Sample records for l-arginine supplementation differentially

  1. The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Morita, Masahiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Kamimura, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.

  2. Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengdi; Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted with a swine model to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine-HCl or L-arginine free base. Beginning at 30 days of age, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (31.5 g/kg body weight/day) supplemented with 0, 1.21, 1.81 or 2.42 % L-arginine-HCl (Experiment 1) or with 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 % L-arginine (Experiment 2). The supplemental doses of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 % L-arginine provided pigs with 0, 315, 473, and 630 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, which were equivalent to 0, 286, 430, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, in humans. At 121 days of age (91 days after initiation of supplementation), blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of pigs at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, albumin and reticulocytes, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and neutrophils. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Other variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, serum concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among all the groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (up to 630 mg/kg body weight/day) is safe in pigs for at least 91 days. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.

  3. Effects of a chronic l-arginine supplementation on the arginase pathway in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Johnny; Guglielmetti, Anne-Sophie; Tournier-Nappey, Maude; Martin, Hélène; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Marie, Christine; Demougeot, Céline

    2017-04-01

    While ageing is frequently associated with l-arginine deficiency, clinical and experimental studies provided controversial data on the interest of a chronic l-arginine supplementation with beneficial, no or even deleterious effects. It was hypothesized that these discrepancies might relate to a deviation of l-arginine metabolism towards production of l-ornithine rather than nitric oxide as a result of age-induced increase in arginase activity. This study investigated the effect of ageing on arginase activity/expression in target tissues and determined whether l-arginine supplementation modulated the effect of ageing on arginase activity. Arginase activity and expression were measured in the heart, vessel, brain, lung, kidney and liver in young rats (3-months old) and aged Wistar rats (22-24-months-old) with or without l-arginine supplementation (2.25% in drinking water for 6weeks). Plasma levels of l-arginine and l-ornithine were quantified in order to calculate the plasma l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, considered as a reflection of arginase activity. Cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) and aortic vascular reactivity were also studied. Ageing dramatically reduced plasma l-arginine and l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, decreased liver and kidney arginase activities but did not change activities in other tissues. l-Arginine supplementation normalized plasma l-arginine and l-arginine/l-ornithine ratio, improved endothelial function and decreased systolic blood pressure. These effects were associated with decreased arginase activity in aorta along with no change in the other tissues except in the lung in which activity was increased. A strong mismatch was therefore observed between arginase activity and expression in analyzed tissues. The present study reveals that ageing selectively changes arginase activity in clearance tissues, but does not support a role of the arginase pathway in the potential deleterious effect of the l-arginine supplementation in

  4. Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient Than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umang; Didelija, Inka C; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Xiaoying; Marini, Juan C

    2017-04-01

    Background: Arginine is considered to be an essential amino acid in various (patho)physiologic conditions of high demand. However, dietary arginine supplementation suffers from various drawbacks, including extensive first-pass extraction. Citrulline supplementation may be a better alternative than arginine, because its only fate in vivo is conversion into arginine. Objective: The goal of the present research was to determine the relative efficiency of arginine and citrulline supplementation to improve arginine availability. Methods: Six-week-old C57BL/6J male mice fitted with gastric catheters were adapted to 1 of 7 experimental diets for 2 wk. The basal diet contained 2.5 g l-arginine/kg, whereas the supplemented diets contained an additional 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5 g/kg diet of either l-arginine or l-citrulline. On the final day, after a 3-h food deprivation, mice were continuously infused intragastrically with an elemental diet similar to the dietary treatment, along with l-[ 13 C 6 ]arginine, to determine the splanchnic first-pass metabolism (FPM) of arginine. In addition, tracers were continuously infused intravenously to determine the fluxes and interconversions between citrulline and arginine. Linear regression slopes were compared to determine the relative efficiency of each supplement. Results: Whereas all the supplemented citrulline (105% ± 7% SEM) appeared in plasma and resulted in a marginal increase of 86% in arginine flux, supplemental arginine underwent an ∼70% FPM, indicating that only 30% of the supplemental arginine entered the peripheral circulation. However, supplemental arginine did not increase arginine flux. Both supplements linearly increased ( P < 0.01) plasma arginine concentration from 109 μmol/L for the basal diet to 159 and 214 μmol/L for the highest arginine and citrulline supplementation levels, respectively. However, supplemental citrulline increased arginine concentrations to a greater extent (35%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Citrulline

  5. Supplemental Citrulline Is More Efficient Than Arginine in Increasing Systemic Arginine Availability in Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Umang; Didelija, Inka C; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Xiaoying; Marini, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arginine is considered to be an essential amino acid in various (patho)physiologic conditions of high demand. However, dietary arginine supplementation suffers from various drawbacks, including extensive first-pass extraction. Citrulline supplementation may be a better alternative than arginine, because its only fate in vivo is conversion into arginine. Objective: The goal of the present research was to determine the relative efficiency of arginine and citrulline supplementation to improve arginine availability. Methods: Six-week-old C57BL/6J male mice fitted with gastric catheters were adapted to 1 of 7 experimental diets for 2 wk. The basal diet contained 2.5 g l-arginine/kg, whereas the supplemented diets contained an additional 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5 g/kg diet of either l-arginine or l-citrulline. On the final day, after a 3-h food deprivation, mice were continuously infused intragastrically with an elemental diet similar to the dietary treatment, along with l-[13C6]arginine, to determine the splanchnic first-pass metabolism (FPM) of arginine. In addition, tracers were continuously infused intravenously to determine the fluxes and interconversions between citrulline and arginine. Linear regression slopes were compared to determine the relative efficiency of each supplement. Results: Whereas all the supplemented citrulline (105% ± 7% SEM) appeared in plasma and resulted in a marginal increase of 86% in arginine flux, supplemental arginine underwent an ∼70% FPM, indicating that only 30% of the supplemental arginine entered the peripheral circulation. However, supplemental arginine did not increase arginine flux. Both supplements linearly increased (P < 0.01) plasma arginine concentration from 109 μmol/L for the basal diet to 159 and 214 μmol/L for the highest arginine and citrulline supplementation levels, respectively. However, supplemental citrulline increased arginine concentrations to a greater extent (35%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Citrulline

  6. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Jim K; Morrissey, Brian M; Walby, William F; Yoneda, Ken Y; Juarez, Maya; Kajekar, Radhika; Severinghaus, John W; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schelegle, Edward S

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with L-arginine on breath condensate VEGF, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), plasma erythropoietin, symptoms of acute mountain sickness, and respiratory related sensations at 4,342 m through the course of 24 h in seven healthy male subjects. Serum L-arginine levels increased in treated subjects at time 0, 8, and 24 h compared with placebo, indicating the effectiveness of our treatment. L-arginine had no significant effect on overall Lake Louise scores compared with placebo. However, there was a significant increase in headache within the L-arginine treatment group at 12 h compared with time 0, a change not seen in the placebo condition between these two time points. There was a trend (p = 0.087) toward greater exhaled NO and significant increases in breath condensate VEGF with L-arginine treatment, but no L-arginine effect on serum EPO. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation increases HIF-1 stabilization in the lung, possibly through a NO-dependent pathway. In total, our observations indicate that L-arginine supplementation is not beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of AMS.

  7. L-arginine as dietary supplement for improving microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Melik, Ziva; Zaletel, Polona; Virtic, Tina; Cankar, Ksenija

    2017-01-01

    Reduced availability of nitric oxide leads to dysfunction of endothelium which plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the dietary supplement L-arginine improves the endothelial function of microvessels by increasing nitric oxide production. We undertook experiments on 51 healthy male volunteers, divided into 4 groups based on their age and physical activity since regular physical activity itself increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The skin laser Doppler flux was measured in the microvessels before and after the ingestion of L-arginine (0.9 g). The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine iontophoresis and the endothelium-independent vasodilation by sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. In addition, we measured endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in 81 healthy subjects divided into four age groups. After the ingestion of L-arginine, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the young trained subjects increased (paired t-test, p < 0.05), while in the other groups it remained the same. There were no differences in the endothelium-independent vasodilation after ingestion of L-arginine. With aging endothelium-independent vasodilation decreased while endothelium-dependent vasodilation remained mainly unchanged. Obtained results demonstrated that a single dose of L-arginine influences endothelium-dependent vasodilation predominantly in young, trained individuals.

  8. L-arginine and glycine supplementation in the repair of the irradiated colonic wall of rats.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Picanço, Etiene; Lopes-Paulo, Francisco; Marques, Ruy G; Diestel, Cristina F; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R; de Souza, Mônica Vieira Mano; Moscoso, Gabriela Mendes; Pazos, Helena Maria F

    2011-05-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment but has harmful effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine and glycine supplementation on the colon wall of rats submitted to abdominal irradiation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I-healthy, II-irradiated with no amino acid supplementation, III-irradiated and supplemented with L-arginine, and IV-irradiated and supplemented with glycine. The animals received supplementation for 14 days, with irradiation being applied on the eighth day of the experiment. All animals underwent laparotomy on the 15th day for resection of a colonic segment for stereologic analysis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p ≤0.05. Stereologic analysis showed that irradiation induced a reduction of the total volume of the colon wall of group II and III animals compared to healthy controls, but not of group IV animals supplemented with glycine. The mucosal layer of the irradiated animals of all groups was reduced compared to healthy group I animals, but supplementation with L-arginine and glycine was effective in maintaining the epithelial surface of the mucosal layer. The present results suggest that glycine supplementation had a superior effect on the irradiated colon wall compared to L-arginine supplementation since it was able to maintain the thickness of the wall and the epithelial surface of the mucosa, whereas L-arginine maintained the partial volume of the epithelium and the epithelial surface, but not the total volume of the intestinal wall.

  9. Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (∼50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    PubMed

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL - C as they dropped from 4.89 mmol / L to 2.55 mmol /L and from 3.33 mmol / L to 0.70 mmol / L respectively. Serum concentrations of HDL-C were also significantly elevated in the same group. Although, atherogenic rats supplemented with 2% arginine showed significant increase in serum concentration of HDL-C, no significant changes were observed in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-C. Our results showed that treatment of atherogenic rats with pumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  11. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal development and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kang; Guan, Shu; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruilin; Wu, Guoyao; Ruan, Zheng; Yin, Yulong

    2011-03-01

    Oral administration of L-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (SEM 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (P<0·05) the relative weight of the small intestine (+33 %), daily BW gain (+38 %) and feed efficiency (+28 %). The villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in arginine-supplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25% greater (P<0·05) than in the nonsupplemented control group. Arginine supplementation increased (P<0·05) protein levels for vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in duodenal, jejunal and ileal mucosae by 14, 39 and 35 %, respectively. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine increased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of arginine and insulin (+36 %), and decreased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of cortisol (233 %), NH3 (221 %) and urea (219 %). These results indicate that arginine supplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions.

  12. L-Arginine supplementation improves antioxidant defenses through L-arginine/nitric oxide pathways in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lingling; Wang, Bin; Gao, Guizhen; Cao, Wengen; Zhang, Yunkun

    2013-10-15

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been shown to enhance physical exercise capacity and delay onset of fatigue. This work investigated the potential beneficial mechanism(s) of l-Arg supplementation by examining its effect on the cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways in the exercised rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups: sedentary control; sedentary control with l-Arg treatment; endurance training (daily swimming training for 8 wk) control; endurance training with l-Arg treatment; an exhaustive exercise (one time swimming to fatigue) control; and an exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment. l-Arg (500 mg/kg body wt) or saline was given to rats by intragastric administration 1 h before the endurance training and the exhaustive swimming test. Expression levels and activities of the l-Arg/nitric oxide (NO) pathway components and parameters of the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity were investigated in l-Arg-treated and control rats. The result show that the l-Arg supplementation completely reversed the exercise-induced activation of NO synthase and superoxide dismutase, increased l-Arg transport capacity, and increased NO and anti-superoxide anion levels. These data demonstrate that l-Arg supplementation effectively reduces the exercise-induced imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity, and this modulation is likely mediated through the l-Arg/NO pathways. The findings of this study improved our understanding of how l-Arg supplementation prevents elevations of reactive oxygen species and favorably enhances the antioxidant defense capacity during physical exercise.

  13. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy.

  14. Inhibition of adipogenic differentiation by myostatin is alleviated by arginine supplementation in porcine-muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hulong; Yu, Bing; Yang, Xuerong; Liu, Zehui; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; Tian, Gang; He, Jun; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Chen, Daiwen

    2011-10-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells in postnatal muscle have been demonstrated to differentiate into adipocytes. This increases adipocyte number and lipid accumulation, and is thought to be the origin of intramuscular fat. In this study, the effects of myostatin and arginine on adipogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells derived from porcine muscle (pMDSCs) were investigated in vitro. Intracellular triglyceride levels were reduced by exogenous myostatin and increased by arginine supplementation or myostatin antibody (P<0.01). The inhibition of lipid accumulation by myostatin in pMDSCs was alleviated by arginine supplementation (P<0.01). Expression patterns of adipogenic transcription factors showed that exogenous myostatin suppressed PPARγ2 and aP2 expression (P<0.01), while supplemental arginine or myostatin antibody promoted ADD1 expression (P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the addition of either myostatin protein or antibody alone, ADD1 and PPARδ expression were promoted by the combination of arginine and myostatin (P<0.01), and arginine combined with myostatin antibody promoted the expression of ADD1, PPARδ, C/EBPα, PPARγ2 and LPL in pMDSCs (P<0.05). These results suggest that myostatin inhibits adipogenesis in pMDSCs, and that this can be alleviated by arginine supplementation, at least in part, through promoting ADD1 and PPARδ expression.

