. REPEATED TREATMENTS WITH DOXORUBICIN CAUSES ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) CHANGES AND INCREASED VENTRICULAR PREMATURE BEATS IN WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anthracycline anti-neoplastic drug used to treat tumors. However it has been implicated in irreversible cardiac toxicity via the generation of a proxidant semiquinone free radical, which often results in cardiomyopathy and changes in the ECG. Ac...

  5. U.S.-Japan Seminar on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics Held in Kyoto, Japan on 11-14 December 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    for ceramic research and development in China. Also, this is the only time I could afford to make the visit. I found it most educational ! Probably the...JAPANESE PARTICIPANTS T6shio Tanimoto Nobutatsu Yamaoka Department of Materials Sience Taiyo Yuden Co. Ltd. and Ceramic Technology 43-1 Yahatabara-cho

  6. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  7. A single inhalation exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness in Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arterial baroreflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that regulate blood pressure (BP) by changing heart rate (HR) and vasoconstriction. Increases in BP reflexively cause HR to decrease, whereas decreases in BP depress the baroreflex and cause HR to rise. As such, baro...

  8. COMPARISON OF CARDIOPULMONARY RESPONSES OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHRSP) TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although a clear link between cardiopulmonary disease and an increased susceptibility to air pollution has been established epidemiologically, the mechanistic link remains undefined. Animal models of disease are widely used to investigate this link. Here we compare the cardiopu...

  9. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  10. Intentional portal pressure control is key to improving the outcome of living donor liver transplantation: the Kyoto University Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yasuhiro; Hori, Tomohide; Uemoto, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    This study indicates that intentional portal pressure control under 20 mmHg can improve patient survival not only for recipients of small-for-size grafts but also in classically appropriately sized grafts undergoing A-LDLT. In a retrospective analysis of 100 transplants with intentional portal pressure control, we found that patient survival was significantly better at an even lower final portal pressure of 15 mmHg. As a result, we have adjusted our target portal pressure control protocol, targeting a final portal pressure below 15 mmHg. Portal pressure control allows living donors to donate the smaller left lobe in many cases, which is safer in terms of living donors' post-operative morbidity. As intentional portal pressure control can overcome size-mismatching between the donor and recipient, we propose that it may also be applied to deceased donor liver grafts and in the split-liver transplant setting when the graft size is considered small for the recipient. Intentional portal pressure control can be applied in many liver transplantation situations to overcome small-for-size problems.

  11. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  12. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  13. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  14. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  15. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  16. Probing DNA by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    TET-mediated 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) oxidation acts in epigenetic regulation, stem cell development, and cancer. Hu et al. now determine the crystal structure of the TET2 catalytic domain bound to DNA, shedding light on 5mC-DNA substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism of 5mC oxidation. PMID:24360270

  17. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list.

  18. Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Minekura, Yutaka; Iwakura, Masaji; Motoki, Tamaki; Nishimiya, Kazuhiko; Iiyama, Masaaki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Kose, Katsumi; Fujii, Shingo; Shiota, Kohei

    2006-02-01

    Morphogenesis in the developing embryo takes place in three dimensions, and in addition, the dimension of time is another important factor in development. Therefore, the presentation of sequential morphological changes occurring in the embryo (4D visualization) is essential for understanding the complex morphogenetic events and the underlying mechanisms. Until recently, 3D visualization of embryonic structures was possible only by reconstruction from serial histological sections, which was tedious and time-consuming. During the past two decades, 3D imaging techniques have made significant advances thanks to the progress in imaging and computer technologies, computer graphics, and other related techniques. Such novel tools have enabled precise visualization of the 3D topology of embryonic structures and to demonstrate spatiotemporal 4D sequences of organogenesis. Here, we describe a project in which staged human embryos are imaged by the magnetic resonance (MR) microscope, and 3D images of embryos and their organs at each developmental stage were reconstructed based on the MR data, with the aid of computer graphics techniques. On the basis of the 3D models of staged human embryos, we constructed a data set of 3D images of human embryos and made movies to illustrate the sequential process of human morphogenesis. Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D models of staged human embryos.

  19. Continuous electrocardiogram reveals differenced in the short-term cardiotoxic response of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats to doxorubicin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrocardiography (ECG) is one of the standard technologies used to monitor and assess cardiac function, and provide insight into the mechanisms driving myocardial pathology. Increased understanding of the effects of cardiovascular disease on rat ECG may help make ECG assessmen...

  20. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances: Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (10th) Held at Kyoto, Japan on 30-31 October 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    pp 89-97. 27. Nyholm, N. 1978. "A Simulation Model for Phytoplankton Growth and Nutrient Cycling in Eutrophic, Shallow Lakes ," Ecological Modeling...Destratification on the Phytoplankton Populations in a Small Lake ," Journal of Plankton Research, Vol 5, No. 6, pp 855-864. 17. Toetz, D. W. 1981...34Effects of Whole Lake Mixing on Water Quality and Phytoplankton ," Water Research, Vol 15, pp 1205-1210. 18. US Army Corps of Engineers. 1984. "Reservoir

  1. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Multiple-Valued Logic (13th) Held at Kyoto, Japan on May 23-25, 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    have, perhaps, their focus in velop, a many valued 6et theoy basaed on tukas ewcz the so called Carnap -PoppeA controveuy in which logic in a manner...expressions in scientific language These last remarks have brought us to two 6 (see, e.g., Carnap (1950), Ch.l) whereas Popper is, knots of tangled and...Science 4, 427-455. Haack, S. (1974) - Deviant Logic. Cambridge Un.Pre. Carnap , R. (1950) - Logical Foundations of Probabil

  2. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to…

  3. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in response to doxorubicin in SHR and SHHF. • Altered leukotriene metabolism may contribute greater toxicity in SHR vs. SHHF rats.

  4. Reduction of cross-talks between circuit and sensor layer in the Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors with Double-SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Shunichi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ito, Makoto; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakashima, Shinya; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takebayashi, Nobuaki; Noda, Koki; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Kouki; Ozawa, Yusuke; Sato, Tadashi; Konno, Takahiro; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki; Shrestha, Sumeet; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing silicon-on-insulator pixel sensors, "XRPIXs," for future X-ray astronomy satellites. XRPIXs are equipped with a function of "event-driven readout," with which we can read out only hit pixels by trigger signals and hence realize good time resolution reaching ∼ 10 μs . The current version of XRPIX suffers from a problem that the spectral performance degrades in the event-driven readout mode compared to the frame-readout mode, in which all the pixels are read out serially. Previous studies have clarified that one of the causes is capacitive coupling between the sense node and the trigger signal line in the circuit layer. In order to solve the problem, we adopt the Double SOI structure having a middle silicon layer between the circuit and the sensor layers. We expect the middle silicon layer to work as an electrostatic shield and reduces the capacitive coupling. In this paper, we report the spectroscopic performance of XRPIX with the middle silicon layer. We successfully reduce the capacitive coupling and the readout noise.

  5. Effects of d-amphetamine on short- and long-term memory in spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Ponce-Lopez, T; Tellez, R; Gonzalez, R; Castillo, C; Gasbarri, A

    2011-01-01

    Diverse studies indicate that the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in encoding processes, including working or short-term memory. Some ADHD dysfunctional domains are reflected in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Here SHR-saline group showed significantly poor STM and LTM relative to SD and WKY saline rats. SD and WKY rats treated with d-amphetamine displayed better STM and LTM, compared to SD-vehicle, WKY-vehicle or SHR-d-amphetamine groups.

  6. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  7. Ultrafast Phenomena 6. Proceedings of the International Conference (6th) Held in Kyoto, Japan on July 12-15, 1988. Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Volume 48

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Short pulses with ultrahigh peak powers have been generat,:d in Nd:glavs and Alexandrite using the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. This...Thus it allows the utilization of superior storage energy amplifiers such as Nd:glass, Alexandrite , and Ti:sapphire. Solid-state media doped with...from 7( to 1110 nrn with large bandwidths. One of them, Alexandrite , with a bandwidth covering the 700-800 nm range, has reached a high average power

  8. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol-Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Khan, Safia A; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state.

  9. Sources, fates, toxicity, and risks of trifluoroacetic acid and its salts: Relevance to substances regulated under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Velders, Guus J M; Wilson, Stephen R; Madronich, Sasha; Longstreth, Janice; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bornman, Janet F

    2016-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a breakdown product of several hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), regulated under the Montreal Protocol (MP), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) used mainly as refrigerants. Trifluoroacetic acid is (1) produced naturally and synthetically, (2) used in the chemical industry, and (3) a potential environmental breakdown product of a large number (>1 million) chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and polymers. The contribution of these chemicals to global amounts of TFA is uncertain, in contrast to that from HCFC and HFC regulated under the MP. TFA salts are stable in the environment and accumulate in terminal sinks such as playas, salt lakes, and oceans, where the only process for loss of water is evaporation. Total contribution to existing amounts of TFA in the oceans as a result of the continued use of HCFCs, HFCs, and hydrofluoroolefines (HFOs) up to 2050 is estimated to be a small fraction (<7.5%) of the approximately 0.2 μg acid equivalents/L estimated to be present at the start of the millennium. As an acid or as a salt TFA is low to moderately toxic to a range of organisms. Based on current projections of future use of HCFCs and HFCs, the amount of TFA formed in the troposphere from substances regulated under the MP is too small to be a risk to the health of humans and environment. However, the formation of TFA derived from degradation of HCFC and HFC warrants continued attention, in part because of a long environmental lifetime and due many other potential but highly uncertain sources.

  10. Report of the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee Study Group. XVIII. Group of Experts on ISDN Matters Meeting in Kyoto, Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    033 2. Definitions A.033 3. Relationships A.035 Annex B (at page A33) A.035 Annex 9 Proposed Revisions to Draft Recommendation I.XXX A.037 Examples...of Implementation of NT1 and NT2 Functions A.038 Annex 10 Proposed Revisions to Draft Recommendation I.XXY A.042 Annex 8 Reply to SGVII on Number of R...ordination meeting has revised the agenda for the group of experts meeting as shown in Annex 1. In parallel with the meeting of the Group of experts on ISDN

  11. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol–Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Khan, Safia A.; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state. PMID:26963622

  12. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  13. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  14. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-07-19

    This fourth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Work done this quarter has been primarily devoted to improving the apparatus and data collection system. This includes a totally new optical setup, continued development of a new imaging spectrometer, and software improvements. Additionally, interest from other mining operations has arisen and sample of titanium and talc have now been obtained for preliminary analysis. Work is ongoing with coal samples, although it appears a more diverse sampling may be required. With the improvements now being made in the system, much faster and more user-friendly data collection and analysis will result in faster and better turn-around for sample analysis.

  15. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  16. Role of O.G. Gazenko in formation and advancement of space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-05-01

    Oleg G. Gazenko belongs to the noble cohort of pupils of well-known Russian physiologist L.A. Orbeli. He was one of the fathers of space biology and medicine, discipline in which he displayed his brilliant talents of experimenter and thinker. He was acknowledged for the investigations of spaceflight effects on living systems, the concept of medical operations system to support long-term piloted missions and implementation of biological researches that fostered the advance of space and gravitational biology. The analytical works of Oleg G. Gazenko are of imperishable significance for future researches to the benefit of space biomedicine.

  17. Cardiovascular adaptation to O-G (Experiment 294) - Instrumentation for invasive and noninvasive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Moore, Willie E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Many astronauts returning from space have difficulties regulating blood pressure, some to the point of fainting during quiet standing. Experiment 294 was designed to study this and other cardiovascular effects of adaptation to microgravity and to understand the mechanisms behind it. To accomplish this several cardiovascular variables had to be measured accurately. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output (blood pumped by the heart each minute), stroke volume (blood pumped by the heart with each beat), limb flow, limb compliance, heart size and central venous pressure all had to been recorded during various stresses to understand fully the adaptation to space and the readaptation to earth's gravity. Numerous pieces of equipment were used. Some were purpose-built for the Spacelab mission and others were derived from commercial hardware. Developing spaceflight hardware is challenging and costly, but can lead to significant new information in the unique environment of space.

  18. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  19. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  20. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  1. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  2. Ostéogénèse imparfaite létale: diagnostic antenatal

    PubMed Central

    El Mhabrech, Houda; Zrig, Ahmed; Mazhoud, Ines; Njim, Leila; Hajjeji, Aouatef; Faleh, Raja; Hafsa, Ch

    2016-01-01

    L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) est un groupe hétérogène de maladies affectant le collagène de type I et caractérisées par une fragilité osseuse. Les formes létales sont rares et se caractérisent par une micromélie avec déformation des membres. Un diagnostic anténatal d'OI létale a été fait dans deux cas, par échographie à 17 et à 25 semaines d'aménorrhée, complélées par un scanner du squelette fœtal dans un cas. Une interruption thérapeutique de grossesse a été indiquée dans les deux cas. PMID:28292051

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  4. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. (Part 7: The academic carrier of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka--from elementary school to the graduate school, Imperial University of Tokyo)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2011-12-01

    The background of the higher education of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka shown on the official resume was disclosed by Dr. Kazuo Naito in 1986, but the courses of the elementary and secondary schools were not described in it. In regard to his lower educational courses, the author referred to the laws and regulations issued by the Ministry of Education of the Japan Government and the Yamaguchi Prefectural Office. Those were often revised with times. The author presumed the elementary school (Murozumi Primary School [the first established primary school at the birthplace; Murozumi, Hikari-City, Yamaguchi Prefecture]) and middle schools (Prefectural Yamaguchi Middle School and Yamaguchi High School) to which he had been admitted. These presumptions were made to explain his whole educational course without unreasonableness. After finishing the first school year of the Yamaguchi High School, he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Yamaguchi Higher School (Yamaguchi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), because of the amendment of the educational system. Then he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Daisan Higher School (Daisan Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), and to the Preparatory Course of Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka). After his graduation from the Regular Course of the Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Honka), he was admitted to the Medical College of the Imperial University from which he graduated in 1897. In addition, he was a medical student of the Graduate School of the Imperial University of Tokyo just before he left Japan for studying abroad. The whole academic carrier of Dr. Matsuoka is not only clearly clarified, but it is also indicated that he was one of the successful examples of the educational system proposed by Yamaguchi Prefecture in Meiji era which articulated the local primary and middle schools with the Imperial University of Tokyo.

  5. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  6. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination.

    PubMed

    Etchegaray, Augusto; Coutte, François; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Dos Santos, Ramon H Z; Leclère, Valérie; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g·L(-1)) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased ∼10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding ∼70 mg·g(-1) cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.

  7. Évolution paléogéographique de la Tunisie saharienne et atlasique au cours du Jurassique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, Fékri; Peybernès, Bernard; Fauré, Philippe

    1999-04-01

    By means of palaeontologic data, the differert Jurassic formations of Tunisia are correlated along a north-south transect, from the Saharan Platform to the Northern Atlas, across the successive steps of the South-Tethyan stable palaeomargin. A palaeogeographic synthesis of the country is herein proposed, based on 11 maps established for the most important stages of this preoceanic rifting phase which is characterized by particularly active transtensional tectonics.