  15. Plasma l-citrulline concentrations in l-arginine-supplemented healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Flynn, K M; Kellihan, H B; Trepanier, L A

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether oral l-arginine increases plasma [l-citrulline] in dogs. Eleven healthy staff-owned dogs were used in this study. Dogs (n = 3) were given l-arginine (50mg/kg PO q8h) for 7 days, and plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography at baseline (BL), steady state trough, and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after final dosing on day 7. Eleven dogs were then treated with 100mg/kg l-arginine PO q8h for 7 days, and [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were measured at BL, steady state trough, and at peak 4 hrs after dosing (T4 hrs). - Plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] peaked at T4 hrs on the 50mg/kg dosage. Target outcome, modeled after human study results, of a doubling of [l-arginine] and a 25-30% increase in [l-citrulline] from BL were not reached. After the 100mg/kg dosage, plasma [l-arginine] increased from a BL median of 160.1 μM (range, 100.2-231.4 μM) to a peak of 417.4 μM (206.5-807.3 μM) at T4 hrs, and plasma [l-citrulline] increased from a BL median of 87.8 μM (59.1-117.1 μM) to peak of 102.2 μM (47.4-192.6 μM) at T4 hrs. Ten of eleven dogs showed a doubling of plasma [l-arginine] and 4/11 dogs achieved 25-30% or greater increases in plasma [l-citrulline]. No adverse effects on heart rate or blood pressure were noted. - Oral l-arginine dosage of 100mg/kg q8h doubles plasma [l-arginine] in healthy dogs, but conversion to l-citrulline is quite variable. Further evaluation of this dosage regimen in dogs with pulmonary hypertension is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Liao, Peng; He, Liuqin; Feng, Zemeng; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2) and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1) were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets. PMID:25884909

  17. Exercise training reverses the negative effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2017-12-15

    L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Citrulline Supplementation Improves Organ Perfusion and Arginine Availability under Conditions with Enhanced Arginase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wijnands, Karolina A.P.; Meesters, Dennis M.; van Barneveld, Kevin W.Y.; Visschers, Ruben G.J.; Briedé, Jacob J.; Vandendriessche, Benjamin; van Eijk, Hans M.H.; Bessems, Babs A.F.M.; van den Hoven, Nadine; von Wintersdorff, Christian J.H.; Brouckaert, Peter; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Cauwels, Anje; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced arginase-induced arginine consumption is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease-induced end organ failure. Enhancement of arginine availability with l-arginine supplementation exhibited less consistent results; however, l-citrulline, the precursor of l-arginine, may be a promising alternative. In this study, we determined the effects of l-citrulline compared to l-arginine supplementation on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, arginine availability and microcirculation in a murine model with acutely-enhanced arginase activity. The effects were measured in six groups of mice (n = 8 each) injected intraperitoneally with sterile saline or arginase (1000 IE/mouse) with or without being separately injected with l-citrulline or l-arginine 1 h prior to assessment of the microcirculation with side stream dark-field (SDF)-imaging or in vivo NO-production with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Arginase injection caused a decrease in plasma and tissue arginine concentrations. l-arginine and l-citrulline supplementation both enhanced plasma and tissue arginine concentrations in arginase-injected mice. However, only the citrulline supplementation increased NO production and improved microcirculatory flow in arginase-injected mice. In conclusion, the present study provides for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that l-citrulline, and not l-arginine supplementation, improves the end organ microcirculation during conditions with acute arginase-induced arginine deficiency by increasing the NO concentration in tissues. PMID:26132994

  19. Aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes rat heart and hindleg muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Shahabpour, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Arteriogenesis is a main defense mechanism to prevent heart and local tissues dysfunction in occlusive artery disease. TGF-β and angiostatin have a pivotal role in arteriogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic training and l-arginine supplementation promotes cardiac and skeletal muscles arteriogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI) parallel to upregulation of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin. For this purpose, 4 weeks after LAD occlusion, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups: (1) sham surgery without MI (sham, n = 10), (2) control-MI (Con-MI, n = 10), (3) l-arginine-MI (La-MI, n = 10), (4) exercise training-MI (Ex-MI, n = 10), and (5) exercise and l-arginine-MI (Ex + La-MI). Exercise training groups running on a treadmill for 10 weeks with moderate intensity. Rats in the l-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % l-arginine. Arteriolar density with different diameters (11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and 76-150 μm), TGF-β, and angiostatin gene expression were measured in cardiac (area at risk) and skeletal (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles. Smaller arterioles decreased in cardiac after MI. Aerobic training and l-arginine increased the number of cardiac arterioles with 11-25 and 26-50 μm diameters parallel to TGF-β overexpression. In gastrocnemius muscle, the number of arterioles/mm(2) was only increased in the 11 to 25 μm in response to training with and without l-arginine parallel to angiostatin downregulation. Soleus arteriolar density with different size was not different between experimental groups. Results showed that 10 weeks aerobic exercise training and l-arginine supplementation promotes arteriogenesis of heart and gastrocnemius muscles parallel to overexpression of TGF-β and downregulation of angiostatin in MI rats.

  20. The effect of l-arginine supplementation on body composition and performance in male athletes: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pahlavani, N; Entezari, M H; Nasiri, M; Miri, A; Rezaie, M; Bagheri-Bidakhavidi, M; Sadeghi, O

    2017-04-01

    Athletes used a lot of dietary supplements to achieve the more muscle mass and improve their athletic performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of l-arginine supplementation on sport performance and body composition in male soccer players. This double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 56 male soccer players, with age range of 16-35, who referred to sport clubs in Isfahan, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to either l-arginine or placebo groups. Athletes received daily either 2 g per day l-arginine supplement or the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin) for 45 days. Sport performance and also body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM) and lean body mass (LBM) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Also, 3-day dietary records were collected at three different time points (before, in the middle of, and at the end of the study). The mean age of subjects was 20.85±4.29 years. Sport performance (VO 2 max) significantly increased in l-arginine supplementation group (4.12±6.07) compared with placebo group (1.23±3.36) (P=0.03). This increase remained significant even after adjustment of baseline values, physical activity and usual dietary intake of subjects throughout the study. No significant effect of l-arginine supplementation was found on weight, BMI, BFM and LBM. l-arginine supplementation (2 g per day) could increase the sport performance in male athletes, but had no effect on anthropometric measurements, including BMI, BFM and LBM. So, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  1. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hmaid, Amal Abdussalam Ali A; Markelic, Milica; Otasevic, Vesna; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato; Korac, Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) or cold (4 ± 1 °C) and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester)·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis.

  2. Ameliorated effect of L-arginine supplementation on gingival morphology in cyclosporin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, E; Tz-Chong, C; Liu, D; Chiu, S C

    2000-11-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of cyclosporin (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NO substrate (L-arginine) and blockade (N-nitro-L-arginine methylester-hydrochloride, L-NAME) on the gingival morphology in CsA-fed rats. Sixty CsA-fed (10 mg/kg/day) male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 experimental groups received L-arginine (1% weight/weight) in rat chowder or L-NAME (50 mg/l) in drinking water, respectively, for 4 weeks. Rats in the control group were fed a normal diet and water. At week 0, 2, and 4, dental stone models were made from the mandibular anterior region and the gingival dimensions (width, depth, and height) were measured. The tail cuff blood pressure and the plasma nitrate level were also measured at week 4 to monitor the effects of L-arginine and L-NAME treatment. No significant difference in the gingival dimensions was noticed at week 0; however, significant differences were observed at weeks 2 and 4, except the buccolingual depth at week 2. While the magnitude of gingival dimensions was large, moderate, and small in control, L-NAME, and L-arginine groups, respectively, we found significantly reduced gingival dimensions in both L-arginine supplement and L-NAME groups. Nevertheless, the reduced gingival overgrowth in the L-NAME treatment group was far less than that in the exogenous NO treatment group. Plasma NO2-/NO3- concentrations were also significantly different; i.e., from the highest to the lowest levels were the L-arginine, CsA control, and L-NAME group, respectively. A significantly increased mean and diastolic blood pressure was found in the L-NAME group compared to the L-arginine group. Gingival morphology in CsA-fed rats was evaluated after NO substrate (L-arginine) and blockade (L-NAME) treatment for 4 weeks. Significantly decreased dimensions were noted in the L-arginine group compared to the CsA group at weeks 2 and 4

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  4. Arginine supplementation induces myoblast fusion via augmentation of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Long, Jodi H D; Lira, Vitor A; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Betters, Jenna L; Sellman, Jeff E; Criswell, David S

    2006-01-01

    The semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), is the substrate for endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that is involved in myoblast proliferation and fusion. Since L-Arg supply may limit nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in endothelial cells, we examined L-Arg supplementation in differentiating mouse myoblasts and tested the hypothesis that L-Arg exerts direct effects on myoblast fusion via augmentation of endogenous nitric oxide production. C(2)C(12) myoblasts in differentiation media received one of the following treatments for 120 h: 1 mM L-Arg, 0.1 mM N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), L-Arg + L-NAME, 10 mM L-Lysine, or no supplement (Control). Cultures were fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microphotometric image analysis of myotube density, nuclear density, and fusion index (% of total nuclei in myotubes). Endogenous production of nitric oxide during the treatment period peaked between 24 and 48 h. L-Arg amplified nitric oxide production between 0 and 24 h and increased myotube density, total nuclei number, and nuclear fusion index. These L-Arg effects were prevented by the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. Further, L-Lysine, a competitive inhibitor of L-Arg uptake, repressed nitric oxide production and reduced myotube density and fusion index. In summary, L-Arg augments myotube formation and increases nitric oxide production in a process limited by cellular L-Arg uptake.

  5. Dietary arginine supplementation affects microvascular development in the small intestine of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhenfeng; Ou, Deyuan; Piao, Xiangshu; Kim, Sung Woo; Liu, Yanhong; Wang, Junjun

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine levels on microvascular development of the small intestine in early-weaned pigs. Twenty-four crossbred pigs (5.0 +/- 0.3 kg body weight) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets supplemented with 0, 0.7, and 1.2% L-arginine (8 pigs per group). Pigs consumed the diets ad libitum for 10 d. We collected blood samples on d 3, 6, and 10. On d 10, 6 pigs from each group were randomly selected and killed for tissue sample collection. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine increased (P < 0.05) jejunal concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide), intestinal villus height, as well as plasma proline and arginine concentrations on d 6 and 10. Dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine also increased (P < 0.05) immunoreactive expression of CD34 in duodenal submucosa, ileal mucosa and submucosa, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in duodenal submucosa, jejunal mucosa and submucosa, and ileal mucosa compared with the control and 1.2% L-arginine supplementation. Dietary supplementation with 1.2% L-arginine increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of jejunal endothelin-1 compared with the control pigs. Immunoexpression of VEGF in duodenal mucosa and plasma lysine concentrations on d 6 and 10 were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs supplemented with 1.2% L-arginine than in unsupplemented pigs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the effects of L-arginine on microvascular development are beneficial at lower levels but have adverse effects at higher intakes. Dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine may be a useful method to improve microvascular development in the small intestine of early-weaned pigs.

  6. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  7. Role of L-arginine in the pathogenesis and treatment of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Cherla, Gautam; Jaimes, Edgar A

    2004-10-01

    L-arginine is a semi essential amino acid and also a substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, and agmatine. These L-arginine metabolites may participate in the pathogenesis of renal disease and constitute the rationale for manipulating L-arginine metabolism as a strategy to ameliorate kidney disease. Modification of dietary L-arginine intake in experimental models of kidney diseases has been shown to have both beneficial as well as deleterious effects depending on the specific model studied. L-arginine supplementation in animal models of glomerulonephritis has been shown to be detrimental, probably by increasing the production of NO from increased local expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). L-arginine supplementation does not modify the course of renal disease in humans with chronic glomerular diseases. However, beneficial effects of L-arginine supplementation have been reported in several models of chronic kidney disease including renal ablation, ureteral obstruction, nephropathy secondary to diabetes, and salt-sensitive hypertension. L-arginine is reduced in preeclampsia and recent experimental studies indicate that L-arginine supplementation may be beneficial in attenuating the symptoms of preeclampsia. Administration of exogenous L-arginine has been shown to be protective in ischemic acute renal failure. In summary, the role of L-arginine in the pathogenesis and treatment of renal disease is not completely understood and remains to be established.

  8. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Kyle L; Greer, Felicia; Morales, Jacobo

    2011-03-01

    The ergogenic effect of L-arginine on an endurance-trained population is not well studied. The few studies that have investigated L-arginine on this population have not been conducted in a laboratory setting or measured aerobic variables. The purpose of the current study is to determine if 28 days of L-arginine supplementation in trained male cyclists affects VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT). Eighteen (18) endurance-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD, age: 36.3 ± 7.9 years; height: 182.4 ± 4.6 cm; and body mass: 79.5 ± 4.7 kg) performed a graded exercise test (GXT; 50 W + 25 W·min) before and after 28 days of supplementation with L-arginine (ARG; 2 × 6 g·d) or placebo (PLA; cornstarch). The GXT was conducted on the subject's own bicycle using the RacerMate CompuTrainer (Seattle, WA, USA). VO2 was continuously recorded using the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 metabolic cart (Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and VT was established by plotting the ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2) and the ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2) and identifying the point at which VE/VO2 increases with no substantial changes in VE/VCO2. L-arginine supplementation had no effect from initial VO2max (PL, 58.7 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.5 ± 7.3 ml·kg·min) to postsupplement VO2max (PL, 58.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.2 ± 7.2 ml·kg·min). Also, no effect was seen from initial VT (PL, 75.7 ± 4.6% VO2max; ARG, 76.0 ± 5.3% VO2max) to postsupplement VT (PL, 74.3 ± 8.1% VO2max; ARG, 74.2 ± 6.4% VO2max). These results indicate that L-arginine does not impact VO2max or VT in trained male cyclists.

  9. Effect of L-arginine on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and immune modulation of host cells.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Vikky; Chauhan, Rubika; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Das, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. The life-cycle of Plasmodium species involves several stages both in mosquito and the vertebrate host. In the erythrocytic stage, Plasmodium resides inside the red blood cells (RBCs), where it meets most of its nutritional requirement by degrad- ing host's haemoglobin. L-arginine is required for growth and division of cells. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of supplementation of different concentrations of L-arginine and L-citrulline on the growth of parasite, and effect of the culture supernatant on the host's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To examine the effect of supplementation of L-arginine and L-citrulline, Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) was cultured in RPMI 1640, L-arginine deficient RPMI 1640, and in different concentrations of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplemented in arginine deficient RPMI 1640 medium. To have a holistic view of in vivo cell activation, the PBMCs isolated from healthy human host were cultured in the supernatant collected from P. falciparum culture. Growth of the parasite was greatly enhanced in L-arginine supplemented media and was found to be concentration dependent. However, parasite growth was compromised in L-citrulline supplemented and L-arginine deficient media. The supernatant collected from L-arginine supplemented parasite media (sArg) showed increased FOXP3 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression as compared to the supernatant collected from L-citrulline supple- mented parasite media (sCit). The in vitro culture results showed, decreased parasite growth, and decreased expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) (a coinhibitory molecule) and IL-10 in the L-citrulline supplemented media as compared to L-arginine supplemented media. Hence, it was concluded that L-citrulline supplementation would be a better alternative than L-arginine to inhibit the parasite growth.

  10. Effect of L-arginine dietary supplementation on salivary urea concentration and pH in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Vuletic, L; Spalj, S; Rogic, D; Ruzic, L; Alajbeg, I

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the consumption of 3 g of a commercially available L-arginine dietary supplement causes a postabsorptive rise in urea concentration or pH of unstimulated saliva in a group of physically active individuals. Salivary urea and pH were determined for 117 participants in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Samples were collected by 'spitting' method in fasting conditions. One hour prior to their second visit, participants consumed three tablets of L-arginine or placebo. Urea concentration was significantly lower at second measurement for both the study and control group. The magnitude of the change was not significant between the groups. pH was higher for both groups at second measurement, but only significant for the study group. The magnitude of the change was significant between the groups. Participants who intermittently ingested protein dietary supplements and those with a Body Mass Index (BMI) higher than 25 had significantly higher basal urea concentration. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of different doses of L-arginine supplements on the biochemical composition of saliva and the influence of their long-term consumption on the risk of developing dental diseases. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine.

  12. L-Arginine supplementation 0.5% of diet during the last 90 days of gestation and 14 days postpartum reduced uterine fluid accumulation in the broodmare.

    PubMed

    Mesa, A M; Warren, L K; Sheehan, J M; Kelley, D E; Mortensen, C J

    2015-08-01

    L-Arginine is an essential amino acid in many species that has been shown to influence reproduction. However, in horses a dose of 1% L-arginine of total dietary intake impaired absorption of other amino acids, whereas a dose of 0.5% did not. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate postpartum parameters on mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine through the last 90d of gestation and 14d postpartum. Sixteen light-horse mares were randomly divided in two groups: 8 mares supplemented with 0.5% L-arginine and 8 mares fed an isonitrogenous equivalent. Gestation length, days to uterine clearance and days to first ovulation were compared. Uterine body depth, diameter of uterine horns, and length of largest pocket of uterine fluid were recorded daily via transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foal weight, height, and cannon bone circumference were recorded for 9 weeks. Arginine treatment had no effect on gestation length (P=0.58). Supplemented mares cleared fluid quicker postpartum (6.8±0.53d; P=0.026) compared to control (9.0±0.38d). Mares supplemented with L-arginine had smaller diameter of fluid present in the postpartum uterus (P≤0.05). Days to first postpartum ovulation were not affected by treatment nor any influence on uterine involution. Finally, treatment had no effect on any foal's measured parameters. L-Arginine supplementation fed at 0.5% of daily intake during the last 90d of gestation and early postpartum in mares decreased uterine fluid accumulation, yet did not appear to have any effect on any other parameters measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the performance of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Song, Wentao; Sun, Yuecheng; Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Bi, Zhongpeng

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg -1 l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg -1 l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP. The results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Supplemental citrulline is more efficient than arginine to increase systemic arginine availability in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arginine is considered an essential amino acid in various (patho)physiological conditions of high demand. However, dietary arginine supplementation (ARG) suffers various drawbacks, including extensive first-pass extraction. Citrulline supplementation (CIT) may be a better alternative than arginine, ...

  15. L-Arginine promotes protein synthesis and cell growth in brown adipocyte precursor cells via the mTOR signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xi; Han, Meng; Li, Defa; Hu, Shengdi; Gilbreath, Kyler R; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-05-01

    L-Arginine has been reported to enhance brown adipose tissue developments in fetal lambs of obese ewes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that L-arginine stimulates growth and development of brown adipocyte precursor cells (BAPCs) through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling. BAPCs isolated from fetal lambs at day 90 of gestation were incubated   for 6 h in arginine-free DMEM, and then cultured in DMEM with concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 500 or 1000 μmol L-arginine/L for 24-96 h. Cell proliferation, protein turnover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and pre-adipocyte differentiation markers were determined. L-arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) BAPC growth and protein synthesis, while inhibiting proteolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with 50 and 100 μmol/L (the concentrations of arginine in the maternal plasma of obese ewes), 200 μmol L-arginine/L (the concentrations of arginine in the maternal plasma of obese ewes receiving arginine supplementation) increased (P < 0.05) the abundances of phosphorylated mTOR, P70 S6K and 4EBP1, as well as the abundances of PGC1α, UCP1, BMP7 and PRDM16. These novel findings indicate that increasing extra-cellular arginine concentration from 50 to 200 µmol/L activates mTOR cell signaling in BAPCs and enhances their growth and development in a dose-dependent manner. Our results provide a mechanism for arginine supplementation to enhance the development of brown adipose tissue in fetal lambs.

  16. L-arginine: a new opportunity in the management of clinical derangements in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico; Mallamace, Agostino; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; De Luca, Grazia; Savica, Vincenzo

    2006-07-01

    L-Arginine is an essential amino acid for infants and growing children, as well as for pregnant women. This amino acid is a substrate for at least 5 enzymes identified in mammals, including arginase, arginine-glycine transaminase, kyotorphine synthase, nitric oxide synthase, and arginine decarboxylase. L-arginine is essential for the synthesis of creatine, urea, polyamines, nitric oxide, and agmatine. Arginine may be considered an essential amino acid in sepsis, and its supplementation could be beneficial in this clinical setting by improving microcirculation and protein anabolism. Rats receiving arginine-supplemented parenteral nutrition showed an increased ability to synthesize acute phase proteins when challenged with sepsis. Finally, L-arginine exerts antihypertensive and antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscles. It has been shown to reduce systemic blood pressure in some forms of experimental hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide bioactivity are associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. A beneficial effect of acute and chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial derived nitric oxide production and endothelial function has been shown. In end-stage renal disease patients, the rate of de novo arginine synthesis seemed to be preserved. Our preliminary data on a group of dialysis patients showed that predialysis arginine levels were stable in a normal range during the dialysis session and that hypertensive patients had lower arginine-citrulline ratio than normotensive patients.

  17. The acute effects of a low and high dose of oral L-arginine supplementation in young active males at rest.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Bell, Gordon J

    2011-06-01

    L-arginine (2-amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid) is a conditionally essential amino acid. Intravenous (IV) administration of l-arginine invokes a large metabolic (nitrate/nitrite (NO(x))) and hormonal (growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin) response; however, research examining oral l-arginine supplementation is conflicting, potentially owing to dose. The purpose of this study was examine a low and high dose of oral l-arginine on blood l-arginine, NO(x), GH, IGF-1, and insulin response. Fourteen physically active males (age: 25 ± 5 years; weight: 78.0 ± 8.5 kg; height: 179.4 ± 4.7 cm) volunteered to be in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures study. Following an overnight fast, an IV catheter was placed in a forearm vein and a resting blood sample was drawn at ∼0800 hours. Each subject was then provided 1 of 3 treatment conditions (placebo, low (0.075 g·kg(-1) of body mass), or high (0.15 g·kg(-1) of body mass of l-arginine)). Blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after consumption. l-arginine plasma concentrations significantly increased (p < 0.001) to a similar level at any time point in both the low- and high-dose conditions; there was no change over time in the placebo condition. There was no significant difference between conditions for NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin. Based on these findings, a low dose of l-arginine was just as effective at increasing plasma l-arginine concentrations as a high dose; however, neither dose was able to promote a significant increase in NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin at rest.

  18. L-arginine supplementation prevents increases in intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in male Swiss mice subjected to physical exercise under environmental heat stress.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho dos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with l-arginine has been shown to improve the intestinal barrier in many experimental models. This study investigated the effects of arginine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation (BT) induced by prolonged physical exercise under heat stress. Under anesthesia, male Swiss mice (5-wk-old) were implanted with an abdominal sensor to record their core body temperature (T(core)). After recovering from surgery, the mice were divided into 3 groups: a non-supplemented group that was fed the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G; control), a non-supplemented group that was fed the AIN-93G diet and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-NS), and a group supplemented with l-arginine at 2% and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-Arg). After 7 d of treatment, the H-NS and H-Arg mice were forced to run on a treadmill (60 min, 8 m/min) in a warm environment (34°C). The control mice remained at 24°C. Thirty min before the exercise or control trials, the mice received a diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or (99m)Tc-Escherichia coli by gavage to assess intestinal permeability and BT, respectively. The H-NS mice terminated the exercise with T(core) values of ∼40°C, and, 4 h later, presented a 12-fold increase in the blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA and higher bacterial contents in the blood and liver than the control mice. Although supplementation with arginine did not change the exercise-induced increase in T(core), it prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT caused by exertional hyperthermia. Our results indicate that dietary l-arginine supplementation preserves the integrity of the intestinal epithelium during exercise under heat stress, acting through mechanisms that are independent of T(core) regulation.

  19. Novel therapy for pyridoxine dependent epilepsy due to ALDH7A1 genetic defect: L-arginine supplementation alternative to lysine-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Cordeiro, Dawn; Cruz, Vivian; Hyland, Keith; Struys, Eduard A; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Mamak, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene (PDE-ALDH7A1) is caused by α-aminoadipic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency in the lysine pathway resulting in the accumulation of α-aminoadipic acid semialdehyde (α-AASA). Classical presentation is neonatal intractable seizures with a dramatic response to pyridoxine. Pyridoxine therapy does not prevent developmental delays in the majority of the patients. We hypothesized that L-arginine supplementation will decrease accumulation of α-AASA by competitive inhibition of lysine transport into the central nervous system and improve neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive functions in PDE-ALDH7A1. A 12-year-old male with PDE-ALDH7A1 was treated with l-arginine supplementation as an innovative therapy. Treatment outcome was monitored by cerebral-spinal-fluid (CSF) α-AASA measurements at baseline, 6th and 12th months of therapy. Neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline and 12th months of therapy. L-arginine therapy was well tolerated without side effects. CSF α-AASA was decreased 57% at 12th months of therapy. Neuropsychological assessments revealed improvements in general abilities index from 108 to 116 and improvements in verbal and motor functioning at 12th months of therapy. The short-term treatment outcome of this novel L-arginine supplementation therapy for PDE-ALDH7A1 was successful for biochemical and neurocognitive improvements. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Espino, Salvador; Avila-Vergara, Marco Antonio; Ibarra, Isabel; Ahued, Roberto; Godines, Myrna; Parry, Samuel; Macones, George; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Interventions Supplementation with a medical food—bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo—during pregnancy. Main outcome measure Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (χ2=19.41; P<0.001) in women randomised to L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (χ2=3.76; P=0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P=0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be

  1. Long term exposure to L-arginine accelerates endothelial cell senescence through arginase-II and S6K1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuyani; Fru, Michael Forbiteh; Yu, Yi; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    L-arginine supplementation is proposed to improve health status or as adjunct therapy for diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, controversial results and even detrimental effects of L-arginine supplementation are reported. We investigate potential mechanisms of L-arginine-induced detrimental effects on vascular endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells were exposed to a physiological (0.1 mmol/L) or pharmacological (0.5 mmol/L) concentration of L-arginine for 30 minutes (acute) or 7 days (chronic). The effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelial senescence phenotype, i.e., levels of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, eNOS-uncoupling, arginase-II expression/activity, and mTORC1-S6K1 activity were analyzed. While acute L-arginine treatment enhances endothelial NO production accompanied with superoxide production and activation of S6K1 but no up-regulation of arginase-II, chronic L-arginine supplementation causes endothelial senescence, up-regulation of the adhesion molecule expression, and eNOS-uncoupling (decreased NO and enhanced superoxide production), which are associated with S6K1 activation and up-regulation of arginase-II. Silencing either S6K1 or arginase-II inhibits up-regulation/activation of each other, prevents endothelial dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, and senescence under the chronic L-arginine supplementation condition. These results demonstrate that S6K1 and arginase-II form a positive circuit mediating the detrimental effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial cells. PMID:24860943

  2. L-arginine availability and arginase activity: Characterization of amino acid permease 3 in Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Juliana Ide; Muxel, Sandra Marcia; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Acuña, Stephanie Maia; Fernandes, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro; Vanderlinde, Rubia Heloisa; Sales, Maria Carmen Oliveira de Pinho; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2017-10-01

    its decrease in L-arginine supplementation. The differential AAP3 expression was determined in the differentiation of promastigotes to amastigotes conditions, as well as the detection of AAP3 in the plasma membrane reflecting in the L-arginine uptake. Our data suggest that depending on the amino acid pool and arginase activity, Leishmania senses and could use an alternative route for the amino acid transport in response to stress signaling.