  8. PREDICT: Privacy and Security Enhancing Dynamic Information Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    aggregation, secure multiparty communication protocols were developed and evaluated [22]. These protocols permit the evaluation of certain functions...Li Xiong, Privacy Enhancing Dynamic Information Collection and Monitoring, Invited talk, Kyoto University, Kyoto , Japan, July 2015. [3] Li Xiong

  9. 76 FR 18701 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Peary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol, and United States climate... restrictions on GHG emissions. The Kyoto Protocol became the first agreement to set GHG emissions targets...

  10. Real-Time Optimization in Complex Stochastic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-24

    addition, a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) communication link is used to examine the effectiveness of IPA in calculating derivative estimates...2013 American Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 2012 (Invited Panel Presentation). • Kyoto University, Kyoto , Japan, August 2012 (Invited

  11. The Japan Society for Innovative Cuisine: Exploring New Visions of Japanese Cuisine.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hanae; Fushiki, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto cuisine has a long history and its traditions have been practiced for hundreds of years. In Kyoto, a group of scientists and renowned chefs strives to better understand traditional Kyoto cuisine in order to foster culinary innovation within traditional Kyoto cuisine. We launched a research project in April 2009 using a specially equipped "laboratory-kitchen" located in Kyoto University. Chefs chose a variety of topics related to basic concepts and techniques for cooking. We conducted culinary experimentation, thorough analysis, and diligent discussion on each topic for approximately 6 mo. In the symposium, chefs will present the results of their experiments, discussing their techniques and bringing samples of final products.

  12. General Aviation (FAR 23) Cockpit Standardization Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    Cockpit Geu,,ral area was subdivided into: Dimensional Criteria, Seat Belts and Restraintn, Windscreen Visibility, Ventilation and Environment, Doors-Access...helt# and Restraints b. Altimeter b. Indicator C. Windacreen Vslibility a. Attitude Gyro e’ WarnLn d. Ventilation and Environment 4. Directional Gyro d...Cabin Ventilation (CO) 11 Light Selector switches 3 Wanin~g Light. 42h fictrioal qvitlihes 24 Control Lothe 12 KGT Case. 2 Elevator Cuotr,,i 2

  13. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  14. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow.

  15. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  16. Climate Change in Myanmar: Impacts and Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    stage, it can be argued that signing on to the Rio Summit, the Kyoto Protocol and other similar treaties was done for purely political benefit with...the Kyoto Protocol . Furthermore, regional agreements are in place to mitigate environmental issues and adapt to climate change. Among these are...the Kyoto Protocol in late 1997. As these developments advanced together, SLORC/SPDC policies showed greater consideration for the environment and

  17. Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

  18. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs.

  19. Octyl gallate: An antioxidant demonstrating selective and sensitive fluorescent property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongkui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-15

    Octyl gallate (OG) is an internationally recognized antioxidant that demonstrates selective and sensitive fluorescent property. The fluorescence of OG can be selectively enhanced in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The specific structures of HSA and BSA provided the basic conditions for fluorescence enhancement. OG yielded approximately 49- and 11-fold increments in emission intensity in the presence of HSA and BSA at a molar ratio of 1:1, respectively. The lifetimes of HSA and BSA correspondingly decreased. A Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurred during interaction between OG and HSA or BSA. Our in-depth investigation of OG-HSA interaction showed that formation of a stable complex was an important prerequisite to efficiently enhance the fluorescence of OG. The selective and sensitive fluorescent property of OG can possibly be used to determine OG concentration via the standard addition method, which must be performed under certain conditions.

  20. Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Oligogalacturonide Elicitors.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Mattei, Benedetta; Pontiggia, Daniela; Salvi, Gianni; Savatin, Daniel Valentin; Ferrari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments derived from the partial degradation of homogalacturonan in the plant cell wall and able to elicit plant defence responses. Recent methodological advances in the isolation of OGs from plant tissues and their characterization have confirmed their role as bona fide plant Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. Here, we describe the methods for the isolation of OGs from Arabidopsis leaf tissues and for the characterization of OG structure and biological activity.

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-23

    nafi ogly Zeynally, Candidate of Physical Mathematical Sciences Amirulla Mamedali ogly Mamedov , Candidate of Physical Mathematical Sciences Sharif...Planning, and Design Institute of the Technology of Electrical Machine Building, Nazim Samed ogly Muradov, head of a division of the Baku Affiliate of...imeni 50-letiya komsomola of the Azere- lektromash Production Association,, Nazim Nadir ogly Guseynov, adjuster of a stamping shop of the Baku

  2. The English Program at Murasakino Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Haruo

    2010-01-01

    Murasakino High School is a municipal senior high school located in the northern part of Kyoto, an ancient capital city of Japan. With a little over one thousand students studying in three grades (from fifteen to eighteen years of age), Murasakino has a distinctive scholastic tradition that makes it different from other high schools in Kyoto. Over…

  3. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  4. S. 2019: This Act may be cited as the Economic Growth and Sovereignty Protection Act, introduced in the Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this bill is to prohibit the use of Federal funds to implement the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change unless or until the Senate has given its advice and consent to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and to clarify the authority of Federal agencies with respect to the regulation of the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  5. The Evolving Relations of Japan and India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number...kenkyusyo/p_7kqmsx.html; Center for the Study of Contemporary India at Kyoto University, Kyoto University, accessed October 7, 2014, http

  6. Exploring the Presence of microDNAs in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines, Tissue, and Sera of Prostate Cancer Patients and its Possible Application as Biomarker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    protocol and paired-end high-throughput sequencing (64 bases long reads) was performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Illumina...Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Konoe Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan 3. Invited Articles: "Nothing to report." 4

  7. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 20. G. Gardent: Universitt Blaise Pascal , Clermont Ferrand, France 21. A...such as Fortran, reads and writes. Pascal , C, Lisp, and Prolog. In short, it offers continuity. 1. Seclusive PRAM (SPRAM) - concurrent reads Simple SIMD

  8. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  9. Effects of yellow, orange and red filter glasses on the thresholds of a dark-adapted human eye.

    PubMed

    Aarnisalo, E; Pehkonen, P

    1990-04-01

    Effects of 13 different yellow, orange and red (Schott) longpass filter glasses on the extrafoveal thresholds obtained by 3 normal subjects after dark-adaptation were measured using a Goldman-Weekers adaptometer. When filters GG400, GG420, GG435, GG455, GG475, GG495, OG515 and OG530 (cutting off radiation up to 527 nm) were used there was no significant change in the threshold value. However, significantly higher threshold values were obtained with the use of the filters OG550, OG570, OG590, RG610 and RG630.

  10. Activated carbon fiber for heterogeneous activation of persulfate: implication for the decolorization of azo dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Hong, Wei; Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Wenwei; Wang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used as a green catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for oxidative decolorization of azo dye. ACF demonstrated a higher activity than activated carbon (AC) to activate PS to decolorize Orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency of OG increased as ACF loading, PS dosage, and temperature increased. OG decolorization followed a pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was 40.902 kJ/mol. pH had no apparent effect on OG decolorization. Radical quenching experiments with various radical scavengers (e.g., alcohols, phenol) showed that radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO4 (·-) and HO· were responsible for OG decolorization. The impact of inorganic salts was also evaluated because they are important compositions of dye wastewater. Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) exhibited a promoting effect on OG decolorization, and the accelerating rate increased with elevating dosage of ions. Addition of Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) could increase the adsorption of OG on ACF surface, thus favorable for OG decolorization caused by the surface-bound SO4 (·-) and HO·. Conversely, HCO3 (-) and humic acid (HA) slightly inhibited OG decolorization. The azo band and naphthalene ring on OG were remarkably destructed to other intermediates and finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O.

  11. The Dst index underestimates the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Temerin, Michael; Li, Xinlin

    2015-07-01

    It is known that the correction of the Kyoto Dst index for the secular variation of the Earth's internal field produces a discontinuity in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year. We show that this secular correction also introduces a significant baseline error to the Kyoto Dst index that leads to an underestimate of the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity and of the strength of the ring current as measured by the Kyoto Dst index. Thus, the average value of the Kyoto Dst index would be approximately 13 nT more negative for the active year 2003 compared to quiet years 2006 and 2009 if the Kyoto Dst index properly measured the effects of the ring current and other currents that influence the Dst observatories. Discontinuities in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year have an average value of about 5 nT, but the discontinuity at the end of year 2002 was approximately 12 nT, and the discontinuity at the end of year 1982 may have been as large as 20 nT.

  12. Social baggrund, intellektuelt niveau og placering i skolesystemet (The Relationship between Social Background, the Intellectual Level of Pupils, and Their Situation in the School System at the Age of 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orum, Bente

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report whose aim was to investigate the relationship between intellectual level, social background, and the personal circumstances of the pupil within the school system at the age of 14. Their parents answered a questionnaire, and this, coupled with IQ tests given to…

  13. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  14. EbpR Is Important for Biofilm Formation by Activating Expression of the Endocarditis and Biofilm-Associated Pilus Operon (ebpABC) of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF▿

    PubMed Central

    Bourgogne, Agathe; Singh, Kavindra V.; Fox, Kristina A.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Murray, Barbara E.; Garsin, Danielle A.

    2007-01-01

    We identify ef1090 (renamed ebpR) and show its importance for the transcriptional regulation of expression of the Enterococcus faecalis pilus operon, ebpABC. An ebpR deletion (ΔebpR) mutant was found to have reduced ebpABC expression with loss of pilus production and a defect in primary adherence with, as a consequence, reduced biofilm formation. PMID:17586623

  15. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) as a marker for oligodendroglial changes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Höftberger, Romana; Fink, Stephanie; Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Botond, Gergö; Olah, Judit; Berki, Timea; Ovadi, Judit; Lassmann, Hans; Budka, Herbert; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2010-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with variable extent of remyelination. Remyelination originates from oligodendrocyte (OG) precursor cells, which migrate and differentiate into mature OG. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) is located in mature OG and aggregates in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. We developed a novel monoclonal anti-TPPP/p25 antibody to quantify OG in different subtypes and disease stages of MS, and possible degenerative changes in OG. We evaluated autopsy material from 25 MS cases, including acute, primary progressive, secondary progressive, relapsing remitting MS, and five controls. Demyelinated lesions revealed loss of TPPP/p25-positive OG within the plaques. In remyelination, TPPP/p25 was first expressed in OG cytoplasms and later became positive in myelin sheaths. We observed increased numbers of TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS patients. In MS cases, the cytoplasmic area of TPPP/p25 immunoreactivity in the OG was higher in the periplaque area when compared with NAWM and the plaque, and TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG cytoplasmic area inversely correlated with the disease duration. There was a lack of phospho-TDP-43, phospho-tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin immunoreactivity in OG with enlarged cytoplasm. Our data suggest impaired differentiation, migration, and activation capacity of OG in later disease stages of MS. Upregulation of TPPP/p25 in the periplaque white matter OG without evidence for inclusion body formation might reflect an activation state. Distinct and increased expression of TPPP/p25 in MS renders it a potential prognostic and diagnostic marker of MS.

  16. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DVD Copy Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... added as parties to this venture. Also Challenge Technology (Hong Kong) Limited, Kwun Ton, HONG KONG- CHINA; Eizo Nano Corporation, Ishikawa, JAPAN; Nintendo Co., Ltd., Kyoto, JAPAN; Novatron Co.,...

  17. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  18. How I Created the Theory of Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.

    1982-01-01

    This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)

  19. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  20. Avoiding Gridlock on Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Benedick, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    With the Kyoto Protocol’s global process bogging down, a parallel strategy of smaller, focused negotiations to achieve partial solutions could put the world back on the right path. This article will focus on that.

  1. *GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

  2. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order against certain wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof... Corporation of Kyoto, Japan; Kyocera Communications, Inc. of San Diego, California; LG Electronics, Inc....

  3. 6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  4. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  5. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  6. Two Observed Consequences of Penetration Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-11

    Fig. 1. Trace of the Dst index for 19-29 March 1991 interval that included a large magnetic storm . The vertical dash lines indicate detections of...potential that the inter- planetary medium imposes on the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere . Assuming that the potential in both cells is... index for the storm period, obtained from the World Data Center, Kyoto (http://swdcwww.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/index.html). We display the 1-min Sym-H

  7. Quantum Algorithms and Initialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-31

    2005. (4) NATO Advanced Study Institute: Physics and Computer Science, Cargese, Corsica, France, Oct. 2005. (5) SNU -HU 3rd Joint Symposium on...Mathematics, SNU , Seoul, Korea, Oct. 2005. (6) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology 2005, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Dec. 2005...7) The Ninth Workshop on Quantum Information Processing, Paris, France, Jan. 2006. (8) SNU -Kyoto University Joint Symposium, Kyoto, Japan, Feb

  8. Rickettsial Diseases and Ectoparasites from Military Bases in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We followed the real-time PCR protocols described by Loftis et al. (2006...2.01 (Technelysium, Queensland, Australia) and ClustalW ( Kyoto University Bioinformatics Center, Kyoto , Japan), and compared to sequences in GenBank...because the DNA extraction protocol was destructive. However, selected specimens from each host were slide mounted and identified as Leptotrombidium

  9. Alteration in Circulating Metabolites During and After Heat Stress in the Conscious Rat: Potential Biomarkers of Exposure and Organ-specific Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-24

    metabolism in the pyrimidine metabol- ism reference Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway are modulated, suggesting that a signifi- cant...Metabolon (Durham, NC). Briefly, frozen plasma samples (150 μl) were thawed, and extracts were prepared according to Metabolon’s standard protocol ...glutamyl transferase; GSH: Glutathione; GS: Glutathione synthase; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized; KEGG: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes; MDA

  10. The Efficiency of Musical Emotions for the Reconciliation of Conceptual Dissonances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-24

    Kyoto University - Mailing Address : Kanrin 41, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan - Phone : +81 568 63 0552 - Fax : +81 568 62 9552 Period of...Nobuo Masataka 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Kyoto University...children using a well-established method. This protocol was developed on the basis of classical cognitive dissonance (CD) theory, which proposes that CD

  11. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    already begun and is one of the phenomena that could have catastrophic warming effects. Japan plans to extract permafrost methane, which some fear might...6.4.5 Post-Kyoto Negotiations The first session of the post-Kyoto treaty working groups to advance the Bali roadmap was held. Seven more sessions will...32 years. Release of long-stored methane gas from the thawing of the Arctic is one of the phenomena that could have catastrophic warming effects. At

  12. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  13. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  14. Effect of oligochitosan and oligo-β-glucan supplementation on growth, innate immunity, and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Van Dang, Phu; Le, Anh Quoc; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Pham, Duy Hai; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2016-06-01

    Oligochitosan (COS) and oligo-β-glucan (βOG) were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of chitosan/H2 O2 and β-glucan/H2 O2 solutions. The striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed diets containing 0-200 mg COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG per kg feed for 45 days, and then challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacterium. The effects of supplemented COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG on immune stimulation and growth performance in striped catfish were investigated. The results indicated that when striped catfish fed with 100-200 mg COS or βOG/kg feed the growth performance was significantly improved and the mortality was considerably decreased. Furthermore, striped catfish fed with supplementation of 50 mg COS + 50 mg βOG/kg feed was the best for increasing weight gain (∼26%) and for decreasing mortality (∼38%) compared with the control group. Moreover, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity of fish were enhanced by feeding diet-supplemented COS and/or βOG. Thus, COS and/or βOG can be potentially utilized as the immunostimulants and growth promoters for aquaculture.