  3. Safety and performance benefits of arginine supplements for military personnel: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, James R; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gorecki, Dennis K J; Barrett, Marilyn L; Cantilena, Louis; Chung, Mei; Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna; Hardy, Mary L; Jordan, Scott A; Maughan, Ronald J; Marles, Robin J; Osterberg, Robert E; Rodda, Bruce E; Wolfe, Robert R; Zuniga, Jorge M; Valerio, Luis G; Jones, Donnamaria; Deuster, Patricia; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sarma, Nandakumara D

    2016-11-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used by military personnel and civilians for promotion of health. The objective of this evidence-based review was to examine whether supplementation with l-arginine, in combination with caffeine and/or creatine, is safe and whether it enhances athletic performance or improves recovery from exhaustion for military personnel. Information from clinical trials and adverse event reports were collected from 17 databases and 5 adverse event report portals. Studies and reports were included if they evaluated the safety and the putative outcomes of enhanced performance or improved recovery from exhaustion associated with the intake of arginine alone or in combination with caffeine and/or creatine in healthy adults aged 19 to 50 years. Information related to population, intervention, comparator, and outcomes was abstracted. Of the 2687 articles screened, 62 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Strength of evidence was assessed in terms of risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Most studies had few participants and suggested risk of bias that could negatively affect the results. l-Arginine supplementation provided little enhancement of athletic performance or improvements in recovery. Short-term supplementation with arginine may result in adverse gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects. No information about the effects of arginine on the performance of military personnel was available. The available information does not support the use of l-arginine, either alone or in combination with caffeine, creatine, or both, to enhance athletic performance or improve recovery from exhaustion. Given the information gaps, an evidence-based review to assess the safety or effectiveness of multi-ingredient dietary supplements was not feasible, and therefore the development of a computational model-based approach to predict the safety of multi-ingredient dietary supplements is recommended. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by

  4. L-arginine availability and arginase activity: Characterization of amino acid permease 3 in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Juliana Ide; Muxel, Sandra Marcia; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Acuña, Stephanie Maia; Fernandes, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro; Vanderlinde, Rubia Heloisa; Sales, Maria Carmen Oliveira de Pinho

    2017-01-01

    also showed the increased AAP3 levels under amino acid starvation or its decrease in L-arginine supplementation. The differential AAP3 expression was determined in the differentiation of promastigotes to amastigotes conditions, as well as the detection of AAP3 in the plasma membrane reflecting in the L-arginine uptake. Our data suggest that depending on the amino acid pool and arginase activity, Leishmania senses and could use an alternative route for the amino acid transport in response to stress signaling. PMID:29073150

  5. Improvement of seminal quality and sexual function of men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome following supplementation with L-arginine and Pycnogenol®.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Shin, Takeshi; Sadaoka, Yuko; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi; Strong, Jeffry Michael; Rohdewald, Peter

    2015-09-30

    We evaluated the effectiveness of antioxidant co-supplementation therapy using Larginine and Pycnogenol(®) in Japanese men with oligoasthenozoospermia and mild erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of forty-seven adult males with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome (OAT) were eligible for enrollment. The effectiveness of supplementation with a combination of L-arginine 690 mg and French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol(®)) 60mg for OAT and ED was investigated. The sperm concentration was enhanced significantly after treatment 2 and 4 months (11.79 ± 9.86 to 21.22 ± 28.17 and 20.15 ± 23.99 × 106/ml). Significant improvements in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were observed in the total score of IIEF (57.69 ± 11.04 to 59.43 ± 12.57) and domain of Orgasmic Function (9.01 ± 1.92 to 9.34 ± 1.66) after 4 months of treatment. L-arginine acts to increase the production of nitric oxide and Pycnogenol(®) activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and it is a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. This study suggests that the combination of Pycnogenol(®) and L-arginine (Edicare(®)) is helpful for infertile men to ameliorate simultaneously quality of sperms as well as erectile functions.

  6. Parenteral or Enteral Arginine Supplementation Safety and Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Martin D; Carrott, Phillip W; Patel, Jayshil; Kiraly, Laszlo; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    Arginine supplementation has the potential to improve the health of patients. Its use in hospitalized patients has been a controversial topic in the nutrition literature, especially concerning supplementation of septic patients. In this article, we review the relevant literature both for and against the use of arginine in critically ill, surgical, and hospitalized patients. The effect of critical illness on arginine metabolism is reviewed, as is its use in septic and critically ill patients. Although mounting evidence supports immunonutrition, there are only a few studies that suggest that this is safe in patients with severe sepsis. The use of arginine has been shown to benefit a variety of critically ill patients. It should be considered for inclusion in combinations of immunonutrients or commercial formulations for groups in whom its benefit has been reported consistently, such as those who have suffered trauma and those in acute surgical settings. The aims of this review are to discuss the role of arginine in health, the controversy surrounding arginine supplementation of septic patients, and the use of arginine in critically ill patients. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. L-Arginine

    MedlinePlus

    ... SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short-term during pregnancy. Not enough is known about using L-arginine long-term in pregnancy or during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Children: L-arginine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by ...

  8. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with l-arginine for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Harish J; Soraisham, Amuchou S; Sauve, Reg S

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months adjusted age in preterm infants (birth weight < or = 1250 gm) who received supplementation with L-arginine during the first 28 days of life with controls. Surviving infants enrolled in a randomised control study of L-arginine supplementation were prospectively followed longitudinally to determine their neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months of adjusted age. Neurologic examination and neurodevelopmental assessments were performed by examiners who were unaware of the original treatment assignments. A total of 132 children (95% of survivors) were evaluated at 36 months adjusted age. In the group given L-arginine, 5 of 61 (8.1%) had major neurodevelopmental disabilities, defined as the presence of one or more of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay (cognitive index <70), bilateral blindness or bilateral hearing loss requiring hearing aids as compared with 9 of 71 (12.6%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.64; 95 % confidence interval, 0.22-1.82; P= 0.40). There is no increase in neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants who received L-arginine supplementation.

  9. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Webb, Heather E; Brown, Stanley P

    2012-04-17

    Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM) on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Our data showed statistical significant differences (p<0.05) between resistance trained and untrained males for both 1RM and total load volume (TLV; multiply 60% of 1RM times the number of repetitions to failure) for the upper body. However, 1RM and TLV were not statistically different (p>0.05) between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  10. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine in the antioxidant system of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, E P; Lambertucci, R H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine in the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. We used C2C12 cells which were supplemented or not with N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine at different time points. Antioxidant enzymes' activities and protein expression were evaluated. Additionally, superoxide production by cytochrome c reduction method was carried out. It was observed that the supplementation with either N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine was capable to acutely reduce superoxide production (after 30 and 60 minutes). Surprisingly, N-acetylcysteine supplementation also induced an increased production of superoxide during the period of 24 hours. Moreover, both supplements were capable to improve the activity and protein expression of some antioxidants enzymes. In conclusion, we have found new evidences showing that N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine supplementation can provide some benefits to the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. Further studies have to be carried out to evaluate if such benefits could also occur in an in vivo model, with possible benefits for athletes' health and performance.

  11. Rabbit aortic endothelial dysfunction by low-density lipoprotein is attenuated by L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong; Han, Yi; Diao, Jianxin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relative effectiveness of L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine in preventing the impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) from healthy subjects, oxidised LDL (oxLDL, formed by oxidation of nLDL) or nLDL from type II diabetic patients (dLDL). Rabbit aortic rings were exposed to nLDL, dLDL or oxLDL (50–200 mg protein l−1), or corresponding vehicle, following which they were constricted with noradrenaline 10−6 M; concentration–relaxation curves were determined to acetylcholine (ACh), A23187, or sodium nitroprusside (NP), in the absence or presence of L-arginine (10−5–10−3 M), L-ascorbate (10−5–10−3 M) and pyridoxine (0.5–2.0 mM). nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL all inhibited relaxant responses to ACh and A23187, but not to NP, in a concentration-dependent manner (oxLDL>dLDL>nLDL). In the presence of all LDL preparations, L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine each improved ACh and A23187 responses, although none completely normalised endothelium-dependent relaxations. The maximal effect of L-arginine occurred at 10−4 M. The combination of L-arginine 10−4 M, L-ascorbate 10−5 M and pyridoxine 2.0 mM was equally effective as L-arginine 10−4 M alone. Our results confirm that nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL exert inhibitory effects on endothelium dependent, but not endothelium independent, relaxation of rabbit aorta. ACh and A23187 responses in the presence of any LDL species can be ameliorated by supplementation with L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine, either singly or in combination, with no agent or combination proving superior to L-arginine alone. Nevertheless, ACh and A23187 responses are not completely normalised with such supplements, suggesting that there also exists a component of LDL-induced inhibition of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation that is independent of the nitric oxide system. PMID:14597596

  12. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Scavella, Arnette; Leiva, Lily; Monjure, Hanh; Zea, Arnold H; Gardner, Renee V

    2010-08-01

    L-arginine (L-Arg) is deficient in sickle cell disease (SSD) during vasoocclusion. We investigated possible causal relationship between L-Arg deficiency and immune dysfunction in SSD in steady-state. Fifteen patients with SSD in steady-state and 13 controls were studied. Plasma L-Arg levels were measured using liquid chromatography. T cell subsets and CD3zeta (CD3zeta) chain expression were analyzed using flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and production of IL-6 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were evaluated with and without L-Arg. SSD patients had significantly lower L-Arg levels than controls. CD3 and CD19 cell populations were comparable for both groups, but SSD patients had above normal numbers of natural killer cells (P = 0.06). Patients and controls exhibited significantly increased lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA after introduction of L-Arg to cultures; response of patients was significantly greater than values for control individuals. Proliferative response to candida in SSD patients was significantly lower than in controls; L-Arg supplementation did not increase this response. L-Arg had no effect on blastogenic response to PPD and candida albicans. No effect was likewise seen in production of IL-6 and IFN-gamma after addition of L-Arg. CD3zeta chain expression increased after addition of L-Arg in both groups; differences were insignificant. L-Arg levels in steady-state SSD are significantly lower than in controls. L-Arg supplementation enhanced lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA for both controls and patients, but not in response to antigen. There were no significant differences in CD3zeta chain expression although upregulation of expression occurred after L-Arg supplementation for both groups. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor combined with oral supplementation of l-arginine in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyun; Chen, Bairong; Huang, Yin; Liang, Zibin; Li, Songbiao; Yin, Yuelan; Chen, Jian; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous administration of placental growth factor (PlGF) stimulates angiogenesis and improves ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and supplementation with l-arginine ameliorates endothelial function. The objective of the present study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of combination therapy of PlGF and l-arginine with those of direct administration of PlGF alone in a rat model of AMI. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, normal saline group, l-arginine group, PlGF group, and combination group (PlGF + l-arginine). An AMI rat model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. After 4 weeks of postligation treatment, cardiac function, scar area, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were studied. Echocardiography, Masson's staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), and capillary and arteriole densities were higher in the PlGF group than in the normal saline group ( P <0.01). Scar area, collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of BNP were decreased in the PlGF group ( P <0.01). Myocardial eNOS protein level was elevated in the l-arginine group and PlGF + l-arginine group ( P <0.01). Compared with the PlGF group, LVEF, LVFS, myocardial eNOS, and capillary and arteriole densities were higher in the combination group ( P <0.01). Scar area, content of collagen I protein, and plasma concentration of BNP were reduced in the combination group ( P <0.01). Exogenous administration of PlGF stimulates angiogenesis and improves cardiac function. l-arginine increases the expression of the eNOS protein. PlGF and l-arginine have a more pronounced, synergistic

  14. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung, E-mail: hlfung@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h.more » To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside

  16. l-Arginine is a Radioprotector for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Linda L.; Zheng, Xichen; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Kerr, Patrick P.; Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Epperly, Michael W.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Peterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine is shown to protect hematopoietic progenitor (32D cl 3) cells from death due to exposure to γ radiation (137Cs). Some of the other intermediates in the urea cycle, namely ornithine and citrulline, plus urea itself, were not found to have any significant impact on cell survival after irradiation. Intriguingly, supplementation of irradiated cells with l-arginine results in decreased production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that suppression of superoxide generation by nitric oxide synthase in one or more microenvironments is an important factor in the observed radioprotection. The absence of any radioprotective effect of l-arginine in cells at 3% oxygen also confirms the involvement of one or more oxygen-derived species. Knockdown experiments with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) siRNAs in cells and NOS knockout animals confirm that the observed radioprotection is associated with nNOS (NOS-1). l-Arginine also ameliorates the transient inhibition of the electron-transport chain complex I that occurs within 30 min of completing the dose (10 Gy) and that appears to be a functional marker for postirradiation mitochondrial oxidant production. PMID:22175298

  17. Dietary l-arginine inhibits intestinal Clostridium perfringens colonisation and attenuates intestinal mucosal injury in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Zengpeng; Li, Huixian; Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Guo, Yuming

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary l-arginine level and feeding duration on the intestinal damage of broilers induced by Clostridium perfringens (CP) in vivo, and the antimicrobial effect of its metabolite nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. The in vivo experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of three dietary treatments×two challenge statuses. Broilers were fed a basal diet (CON) or a high-arginine diet (ARG) containing 1·87 % l-arginine, or CON for the first 8 d and ARG from days 9 to 28 (CON/ARG). Birds were co-infected with or without Eimeria and CP (EM/CP). EM/CP challenge led to intestinal injury, as evidenced by lower plasma d-xylose concentration (P<0·01), higher paracellular permeability in the ileum (P<0·05) and higher numbers of Escherichia coli (P<0·05) and CP (P<0·001) in caecal digesta; however, this situation could be alleviated by l-arginine supplementation (P<0·05). The intestinal claudin-1 and occludin mRNA expression levels were decreased (P<0·05) following EM/CP challenge; this was reversed by l-arginine supplementation (P<0·05). Moreover, EM/CP challenge up-regulated (P<0·05) claudin-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), toll-like receptor 2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain 1 (NOD1) mRNA expression, and l-arginine supplementation elevated (P<0·05) IFN-γ, IL-10 and NOD1 mRNA expression. In vitro study showed that NO had bacteriostatic activity against CP (P<0·001). In conclusion, l-arginine supplementation could inhibit CP overgrowth and alleviate intestinal mucosal injury by modulating innate immune responses, enhancing barrier function and producing NO.