  15. Removal of hydantoin products of 8-oxoguanine oxidation by the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme, FPG.

    PubMed

    Leipold, M D; Muller, J G; Burrows, C J; David, S S

    2000-12-05

    An intriguing feature of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) is that it is highly reactive toward further oxidation. Indeed, OG has been shown to be a "hot spot" for oxidative damage and susceptible to oxidation by a variety of cellular oxidants. Recent work has identified two new DNA lesions, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), resulting from one-electron oxidation of OG. The presence of Gh and Sp lesions in DNA templates has been shown to result in misinsertion of G and A by DNA polymerases, and therefore, both are potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. The base excision repair (BER) glycosylases Fpg and MutY serve to prevent mutations associated with OG in Escherichia coli, and therefore, we have investigated the ability of these two enzymes to process DNA duplex substrates containing the further oxidized OG lesions, Gh and Sp. The Fpg protein, which removes OG and a variety of other oxidized purine base lesions, was found to remove Gh and Sp efficiently opposite all four of the natural DNA bases. The intrinsic rate of damaged base excision by Fpg was measured under single-turnover conditions and was found to be highly dependent upon the identity of the base opposite the OG, Gh, or Sp lesion; as expected, OG is removed more readily from an OG:C- than an OG:A-containing substrate. However, when adenine is paired with Gh or Sp, the rate of removal of these damaged lesions by Fpg was significantly increased relative to the rate of removal of OG from an OG:A mismatch. The adenine glycosylase MutY, which removes misincorporated A residues from OG:A mismatches, is unable to remove A paired with Gh or Sp. Thus, the activity of Fpg on Gh and Sp lesions may dramatically influence their mutagenic potential. This work suggests that, in addition to OG, oxidative products resulting from further oxidation of OG should be considered when evaluating oxidative DNA damage and its associated effects on DNA mutagenesis.

  16. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  17. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    α-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  18. Efficacy of Fast ForWord Training on Facilitating Acquisition of Reading Skills by Children with Reading Difficulties--A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Pamela E.; Macaruso, Paul; Jones, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    A study found children (ages 7-12) with difficulties in phonemic awareness and word identification who received Fast ForWord (FFW) training (n=11) and Orton Gillingham (OG) training (n=9) made similar gains in phonemic awareness. Unlike children who received FFW, children who received OG training made significant gains in word attack. (Contains…

  19. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1928 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American Electric Power/Public Service Company of Oklahoma (AEP/PSO) Northeastern plant; (2) The long-term... (4) Separate executed agreements between ODEQ and OG&E, and ODEQ and AEP/PSO entitled “OG&E Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-024, and “PSO Regional Haze Agreement, Case No. 10-025,” housed...

  2. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  3. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Wagner L.; Martins, Auxiliadora O.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs. PMID:25360142

  4. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  5. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-04

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  6. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  7. Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Glass States of 3He-A in Stretched Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Yudin, A. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present results of pulse NMR investigations of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in stretched aerogel. In this case we have anisotropic orbital glass (OG) with two possible types of ordering in spin space—ordered spin nematic (OG-SN) or disordered spin glass (OG-SG) states. It was found that longitudinal relaxation of magnetization is non-exponential in both states and depends on temperature and on inhomogeneity of external steady magnetic field. At the same conditions the relaxation in OG-SG state is more rapid than in OG-SN state. For transverse orientation of the magnetic field relative to anisotropy axis the duration of free induction decay signal was longer than in normal phase. It may be explained by formation of coherently precessing spin state.

  8. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B J; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae.

  9. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  10. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  11. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  12. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Terashima, Chiaki; Ueno, Tomonaga; Sakai, Osamu; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ito, Takahiro; Yogo, Toshinobu; Inoue, Yasushi; Ohtake, Naoto; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Tosa, Masahiro; Takai, Madoka; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matsuda, Naoki; Teshima, Katsuya; Seki, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    The International Conference on Thin Films is the most established conference for all researchers and persons interested in thin films and coatings. It is one of the tri-annual conference series endorsed and co-organized by the Thin Film Division of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA), a union of national member societies whose role is to stimulate international collaboration in the fields of vacuum science, techniques and applications and related multi-disciplinary topics including solid-vacuum and other interfaces. The 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15) is organized by The Vacuum Society of Japan (VSJ) and held at Kyoto TERRSA in Kyoto, Japan on 8-11 November 2011, following the 14th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-14), which was held in Ghent, Belgium in 2008. Thin films and coatings are daily becoming increasingly important in the fields of various industries. This International Conference provides a multi-disciplinary forum for recent advances in basic research, development and applications of thin films and coatings. This conference will present a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers and managers to acquire new knowledge of thin films and coatings. We hope that our understanding on thin films and coatings will be deepened through this conference. The conference site, 'Kyoto TERRSA' is located in the historical heart of the old capital Kyoto. Kyoto is an ancient city with a 1200-year history. It was established as Japan's capital under the name 'Heian-kyo' in the year 794. Although many transformations have taken place over the years, Kyoto has always embraced the most advanced standards of the times. It has greatly contributed to the nation's industrial, economic and cultural development. The dauntless spirit of leadership of Kyoto's past as a capital city is still felt here today. Kyoto also preserves the beloved examples of its culture as testimonials of time. This is shown

  13. Clearing the air

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-05-01

    Like thunderclouds, predictions of doom for the environment and for business interests hover over the international climate treaty completed in Kyoto, Japan, last December. In the agreement, dubbed the Kyoto Protocol, participating countries agreed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below 1990 levels in an effort to slow down the phenomenon known as global warming. However, real-life effects of the United Nations-sponsored summit remain up in the air. Proposed regulation of greenhouse gas emissions would have profound effects on worldwide economies -- particularly the waste industry. But the Kyoto Protocol does not appear to satisfy any one group`s interests. This article examines all sides of this contentious and ongoing debate.

  14. Development of KURAMA-II and its operation in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Okumura, R.; Takamiya, K.; Sato, N.; Yoshino, H.; Yoshinaga, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Uehara, A.; Yamana, H.

    2015-05-01

    A carborne survey system, named as KURAMA (Kyoto University RAdiation MApping system), was developed as a response to the nuclear accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Now the system has evolved into KURAMA-II, characterized by its compactness, autonomous operation, and acquisition of pulse-height spectrum data. A two-year field test of radiation monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses, performed by Kyoto University, has successfully proceeded to the phase of official operation by the Fukushima prefectural government, supported by Kyoto University and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). An outline and the current status of KURAMA-II, including some results of the continuous monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses in Fukushima, are introduced.

  15. A comparison of surgical procedures and postoperative cares for minimally invasive laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Na; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has assumed an ever-expanding role in gastric cancer treatment. Accumulating data so far seem to suggest that LG is at least a viable alternative of conventional open gastrectomy (OG) in different contexts. However, even though reviews and meta-analyses have compared the advantages and limitations of each option, it is still controversial whether LG is a better alternative to OG, especially in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The major goal of this study is to evaluate the readouts of LG, in comparison with OG. A literature search was performed for studies published from 2009 to 2013. Medical records of 20868 gastric cancer patients from 32 independent studies were reviewed and analyzed. All 32 studies concluded that LG is at least comparable with OG. LG is superior to OG in offering less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of complications, although LG is probably inferior in operative time, and not different from OG in mortality. Considering the merits and the potential future technical improvement, it is reasonable to speculate that LG may eventually replace OG in most clinical contexts. PMID:26379823

  16. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase.

  17. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  18. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  19. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  20. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  1. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  2. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  3. Unnatural substrates reveal the importance of 8-oxoguanine for in vivo mismatch repair by MutY

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Alison L.; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Kim, Taewoo; Kool, Eric T.; David, Sheila S.

    2009-01-01

    Escherchia coli MutY plays an important role in preventing mutations associated with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by excising adenines from OG:A mismatches as the first step of base excision repair. To determine the importance of specific steps in the base pair recognition and base removal process of MutY, we have evaluated the effects of modifications of the OG:A substrate on the kinetics of base removal, mismatch affinity and repair to G:C in an Escherchia coli-based assay. Surprisingly, adenine modification was tolerated in the cellular assay, while modification of OG results in minimal cellular repair. High affinity for the mismatch and efficient base removal require the presence of OG. Taken together, these results suggest that the presence of OG is a critical feature for MutY to locate OG:A mismatches and select the appropriate adenines for excision to initiate repair in vivo prior to replication. PMID:18026095

  4. [Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis].

    PubMed

    Edinger, H; Miller, I; Stanek, C; Gemeiner, M

    1992-10-01

    The spectrum of serum proteins was evaluated in 46 horses affected with spontaneous laminitis and correlations between the severity of the disease and changes of the protein pattern were analyzed. The investigation was made in two groups; group A consisted of 21 horses of various breeds (warmblood, thoroughbred, standardbred) and group B of 25 ponys. Each group was subdivided according to the severity of the disease, using the OBEL-grade (OG) classification system. Serum proteins were separated by different one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods. Sera analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fraction between OG II and OG IV affected horses. An increasing severity of the disease was correlated with a decrease of the alpha 1-globulins. The other protein fractions didn't show a uniform tendency. In group B there was a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fractions of OG II and OG III and in the beta 2-globulin fractions of OG I and OG II affected ponys. The acute phase proteins C3c, C4, Hp and fibronectin could be determined in a preliminary study in horse serum using the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the homologous human proteins.

  5. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  6. Global warming at the summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  7. The Pacific Phased Adaptive Approach: U.S. BMD in Response to the DPRK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION...announced a plan to deploy a second AN/TPY-2 radar near Kyoto , Japan. The radar will improve search and detect capability necessary to defend the Japanese...DC: GAO, 2014), 32– 34, http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-314. 68 “Japan, U.S. to Deploy Second TPY-2 Long-range Radar in Kyoto City,” United Press

  8. PREFACE: International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences: from Non-living to Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Hiroto; Murase, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    In this workshop recent advancements in experiments and theories were discussed on magnetism and superconductivity, emergent phenomena in biological material, chemical properties and economic problems of non-living and living systems. The aim of the workshop was to discuss old, but also new problems from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to understand the general features behind diversity in condensed matter physics, experimental chemistry and physics in biology and economic science. The workshop was broadly based, and was titled 'International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences from Non-living to Living Systems'. However, the primary focus was on magnetism and superconductivity, and NMR research into strongly correlated electrons. The meeting was held as an ICAM workshop, upon official approval in January 2010. Both young scientists and graduate students were invited. We hope that these young scientists had the chance to talk with invited speakers and organizers on their own interests. We thank the participants who contributed through their presentations, discussions and these papers to the advancement of the subject and our understanding. The proceedings are published here in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (UK). We thank the International Advisory Committee for their advice and guidance: Evgeny Antipov Moscow State University, Russia Nicholas Curro University of California, Davis, USA Minghu Fang Zhejiang University, China Jurgen Haase University of Leipzig, Germany Takashi Imai McMaster University, Canada Peter Lemmens TU Braunschweig, Germany Herwig Michor Vienna TU, Austria Takamasa Momose University of British Columbia, Canada Raivo Stern NICPB, Estonia Louis Taillefer University of Sherbrooke, Canada Masashi Takigawa University of Tokyo, Japan This workshop was mainly organized by the International Research Unit of Integrated Complex System Science, Kyoto University, and was supported by ICAM

  9. Nitrogen Oxide, Endothelin-1, and Serotonin in the Blood of Immature Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Chibireva, M D; Aflyatumova, G N; Matveeva, V L; Bilalova, D F; Kuz'mina, O I; Sadykova, D I; Nigmatullina, R R

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial function is an early and sensitive marker of subclinical increase of BP in children and adolescents. It is associated with an imbalance of the key vasoactive factors (NO, endothelin-1, and serotonin). Immature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR line) are characterized by increased plasma concentrations of NO and endothelin-1 (by 14.7% and 2.9 times, respectively) and increased serotonin content in the plasma and platelets (by 2.7 and 2.3 times, respectively) in comparison with Wistar-Kyoto rats. Platelet count in the blood of SHR rats is by 50% higher than in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

  10. Efficacy of Ceftobiprole Medocaril against Enterococcus faecalis in a Murine Urinary Tract Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF (with and without the β-lactamase [Bla] plasmid pBEM10) in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model. Ceftobiprole was equally effective for Bla+ and Bla− OG1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against Bla+ than Bla− OG1 strains. These data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of Bla production by E. faecalis and the stability and efficacy of ceftobiprole in experimental UTI. PMID:22450988

  11. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  12. Evaluation of Skin-Spar Joint Resistance to Hydrodynamic Ram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight Division Air Armament Center, Air Force...43 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 780th Test Squadron (780th TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM ...MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM(S) AFRL-WS-WP 780th Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety

  13. Aircraft Survivability: Vulnerability Reduction, Spring 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Wing (TW) 46 Operations Group (OG)/Munitions Test Division ( OGM )/ Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight’s (AOL-AC), with actual testing...testing, scheduled to occur during FY06, is again being managed by 46OG/ OGM /OL-AC and conducted by ARL-SLAD. This tri-service program has greatly...Test Wing’s 46 Operations Group/Munitions Test Division/Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC). Design efforts focused on

  14. SURVIAC Bulletin: Fire Suppression Technology Applied to Chemical/Biological Warfare Protection, Volume 17, Issue 2 - 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Technical Representative (COTR) for the Center is Mr. Martin L. Lentz, 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC, 2700 D Street, Bldg. 1661, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433...publication may be addressed to: 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7605 Com: (937) 255-4840, DSN...iac.dtic.mil/surviac SURVIAC 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7605 PRSRT STD US POSTAGE PAID

  15. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  16. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  17. Les manifestations tectoniques synsédimentaires associées à la compression éocène en Tunisie : implications paléogéographiques et structurales sur la marge Nord-AfricaineThe synsedimentary tectonic activity associated to Eocene shortening in Tunisia: implication in the palaeogeographic and structural evolution of the North African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghali, Abdessalem; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Bobier, Claude; Zargouni, Fouad; Krima, Anis

    2003-09-01

    In central Tunisia, a synsedimentary tectonic episode has been pointed out through the tectonic movements affecting the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene successions. This tectonic episode has controlled, to a large extent, the palaeogeographic setting of the area during that period and confirmed the important effect induced by the Pyrenean shortening phase on the edge of the African plate, which obviously has witnessed a common history with the southern part of the European plate. To cite this article: A. El Ghali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  18. Mise en évidence d'une nappe de charriage à deux unités paléogènes au plateau de Lansarine (Tunisie du Nord) : définition d'un nouvel élément structural de l'Atlas tunisien et réévaluation du calendrier des serrages tertiaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Vila, Jean-Marie; Zargouni, Fouad

    2007-05-01

    The Palaeogene plateau of the Lansarine area (northern Tunisia) is a thrust nappe formed by two Eocene limestone units, overlapping the marine Miocene series. The stacking of these two units and the coverage of the Neogene series are noticeable in several localities within the study area. The cartography permits the measurement of a NW-SE overthrust amplitude of 10 km with respect to the nearest southern overlapping of the Mateur peel thrusts, which are displaced themselves. The measured overthrust represents a minimal estimation based on the present erosion limits. These results indicate that the region has been exposed, at least, to two Tertiary compressive phases. The first one took place during the Late Eocene. This phase, which was characterized by a moderate folding, corresponds to the Atlasic phase. The second major phase, which has been dated to the Tortonian age, is responsible for the tangentially carrying of the Palaeogene series. These new data have allowed the recognition of a new tectonic unit in the Tunisian Atlas, which is the thrust nappe of the Jebel Lansarine.

  19. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  20. Digital Atlas and Evaluation of the Influence of Inter-Annual Variability on Climate Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Abstracts, Institute Nationale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale-OGS, Trieste, Italy 2001 р. 65 Unesco 1993: Manual of quality control procedures for validation of oceanographic data, IOC UNESCO, pp.436. 995

  1. How Is Angina Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... may recommend coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-ra-fee) if he or she suspects you have CHD. ... Computed Tomography Angiography Computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) angiography (CTA) uses dye and special x rays ...

  2. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  3. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coronary Angiography Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test that uses dye and special ... Scan A cardiac computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scan, or cardiac CT scan , is a painless ...

  4. How Is Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors can use computed tomography (to-MOG-rah-fee) scans, or CT scans, to look for blood ... Pulmonary Angiography Pulmonary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is another test used to diagnose PE. This ...

  5. Synthesis of disperse graphene-like materials and their structural and electrochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleeva, E. A.; Tarasevich, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Graphene-like materials of oxidized graphite (OG) were obtained by boiling in ethylene glycol, microwave treatment of a suspension of OG in ethylene glycol, and microwave treatment of dry OG without using solvents. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, elemental analysis, and electrochemical measurements. Microwave treatment of dry OG gave the most disperse material (˜400 m2/g) with an oxygen content of no more than 20%. Treatment in 0.5 M H2SO4 for 50 h at 60°C in oxygen did not lead to oxidation and was accompanied by an increase in the dispersity of this material.

  6. Observation of penning ionization in Zr-Ne discharge by optogalvanic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, R.; Saini, V. K.; Shrivastava, V. K.; Nundy, U.

    2010-02-01

    The pulsed optogalvanic (OG) effect is used to observe Penning ionization in a Zr-Ne hollow-cathode discharge, which was axially irradiated by a pulsed dye laser pumped by copper vapor laser. The effect of discharge current on the temporal evolution of the OG signal is studied at 588.2, 594.5, 597.6 and 614.3 nm. The double humped temporal profile of the OG signals, corresponding to transitions of neon, and closeness of energy levels between that level of neon (Ne) and excited levels of zirconium (Zr) ions confirmed that Penning type of ionizing energy transfer collisions were taking place in the Zr-Ne discharge at lower discharge currents (≤5 mA). The disappearance of the double humped feature in the temporal profile of the OG signals indicated that the Penning contribution became negligible at higher discharge currents (≥10 mA).

  7. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  8. Technology Evaluation for an Advanced Individual Protection System (AIPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    from CO2 Using Electrolysis........................ 21 3.1.4.3 OG from Water Vapor Electrolysis (WVE).................. 22 3.1.4.4 OG from Plant/ Algae ...Dioxide Water (vapor) Electrolysis Plant/ Algae Bioregenerative Support System Respirat$ Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen Generation Oxygen$ Surrogate Lungs...bioregernerative support -’ from Plant/ Algae system to generate oxygen, supply fresh food, Growth and remove CO2. - Impractical Artificial Gills Water flowing

  9. On-The-Move Nutrient Delivery System (NDS): User Acceptability of Rotary Flow Control Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Baker-Fulco CJ. Overview of dietary intakes during military exercises. In: Not Eating Enough, edited by Marriot SM. Washington, DC: National Academy...Fat Cholesterol Sodium 440mg Potassium Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber Sugars Protein Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium lron Phosphorus 260 o Og Og Omg 18...to fucilitatc fluid and on-the-move nutrient intake . Soldier feedback (n"ඛ) was captured regarding acceplability of NDS fonn and function, and their

  10. Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs by Stephen C. Hansen Naval Postgraduate School These discussion comments reflect the private...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... contractors . Let Fseg = 1 if a company is a Federal Focus Firm. l ( SGAit ) L ( Revenueit ) og ’ =a0+a1 og ’ SGAi,t-1 Revenuei,t- 1 ( Revenue· t

  11. Evolution of NATO in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    digital-internacional. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S. Hernández, 25 Nov. 1996. Internet address: http://www.elpais.es 13 Ministerio de Defensa...Udvalg. Dansk og Europæisk Sikkerhed. Copenhagen, Det Sikkerheds- og Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg, 1995. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S

  12. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  13. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  14. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  15. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  16. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  17. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  18. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  19. 40 CFR 420.104 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031... pH (2) (2) 1 The limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead... consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00250 0.00125 O&G 0.00104 0.000417 Chromium 1...

  20. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 Chromium 1 0.000104 0.0000418 Lead 0.0000469...

  1. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  2. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  3. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  4. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  5. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...

  6. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  7. Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss the transcript analysis of Moniliophthora roreri infected pods, which revealed a total of 3009 differentially expressed transcripts among resistant and susceptible clones. Comparison of the tolerant and susceptible clones by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome...

  8. NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM OF SUBCHRONIC AIR POLLUTANT-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiovascular mortality are unknown. We hypothesized that blood vessels are the target of injury by circulating oxidation by-products following pollutant exposure. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wks old), nose-only to air, ...

  9. Update of Carbon Market Programs in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere require all nations to establish international and national goals and policies for GHG reductions. Most climate scientists say that the targets set in the Kyoto Protocol are merely scratching the surface of the problem. The agreement aims to...

  10. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  11. CTD and Bottle Data from Leg 1: 20 December 1986 - 18 January 1987. Leg 2: 17 July - 15 August 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    650, Japan Biblioteca, Centro de Investigacion Cientifca y Educacion Superior de Prof. Hideo Kawai Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732 Kyoto University...Science Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography University of Miami TIC 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway f ELECTE Miami, Florida 33149 S SEP2Z 1989D and

  12. CARDIAC INJURY FROM LONG TERM EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): SOLUBLE COMPONENTS OR SOLID PARTICLES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term exposure to PM has been associated with cardiac injury in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate if cardiac injury was due to soluble metals (i.e., zinc), insoluble PM, or pulmonary injury/inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (n=8) were exposed intratracheal...

  13. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  14. Grand Strategy for the United States in the 21st Century? (A Look at the National Security Strategy Document of 2002 and Beyond)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the war in Iraq, and its unilateral abrogation of treaties such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile ( ABM ) treaty with Russia and the Kyoto Accords on Global...recent polls by the Washington Post/ ABC News (December 21, 2004) and others such as CNN (May 16, 2004, and June 25, 2004) show that a majority of

  15. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  16. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  17. Experimental and Computational Investigation of a RF Plasma Micro-Thruster (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-08

    on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Kyoto, Japan, 21-25 July 2008. 14. ABSTRACT A prototype RF plasma micro -thruster has been investigated numerically and...experimentally. The experimental results were obtained on a thrust stand capable of micro -Newton resolution. Thrust and mass flow (hence specific

  18. Lessons that Non-Scientists Can Teach Us about the Concept of Energy: A Human-Centred Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Energy is not only a core concept in physics but also a major issue in our post-Kyoto world. When using a constructivist approach to teaching, we need to be aware of students' preconceptions. A palette of alternative frameworks, which includes those used by adults within the community, can facilitate this. An exploration of energy issues with…

  19. 78 FR 24287 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the 2013 Revised Supplementary Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. Among the IPCC's products is... provide guidance to periodic submissions by Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change... Practice Guidance Arising From the Kyoto Protocol SUMMARY: The United States Global Change Research...

  20. 'This chimp will kick your ass at memory games - but how the hell does he do it?'.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Nicholas

    2012-07-01

    Extraordinary evidence generates extraordinary claims. I discuss the remarkable memory skills of chimpanzees tested in the Kyoto Primate Laboratory, and suggest a novel – but deflationary – hypothesis to explain them. Could the chimpanzees, who have been highly trained to learn the sequence of Arabic numerals, have developed number–colour synaesthesia?

  1. Design and Optimization of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Solar Cells for Lightweight Battlefield Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number ____N...Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices, Kyoto , Japan, 2012, pp. 67–70. [23] R. Yang, Z. Bai, D. Wang, and D. Wang, “High efficient thin film CdTe solar

  2. Thirteen Years after Rio: The State of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are adversely affecting the earth's climate, a global common and a public good. The contribution of individual countries has a limited effect on the biosphere, implying that only globally coordinated efforts may result in significant climate improvements. The Rio Earth Summit (1992) and Kyoto Protocol (1997) are…

  3. Molecular Profiles for Lung Cancer Pathogenesis and Detection in U.S. Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    total identified proteins (2792 proteins) as the reference proteome of bronchial epithelium instead of entire human proteome. KEGG ( Kyoto ... protocol for massively parallel sequencing of RNA isolated from premalignant lesions from FFPE archived tissues by laser capture microdissection...Developed a protocol for whole exome DNA sequencing of cells of interest in lung cancer continuum, laser capture microdissected from FFPE archived

  4. Privacy in the Face of Surveillance: Fourth Amendment Considerations for Facial Recognition Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Govemment. IRB Protocol number __ N/A __ . 12a. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY... Kyoto University in Japan, led to increased abilities for computer software to identify facial forms in photographs. The limited successes in the field

  5. Ferrite Loaded Coils for Improved Wireless Power Transfer Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public...Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission: Technologies, Systems, and Applications, Kyoto , Japan, 2011, pp. 73–76. [15] Z. Ullah, A. Shahid, and

  6. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  7. Altered Placental Tryptophan Metabolism: A Crucial Molecular Pathway for the Fetal Programming of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    analyzed for 5-HT concentration with HPLC. See (1) for a detailed protocol . The HPLC analysis of perfusion samples was performed on an Eicom 700...system (Eicom Corporation, Kyoto , Japan) consisting of an ECD-700 electrochemical detector, an Eicom 700 Insight autosampler, and Envision

  8. Extraction of DNA from human embryos after long-term preservation in formalin and Bouin's solutions.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Momoko; Minegishi, Katsura; Komada, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2016-05-01

    The "Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos" at Kyoto University was begun in 1961. Although morphological analyses of samples in the Kyoto Collection have been performed, these embryos have been considered difficult to genetically analyze because they have been preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution for 20-50 years. Owing to the recent advances in molecular biology, it has become possible to extract DNA from long-term fixed tissues. The purpose of this study was to extract DNA from wet preparations of human embryo samples after long-term preservation in fixing solution. We optimized the DNA extraction protocol to be suitable for tissues that have been damaged by long-term fixation, including DNA-protein crosslinking damage. Diluting Li2 CO3 with 70% ethanol effectively removed picric acid from samples fixed in Bouin's solution. Additionally, 20.0 mg/mL proteinase was valuable to lyse the long-term fixed samples. The extracted DNA was checked with PCR amplification using several sets of primers and sequence analysis. The PCR products included at least 295- and 838-bp amplicons. These results show that the extracted DNA is applicable for genetic analyses, and indicate that old embryos in the Kyoto Collection should be made available for future studies. The protocol described in this study can successfully extract DNA from old specimens and, with improvements, should be applicable in research aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms of human congenital anomalies.

  9. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  10. Bioavailability and Methylation Potential of Mercury Sulfides in Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    organic carbon analyzer (Shimadzu, Kyoto , Japan). Water samples for analysis of major cations were treated with 0.5% (v/v) hydrochloric acid (HCl...acids. The modifications of the protocol further consisted of DNA extraction with 115 phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (15:24:1) (Sigma-Aldrich

  11. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  12. 2007: make or break for emissions trading

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, A.

    2006-11-15

    With the Kyoto Protocol's first compliance period beginning in 2008, much of 2007 will be focussed on implementing the institutions needed to ensure the Protocol's effectiveness. The big unknown is whether governments and international bodies can make tough decisions in time to let the emissions market function effectively to reduce greenhouse gases.

  13. Persuading and Dissuading by Conditional Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, V.A.; Evans, J.St.B.T.; Handley, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Informal reasoning typically draws on a wider range of inferential behaviour than is measured by traditional inference tasks. In this paper, we developed several tasks to study informal reasoning with two novel types of conditional statements: Persuasions (e.g., if the Kyoto accord is ratified, greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced) and…

  14. Biography of Hideki Yukawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2008-06-01

    Life history of Hideki Yukawa is described, together with that of Sin-itiro Tomonaga. They grew upiin Kyoto city and were classmate. Their independency and collaboration had contributed to the growth of physics research in Japan after the end of WWII.

  15. Video: reprogramming cells.

    PubMed

    2008-12-19

    This video introduction to Science's year-end special issue features Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University, George Daley of Harvard University, and Science's Gretchen Vogel reviewing some of the work that led studies in reprogramming cells to be tagged the top scientific story for 2008.

  16. Oxidized lipids and lipid-mediators are involved in cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles and ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiac and vascular injuries are unknown. We hypothesized that these injuries involve alterations in'aortic membrane lipids and lipid-mediators. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wk old), nose-only to air, ozone (03; 0.5 ppm),...

  17. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  18. Two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki D; Ishii, Akiko; Mikami, Kaori; Katayama, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Ryoko; Minami, Syota; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Yukari

    2017-04-05

    Wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". Although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. One reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. Two strains of roof rats (Sj and Og strains) were established from wild roof rats caught in Shinjuku, Tokyo and one of the Ogasawara Islands, respectively, by a Japanese pest control company. Based on the rat caregivers' informal observations, we conducted behavioral and anatomical tests to assess the validity of Sj and Og strains for the analyses of new-object reaction. In Experiment 1, the Sj strain showed reduced food consumption compared with the Og strain when food was provided in a novel way, suggesting that the Sj strain had a stronger avoidance of novel objects compared with the Og strain. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the basolateral complex of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in experimental Sj rats had a larger percentage area compared with that of experimental Og rats, indicating these nuclei might be involved in the difference observed in avoidance of novel objects between the strains. Taken together, the present study suggests that Sj and Og strains are effective experimental animals for assessing new-object reaction.

  19. PubMed

    Pimenta, Manoela Siqueira; Lobo, Nayana Santiago Guedis; Vieira, Virna Castelo; Costa, Ângela Maria Alves da; Costa, Flávio Nogueira da; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) by in vivo investigation. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind clinical study, using a 3-day partial-mouth plaque accumulation model. The participants abolished any method of mechanical oral hygiene and they were randomly assigned to initially use just the following mouthrinses: distilled water (DW solution), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX solution) or 10% Og (Og solution). The plaque index (PLI) was recorded in all mandibular teeth at the end of the trial and the Kruskal-Wallis (α=0.05) and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05) tests were used to estimate the difference among groups. The clinical results showed statistically significant difference among the groups (p<0.05), favoring the CLX solution and Og solution, but the first was more effective (p<0.05). The mouthrinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% Og were able to inhibit plaque re-growth, however Og showed more limited results in comparison to CLX.