  18. Long-term enteral arginine supplementation in rats with intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsiao, Chien-Chou; Hung, Ching-Yi; Chang, Yu-Jun; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2012-06-01

    The effects of short-term enteral arginine supplementation on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury have been widely studied, especially the ischemic preconditioning supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term intra-duodenal supplementation of arginine on intestinal morphology, arginine-associated amino acid metabolism, and inflammatory responses in rats with intestinal IR. Male Wistar rats with or without three hours of ileal ischemia underwent duodenal cannulation for continuous infusion of formula with 2% arginine or commercial protein powder for 7 d. The serological examinations, plasma amino acid and cytokine profiles, and intestinal morphology were assessed. Intestinal IR injury had significant impacts on the decreases in circulating red blood cells, hemoglobin, ileum mass, and villus height and crypt depth of the distal jejunum. In addition, arginine supplementation decreased serum cholesterol and increased plasma arginine concentrations. In rats with intestinal IR injury, arginine supplementation significantly decreased serum nitric oxide, plasma citrulline and ornithine, and the mucosal protein content of the ileum. These results suggest that long-term intra-duodenal arginine administration may not have observable benefits on intestinal morphology or inflammatory response in rats with intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Therefore, the necessity of long-term arginine supplementation for patients with intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury remains questionable and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Malate and Aspartate Increase L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide and Attenuate Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hou, Entai; Sun, Na; Zhang, Fuchang; Zhao, Chenyang; Usa, Kristie; Liang, Mingyu; Tian, Zhongmin

    2017-05-23

    Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and L-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat, a model of salt-sensitive hypertension, exhibits fumarase insufficiencies. To investigate the mechanism mediating the effect of fumarase-related metabolites on hypertension, we considered the pathway in which L-malate can be converted to oxaloacetate, aspartate, argininosuccinate, and L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. The levels of aspartate, citrulline, L-arginine, and NO were significantly decreased in the kidneys of SS rats compared to salt-insensitive consomic SS.13 BN rats. Knockdown of fumarase in human kidney cells and vascular endothelial cells resulted in decreased levels of malate, aspartate, L-arginine, and NO. Supplementation of aspartate or malate increased renal levels of L-arginine and NO and attenuated hypertension in SS rats. These findings reveal a multi-step metabolic pathway important for hypertension in which malate and aspartate may modulate blood pressure by altering levels of L-arginine and NO. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The second case of a young man with L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Binet, Quentin; Dufour, Inès; Agneessens, Emmanuel; Debongnie, Jean-Claude; Aouattah, Tarik; Covas, Angélique; Coche, Jean-Charles; De Koninck, Xavier

    2018-04-21

    Dietary supplementation of arginine has been used by numerous world-class athletes and professional bodybuilders over the past 30 years. L-Arginine indeed enhances muscular power and general performance via maintaining ATP level. However, L-arginine is also known to induce acute pancreatitis in murine models. We report the case of young man presenting with upper abdominal pain and increased serum lipase levels. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirms a mild acute pancreatitis. Common etiologies have been ruled out and toxicological anamnestic screening reveals the intake of protein powder. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the second case in human of arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. This case report suggests that every patient presenting with acute pancreatitis without obvious etiology should be evaluated for the intake of toxics other than alcohol, including L-arginine.

  1. Diminished L-arginine bioavailability in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moss, Monique B; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Soares De Moura, Roberto; Novaes Malagris, Lúcia E; Roberts, Norman B; Ellory, J Clive; Mann, Giovanni E; Mendes Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2004-10-01

    L-Arginine is the precursor of NO (nitric oxide), a key endogenous mediator involved in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and platelet function. Although the concentration of intracellular L-arginine is well above the Km for NO synthesis, in many cells and pathological conditions the transport of L-arginine is essential for NO production (L-arginine paradox). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of L-arginine/NO pathway in systemic arterial hypertension. Transport of L-arginine into RBCs (red blood cells) and platelets, NOS (NO synthase) activity and amino acid profiles in plasma were analysed in hypertensive patients and in an animal model of hypertension. Influx of L-arginine into RBCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems y+ and y+L, whereas, in platelets, influx was mediated only via system y+L. Chromatographic analyses revealed higher plasma levels of L-arginine in hypertensive patients (175+/-19 micromol/l) compared with control subjects (137+/-8 micromol/l). L-Arginine transport via system y+L, but not y+, was significantly reduced in RBCs from hypertensive patients (60+/-7 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=16) compared with controls (90+/-17 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=18). In human platelets, the Vmax for L-arginine transport via system y+L was 86+/-17 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in controls compared with 36+/-9 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in hypertensive patients (n=10; P<0.05). Basal NOS activity was decreased in platelets from hypertensive patients (0.12+/-0.02 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8) compared with controls (0.22+/-0.01 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8; P<0.05). Studies with spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated that transport of L-arginine via system y+L was also inhibited in RBCs. Our findings provide the first evidence that hypertension is associated with an inhibition of L-arginine transport via system y+L in both humans and animals, with reduced availability of L-arginine limiting NO synthesis

  2. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Steve; Kim, Woosong; Henning, Susanne M; Carpenter, Catherine L; Li, Zhaoping

    2010-03-23

    Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks(R), Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA) or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 +/- 0.18 L/min, p < 0.01) at week 1, and the effect was sustained by week 3 with a 14.2% (2.33 +/- 0.44 L/min, p < 0.01). In the control group, there was no change in anaerobic threshold at weeks 1 and 3 compared to baseline (1.88 +/- 0.20 L/min at week 1, and 1.86 +/- 0.21 L/min at week 3). The anaerobic threshold for the supplement groups was significantly higher than that of placebo group at week 1 and week 3. There were no significant changes noted in VO2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in

  3. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. Methods This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks®, Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA) or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. Results There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 ± 0.18 L/min, p < 0.01) at week 1, and the effect was sustained by week 3 with a 14.2% (2.33 ± 0.44 L/min, p < 0.01). In the control group, there was no change in anaerobic threshold at weeks 1 and 3 compared to baseline (1.88 ± 0.20 L/min at week 1, and 1.86 ± 0.21 L/min at week 3). The anaerobic threshold for the supplement groups was significantly higher than that of placebo group at week 1 and week 3. There were no significant changes noted in VO2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. Conclusion An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in

  4. L-Arginine Modulates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Obesity and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengdi; Han, Meng; Rezaei, Arash; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Ma, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a global public health problem affecting approximately 380 million people throughout the world. It can cause many complications and lead to greater mortality. At present, there is no available medicine for effectively preventing diabetes. L-arginine, a functional amino acid, the precursor of nitric oxide, plays a crucial role in maintenance, reproduction, growth, anti-aging and immunity for animals. Growing clinical evidence indicates that dietary L-arginine supplementation can reduce obesity, decrease arterial blood pressure, resist oxidation and normalize endothelial dysfunction to bring about remission of type 2 diabetes. The potential molecular mechanism may play a role in modulating glucose homeostasis, promoting lipolysis, maintaining hormone levels, ameliorating insulin resistance, and fetal programing in early stages. The possible signaling pathway of the beneficial effects of L-arginine likely involves L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway through which cell signal protein can be activated. Accumulating studies have indicated that L-arginine may have potential to prevent and/or relieve type 2 diabetes via restoring insulin sensitivity in vivo. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Sperm quality in men is improved by supplementation with a combination of L-arginine, L-citrullin, roburins and Pycnogenol®.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Rohdewald, P

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Prelox®R, a combination of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®), L-arginine, L-citrulline and roburins, on male fertility. Sperm quality of 50 subfertile men was tested in monthly intervals in a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Patients received 2 tablets Prelox®R or placebo twice daily during test periods. Following a run-in period of 1 month, patients received either Prelox®R or a placebo for 1 month. After a wash-out period of 1 month, patients received Prelox®R or a placebo in a crossover manner for 1 month. Sperm volume, concentration of spermatozoa, total count, motility, vitality and morphology were measured by standard methods of calculation of the Fertility Index (FI) in monthly intervals. Activity of e-NOS in sperm was evaluated in parallel by measuring the quantity of L-citulline produced from L-arginine. Supplementation with Prelox®R enhanced sperm volume and concentration, motility, vitality and morphology significantly versus placebo. The Fertility Index rose to normal values during treatment with Prelox®R. e-NOS activity in sperm was elevated by Prelox®R. No adverse effects were reported. Prelox®R offers a safe method to improve quality of human spermatozoa in subfertile men.

  6. L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at th...

  7. ORAL DELIVERY OF L-ARGININE STIMULATES PROSTAGLANDIN-DEPENDENT SECRETORY DIARRHEA IN C. PARVUM INFECTED NEONATAL PIGLETS

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Jody L.; Foster, Derek M.; Coccaro, Maria R.; Stauffer, Stephen H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine if oral supplementation with L-arginine could augment nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and promote epithelial defense in neonatal piglets infected with C. parvum. Methods Neonatal piglets were fed a liquid milk replacer and on day 3 of age infected or not with 108 C. parvum oocysts and the milk replacer supplemented with L-arginine or L-alanine. Milk consumption, body weight, fecal consistency, and oocyst excretion were recorded daily. On day 3 post-infection, piglets were euthanized, and serum concentration of NO metabolites and histological severity of villous atrophy and epithelial infection were quantified. Sheets of ileal mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of barrier function (transepithelial resistance (TER) and permeability) and short-circuit current (Isc; an indirect measurement of Cl− secretion in this tissue). Results C. parvum infected piglets had large numbers of epithelial parasites, villous atrophy, decreased barrier function, severe watery diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. L-arginine promoted synthesis of NO by infected piglets which was unaccompanied by improvement in severity of infection but rather promoted epithelial chloride secretion and diarrhea. Epithelial secretion by infected mucosa from L-arginine supplemented piglets was fully inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating that prostaglandin synthesis was responsible for this effect. Conclusions Results of these studies demonstrate that provision of additional NO substrate in the form of L-arginine incites prostaglandin-dependent secretory diarrhea and does not promote epithelial defense or barrier function of C. parvum infected neonatal ileum. PMID:18223372

  8. l-Arginine-Dependent Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-10, but Not Transforming Growth Factor-β, Production by Neonatal Regulatory T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tsai, Ching-Chang; Chang, Ling-Sai; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Cheng, Hsin-Hsin; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Yang, Kuender D.; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of diseases in humans, including trauma, certain cancers, and infection, are known to be associated with l-arginine deficiency. In addition, l-arginine must be supplemented by diet during pregnancy to aid fetal development. In conditions of l-arginine depletion, T cell proliferation is impaired. We have previously shown that neonatal blood has lower l-arginine levels than adult blood, which is associated with poor neonatal lymphocyte proliferation, and that l-arginine enhances neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin (IL)-2-independent pathway. In this study, we have further investigated how exogenous l-arginine enhances neonatal regulatory T-cells (Tregs) function in relation to IL-10 production under epigenetic regulation. Results showed that cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) produced higher levels of IL-10 than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by phytohemagglutinin stimulation but not by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation. Addition of exogenous l-arginine had no effect on transforming growth factor-β production by PBMCs or CBMCs, but enhanced IL-10 production by neonatal CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs. Further studies showed that IL-10 promoter DNA hypomethylation, rather than histone modification, corresponded to the l-arginine-induced increase in IL-10 production by neonatal CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that l-arginine modulates neonatal Tregs through the regulation of IL-10 promoter DNA methylation. l-arginine supplementation may correct the Treg function in newborns with l-arginine deficiency. PMID:28487700

  9. L-arginine prevents xanthoma development and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Aji, W; Ravalli, S; Szabolcs, M; Jiang, X C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1997-01-21

    The potential antiatherosclerotic actions of NO were investigated in four groups of mice (n = 10 per group) lacking functional LDL receptor genes, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Group 1 was fed a regular chow diet. Groups 2 through 4 were fed a 1.25% high-cholesterol diet. In addition, group 3 received supplemental L-arginine and group 4 received L-arginine and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Animals were killed at 6 months; aortas were stained with oil red O for planimetry and with antibodies against constitutive and inducible NOSs. Plasma cholesterol was markedly increased in the animals receiving the high-cholesterol diet. Xanthomas appeared in all mice fed the high-cholesterol diet alone but not in those receiving L-arginine. Aortic atherosclerosis was present in all mice on the high-cholesterol diet. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was reduced significantly (P < .01) in the cholesterol-fed mice given L-arginine compared with those receiving the high-cholesterol diet alone. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly larger (P < .01) in cholesterol-fed mice receiving L-arginine + L-NA than in those on the high-cholesterol diet alone. Within the atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial cells immunoreacted for endothelial cell NOS; macrophages, foam cells, and smooth muscle cells immunostained strongly for inducible NOS and nitrotyrosine residues. The data indicate that L-arginine prevents xanthoma formation and reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The abrogation of the beneficial effects of L-arginine by L-NA suggests that the antiatherosclerotic actions of L-arginine are mediated by NOS. The data suggest that L-arginine may be beneficial in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  10. Plasma L-arginine levels distinguish pulmonary arterial hypertension from left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sandqvist, Anna; Schneede, Jörn; Kylhammar, David; Henrohn, Dan; Lundgren, Jakob; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Rådegran, Göran; Wikström, Gerhard

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by an imbalance of vasoactive substances and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature. Nitric oxide, formed from L-arginine, is essential for homeostasis and smooth muscle cell relaxation in PAH. Our aim was to compare plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in PAH compared to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and healthy subjects. This was an observational, multicenter study comparing 21 patients with PAH to 14 patients with LVSD and 27 healthy subjects. Physical examinations were obtained and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, L-arginine, L-ornithine, and L-citrulline were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were higher, whereas L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio were lower in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Patients with PAH also had lower levels of L-arginine than patients with LVSD (p < 0.05). L-Arginine correlated to 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (r s  = 0.58, p = 0.006) and L-arginine/ADMA correlated to WHO functional class (r s  = -0.46, p = 0.043) in PAH. In conclusion, L-arginine levels were significantly lower in treatment naïve PAH patients compared to patients with LVSD. Furthermore, L-arginine correlated with 6MWD in PAH. L-arginine may provide useful information in differentiating PAH from LVSD.