  20. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  1. Identification of chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic agent from Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in a biomonitoring in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; da Silva, Daniel; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Camargo, Luiza Maria de Magalhães; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2014-03-01

    Ocimum gratissimum L. is popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic activity of this medicinal species has been confirmed by in vivo studies. The present study conducted a chemical investigation of a leaf decoction (10% p/v) of O. gratissimum monitored by in vivo hypoglycemic activity assays. Four phenolic substances were identified: L-caftaric acid (1), L-chicoric acid (2), eugenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and vicenin-2 (4). The acute hypoglycemic activity of the O. gratissimum decoction fractions Og1-S (300 mg/kg), Og1-A (240 mg/kg) and Og1-B (80 mg/kg) was evaluated intraperitoneally in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. They reduced glycemia by 63%, 76% and 60% (in 120 min), respectively, in the diabetic mice. Subfractions of Og1-A were also evaluated under the same conditions: Og1-AS (200 mg/kg) and Og1-AP (40 mg/kg) produced a decrease of only 37% and 39%, respectively. Among the major phenolic substances, only chicoric acid (2; 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the glycemic levels of diabetic mice by 53%, 120 min after treatment. This is the first study describing the hypoglycemic activity of chicoric acid in an animal model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest that there may be other substances contributing to this activity. Thus, for the first time, a correlation is established between the hypoglycemic activity of O. gratissimum and its chemical composition.

  2. Oral collagen-derived dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline and hydroxyprolyl-glycine, ameliorate skin barrier dysfunction and alter gene expression profiles in the skin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Jun; Asami, Naoto; Kataoka, Aya; Sugihara, Fumihito; Inoue, Naoki; Kimira, Yoshifumi; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-09

    Oral supplementation with collagen hydrolysate (CH) has been shown to improve the condition of the skin in humans and experimental animals. Several hydroxyproline-containing oligo-peptides were previously detected in human peripheral blood after the ingestion of CH, and the two dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline (PO) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (OG), have been proposed to have beneficial effects on human health. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a HR-AD diet, which lacked magnesium and zinc, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased and water content of stratum corneum decreased. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary PO and OG on skin barrier dysfunction in HR-1 hairless mice. Mice were fed a HR-AD diet with or without PO (0.15%) and OG (0.15%) for 35 consecutive days. The administration of PO and OG significantly decreased TEWL, and significantly increased water content of stratum corneum. A DNA microarray analysis of the dorsal skin revealed differences in gene expression between the group administered PO and OG and the control group. We also identified muscle-related Gene Ontology as a result of analyzing the up-regulated genes. These results suggested that the administration of PO and OG improved skin barrier dysfunction and altered muscle-related gene expression.

  3. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  4. Single-turnover and pre-steady-state kinetics of the reaction of the adenine glycosylase MutY with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Porello, S L; Leyes, A E; David, S S

    1998-10-20

    The DNA repair enzyme MutY plays an important role in the prevention of DNA mutations resulting from the presence of the oxidatively damaged lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by the removal of misincorporated adenine residues in OG:A mispairs. MutY also exhibits adenine glycosylase activity toward adenine in G:A and C:A mismatches, although the importance of this activity in vivo has not been established. We have investigated the kinetic properties of MutY's glycosylase activity with OG:A and G:A containing DNA duplexes. Our results indicate that MutY's processing of these two substrates is distinctly different. By using single-turnover experiments, the intrinsic rate for adenine removal by MutY from an OG:A substrate was found to be at least 6-fold faster than that from the corresponding G:A substrate. However, under conditions where [MutY] < [DNA], OG:A substrates are not quantitatively converted to product due to the inefficient turnover resulting from slow product release. In contrast, with a G:A substrate MutY's dissociation from the corresponding product is more facile, such that complete conversion of the substrate to product can be achieved under similar conditions. The kinetic results illustrate that the glycosylase reaction catalyzed by MutY has significant differences depending on the characteristics of the substrate. The lingering of MutY with the product of its reaction with OG:A mispairs may be biologically significant to prevent premature removal of OG. Thus, this approach is providing insight into factors that may be influencing the repair of damaged and mismatched DNA in vivo by base-excision repair glycosylases.

  5. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products.

  6. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  7. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  8. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  9. Benchmark Theoretical and Experimental Study on (15)N NMR Shifts of Oxidatively Damaged Guanine.

    PubMed

    Dračínský, Martin; Šála, Michal; Klepetářová, Blanka; Šebera, Jakub; Fukal, Jiří; Holečková, Veronika; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nencka, Radim; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2016-02-11

    The (15)N NMR shifts of 9-ethyl-8-oxoguanine (OG) were calculated and measured in liquid DMSO and in crystal. The OG molecule is a model for oxidatively damaged 2'-deoxyguanosine that occurs owing to oxidative stress in cell. The DNA lesion is repaired with human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) base-excision repair enzyme, however, the exact mechanism of excision of damaged nucleobase with hOGG1 is currently unknown. This benchmark study on (15)N NMR shifts of OG aims their accurate structural interpretation and calibration of the calculation protocol utilizable in future studies on mechanism of hOGG1 enzyme. The effects of NMR reference, DFT functional, basis set, solvent, structure, and dynamics on calculated (15)N NMR shifts were first evaluated for OG in crystal to calibrate the best performing calculation method. The effect of large-amplitude motions on (15)N NMR shifts of OG in liquid was calculated employing molecular dynamics. The B3LYP method with Iglo-III basis used for B3LYP optimized geometry with 6-311++G(d,p) basis and including effects of solvent and molecular dynamic was the calculation protocol used for calculation of (15)N NMR shifts of OG. The NMR shift of N9 nitrogen of OG was particularly studied because the atom is involved in an N-glycosidic bond that is cleaved with hOGG1. The change of N9 NMR shift owing to oxidation of 9-ethylguanine (G) measured in liquid was -27.1 ppm. The calculated N9 NMR shift of OG deviated from experiment in crystal and in liquid by 0.45 and 0.65 ppm, respectively. The calculated change of N9 NMR shift owing to notable N9-pyramidalization of OG in one previously found polymorph was 20.53 ppm. We therefore assume that the pyramidal geometry of N9 nitrogen that could occur for damaged DNA within hOGG1 catalytic site might be detectable with (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The calculation protocol can be used for accurate structural interpretation of (15)N NMR shifts of oxidatively damaged guanine DNA residue.

  10. Structural context effects in the oxidation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine to hydantoin products: electrostatics, base stacking, and base pairing.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Aaron M; Muller, James G; Dlouhy, Adrienne C; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2012-09-12

    8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) is the most common base damage found in cells, where it resides in many structural contexts, including the nucleotide pool, single-stranded DNA at transcription forks and replication bubbles, and duplex DNA base-paired with either adenine (A) or cytosine (C). OG is prone to further oxidation to the highly mutagenic hydantoin products spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in a sharply pH-dependent fashion within nucleosides. In the present work, studies were conducted to determine how the structural context affects OG oxidation to the hydantoins. These studies revealed a trend in which the Sp yield was greatest in unencumbered contexts, such as nucleosides, while the Gh yield increased in oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) contexts or at reduced pH. Oxidation of oligomers containing hydrogen-bond modulators (2,6-diaminopurine, N(4)-ethylcytidine) or alteration of the reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and salt) identify base stacking, electrostatics, and base pairing as the drivers of the key intermediate 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (5-HO-OG) partitioning along the two hydantoin pathways, allowing us to propose a mechanism for the observed base-pairing effects. Moreover, these structural effects cause an increase in the effective pK(a) of 5-HO-OG, following an increasing trend from 5.7 in nucleosides to 7.7 in a duplex bearing an OG·C base pair, which supports the context-dependent product yields. The high yield of Gh in ODNs underscores the importance of further study on this lesion. The structural context of OG also determined its relative reactivity toward oxidation, for which the OG·A base pair is ~2.5-fold more reactive than an OG·C base pair, and with the weak one-electron oxidant ferricyanide, the OG nucleoside reactivity is >6000-fold greater than that of OG·C in a duplex, leading to the conclusion that OG in the nucleoside pool should act as a protective agent for OG in the genome.

  11. Subtelomeric Copy Number Variations: The Importance of 4p/4q Deletions in Patients with Congenital Anomalies and Developmental Disability.

    PubMed

    Novo-Filho, Gil M; Montenegro, Marília M; Zanardo, Évelin A; Dutra, Roberta L; Dias, Alexandre T; Piazzon, Flavia B; Costa, Taís V M M; Nascimento, Amom M; Honjo, Rachel S; Kim, Chong A; Kulikowski, Leslie D

    2016-01-01

    The most prevalent structural variations in the human genome are copy number variations (CNVs), which appear predominantly in the subtelomeric regions. Variable sizes of 4p/4q CNVs have been associated with several different psychiatric findings and developmental disability (DD). We analyzed 105 patients with congenital anomalies (CA) and developmental and/or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) using MLPA subtelomeric specific kits (P036 /P070) and 4 of them using microarrays. We found abnormal subtelomeric CNVs in 15 patients (14.3%), including 8 patients with subtelomeric deletions at 4p/4q (53.3%). Additional genomic changes were observed at 1p36, 2q37.3, 5p15.3, 5q35.3, 8p23.3, 13q11, 14q32.3, 15q11.2, and Xq28/Yq12. This indicates the prevalence of independent deletions at 4p/4q, involving PIGG, TRIML2, and FRG1. Furthermore, we identified 15 genes with changes in copy number that contribute to neurological development and/or function, among them CRMP1, SORCS2, SLC25A4, and HELT. Our results highlight the association of genes with changes in copy number at 4p and 4q subtelomeric regions and the DD phenotype. Cytogenomic characterization of additional cases with distal deletions should help clarifying the role of subtelomeric CNVs in neurological diseases.

  12. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  13. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Islam

    2017-01-01

    Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. PMID:28299204

  14. Obstetricians/Gynecologists' Problems in Sickness Certification Consultations: Two Nationwide Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hinas, Elin; Ljungquist, Therese; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore experiences by physicians working in obstetrics, gynecology, or maternal healthcare (O/Gs) of problems in sickness certification consultations and differences between two years. Material and Methods. Answers by O/Gs to two Swedish nationwide surveys, in 2008 (n = 1037) and 2012 (n = 992), were analyzed for frequencies and severity of problems and organizational support in sickness certification consultations. Results. One-third of O/Gs found sickness certifications problematic every week. The most frequent problem was patients requesting sick notes for reasons other than work incapacity due to disease/injury (2008: 21%; 2012: 16%). The most problematic were assessing work capacity (2008 and 2012: 52%) and having different opinion from that of the patient about need for sick leave (2008: 51%; 2012: 46%). In 2012, 27% used the national sickness certification guidelines weekly, compared to 9% in 2008. A larger proportion in 2012 than 2008 reported that the guidelines facilitated contacts with patients and different stakeholders. Conclusions. Although O/Gs perceived sickness certification as problematic, there was less perceived severity of problems in 2012 compared to 2008, possibly because interventions regarding sickness certification have been introduced in Sweden recent years. Still, more organizational support, for example, time and supervision, are needed to enhance O/Gs' sickness certification practices. PMID:27980537

  15. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  16. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection.

  17. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  18. Oxidative DNA damage is epigenetic by regulating gene transcription via base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Aaron M.; Ding, Yun; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important cellular-signaling agents for cellular survival. Herein, we demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidation of DNA to yield 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in gene promoters is a signaling agent for gene activation. Enhanced gene expression occurs when OG is formed in guanine-rich, potential G-quadruplex–forming sequences (PQS) in promoter-coding strands, initiating base excision repair (BER) by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), yielding an abasic site (AP). The AP enables melting of the duplex to unmask the PQS, adopting a G-quadruplex fold in which apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) binds, but inefficiently cleaves, the AP for activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or endonuclease III-like protein 1 (NTHL1) genes. These details were mapped via synthesis of OG and AP analogs at single-nucleotide precision within the promoter of a luciferase reporter system. The reporters were analyzed in human and mouse cells while selectively knocking out or down critical BER proteins to identify the impact on luciferase expression. Identification of the oxidatively modified DNA base OG to guide BER activity in a gene promoter and impact cellular phenotype ascribes an epigenetic role to OG. PMID:28143930

  19. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Pauly, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  20. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  1. Characterization of the effects of an rpoC mutation that confers resistance to the Fst peptide toxin-antitoxin system toxin.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Cassandra L; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J; Weaver, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β' subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters.

  2. Sorbitan ester organogels for transdermal delivery of sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Kamal K; Tiwari, Chandraprabha; Khopade, Ajay J; Bohidar, Himadri B; Jain, Sanjay K

    2007-06-01

    The partial phase behavior, rheological, and drug release characteristics of an organogel (OG) composed of water, isooctane and sorbitan esters, sorbitan monopalmitate (Span-40) and poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monostearate (Polysorbate-60) were studied. Phase diagrams showed decreasing areas of optically isotropic organogel region depending on the surfactant ratio, Kw and drug incorporation. The nonbirefringent, clear isotropic solution suggested the reverse micellar/microemulsion nature of the organogel without any molecular ordering. The increase in drug concentration in OGs leads to increase in the viscosity and sol-gel transition temperature (Tg). Fractal dimension (df) values calculated for different compositions suggested that the density of the tubular network increases with increasing drug concentration in OGs. The release rate of the drug from OGs was found to be non-Fickian through the dialysis membrane. The permeation rate of sumatriptan from pig skin was 0.231 mg/h/cm2 (781.9 nmol/h/cm2). The study indicates potential of OG as a reservoir system for transdermal drug delivery.

  3. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  4. Catalytic contributions of key residues in the adenine glycosylase MutY revealed by pH dependent kinetics and cellular repair assays

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer, Megan K.; Pope, Mary Ann Miles; David, Sheila S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary MutY enzymes prevent mutations in DNA associated with 8-oxoguanine (OG) by catalyzing the removal of adenines opposite OG. pH dependence analyses of the adenine glycosylase activity establish that Asp 138 of MutY must be deprotonated for maximal catalytic activity consistent with the role of this residue in stabilizing the oxacarbenium ion transition state in an SN1 mechanism. Use of a cellular OG:A repair assay allowed further validation of the critical role of Asp 138. Conservative substitutions of the catalytic residues Asp 138 and Glu 37 resulted in enzymes with a range of activity that were used to correlate the efficiency of adenine excision with overall OG:A repair and suppression of DNA mutations in vivo. The results indicate that MutY variations that reduce glycosylase activity as a consequence of reduced mismatch affinity result in more dramatic reductions in cellular OG:A repair than those that only compromise adenine excision catalysis. PMID:22365610

  5. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  6. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R.; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T.

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) – overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses. PMID:28066496

  7. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  8. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses.

    PubMed

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) - overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses.

  9. Découverte de l'Éocène continental autour de l'archipel de Kasserine, aux Jebels Rhéouis, Boudinar et Chamsi en Tunisie centro-méridionale : nouvelles implications paléogéographiquesEocene continental facies discovery around the Kasserine archipelago in Rheouis, Boudinar and Chamsi Jebels in the central-meridional Tunisia: new palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamoussi, Fakher; Abbès, Chedly; Fakhfakh, Emna; Bédir, Mourad; Kharbachi, Samir; Soussi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad; López-Galindo, Alberto

    2001-09-01

    The Rhéouis and Boudinar Eocene outcrops located along the Tunisian 'north-south axis' show continental deposits similar to those already described in the west-central and meridional Atlas in the Jebel Chaambi and Chebket Bouloufa. The field investigations of these levels conduct to the discovery of Bulimes' terrestrial Gastropods known in the Mediterranean domain. The presence of palygorskite in the clay minerals confirms the emerged tendency of these deposits. The continental palaeogeography might have been induced by the Triassic halokinetic movements along the Atlasic anticlines.

  10. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere with a Kappa-Maxwellian Proton Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Sugiyama, H.; Omura, Y.; Shoji, M.; Nunn, D.; Summers, D.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are studied in kappa-Maxwellian plasma. The plasma is assumed to have five-components, i.e., electrons, cold and hot protons, singly charged helium and oxygen ions. The hot anisotropic protons are assumed to have kappa-Maxwellian anisotropic particle distribution function. The numerical results are obtained using KUPDAP (Kyoto University Plasma Dispersion Analysis Package), a full dispersion solver developed at Kyoto University. The growth/damping of oxygen, helium, and proton bands and higher harmonics of the EMIC waves are studied. The effects of the kappa distribution on the growth/damping of these waves are clearly demonstrated. The findings from our model are applied to EMIC wave observations in the inner magnetosphere by the Cluster spacecraft.

  11. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth's magnetosphere with a kappa-Maxwellian particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hajime; Singh, Satyavir; Omura, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Masafumi; Nunn, David; Summers, Danny

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical model to study electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in kappa-Maxwellian plasma is developed. The plasma is assumed to have five components, i.e., electrons, cool and hot protons, and singly charged helium and oxygen ions. The kappa-Maxwellian anisotropic particle distribution function is assumed for the hot protons. We use the Kyoto University Plasma Dispersion Analysis Package, a full dispersion solver developed at Kyoto University, to obtain the numerical results and delineate the oxygen, helium, and proton bands. Higher harmonics of the EMIC waves are also studied, and the effects of the kappa distribution on the growth of these waves are clearly demonstrated. Our results are applied to Cluster spacecraft observations of EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere.

  12. An Iterative Solution to the Nonlinear Time-Discrete TEM Model - The Occurrence of Chaos and a Control Theoretic Algorithmic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickl, S.

    2002-09-01

    This paper is concerned with a mathematical derivation of the nonlinear time-discrete Technology-Emissions Means (TEM-) model. A detailed introduction to the dynamics modelling a Joint Implementation Program concerning Kyoto Protocol is given at the end of the paper. As the nonlinear time-discrete dynamics tends to chaotic behaviour, the necessary introduction of control parameters in the dynamics of the TEM model leads to new results in the field of time-discrete control systems. Furthermore the numerical results give new insights into a Joint-Implementation Program and herewith, they may improve this important economic tool. The iterative solution presented at the end might be a useful orientation to anticipate and support Kyoto Process.

  13. Localization in a spanwise-extended model of plane Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, M.; Kerswell, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    We consider a nine-partial-differential-equation (1-space and 1-time) model of plane Couette flow in which the degrees of freedom are severely restricted in the streamwise and cross-stream directions to study spanwise localization in detail. Of the many steady Eckhaus (spanwise modulational) instabilities identified of global steady states, none lead to a localized state. Spatially localized, time-periodic solutions were found instead, which arise in saddle node bifurcations in the Reynolds number. These solutions appear global (domain filling) in narrow (small spanwise) domains yet can be smoothly continued out to fully spanwise-localized states in very wide domains. This smooth localization behavior, which has also been seen in fully resolved duct flow (S. Okino, Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2011), indicates that an apparently global flow structure does not have to suffer a modulational instability to localize in wide domains.

  14. Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Fu; Cao, Jiang; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Xu, Rong-Liang; Huang, Xin-Miao; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zheng, Xing

    2010-02-01

    Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, was first described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We investigated fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that ghrelin levels, obestatin levels and the ratio of ghrelin to obestatin were significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated; however, heart period and baroreflex sensitivity were negatively correlated with ghrelin levels. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated, whereas baroreflex sensitivity was negatively correlated with obestatin levels. In addition, systolic blood pressure was a significantly independent variable of ghrelin levels, obestatin levels, and the ghrelin to obestatin ratio in a multiple regression analysis. Our data suggests that there is a disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation.

  15. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Kurylo, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We seek funding from NASA for the third year (2005) of the four-year period January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006 for continued support of the MIT contributions to the multi-national global atmospheric trace species measurement program entitled Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). The case for real-time high-frequency measurement networks like AGAGE is very strong and the observations and their interpretation are widely recognized for their importance to ozone depletion and climate change studies and to verification issues arising from the Montreal Protocol (ozone) and Kyoto Protocol (climate). The proposed AGAGE program is distinguished by its capability to measure over the globe at high frequency almost all of the important species in the Montreal Protocol and almost all of the significant non-CO2 gases in the Kyoto Protocol.

  16. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate.

    PubMed

    Velders, Guus J M; Andersen, Stephen O; Daniel, John S; Fahey, David W; McFarland, Mack

    2007-03-20

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials.

  17. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  18. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  19. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  20. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  1. Decolorization of an azo dye Orange G in microbial fuel cells using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Da-Wei; Ruan, Min; Li, Xiang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    This study constructed a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate as the cathode solutions to decolorize Orange G (OG) and harvest electricity simultaneously. Chelated Fe(2+) could activate persulfate to generate sulfate free radicals (SO(4)(-)) which with high oxidation potential (E(0)=2.6 V) can degrade azo dyes. The influence of some important factors such as pH value of cathode solutions, dosages of K(2)S(2)O(8), Fe(2+) and EDTA were investigated in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell. Under an optimal condition, the maximum power density achieved 91.1 mW m(-2), the OG removal rate was 97.4% and the K(2)S(2)O(8) remaining rate was 47.3% after 12 h. The OG degradation by Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate was found to follow the second-order kinetic model.

  2. Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

    2006-02-01

    One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  3. Positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian and ABJM amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-09-01

    A novel understanding of scattering amplitudes in terms of on-shell diagrams and positive Grassmannian has been recently established for four dimensional Yang-Mills theories and three dimensional Chern-Simons theories of ABJM type. We give a detailed construction of the positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian relevant for ABJM amplitudes. On-shell diagrams are classified by pairing of external particles. We introduce a combinatorial aid called `OG tableaux' and map each equivalence class of on-shell diagrams to a unique tableau. The on-shell diagrams related to each other through BCFW bridging are naturally grouped by the OG tableaux. Introducing suitably ordered BCFW bridges and positive coordinates, we construct the complete coordinate charts to cover the entire positive orthogonal Grassmannian for arbitrary number of external particles. The graded counting of OG tableaux suggests that the positive orthogonal Grassmannian constitutes a combinatorial polytope.

  4. Orbital glass and spin glass states of 3He-A in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Volovik, G. E.; Yudin, A. N.

    2010-06-01

    Glass states of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in aerogel induced by random orientations of aerogel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. In anisotropic aerogel with stretching deformation two glass phases are observed. Both phases represent the anisotropic glass of the orbital ferromagnetic vector Ηthe orbital glass (OG). The phases differ by the spin structure: the spin nematic vector hat d can be either in the ordered spin nematic (SN) state or in the disordered spin-glass (SG) state. The first phase (OG-SN) is formed under conventional cooling from normal 3He. The second phase (OG-SG) is metastable, being obtained by cooling through the superfluid transition temperature, when large enough resonant continuous radio-frequency excitation is applied. NMR signature of different phases allows us to measure the parameter of the global anisotropy of the orbital glass induced by deformation.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  6. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors.

  7. Structure-Guided Reprogramming of a Hydroxylase To Halogenate Its Small Molecule Substrate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Bergman, Jonathan A; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Wei-Chen; Liu, Xinyu; Boal, Amie K

    2017-01-24

    Enzymatic installation of chlorine/bromine into unactivated carbon centers provides a versatile, selective, and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical halogenation. Iron(II) and 2-(oxo)-glutarate (Fe(II)/2OG)-dependent halogenases are powerful biocatalysts that are capable of cleaving aliphatic C-H bonds to introduce useful functional groups, including halogens. Using the structure of the Fe/2OG halogenase, WelO5, in complex with its small molecule substrate, we identified a similar N-acyl amino acid hydroxylase, SadA, and reprogrammed it to halogenate its substrate, thereby generating a new chiral haloalkyl center. The work highlights the potential of Fe(II)/2OG enzymes as platforms for development of novel stereospecific catalysts for late-stage C-H functionalization.

  8. A Bombyx mandarina mutant exhibiting translucent larval skin is controlled by the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Ozaki, Masataka; Masamoto, Takaaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Abe, Hiroaki; Shimada, Toru

    2009-04-01

    During the maintenance of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, a mutant phenotype exhibiting translucent skin was identified. Based on the crossing experiments with the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, we found that the mutant was controlled by molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MoCoS) gene. We designated the mutant ''Ozaki's translucent'' (og(Z)). We found a 2.1-kb deletion containing the transcription initiation site, exons 1 and 2, and the 5' end of exon 3 of the MoCoS gene. The transcript of the MoCoS gene was not detected in the og(Z) homozygote. We concluded that og(Z) is a complete loss-of-function allele generated by a disruption of the MoCoS gene.

  9. Global Emerging Sciences and Technology Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    University of New South Wales (68), City University of Hong Kong (80), Hong Kong Polytechnic (89), and University of South Australia (99). The biggest...Univ., Nanyang Tech. Univ., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tsinghua Univ., Osaka Univ., Yonsei Univ. (Korea), Tohoku Univ., Nagoya...in a broad 51-100 range: City Univ. of Hong Kong, Indian Inst. of Tech. Bombay, Indian Inst. of Tech. Delhi, Indian Inst. of Tech. Kanpur, Kyoto

  10. Numerical analysis of incompressible viscous flow around a bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Minoru; Ishii, Ryuji; Morioka, Shigeki

    1992-12-01

    A numerical simulation of flows around a deformable gas bubble rising through an incompressible viscous fluid is carried out on a supercomputer Fujitsu VP-2600 at the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. The solution algorithm is a modified MAC (Marker And Cell) method. For the grid generation, an orthogonal mapping proposed by Ryskin and Leal is applied. The numerical results are compared with Ryskin and Leal's results and previous experiments. It will be shown that a good agreement is obtained between them.

  11. A numerical simulation of flows around a deformable gas bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Minoru; Ishii, Ryuji; Morioka, Shigeki

    1991-12-01

    A numerical simulation of flows around a (deformable) gas bubble rising through an incompressible viscous fluid was carried out on a supercomputer Fujitsu VP2600 at Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. The solution algorithm is a modified Marker And Cell (MAC) method. For the grid generation, an orthogonal mapping proposed by Ryskin and Leal was applied. it is assumed that the shape of the bubble and the flow field are axisymmetric.

  12. The European Court of Human Rights: Implications for United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    to the Geneva Convention) to climate change ( Kyoto Protocols ) to arms control (Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty), including those related to...instruments that it perceives will encroach on its sovereignty. There are a wide variety of such treaties, from human rights (Additional Protocols I & II...Rights.” 5 In 1998, with the adoption of Protocol No. 11, individuals were allowed to petition the court directly, but only after exhausting their

  13. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 4, Number 4, October-December 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Re- Osaka University, 32, Joan-cho, search Kita-ku, Osaka 530 June 9-10 Implantology and Bio- Kyoto, Japan Prof. H. Kawahara, Osaka Dental Col...department, in cooperation with RERF, conducts epidemiological studies of medical and dental x-ray exposures of the A-bomb survivors and takes part in...Wellington Pacific February 16-21 Australian Dental Association Hobart, Australia Dr. H. Hammer, Chairman, 130 New Hobart Convention Town Rd., New Town

  14. Perception of Long-Period Complex Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-27

    the First International Congress on Music Perception and Cognition, Koto, Japan, Octxoer 1989, pp. 343-348. 7. Warren, R.M. "Sensory magnitudes and...elodic and Nmslodic pitch patterns: Effects of duration on perception," Invited paper presented at the First International cnference on Music ...percq*pion. H r edis of the First International Qzxress on Music Pexrceptin and Cognition, Kyoto, Japan, October 1989, pp. 343-348. G. Warren, R.M

  15. Dirk Forrister -- Looking at U.S. climate change policy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This month, American Gas presents another in its series of interviews with influential policy-makers in Washington. This interview with Dirk Forrister, chairman of the White House Climate Change Task Force, focuses on the upcoming United Nations conference on global warming, being held December 1--10 in Kyoto, Japan, and on the Clinton administration`s position and policies on global climate change.

  16. Some electronics companies see business opportunities in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the doldrums of the Washington, D.C., summer in late July and early August, the debate about whether the United States should sign the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and what the price tag might be, continued unabated.The Clinton Administration and several private groups issued policy papers, and the U.S. House Committee on Small Business held its third oversight hearing on the issue.

  17. Fractional Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    column with the Dionex UltiMate 3000 (Thermo Scientific Dionex , Sunnyvale, CA). The resolved peptides were electrosprayed into a linear ion trap MS... chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry, followed by biochemical pathway mapping using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The fimbriae-specific subset...15. SUBJECT TERMS 3T3 murine fibroblasts Cell toxicity Liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry LC-MS Ricin Ricinus communis

  18. Pyrophoric Nanoparticles and Nanoporous Foils for Defense Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1 PYROPHORIC NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOROUS FOILS FOR DEFENSE APPLICATIONS Rajesh Shende , Zac Doorenbos, Alok Vats, and Jan Puszynski* South...metal and method or preparing, US Patent 4895609, January 2, 1990. [13] Shende , R.V., Vats, A., Doorenbos, Z. D., Kapoor, D., Martin, D...Chemical Propulsion, Kyoto, Japan, Sep. 17-21 (to be published). [14] Shende , R.V., Vats, A., Doorenbos, Z. D., Kapoor, D., Haines, C., Martin, D

  19. The Way Ahead: National & International Trends in Chemical Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    EPA data call authority to require more testing to fill data gaps  Expansion of green chemistry programs  Greater transparency (less CBI claims...publically available  By design, spurs adoption of green chemistry Safe Chemical Act of 2010 Industry must provide data to prove safety Ensures...Promotes green chemistry Climate Change Legislation Driving Chemical Management (as of May 2010) 1997 Kyoto Protocol  22 states have GHG emission

  20. International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics (3rd) (META 󈧐) Held in Paris, France on April 19-22, 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-23

    Milton, University of Utah, USA 9. Recent Progress in Photonic Crystals - From Dynamic Control to Solar Cells -, Susumu Noda, Kyoto...Metamaterials, Photonic crystals and Plasmonics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-12-1-0177 5b. GRANT NUMBER CSP 12-2086...modern aspects of metamaterials and plasmonic materials such as: • bottom-up manufacturing methods • plasmonics structures and antennas for

  1. [Increase of poisoning by tropical mushrooms in Japan in recent years].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Gonmori, Kunio

    2009-09-01

    A tropical poisonous mushroom, Chlorophyllum molybdites, invaded into Japan in recent years, and distributed in south-eastern and central part of Japan including 27 Prefectures in 2009; Gunma, Tochigi, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tokyo (including Bonin Islands), Chiba, Shizuoka, Ishikawa, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Wakayama, Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Kagawa, Tokushima, Kochi, Ohita, Kumamoto, Kagoshima and Okinawa. Poisoning by this fungus has increased recently (Table 2). Topics on distribution and poisoning by Russula subnigricans and Podostroma cornu-damae briefly discussed.