  11. l-Arginine administration attenuates airway inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism in an NC/Nga mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Kubo, Masayuki; Murakami, Ikuo; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Inoue, Kiyomi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-05-01

    Changes in l-arginine metabolism, including increased arginase levels and decreased nitric oxide production, are involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. In this study, using an intranasal mite-induced NC/Nga mouse model of asthma, we examined whether administration of l-arginine ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism. Experimental asthma was induced in NC/Nga mice via intranasal administration of mite crude extract (50 µg/day) on 5 consecutive days (days 0-4, sensitization) and on day 11 (challenge). Oral administration of l-arginine (250 mg/kg) was performed twice daily on days 5-10 for prevention or on days 11-13 for therapy. On day 14, we evaluated the inflammatory airway response (airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the changes in pathological inflammation of the lung), arginase expression and activity, l-arginine bioavailability, and the concentration of NOx, the end products of nitric oxide. Treatment with l-arginine ameliorated the mite-induced inflammatory airway response. Furthermore, l-arginine administration attenuated the increases in arginase expression and activity and elevated the NOx levels by enhancing l-arginine bioavailability. These findings indicate that l-arginine administration may contribute to the improvement of asthmatic symptoms by altering l-arginine metabolism.

  12. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  13. Serum Amino Acids Profile and the Beneficial Effects of L-Arginine or L-Glutamine Supplementation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)- myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05). Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05) influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α) in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:24505477

  14. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05). Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05) influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α) in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  15. Acute L-arginine supplementation has no effect on cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to rest, exercise, and recovery in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher J; Coffey, Thomas R M; Hodges, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of acute L-arginine (L-ARG) supplementation on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to rest, exercise, and recovery in the heat. Eight healthy men (age 27 ± 6 years; stature 176 ± 6 cm; body mass 76 ± 4 kg; maximal power output 237 ± 39 W) participated in a double-blind, crossover study, attending the laboratory for two experimental trials. On each occasion, participants consumed 500 ml of a black currant-flavoured cordial beverage 30 min before completing a 90 min experiment in the heat (35 °C and 50% rh). The experiment consisted of 30 min of seated rest, followed by 30 min submaximal cycling (60% maximal power output) and 30 min passive seated recovery. On one visit the drink contained 10 g of dissolved L-ARG while on the other visit it did not. L-ARG supplementation increased plasma L-ARG concentrations (peak +223 ± 80% after 60 min of the 90 min experiment); however, supplementation had no effect on rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, arterial pressure, forearm skin vascular conductance, oxygen consumption or sweat loss at rest, during exercise, or during recovery in the heat (p > 0.05). Acute ingestion of 10 g L-ARG supplementation failed to elicit any changes in the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to active or passive heat exposure in young, healthy males.

  16. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Williamson, Kaitlin C; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  17. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome☆

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Williamson, Kaitlin C.; Craigen, William J.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:25411654

  18. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  19. Maintenance of cytosolic calcium is crucial to extend l-arginine therapeutic benefits during continuous dosing.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Srinidi; Harding, Lisa

    2016-10-01

    The therapeutic benefits associated with short-term l-arginine supplementation are lost during continuous dosing. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functional modulation has been correlated with l-arginine therapeutic effectiveness, and with tolerance development during continuous supplementation. However, the metabolic link that is responsible for AMPK functional modulation during continuous l-arginine exposure is currently not known. To explore this, we incubated HUVECs for 7 days with 100 μmol/L l-arginine, in the presence or absence of other agents; and monitored their effects for eNOS function, and on tolerance sparing effects (viz, cellular glucose accumulation, and oxidative stress). HUVEC co-incubation with 100 μmol/L l-arginine and ≤1200 mg/mL calcium (Ca 2+ ) for 7 days avoided tolerance development, with an at least 1-fold increase in the eNOS and AMPK functional activity; and an 1-fold increase in overall cellular glucose uptake. The overall cellular cytosolic Ca 2+ was below 200 nmol/L, with no change in cellular glucose and superoxide/peroxynitrite (O 2 •- /ONOO - ) level from control. However, tolerance sparing effects of at least 70% decrease in eNOS and AMPK functional response, with an 1-fold reduction in glucose uptake, and at least 2-fold increase in O 2 •- /ONOO - were observed in cells exposed for 7 days to 100 μmol/L l-arginine at Ca 2+ co-incubation concentration of >1200 mg/mL. The >1200 mg/mL Ca2+ co-incubation condition, also improved the overall cellular Ca 2+ to >200 nmol/L. Similar tolerance response was observed in cells co-treated with 100 μmol/L l-arginine and ≤1200 mg/mL Ca 2+ in the presence of Ca 2+ influx inhibitor (20 μmol/L 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid), or eNOS activity inhibitor (30 μmol/L l-N G -nitroarginine methyl ester). No tolerance response was seen in cells incubated for 7 days with 100 μmol/L l-arginine and ≤1200 mg/mL Ca 2+ ; even in the presence of the inhibitor for

  20. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Hsu, Jean W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Craigen, William J.; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. PMID:22325939

  1. Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males (age: 25 ± 4 y; body mass: 81.4 ± 9.0 kg; height: 179.4 ± 6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3 ± 3.4 y) participated in a randomized double-blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However, integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4 ± 368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9± 482.0 min·ng·mL1, p < .05). L-arginine ingested before resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop.

  2. REM sleep deprivation induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats: Roles of the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and supplementation with L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiaye; Gan, Zhongyuan; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Wenqi; Li, Hanqing; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Ke, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to REM sleep deprivation for 5 days, their blood pressures and endothelial function were measured. In addition, one group of rats was given continuous access to L-arginine supplementation (2% in distilled water) for the 5 days before and the 5 days of REM sleep deprivation to reverse sleep deprivation-induced pathological changes. The results showed that REM sleep deprivation decreased body weight, increased blood pressure, and impaired endothelial function of the aortas in middle-aged rats but not young rats. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations as well as endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in the aorta were decreased by REM sleep deprivation. Supplementation with L-arginine could protect against REM sleep deprivation-induced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and damage to the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that REM sleep deprivation caused endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats via the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and that these pathological changes could be inhibited via L-arginine supplementation. The present study provides a new strategy to inhibit the signaling pathways involved in insomnia-induced or insomnia-enhanced cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Comparative Proteomics Analysis Reveals L-Arginine Activates Ethanol Degradation Pathways in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guokai; Lestari, Retno; Long, Baisheng; Fan, Qiwen; Wang, Zhichang; Guo, Xiaozhen; Yu, Jie; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xingya; Chen, Changqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xiuzhi; Purnomoadi, Agung; Achmadi, Joelal; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-03-17

    L-Arginine (Arg) is a versatile amino acid that plays crucial roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, to investigate the alteration induced by Arg supplementation in proteome scale, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was employed to comparatively characterize the differentially expressed proteins between Arg deprivation (Ctrl) and Arg supplementation (+Arg) treated human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 21 proteins were identified as differentially expressed proteins and these 21 proteins were all up-regulated by Arg supplementation. Six amino acid metabolism-related proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, showed differential expressions. Intriguingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) based pathway analysis suggested that the three ethanol degradation pathways were significantly altered between Ctrl and +Arg. Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays validated that the key enzymes ADH1C, ALDH1A1, and ALDH2, which are mainly involved in ethanol degradation pathways, were highly differentially expressed, and activated between Ctrl and +Arg in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, 10 mM Arg significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by 100 mM ethanol treatment (P < 0.0001). This study is the first time to reveal that Arg activates ethanol degradation pathways in HepG2 cells.

  4. Pretreatment and Treatment With L-Arginine Attenuate Weight Loss and Bacterial Translocation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho Dos; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; de Souza, Cristina Maria; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; de Souza, Adna Luciana; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2016-11-01

    Imbalances in a variety of factors, including genetics, intestinal flora, and mucosal immunity, can contribute to the development of ulcerative colitis and its side effects. This study evaluated the effects of pretreatment or treatment with arginine by oral administration on intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation (BT), and mucosal intestinal damage due to colitis. C57BL/6 mice were distributed into 4 groups: standard diet and water (C: control group), standard diet and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution (Col: colitis group), 2% L-arginine supplementation for 7 days prior to DSS administration and during disease induction (PT: pretreated group), and 2% L-arginine supplementation during disease induction (T: treated group). Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% DSS for 7 days. After 14 days, intestinal permeability and BT were evaluated; colons were collected for histologic analysis and determination of cytokines; feces were collected for measurement of immunoglobulin A (IgA). The Col group showed increased intestinal permeability (C vs Col: P < .05) and BT (C vs Col: P < .05). In the arginine-supplemented groups (PT and T), this amino acid tended to decrease intestinal permeability. Arginine decreased BT to liver during PT (P < .05) and to blood, liver, spleen, and lung during T (P < .05). Histologic analysis showed that arginine preserved the intestinal mucosa and tended to decreased inflammation. Arginine attenuates weight loss and BT in mice with colitis. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Hsu, Jean W; Emrick, Lisa T; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Citrulline a More Suitable Substrate than Arginine to Restore NO Production and the Microcirculation during Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Wijnands, Karolina A. P.; Vink, Hans; Briedé, Jacob J.; van Faassen, Ernst E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Background Impaired microcirculation during endotoxemia correlates with a disturbed arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and is associated with deteriorating organ function. Improving the organ perfusion in endotoxemia, as often seen in patients with severe infection or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is, therefore, an important therapeutic target. We hypothesized that supplementation of the arginine precursor citrulline rather than arginine would specifically increase eNOS-induced intracellular NO production and thereby improve the microcirculation during endotoxemia. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the effects of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine supplementation on jejunal microcirculation, intracellular arginine availability and NO production in a non-lethal prolonged endotoxemia model in mice. C57/Bl6 mice received an 18 hrs intravenous infusion of endotoxin (LPS, 0.4 µg•g bodyweight−1•h−1), combined with either L-Citrulline (6.25 mg•h-1), L-Arginine (6.25 mg•h−1), or L-Alanine (isonitrogenous control; 12.5 mg•h−1) during the last 6 hrs. The control group received an 18 hrs sterile saline infusion combined with L-Alanine or L-Citrulline during the last 6 hrs. The microcirculation was evaluated at the end of the infusion period using sidestream dark-field imaging of jejunal villi. Plasma and jejunal tissue amino-acid concentrations were measured by HPLC, NO tissue concentrations by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy and NOS protein concentrations using Western blot. Conclusion/Significance L-Citrulline supplementation during endotoxemia positively influenced the intestinal microvascular perfusion compared to L-Arginine-supplemented and control endotoxemic mice. L-Citrulline supplementation increased plasma and tissue concentrations of arginine and citrulline, and restored intracellular NO production in the intestine. L-Arginine supplementation did not increase the intracellular arginine availability. Jejunal tissues in the

  7. Intravenous glutamine supplementation enhances renal de novo arginine synthesis in humans: a stable isotope study.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nikki; Brinkmann, Saskia J H; Oosterink, J Efraim; Luttikhold, Joanna; Schierbeek, Henk; Wisselink, Willem; Beishuizen, Albertus; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R

    2014-11-01

    Arginine plays a role in many different pathways in multiple cell types. Consequently, a shortage of arginine, caused by pathologic conditions such as cancer or injury, has the potential to disturb many cellular and organ functions. Glutamine is the ultimate source for de novo synthesis of arginine in humans via the intestinal-renal axis. Therefore, we hypothesized that parenteral glutamine supplementation may stimulate the interorgan pathway of arginine production. The objectives were to quantify arginine production from its precursor glutamine and to establish the contribution of the kidneys to de novo synthesis of arginine in patients receiving intravenous supplementation of glutamine dipeptide during major abdominal surgery. Whole-body and renal metabolism of glutamine, citrulline, and arginine was assessed by stable isotope techniques in 7 patients receiving a perioperative supplement of intravenous alanyl-glutamine (0.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). Plasma glutamine, citrulline, and arginine concentrations increased significantly in patients receiving intravenous glutamine dipeptide. At whole-body level, 91% of total citrulline turnover was derived from glutamine, whereas 49% of whole-body citrulline turnover was used for de novo synthesis of arginine. The kidneys were responsible for 75% of whole-body arginine production from citrulline. Glutamine and citrulline are important sources for de novo arginine synthesis. The kidneys are the main production site for endogenous arginine. After comparison of these results with previous similar studies, our data suggest that an intravenous glutamine supplement doubles renal arginine production from citrulline. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR2914. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-arginine production.

    PubMed

    Park, Seok Hyun; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Suok-Su; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-08-05

    L-arginine is an important amino acid for diverse industrial and health product applications. Here we report the development of metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21831 for the production of L-arginine. Random mutagenesis is first performed to increase the tolerance of C. glutamicum to L-arginine analogues, followed by systems metabolic engineering for further strain improvement, involving removal of regulatory repressors of arginine operon, optimization of NADPH level, disruption of L-glutamate exporter to increase L-arginine precursor and flux optimization of rate-limiting L-arginine biosynthetic reactions. Fed-batch fermentation of the final strain in 5 l and large-scale 1,500 l bioreactors allows production of 92.5 and 81.2 g l(-1) of L-arginine with the yields of 0.40 and 0.35 g L-arginine per gram carbon source (glucose plus sucrose), respectively. The systems metabolic engineering strategy described here will be useful for engineering Corynebacteria strains for the industrial production of L-arginine and related products.

  9. Tetrahydrobiopterin, l-Arginine and Vitamin C Act Synergistically to Decrease Oxidant Stress and Increase Nitric Oxide That Increases Blood Flow Recovery after Hindlimb Ischemia in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Messina, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the is-chemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca2+-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + l-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)–to–glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, co-supplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, l-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce

  10. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  12. Efficiency of cardioplegic solutions containing L-arginine and L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, O I; Shul'zhenko, V S; Studneva, I M

    2006-04-01

    In experiments on rats we studied the effects of cardioplegic solutions with L-aspartic acid or L-arginine on functional recovery and metabolism of isolated working heart after 40-min normothermal global ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. After reperfusion of the hearts preventively protected with cardioplegic solution containing L-aspartic acid or L-arginine, coronary flow decreased in comparison with the initial values. As a component of cardioplegic solution, L-arginine was less efficient in recovery of contractility and cardiac output of the hearts in comparison with L-aspartic acid. In hearts protected with L-aspartic acid, the postischemic levels of ATP and phosphocreatine were significantly higher, and the level of lactate was significantly lower than in hearts protected with L-arginine. In comparison with L-arginine, L-aspartic acid is a more efficient component of cardioplegic solution in protection of the heart from metabolic and functional damages caused by global ischemia and reperfusion.

  13. Supplemental dietary arginine accelerates intestinal mucosal regeneration and enhances bacterial clearance following radiation enteritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, A T; Kunzelman, J; Ratzer, E E

    1998-02-01

    Arginine is a dibasic amino acid with significant metabolic and immunologic, effects especially in trauma and stress situations. Arginine supplementation has been shown to promote wound healing and improve immune system. We designed a study to evaluate the effects of supplemental dietary arginine on intestinal mucosal recovery and bacterial translocation and bacterial clearance after induction of radiation injury in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a single dose of 1100 rads of abdominal X radiation. Rats were divided into three groups; the first group received diet enriched with 2% arginine, the second group with 4% arginine, and the third group with isonitrogenous 4% glycine. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after the radiation. Blood was drawn for arginine levels and mesenteric lymph nodes were harvested for quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Segments of ileum and jejunum were evaluated for villous height, number of villi per centimeter of intestine, and the number of mucous cells per villous. Arginine is absorbed reliably from the gut following oral administration. Dietary 4% arginine supplementation enhanced bacterial clearance from mesenteric lymph nodes compared to 2% arginine and 4% glycine supplemented diet following radiation enteritis in rats. Four percent arginine resulted in clear improvement in intestinal mucosal recovery when compared to 2% arginine and 4% glycine after abdominal irradiation in rats.

  14. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2016-11-01

    Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions.

  15. The Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester Diminishes the Immunomodulatory Effects of Parental Arginine in Rats with Subacute Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hung, Ching-Yi; Huang, Fu-Huan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Lee, Chien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The combined treatment of parenteral arginine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) have been shown to improve liver function and systemic inflammation in subacute peritonitic rats. Here, we investigated the effects of single and combined parenteral arginine and L-NAME treatments on leukocyte and splenocyte immunity. Male Wistar rats were subjected to cecal punctures and were intravenously given total parenteral nutrition solutions with or without arginine and/or L-NAME supplementations for 7 days. Non-surgical and sham-operated rats with no cecal puncture were given a chow diet and parenteral nutrition, respectively. Parenteral feeding elevated the white blood cell numbers and subacute peritonitis augmented the parenteral nutrition-induced alterations in the loss of body weight gain, splenomegaly, and splenocyte decreases. Parenteral arginine significantly increased the B-leukocyte level, decreased the natural killer T (NKT)-leukocyte and splenocyte levels, alleviated the loss in body weight gain and total and cytotoxic T-splenocyte levels, and attenuated the increases in plasma nitrate/nitrite and interferon-gamma production by T-splenocytes. L-NAME infusion significantly decreased NKT-leukocyte level, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by T-splenocytes and macrophages, and interferon-gamma production by T-leukocytes, monocytes, and T-splenocytes, as well as increased interleukin-6 production by T-leukocytes and monocytes and nitrate/nitrite production by T-leukocytes. Combined treatment significantly decreased plasma nitrate/nitrite, the NKT-leukocyte level, and TNF-alpha production by T-splenocytes. Parenteral arginine may attenuate immune impairment and L-NAME infusion may augment leukocyte proinflammatory response, eliminate splenocyte proinflammatory and T-helper 1 responses, and diminish arginine-induced immunomodulation in combined treatment in subacute peritonitic rats. PMID:27007815

  16. Randomized clinical trial of arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Hongying; Wang, Yu; Jing, Huang; Ding, Qian; Xue, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with gastric cancer. It is, therefore, crucial to establish an effective means to provide nutrition for these patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial aims to assess the long-term survival of arginine-supplementation enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. The control group (36 cases) received postoperative standard enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, the arginine-supplementation group (37 cases) adopted the same nutrition product but enriched with arginine (9.0 g/L). The primary study objective was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS); serum parameters including total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin obtained on preoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and day 12; CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained on preoperative day 1 and postoperative day 7. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. The group receiving arginine-enriched nutrition had a significantly better OS (P = 0.03, 41 vs. 30.5 months) and better PFS (P = 0.02, 18 vs. 11.5 months). On postoperative day 7, CD4(+) T cells, NK cells, IgM and IgG levels of the arginine-supplemented group increased prominently and were significantly higher than those of the control group and those on preoperative day 1. There is no significant difference in the serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin levels between the two arms. Arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition significantly improves long-term survival and restores immunity in malnourished gastric cancer.

  17. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Materials and Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. Results SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. Conclusion These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27593859

  18. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kumar, Palani Hamenth; Puhari, Shanavas Syed Mohamed; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-11-23

    Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg(-1) body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-argininemore » supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from

  20. Effects of long-term losartan and L-arginine treatment on haemodynamics, glomerular filtration, and SOD activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miloradović, Zoran; Jovović, Durdica; Mihailović-Stanojević, Nevena; Milanović, Jelica Grujić; Milanović, Sladan

    2008-04-01

    Recently, it has been reported that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor (ATR) antagonist, depresses the angiotensin II-induced production of superoxide radicals. Also, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term ATR blockade and L-arginine supplementation on the haemodynamic parameters, glomerular filtration, and oxidative status in SHR. Adult male SHR were treated with losartan (10 mg/kg) and with the NO donor L-arginine (2 g/kg) for 4 weeks. The animals were divided into the following experimental groups: control (n = 7), L-arginine (n = 7), losartan (n = 7), and L-arginine + losartan (n = 7). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), regional blood flow, urea clearance, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured at the end of treatment. MAP was significantly reduced in the losartan group compared with the control group (133.3 +/- 7.3 vs. 161.5 +/- 14.5 mm Hg). Aortic blood flow was significantly higher and aortic vascular resistance was significantly lower in all treated groups than in the control. Urea clearance rose significantly in the L-arginine + losartan group compared with control (393.27 +/- 37.58 vs. 218.68 +/- 42.03 microL x min(-1) x 100 g(-1)) as did the activity of SOD (1668.97 +/- 244.57 vs. 1083.18 +/- 169.96 U/g Hb). Our results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of losartan and L-arginine in SHR is not primarily mediated by increased SOD activity. Also, combined treatment with ATR blockade and L-arginine supplementation has a beneficial effect on renal function that is, at least in part, mediated by increased SOD activity in SHR.

  1. Dependence of endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity on extracellular L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Schott, C A; Gray, G A; Stoclet, J C

    1993-01-01

    1. The dependence on extracellular L-arginine of vascular hyporeactivity induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in vivo in rats infused with LPS and in vitro in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aortic rings exposed to LPS. 2. Infusion of LPS during 50 min at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 h-1 produced a significant impairment of the pressor effect of noradrenaline, while in tissues collected 60 min after the start of LPS infusion, no significant alteration in either plasma arginine concentration or aortic arginine content was found compared to saline-infused controls (where plasma arginine was 78.5 +/- 7 microM and aortic arginine 394 +/- 124 nmol g-1 tissue). 3. Incubation of isolated, endothelium-denuded aortic rings with LPS (10 micrograms ml-1) in the absence of L-arginine for 4 h at 37 degrees C produced a 6 fold (P < 0.01) rightward shift in the noradrenaline concentration-effect curve compared to polymyxin B (1 micrograms ml-1, a LPS neutralizing agent) and reduced by 15% the maximum observed tension. 4. The presence of L-arginine (100 microM) during the incubation with LPS and throughout the following contraction experiments caused a 15 fold (P < 0.01) increase in the EC50 of noradrenaline and greater depression (45%) of the maximum observed tension compared to polymyxin B-treated controls. Responses in control, non LPS-treated rings were unaffected by the presence of L-arginine. 5. The addition of L-arginine to rings incubated with LPS in the absence of L-arginine and maximally precontracted with noradrenaline (10 microM) induced a dose-dependent relaxation. The EC50 of L-arginine was 8.0+/-0.3mu.6. The reactivity of LPS-treated rings to noradrenaline both in the absence and presence of L-arginine was restored to control levels by N0-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 300 mu), an inhibitor of NO production and by methylene blue (3 JAM), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase.7. Incubation of isolated aortae in the absence of L-arginine did not

  2. Influence of chronic supplementation of arginine aspartate in endurance athletes on performance and substrate metabolism - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Abel, T; Knechtle, B; Perret, C; Eser, P; von Arx, P; Knecht, H

    2005-06-01

    The intake of arginine aspartate has been shown to increase anabolic hormones like human growth hormone (hGH) and glucagon. The aim of our study was to investigate whether daily intake of two different dosages of arginine asparate during four weeks affects selected parameters of overtraining syndrome like performance, metabolic and endocrine parameters. Thirty male endurance-trained athletes were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and divided into three groups. During four weeks, they ingested either arginine aspartate with a high concentration (H) of 5.7 g arginine and 8.7 g aspartate, with a low concentration (L) of 2.8 g arginine and 2.2 g aspartate or placebo (P).VO(2)peak and time to exhaustion were determined on a cycling ergometer in an incremental exercise test before and after supplementation. Before and after each incremental exercise test, concentrations of hGH, glucagon, testosterone, cortisol, ferritine, lactate, and urea were measured. Compared to placebo, no significant differences on endurance performance (VO(2)peak, time to exhaustion), endocrine (concentration of hGH, glucagon, cortisol, and testosterone) and metabolic parameters (concentration of lactate, ferritine, and urea) were found after chronic arginine aspartate supplementation. The chronic intake of arginine asparate during four weeks by male endurance athletes showed independent of dosage no influence on performance, selected metabolic or endocrine parameters. Consequently, there seems to be no apparent reason why the supplementation of arginine aspartate should be an effective ergogenic aid. The practice of using arginine aspartate as potential ergogenics should be critically reevaluated. Further investigations with higher dosage and extended supplementation periods should be performed.

  3. l-Arginine induces antioxidant response to prevent oxidative stress via stimulation of glutathione synthesis and activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingcai; Wang, Zhengxuan; Li, Hui; Cai, Liang; Pan, Jianghao; He, Hongjuan; Wu, Qiong; Tang, Yinzhao; Ma, Jiapei; Yang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid. To elucidate the influence of l-arginine on the activation of endogenous antioxidant defence, male Wistar rats were orally administered daily with l-arginine at different levels of 25, 50, 100 mg/100 g body weight. After 7 and 14 days feeding, the antioxidative capacities and glutathione (GSH) contents in the plasma and in the liver were uniformly enhanced with the increasing consumption of l-arginine, whereas the oxidative stress was effectively suppressed by l-arginine treatment. After 14 days feeding, the mRNA levels and protein expressions of Keap1 and Cul3 were gradually reduced by increasing l-arginine intake, resulting that the nuclear factor Nrf2 was activated. Upon activation of Nrf2, the expressions of antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-dependent genes and proteins (GCLC, GCLM, GS, GR, GST, GPx, CAT, SOD, NQO1, HO-1) were up-regulated by l-arginine feeding, indicating an upward trend in antioxidant capacity uniformly with the increasing consumption of l-arginine. The present study demonstrates that the supplementation of l-arginine stimulates GSH synthesis and activates Nrf2 pathway, leading to the up-regulation of ARE-driven antioxidant expressions via Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. Results suggest the availability of l-arginine is a critical factor to suppress oxidative stress and induce an endogenous antioxidant response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. l-arginine modulates inflammation and muscle regulatory genes after a single session of resistance exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Morais, S R L; Brito, V G B; Mello, W G; Oliveira, S H P

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the skeletal muscle adaptation to l-arginine supplementation prior to a single session of resistance exercise (RE) during the early phase of muscle repair. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into non-exercised (Control), RE plus vehicle (RE); RE plus l-arginine (RE+L-arg) and RE plus aminoguanidine (RE+AG) groups. Animals received four doses of either vehicle (0.9% NaCl), l-arg (1 g/b.w.), or AG (iNOS inhibitor) (50 mg/b.w.). The animals performed a single RE session until the concentric failure (ladder climbing; 80% overload) and the skeletal muscles were harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours post-RE. The RE resulted in increased neutrophil infiltrate (24 hours post-RE) (3621 vs 11852; P<.0001) associated with enhanced TNF-α (819.49 vs 357.02; P<.005) and IL-6 (3.84 vs 1.08; P<.0001). Prior, l-arginine supplementation attenuates neutrophil infiltration (5622; P<.0001), and also TNF-α (506.01; P<.05) and IL-6 (2.51, P<.05) levels. AG pretreatment mediated an inhibition of iNOS levels similar to levels found in RE group. RE animals displayed increased of atrogin-1 (1.9 fold) and MuRF-1 (3.2 fold) mRNA levels, reversed by l-arg supplementation [atrogin-1 (0.6 fold; P<.001); MuRF-1 (0.8-fold; P<.001)] at 24 hours post-RE. MyoD up-regulated levels were restricted to l-arg treated animals at 24 hours (2.8 vs 1.5 fold; P<.005) and 48 hours post-RE (2.4 vs 1.1 fold; P<.001). AG pretreatment reversed these processes at 24 hours [atrogin-1 (2.1 fold; P<.0001); MuRF-1 (2.5 fold; P<.0001); MyoD (1.4 fold)]. l-arginine supplementation seems to attenuate the resolution of RE-induced muscle inflammation and up-regulates MyoD expression during the early phase of muscle repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of arginine supplementation on growth hormone release and intestinal mucosal growth after massive small bowel resection in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Hebiguchi, T; Kato, T; Yoshino, H; Mizuno, M; Koyama, K

    1997-08-01

    Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 90% small bowel resection. From the fourth day after surgery, they were divided into group 1 and 2, and pair-fed by elemental diets (0.8 kcal/mL, 50 mL/day) with L-arginine (n = 10) or L-glycine (n = 11) as an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic supplement for 3 weeks. They were compared with each other 3 weeks after surgery. A statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student's t test and the one-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Bonferroni/Dunn multiple comparison test. A Pvalue of < .05 was considered significant. There were no significant differences between the two groups in food intake, body weight, tail length, residual ileal length, and plasma IGF-I level. However, the mean height of ileal villi in group 1 showed higher than that in group 2 (P < .01). Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) provocative tests (1 microg per rat, intravenously) showed the more significant elevation of growth hormone IGH) secretion in the arginine supplement group than that of glycine supplement group at 5 minutes (P < .05). There were no significant differences between basal levels of plasma rat GH in both groups. It is suggested that arginine has a possible significant role of GH secretion and intestinal mucosal growth after massive small bowel resection.