  2. Winning the "War of Ideas" in the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bodies such as the UN; compliance with international agreements (landmines, Kyoto accord, ABM ); and respect for international law (ICC, Guantanamo Bay...Grand Strategy in the War Against Terrorism (Oregon: Frank Cass 2003), 34. 29 ABC , "What the World Thinks of America;" available from http...2004), 376. 36 DSB, 28. 37 DSB, 29. 38 9/11 Commission, 377. 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY ABC . "What the World Thinks of America." Available from http

  3. Afghanistan: A War of Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    candidates running for National Office sometimes find it difficult to articulate. During an interview on September 11, 2008, ABC “World News...July 2009.25 An ABC News-Washington Post poll supported the Gallup poll’s results, finding that the majority of Americans believe the War in...Charlie Gibson’s Gaffe”, Washington Post, September 13, 2008. 13 Charles Krauthammer, “The Bush Doctrine ABM , Kyoto, and the New American

  4. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  5. Revised Dst and the epicycles of magnetic disturbance: 1958-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Gannon, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A revised version of the storm-time disturbance index Dst is calculated using hourly-mean magnetic-observatory data from four standard observatories and collected over the years 1958-2007. The calculation algorithm is a revision of that established by Sugiura et al., and which is now used by the Kyoto World Data Center for routine production of Dst. The most important new development is for the removal of solar-quiet variation. This is done through time and frequency-domain band-stop filtering - selectively removing specific Fourier terms approximating stationary periodic variation driven by the Earth's rotation, the Moon's orbit, the Earth's orbit around the Sun, and their mutual coupling. The resulting non-stationary disturbance time series are weighted by observatory-site geomagnetic latitude and then averaged together across longitudes to give what we call Dst5807-4SH. Comparisons are made with the standard Kyoto D st. Various biases, especially for residual solar-quiet variation, are identified in the Kyoto Dst, and occasional storm-time errors in the Kyoto Dst are noted. Using Dst5807-4SH, storms are ranked for maximum storm-time intensity, and we show that storm-occurrence frequency follows a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. The epicycles of magnetic disturbance are explored: we (1) map low-latitude local-time disturbance asymmetry, (2) confirm the 27-day storm-recurrence phenomenon using autocorrelation, (3) investigate the coupled semi-annual-diurnal variation of magnetic activity and the proposed explanatory equinoctial and Russell-McPherron hypotheses, and (4) illustrate the well-known solar-cycle modulation of storm-occurrence likelihood. Since Dst5807-4SH is useful for a variety of space physics and solid-Earth applications, it is made freely available to the scientific community.

  6. ONR Far East Scientific Information Bulletin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Industry * The Japan Institute of Invention and ° Software Maintenance Engineering Innovation , Kyoto Branch Facility The building in which the workshop o...also be sought for the participation of pri- mentally Resistant Advanced Materials" vatesector businesses . Plans call for a capi- which will be taken... business is related to the nuclear to a standard TV monitor. A PC program industry , but at present CRC has no pro- has been prewritten onto the CD and

  7. 2013 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    National University), who showed breakthrough results in nanowire solar cells and lasers. Tsenunobu Kimoto (Kyoto University) presented a comprehensive...band alignment between rutile and anatase TiO2 [D. O. Scanlon, et al., Nature Materials 12, 798 (2013)]. The photolysis of water on the surface of... TiO2 was first demonstrated in 1972, but the origin of the superior performance of mixed polymorph samples has remained elusive. Here state-of-the-art

  8. Effects of melatonin and Pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rezzani, Rita; Porteri, Enzo; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Bonomini, Francesca; Rodella, Luigi F; Paiardi, Silvia; Boari, Gianluca E M; Platto, Caterina; Pilu, Annamaria; Avanzi, Daniele; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2010-06-01

    It was suggested that oxidative stress has a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, as well as microvascular structural alterations. Therefore, we have investigated 2 substances with antioxidant properties: melatonin and Pycnogenol. We treated 7 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with melatonin and 7 with Pycnogenol for 6 weeks. We compared results obtained with those observed in 7 SHRs and 7 Wistar-Kyoto normotensive control rats kept untreated. Mesenteric small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and a concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed. Aortic contents of metalloproteinase 2, Bax, inducible NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 were evaluated, together with the aortic content of total collagen and collagen subtypes and apoptosis rate. A small reduction in systolic blood pressure was observed. A significant improvement in mesenteric small resistance artery structure and endothelial function was observed in rats treated with Pycnogenol and melatonin. Total aortic collagen content was significantly greater in untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats, whereas a full normalization was observed in treated rats. Apoptosis rate was increased in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; an even more pronounced increase was observed in treated rats. Bax and metalloproteinase 2 expressions changed accordingly. Cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible NO synthase were more expressed in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; this pattern was normalized by both treatments. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with Pycnogenol and melatonin may protect the vasculature, partly independent of blood pressure reduction, probably through their antioxidant effects.

  9. Gastrin and D1 dopamine receptor interact to induce natriuresis and diuresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Asico, Laureano D; Zheng, Shuo; Villar, Van Anthony M; He, Duofen; Zhou, Lin; Zeng, Chunyu; Jose, Pedro A

    2013-11-01

    Oral NaCl produces a greater natriuresis and diuresis than the intravenous infusion of the same amount of NaCl. Gastrin is the major gastrointestinal hormone taken up by renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. We hypothesized that renal gastrin and dopamine receptors interact to synergistically increase sodium excretion, an impaired interaction of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In Wistar-Kyoto rats, infusion of gastrin induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was abrogated in the presence of a gastrin (cholecystokinin B receptor [CCKBR]; CI-988) or a D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH23390). Similarly, the natriuretic and diuretic effects of fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, were blocked by SCH23390, as well as by CI-988. However, the natriuretic effects of gastrin and fenoldopam were not observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The gastrin/D1-like receptor interaction was also confirmed in RPT cells. In RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto but not spontaneously hypertensive rats, stimulation of either D1-like receptor or gastrin receptor inhibited Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, an effect that was blocked in the presence of SCH23390 or CI-988. In RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats, CCKBR and D1 receptor coimmunoprecipitated, which was increased after stimulation of either D1 receptor or CCKBR in RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto rats; stimulation of one receptor increased the RPT cell membrane expression of the other receptor, effects that were not observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These data suggest that there is a synergism between CCKBR and D1-like receptors to increase sodium excretion. An aberrant interaction between the renal CCK BR and D1-like receptors (eg, D1 receptor) may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  10. Analysis of Turkish Communications Sector and Determination of Critical Success Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, etc. (Marketline, 2013). Also, Turkey signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2008 and is updating its...position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...market includes Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). In

  11. NetSense: Optimizing Network Configuration for Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-19

    of this project was to characterize and optimize the interplay between network topology, communication protocols , and estimation performance. The...all cases, we designed novel network protocols and estimation methods and we showed that they advance the state-of-the art. List of student...Chen and A. Swindlehurst, "Phase-Only Analog Encoding for a Multi-Antenna Fusion Center," in Proc. IEEE ICASSP, pp. 2645-2648, Kyoto , Japan, March

  12. Chemical Genetic Screens for TDP-43 Modifiers and ALS Drug Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    screening protocol as it permitted screening within the same working day and made it possible for one person to screen several hundred molecules per...Excellence University of Nagoya, NF-kB as a new therapeutic target. 15-16 November 2012. ● Symposium on ALS, University of Kyoto . NF-kB as a new...amplified by PCR and cloned into the Gateway vector pDONR221 following the manufacturer’s protocol (Invitrogen). Multisite Gateway recombination was performed

  13. Emissions Reductions Associated with the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt as Compared to Hot-Mix Asphalt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    processes generating greenhouse gases. The motivation was to meet strict emissions regulations set forth by the Kyoto Protocol (Prowell et al. 2012...estimating emissions during asphalt production, current protocols to measure and control emissions, and case studies where WMA emissions were measured and...Research Program (NCHRP) funded project 9-47a to update the Protocol for Documenting Emissions and Energy Reductions of WMA and Conventional HMA

  14. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  15. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  16. A new LDMI decomposition approach to explain emission development in the EU: individual and set contribution.

    PubMed

    Madaleno, Mara; Moutinho, Victor

    2017-04-01

    This study breaks down carbon emissions into six effects within the current 28 European Union (EU) countries group, thereafter, they are divided into two different groups (the first 15 countries (EU-15) and the last 13 entering the EU (EU13)). Country-specific highlights are also examined. It analyses the evolution of the effects using a data span that runs from 1990 to 2014, to determine which of them had more impact on the intensity of emissions, while also breaking down the complete period into two distinct periods (before the Kyoto protocol (1990-2004) and after Kyoto (2005-2014)). In order to add more knowledge to the current literature, both the additive and multiplicative decomposition techniques were used to examine carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the selected six components: carbon intensity, fossil fuel consumption, energy intensity, oil imports intensity, oil dependence, and population effect. Results point to different adapting velocities for Kyoto targets and necessary compromises. The different velocities were translated into different positive and negative impacts in the change of behavior of CO2 emissions throughout Europe. A stress in the fluctuations in CO2 variations before and after Kyoto and between the two different groups of EU countries could be noticed. Moreover, energy intensity and per capita dependence of oil products were identified as the major responsible components for the total and negative changes of emissions in recent years. A decrease in total changes of emissions is observed due to the fossil fuel energy consumption effect and total petroleum products effects. It is possible to infer from here that increased renewable capacity is contributing in a positive way to eco-efficiency, and should therefore be accounted for in national policymakers' decisions in the strongest way possible. Results also seem to indicate that per capita dependence of oil products has decreased, despite oil imports intensity constancy and increased

  17. Enhanced Research to Create More Jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal, K.

    2004-03-01

    Mr. Doc Hastings, U.S. Congressman from the state of Washington is interviewed regarding various topics related to the nuclear energy picture in the US. Topics include the level of public support for nuclear energy, differences between the roles for state and federal governments, job creation, clean-up briefings, a Yucca Mountain status, a hydrogen-nuclear status, the role of nuclear energy in Kyoto protocol compliance, and the market for power plants.

  18. Military Stress-Busting Program for Family Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    study, we found caregivers who were interested to participate but would not be available for the nine weeks. We amended the protocol to condense the...of facility resources. (4) We “implemented” the program with fidelity to its protocol in both the active duty and veteran settings in the provision...Legacy of Caring.” 35th Annual Conference of the International Association for Human Caring. 26 May, 2014. Kyoto , Japan. Miner-Williams, D & Loomis

  19. Theoretical Foundations of Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-22

    ICASSP 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. 25- MAR-12, Kyoto , Japan. : , Yichuan Hu, A. Ribeiro...also worked in the development of optimal resource allocation protocols for random access networks in the presence of fading. These algorithms were...these distributions vary from link to link and are not known beforehand. Adaptive algorithms and protocols to learn fading’s probability distributions

  20. Characterizing the Bacterial Communities in Retail Stores in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    denotes location (P=PA or T=TX), and the last character is numerical if that store had multiple sampling events over time. The sampling protocol ...PICRUSt during validation testing (Langille et al., 2013). The KEGG orthologies (KO) were collapsed to tier 1 to 3 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and...testing included processing DNA extracted using the same protocols as developed for pyrosequencing and analyzed by qPCR 36-panel assay at an EPA

  1. Characteristic mutations found in the ML0411 gene of Mycobacterium leprae isolated in Northeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kai, M; Nakata, N; Matsuoka, M; Sekizuka, T; Kuroda, M; Makino, M

    2013-10-01

    Genome analysis of Mycobacterium leprae strain Kyoto-2 in this study revealed characteristic nucleotide substitutions in gene ML0411, compared to the reference genome M. leprae strain TN. The ML0411 gene of Kyoto-2 had six SNPs compared to that of TN. All SNPs in ML0411 were non-synonymous mutations that result in amino acid replacements. In addition, a seventh SNP was found 41 bp upstream of the start codon in the regulatory region. The seven SNP sites in the ML0411 region were investigated by sequencing in 36 M. leprae isolates from the Leprosy Research Center in Japan. The SNP pattern in 14 of the 36 isolates showed similarity to that of Kyoto-2. Determination of the standard SNP types within the 36 stocked isolates revealed that almost all of the Japanese strains belonged to SNP type III, with nucleotide substitutions at position 14676, 164275, and 2935685 of the M. leprae TN genome. The geographical distribution pattern of east Asian M. leprae isolates by discrimination of ML0411 SNPs was investigated and interestingly turned out to be similar to that of tandem repeat numbers of GACATC in the rpoT gene (3 copies or 4 copies), which has been established as a tool for M. leprae genotyping. All seven Korean M. leprae isolates examined in this study, as well as those derived from Honshu Island of Japan, showed 4 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat plus the ML0411 SNPs observed in M. leprae Kyoto-2. They are termed Northeast Asian (NA) strain of M. leprae. On the other hand, many of isolates derived from the Okinawa Islands of Japan and from the Philippines showed 3 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat in addition to the M. leprae TN ML0411 type of SNPs. These results demonstrate the existence of M. leprae strains in Northeast Asian region having characteristic SNP patterns.

  2. Plasma Theory and Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    11 En rg ,, IO - -612 10 - 13, , 0 500 1000 1500 t Fig. 1 Mode 1 energy versus time for cold plasm oscillatin run CID2. 26- SIr /At - 4/w PAt2 (19...Wagner Zabusky Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque University of Texas Freeman, Poukey, Quintenz, Humphries Horton, McMahon, Tajima Sandia Laboratories...Thomas Gell University of California, Davis Tel-Aviv University DeGroot, Woo Cuperman University of California, Irvine Kyoto University Rynn Abe

  3. Organic Metals and Semiconductors: The Chemistry of Polyacetylene, (CH)x, and Its Derivatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-24

    diferent &*a Rtsp ~t3n& 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Paper presented at the 3rd International Congress of Quantum Chemistry, Kyoto, Japan, October 1979 ., Is...prepared using a lower catalyst concentration (7). Highly porous, very low density, "foam- like" (C.) can be obtained from these gels (7). Both cis...MacDiarmid, A.G.: 1979, Proceedings NATO ASI on Low Dimen- sional Solids, Tomar, Portugal, Aug. 1979. Io - -’ - -- - l . -- --- ...... - --- -7- p-(CH

  4. Proceedings of the International Conference on The Performance of Off-Road Vehicles and Machines (8th). Volume 2. Held at Cambridge England, on August 5-11, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    towards surplus capacity. This, in itself, is simply a form of insurance cover against the risk of bad weather and machine breakdowns. Simultaneously...J.Y. "Zn, Carleon Ur versity, Consda 545 Praf.ctiu aomuoy of the torques for rotary tillage by am mnalog tool inoru Ymski id Prof. Taka Twmka0 Kyoto...reliability Is considerably better. The results depemd on the quality of the analysis end on the generalizati of the data masured. With a certain risk the

  5. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  6. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  7. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

  8. Cancer-associated variants and a common polymorphism of MUTYH exhibit reduced repair of oxidative DNA damage using a GFP-based assay in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raetz, Alan G; Xie, Yali; Kundu, Sucharita; Brinkmeyer, Megan K; Chang, Cindy; David, Sheila S

    2012-11-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair enzyme gene MUTYH lead to multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis. MUTYH removes adenine misincorporated opposite the DNA oxidation product, 8-oxoguanine (OG), thereby preventing accumulation of G:C to T:A transversion mutations. The most common cancer-associated MUTYH variant proteins when expressed in bacteria exhibit reduced OG:A mismatch affinity and adenine removal activity. However, direct evaluation of OG:A mismatch repair efficiency in mammalian cells has not been assessed due to the lack of an appropriate assay. To address this, we developed a novel fluorescence-based assay of OG:A repair and measured the repair capacity of MUTYH-associated polyposis variants expressed in Mutyh-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The repair of a single site-specific synthetic lesion in a green fluorescent protein reporter leads to green fluorescent protein expression with co-expression of a red fluorescent protein serving as the transfection control. Cell lines that stably express the MUTYH-associated polyposis variants G382D and Y165C have significantly lower OG:A repair versus wild-type MEFs and MEFs expressing human wild-type MUTYH. The MUTYH allele that encodes the Q324H variant is found at a frequency above 40% in samples from different ethnic groups and has long been considered phenotypically silent but has recently been associated with increased cancer risk in several clinical studies. In vitro analysis of Q324H MUTYH expressed in insect cells showed that it has reduced enzyme activity similar to that of the known cancer variant G382D. Moreover, we find that OG:A repair in MEFs expressing Q324H was significantly lower than wild-type controls, establishing that Q324H is functionally impaired and providing further evidence that this common variant may lead to increased cancer risk.

  9. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  10. D-2-hydroxyglutarate metabolism is linked to photorespiration in the shm1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Engqvist, M K M; Jansen, E E W; Weber, A P M; Jakobs, C; Maurino, V G

    2013-07-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant shm1-1 is defective in mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 activity and displays a lethal photorespiratory phenotype at ambient CO2 concentration but grows normally at high CO2 . After transferring high CO2 -grown shm1-1 plants to ambient CO2 , the younger leaves remain photosynthetically active while developed leaves display increased yellowing and decreased FV /FM values. Metabolite analysis of plants transferred from high CO2 to ambient air indicates a massive light-dependent (photorespiratory) accumulation of glycine, 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Amino acid markers of senescence accumulated in ambient air in wild-type and shm1-1 plants maintained in darkness and also build up in shm1-1 in the light. This, together with an enhanced transcription of the senescence marker SAG12 in shm1-1, suggests the initiation of senescence in shm1-1 under photorespiratory conditions. Mitochondrial D-2HG dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) converts D-2HG into 2OG. In vitro studies indicate that 2OG exerts competitive inhibition on D-2HGDH with a Ki of 1.96 mm. 2OG is therefore a suitable candidate as inhibitor of the in vivo D-2HGDH activity, as 2OG is produced and accumulates in mitochondria. Inhibition of the D-2HGDH by 2OG is likely a mechanism by which D-2HG accumulates in shm1-1, however it cannot be ruled out that D-2HG may also accumulate due to an active senescence programme that is initiated in these plants after transfer to photorespiratory conditions. Thus, a novel interaction of the photorespiratory pathway with cellular processes involving D-2HG has been identified.

  11. Effects of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage of resin-modified glass ilonomer cement restorations.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, W Y; Yeo, Egwin J C; Tan, Jane W S; Ong, Debbie S B

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of finishing/polishing techniques on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with eight-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finishing/polishing was done with one of the following systems: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. After finishing/polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for one week. The root apices were then sealed with acrylic and two coats of varnish was applied 1 mm beyond the restoration margins. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fuchsin), sectioned and scored. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Enamel margins: PF-OGOGOG & CSOG. FT restorations had significantly less enamel and dentin leakage than PF restorations when treated with OG. The effect of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage was both tissue and material dependent.

  12. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SS<OG & SSOG; Photac-Fil: RaV- SS, CS<OG; RaH-SSOG & CSOG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  13. A novel magnetic nanoscaled Fe3O4/CeO2 composite prepared by oxidation-precipitation process and its application for degradation of orange G in aqueous solution as Fenton-like heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gan, Guoqiang; Liu, Juan; Zhu, Zhixi; Yang, Ziran; Zhang, Conglu; Hou, Xiaohong

    2017-02-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Fe3O4/CeO2 were firstly synthesized using three different preparation methods, including coprecipitation, impregnation oxidation-precipitation and impregnation reduction-precipitation, respectively. The catalytic activities of Fe3O4/CeO2 MNPs, prepared by above three methods, were compared systematically in terms of the degradation of orange G (OG). The impregnation oxidation-precipitation process was economical and maneuverable due to the usage of air, no need of nitrogen protection and higher utilization efficiency of iron. Response surface methodology based on central composite design were used to investigate the individual and interactive effects of three process parameters on the OG degradation, i.e. the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of H2O2 and the initial concentration of OG. Under the optimal conditions of pH 2.5, H2O2 30 mM, OG 50 mg L(-1), catalyst 2.0 g L(-1) and 35 °C, the degradation percentage of OG was 98.2% within 120 min, which agreed well with the modeling prediction (R(2) = 0.9984, and Adj-R(2) = 0.9969). And the degradation reaction well followed the first-order kinetic with R(2) = 0.9969. The Fe3O4/CeO2-OX MNPs showed high catalytic activity, stability and reusability in the degradation of OG.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Xu; Fang Guanwen; Wang Min; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2009-09-10

    We present a study of the classification of z {approx} 1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes {approx}5300 EROs with i - K{sub s} {>=} 2.45 (AB, equivalently I - K{sub s} = 4 in Vega) and K{sub s} {<=} 21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer IRAC [3.6] - [8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48% of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52% of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology parameters and SEDs are efficient in segregating OGs and DGs. The [3.6] - [8.0] color, which depends on reddening, redshift, and photometric accuracy, is difficult to separate EROs around the discriminating line between starburst and elliptical. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important at fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. The clustering of the entire EROs, DGs, and OGs was estimated by calculating their correlation function, and we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of {approx}2 larger than that of DGs.

  15. Analysis of Three Real-Time Dst Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza-Fulmer, T. L.; Gannon, J. L.; Love, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Dst is commonly used to specify geomagnetic disturbance periods and characterize the resulting ring current enhancements from ground-based horizontal magnetic field intensity measurements. Real-time versions of the Dst index are produced for operational purposes, and are of interest to many users, including the US military, airline industry, and power companies. USGS Real time Dst, Kyoto Quicklook Dst, and Space Environment Corporation RDst use preliminary data and use a variety of contributing observatories and processing methods. Both USGS and RDst use a combined time-and-frequency domain method and Kyoto uses a time domain only method in creating the Dst index. We perform an analysis of these three real time Dst indices for the time period of October 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. The USGS 3, using three observatories instead of the standard four, and the Kyoto Sym-H index, are introduced in the analysis for comparison of observatory location with the three main Dst indices. We present a statistical study of the differences due to algorithm, output time resolution, and location of contributing observatories. Higher time resolution shows higher frequency fluctuations during disturbances and more defined storm features. There were small differences in mid- to low-latitude observatories during quiet to moderate storm time periods. The average impact on the index due to the different algorithms used was approximately 9 nT, and greater for individual storms.

  16. Personalization of loco-regional care for primary breast cancer patients (part 1).

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Benson, John R; Inamoto, Takashi; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Robertson, John F R; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Jatoi, Ismail; Sasano, Hironobu; Kunkler, Ian; Ho, Alice Y; Yamauchi, Chikako; Chow, Louis W C; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Han, Wonshik; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pegram, Mark D; Yamauchi, Hideko; Lee, Eun-Sook; Larionov, Alexey A; Bevilacqua, Jose L B; Yoshimura, Michio; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Krop, Ian E; Noh, Dong Young; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-20 February 2014 The loco-regional management of breast cancer is increasingly complex with application of primary systemic therapies, oncoplastic techniques and genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Personalization of loco-regional treatment is integral to optimization of breast cancer care. Clinical and pathological tumor stage, biological features and host factors influence loco-regional treatment strategies and extent of surgical procedures. Key issues including axillary staging, axillary treatment, radiation therapy, primary systemic therapy (PST), preoperative hormonal therapy and genetic predisposition were identified and discussed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC2014). In the first of a two part conference scene, consensus recommendations for axillary management are presented and focus on the following topics: indications for completion axillary lymph node dissection in primary surgical patients with ≤2 macrometastases or any sentinel nodal deposits after PST; the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the context of PST; use of axillary irradiation as a component of primary treatment plans and the role of intraoperative node assessment in the post-Z0011 era.

  17. Personalization of loco-regional care for primary breast cancer patients (part 2).

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Benson, John R; Inamoto, Takashi; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Robertson, John F R; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Jatoi, Ismail; Sasano, Hironobu; Kunkler, Ian; Ho, Alice Y; Yamauchi, Chikako; Chow, Louis W C; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Han, Wonshik; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pegram, Mark D; Yamauchi, Hideko; Lee, Eun-Sook; Larionov, Alexey A; Bevilacqua, Jose L B; Yoshimura, Michio; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Krop, Ian E; Noh, Dong Young; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-20 February 2014 The loco-regional management of breast cancer is increasingly complex with application of primary systemic therapies, oncoplastic techniques and genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Personalization of loco-regional treatment is integral to optimization of breast cancer care. Clinical and pathological tumor stage, biological features and host factors influence loco-regional treatment strategies and extent of surgical procedures. Key issues including axillary staging, axillary treatment, radiation therapy, primary systemic therapy (PST), preoperative hormonal therapy and genetic predisposition were identified and discussed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC2014). In the second of a two part conference scene, consensus recommendations for radiation treatment, primary systemic therapies and management of genetic predisposition are reported and focus on the following topics: influence of both clinical response to PST and stage at presentation on recommendations for postmastectomy radiotherapy; use of regional nodal irradiation in selected node-positive patients and those with adverse pathological factors; extent of surgical resection following downstaging of tumors with PST; use of preoperative hormonal therapy in premenopausal women with larger, node-negative luminal A-like tumors and managing increasing demands for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in patients with a unilateral sporadic breast cancer.

  18. Protecting terrestrial ecosystems and the climate through a global carbon market.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Robert; Carey, Melissa; Petsonk, Annie

    2002-08-15

    Protecting terrestrial ecosystems through international environmental laws requires the development of economic mechanisms that value the Earth's natural systems. The major international treaties to address ecosystem protection lack meaningful binding obligations and the requisite financial instruments to affect large-scale conservation. The Kyoto Protocol's emissions-trading framework creates economic incentives for nations to reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions cost effectively. Incorporating GHG impacts from land-use activities into this system would create a market for an important ecosystem service provided by forests and agricultural lands: sequestration of atmospheric carbon. This would spur conservation efforts while reducing the 20% of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions produced by land-use change, particularly tropical deforestation. The Kyoto negotiations surrounding land-use activities have been hampered by a lack of robust carbon inventory data. Moreover, the Protocol's provisions agreed to in Kyoto made it difficult to incorporate carbon-sequestering land-use activities into the emissions-trading framework without undermining the atmospheric GHG reductions contemplated in the treaty. Subsequent negotiations since 1997 failed to produce a crediting system that provides meaningful incentives for enhanced carbon sequestration. Notably, credit for reducing rates of tropical deforestation was explicitly excluded from the Protocol. Ultimately, an effective GHG emissions-trading framework will require full carbon accounting for all emissions and sequestration from terrestrial ecosystems. Improved inventory systems and capacity building for developing nations will, therefore, be necessary.

  19. Large-scale motif discovery using DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: How to find motifs from genome-scale functional sequences, such as all the promoters in a genome, is a challenging problem. Word-based methods count the occurrences of oligomers to detect excessively represented ones. This approach is known to be fast and accurate compared with other methods. However, two problems have hampered the application of such methods to large-scale data. One is the computational cost necessary for clustering similar oligomers, and the other is the bias in the frequency of fixed-length oligomers, which complicates the detection of significant words. Results: We introduce a method that uses a DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers, which solve the clustering problem and the oligomer bias, respectively. Our method can analyze 18 000 sequences of ~1 kbp long in 30 s. We also show that the accuracy of our method is superior to that of a leading method, especially for large-scale data and small fractions of motif-containing sequences. Availability: The online and stand-alone versions of the application, named Hegma, are available at our website: http://www.genome.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~ichinose/hegma/ Contact: ichinose@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp; o.gotoh@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22057160

  20. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  1. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    2011-12-01

    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated

  2. Absolute Doppler shift calibration of laser induced fluorescence signals using optogalvanic measurements in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of optogalvanic (OG) measurements on the neutral 3P1 and 3P2 levels of argon in a hollow cathode lamp for the purpose of calibrating Doppler shifts of laser-induced fluorescence signals from an arcjet plume. It is shown that, even with non-Doppler-free OG detection, accuracy to better than 10 MHz is possible but that, depending on the experiment geometry, corrections of 10-35 MHz may be necessary to offset small axial drift velocities of neutral atoms in the hollow cathode lamp.

  3. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  4. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  5. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  7. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  8. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  9. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  10. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  11. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  13. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  14. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  16. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  17. Single-protein study of photoresistance of pigment-protein complex in lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Daisuke; Hoshino, Hajime; Otomo, Kohei; Kato, Taro; Onda, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Akira; Oikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Matsushita, Michio; Nango, Mamoru; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa

    2011-07-01

    Photoresistance of a pigment-binding membrane protein, light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, was investigated by fluorescence of single LH2 complexes at a temperature of 296 K. Before irreversibly stopping fluorescence, a single LH2 complex in phospholipid bilayer of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) emitted on average 4 times more fluorescence photons than a complex in detergent micelle of octylglucopyranoside (OG). Fluorescence-excitation spectrum of single LH2 complexes taken at 5 K showed that the LH2 complex is structurally less perturbed in DMPC bilayer than in OG micelle, suggesting that structural instability reduces photoresistance of LH2.

  18. 40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cleaning Subcategory § 420.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G 0.0313 0.0104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...) of products TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0....

  19. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  20. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...