  6. L-arginine and vitamin D adjunctive therapies in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Anna P; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B; Yeo, Tsin W; Chatfield, Mark D; Soemanto, Retno K; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N; Morris, Peter S; Kelly, Paul M; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339. 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference -3%, 95% CI -19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI -9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes. Clinical

  7. Effect of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on intrauterine growth restriction fetuses: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juncao; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Pingyang; Luo, Kaiju; Zhang, Xiuquan

    2016-08-16

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Several clinical trials have reported L-arginine and sildenafil citrate had effect on intrauterine growth restriction fetuses. A meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on major clinical outcomes of IUGR fetuses. Systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials, references of retrieved articles, and conference proceedings from 1960 to 2015. We included randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of L-arginine and sildenafil citrate on IUGR. Outcomes analyzed were the birth weight, gestational age at labor, Apgar score at 1and 5 min, the ratio of NRDS, the ratio of ICH and neonatal death, etc. Ten trials were included. Nine trials (576 patients) compared L-arginine with either placebo or no intervention. In the L-arginine treatment groups of the L-arginine trials, there was a significant increase in fetal birth weight (SMD 0.41, 95 % CI [0.24,0.58]), gestational age (SMD 0.30, 95 % CI [0.07,0.54]); L-arginine treatment group have a significant reduction in the ratio of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (P = 0.009), intracranial hemorrhage of fetuses (P = 0.002), but the number of included studies and people on these outcomes are small. As only one trial (41 patients) compared sildenafil citrate with placebo, it was too small for reliable conclusions about possible differential effects could be drawn. The results of this meta-analysis showed that L-arginine increased birth weight and prolonged gestational age at labor of IUGR fetuses. However, further large-scale RCTs are needed to adequately assess the effect of L-arginine and Sildenafil citrate on clinical outcomes, because the number of study may be small.

  8. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on exhaled nitric oxide concentration in sickle cell anemia and acute chest syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin Joseph; Kissoon, Niranjan; Sandler, Eric; Gauger, Cynthia; Froyen, Melanie; Duckworth, Laurie; Brown, Martha; Murphy, Suzanne

    2010-10-01

    Decreased exhaled nitric oxide levels (FE(NO)) have been described in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and a history of acute chest syndrome (ACS) when compared with non-ACS controls. Oral arginine supplementation has been shown to increase FE(NO) in healthy participants, but its effect in SCD patients is not known. To determine the effect of oral arginine intake on FENO in sickle cell patients with and without history of ACS, and in healthy controls. No differences in the FE(NO) increase were seen in SCD patients with a history of ACS (ACS+) compared with healthy controls (HC) and SCD patients without history of ACS (ACS-). ACS+ (n=6), ACS- (n=9), and HC (n=7) patients were studied. At baseline, and after the administration of escalating doses of oral L-arginine (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/kg), serial measurements were made of the following: FE(NO), plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, citrulline, aspartate, glutamate, arginine/ornithine ratio, nitrite, nitrate, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). At baseline, FE(NO) did not differ among the groups. ACS- and ACS+ groups were deficient in arginine, and had decreased FEV1, FVC, and SaO2 when compared with HC patients. After arginine supplementation, FE(NO), arginine, ornithine, citrulline, nitrite, and the arginine/ornithine ratio increased similarly in all groups. Changes from baseline for HR, BP, SpO2, RR, FEV1, and FVC were minimal and similar in all groups. In contrast to our earlier study, ACS+ patients had similar FE(NO) values when compared with ACS- and HC patients. All SCD patients were arginine deficient at baseline and showed impairment in respiratory physiology when compared with HC patients. After arginine supplementation, FE(NO) concentration increased in all groups to a similar degree, and lung function and physiologic parameters were minimally affected. The

  9. L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Böger, Rainer H; Galland, Andrea; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Frölich, Jürgen C

    1998-01-01

    Aims Administration of l-arginine by intravenous infusion or via oral absorption has been shown to induce peripheral vasodilation in humans, and to improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of l-arginine after a single intravenous infusion of 30 g or 6 g, or after a single oral application of 6 g, as compared with the respective placebo, in eight healthy male human subjects. Methods l-arginine levels were determined by h.p.l.c. The vasodilator effects of l-arginine were assessed non-invasively by blood pressure monitoring and impedance cardiography. Urinary nitrate and cyclic GMP excretion rates were measured as non-invasive indicators of endogenous NO production. Results Plasma l-arginine levels increased to (mean±s.e.mean) 6223±407 (range, 5100–7680) and 822±59 (527–955) μmol l−1 after intravenous infusion of 30 g and 6 g l-arginine, respectively, and to 310±152 (118–1219) μmol l−1 after oral ingestion of 6 g l-arginine. Oral bioavailability of l-arginine was 68±9 (51–87)%. Clearance was 544±24 (440–620), 894±164 (470–1190), and 1018±230 (710–2130) ml min−1, and elimination half-life was calculated as 41.6±2.3 (34–55), 59.6±9.1 (24–98), and 79.5±9.3 (50–121) min, respectively, for 30 g i.v., 6 g i.v., and 6 g p.o. of l-arginine. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were significantly decreased after intravenous infusion of 30 g l-arginine by 4.4±1.4% and 10.4±3.6%, respectively, but were not significantly changed after oral or intravenous administration of 6 g l-arginine. l-arginine (30 g) also significantly increased urinary nitrate and cyclic GMP excretion rates by 97±28 and 66±20%, respectively. After infusion of 6 g l-arginine, urinary nitrate excretion also significantly increased, (nitrate by 47±12% [P < 0.05], cyclic GMP by 67±47% [P = ns]), although to a lesser and more variable extent than after 30 g of l-arginine

  10. Arginine supplementation of sickle transgenic mice reduces red cell density and Gardos channel activity.

    PubMed

    Romero, José R; Suzuka, Sandra M; Nagel, Ronald L; Fabry, Mary E

    2002-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), essential for maintaining vascular tone, is produced from arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Plasma arginine levels are low in sickle cell anemia, and it is reported here that low plasma arginine is also found in our sickle transgenic mouse model that expresses human alpha, human beta(S), and human beta(S-Antilles) and is homozygous for the mouse beta(major) deletion (S+S-Antilles). S+S-Antilles mice were supplemented with a 4-fold increase in arginine that was maintained for several months. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) decreased and the percent high-density red cells was reduced. Deoxy K(+) efflux is characteristic of red cells in sickle cell disease and contributes to the disease process by increasing the MCHC and rendering the cells more susceptible to polymer formation. This flux versus the room air flux was reduced in S+S-Antilles red cells from an average value of 1.6 +/- 0.3 mmol per liter of red cells x minute (FU) in nonsupplemented mice to 0.9 +/- 0.3 FU (n = 4, P < .02, paired t test) in supplemented mice. In room air, V(max) of the Ca(++)-activated K(+) channel (Gardos) was reduced from 4.1 +/- 0.6 FU (off diet) to 2.6 +/- 0.4 FU (n = 7 and 8, P < .04, t test) in arginine-supplemented mice versus clotrimazole. In conclusion, the major mechanism by which arginine supplementation reduces red cell density (MCHC) in S+S-Antilles mice is by inhibiting the Ca(++)-activated K(+) channel.

  11. Clinical Outcome And Arginine Serum of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Supplemented by Snakehead Fish Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal

    2018-02-01

    Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L p<0.001). Change in NIHSS score in SFE improved significantly compared to the control group (4.14 ± 2.03; 2.52 ± 1.81;p=0.009 ). Logistic regression analysis showed only female gender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum levels in AIS patient with snakehead fish extract supplementation.

  12. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on the hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in early intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kaiju; Chen, Pingyang; Li, Suping; Li, Wen; He, Mingfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Juncao

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in intrauterine growth-restricted rats to dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation during the lactation period early in life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON), an intrauterine growth restriction group (IUGR) and an L-Arg group (LA). The pregnant rats in the CON group were fed a 21% protein diet, and those in the IUGR and LA groups were fed a 10% low protein diet, and all rats were fed a 21% protein diet after delivery. Water was available ad libitum to the pregnant rats during the 21-day lactation period, and the water provided to the LA group included 200 mg/kg/day L-Arg. Blood glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB) protein expression, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) mRNA expression in the offspring rats were measured postnatally at 1, 3 and 8 weeks. No significant difference in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were identified at any time point among the three groups. PI3K and PKB expression was lower in the IUGR group offspring compared with that in the CON group offspring, but both were increased by dietary L-Arg supplementation. PEPCK mRNA and G-6-Pase mRNA expression levels in the offspring of the IUGR group were higher compared with those in the CON group but were downregulated following L-Arg supplementation. These results suggest that dietary L-Arg supplementation during the early lactation period promoted catch-up growth and reversed abnormalities in hepatic insulin signaling and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IUGR offspring rats. PMID:28962167

  13. The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Separović, J; Hanzevacki, M; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklić, P; Stancić-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Jelovac, N; Marović, A

    1997-07-30

    The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) (5 mg/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor, L-arginine (200 mg/kg i.v.) (D-arginine was ineffective). In the gastric lesions assay, NO agents were given 5 min before ethanol injury and BPC 157 medication. Given alone, BPC157 had an antiulcer effect, as did L-arginine, but L-NAME had no effect. L-NAME completely abolished the effect of L-arginine, whereas it only attenuated the effect of BPC 157. After application of the combination of L-NAME + L-arginine, the BPC157 effect was additionally impaired. In blood pressure studies, compared with L-arginine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (without effect on basal normal values) had both a mimicking effect (impaired L-NAME-blood pressure increase, when applied prophylactically and decreased already raised L-NAME values, given at the time of the maximal L-NAME-blood pressure increase (i.e., 10 min after L-NAME)) and preventive activity (L-arginine-induced moderate blood pressure decrease was prevented by BPC 157 pretreatment). When BPC 157 was given 10 min after L-NAME + L-arginine combination, which still led to a blood pressure increase, its previously clear effect (noted in L-NAME treated rats) disappeared. In vitro, in gastric mucosa from rat stomach tissue homogenates, BPC 157, given in the same dose (100 microM) as L-arginine, induced a comparable generation of NO. But, BPC 157 effect could not be inhibited by L-NAME, even when L-NAME was given in a tenfold (100 versus 1000 microM) higher dose than that needed for inhibition of the L-arginine effect. NO synthesis was blunted when the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and L-arginine

  14. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference −3%, 95% CI −19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI −9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained

  15. Year-long changes in protein metabolism in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutrition cocktail of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), L-arginine, and L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Baier, Shawn; Johannsen, Darcy; Abumrad, Naji; Rathmacher, John A; Nissen, Steven; Flakoll, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A major contributing factor to the loss of mobility in elderly people is the gradual and continuous loss of lean body mass. To determine whether supplementation of an amino acid cocktail daily for 1 year could improve the age-associated changes in protein turnover and lean body mass in elderly people. Elderly (76+/-1.6 years) women (n=39) and men (n=38) were recruited for a double-blinded controlled study. Study participants were randomly assigned to either an isonitrogenous control-supplement (n=37) or a treatment-supplement (HMB/Arg/Lys) consisting of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, L-arginine, and L-lysine (n=40) for the 1-year study. Lean tissue mass was measured using both bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Rates of whole-body protein turnover were estimated using primed/intermittent oral doses of 15N-glycine. In subjects taking the HMB/Arg/Lys supplement, lean tissue increased over the year of study while in the control group, lean tissue did not change. Compared with control, HMB/Arg/Lys increased body cell mass (BIA) by 1.6% (P=.002) and lean mass (DXA) by 1.2% (P=.05). The rates of protein turnover were significantly increased 8% and 12% in the HMB/Arg/Lys-supplemented group while rates of protein turnover decreased 11% and 9% in the control-supplemented subjects (P<.01), at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Consumption of a simple amino acid-related cocktail increased protein turnover and lean tissue in elderly individuals in a year-long study.

  16. [Effect of enteral supplement of arginine on intestinal adaptation and its mechanism in experimental rats with short bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-hua; Li, Ning; Zhu, Wei-ming; Li, Jie-shou

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of enteral supplement of arginine on intestinal adaptation in rats with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and to study its mechanism. SD rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham rats (Con), SBS rats (SB) and SBS rats supplemented with enteral arginine (SB-Arg). All the animals received isonitrogenic and isocaloric enteral nutrition, except that SB-Arg rats received enteral nutrition supplemented with arginine (300 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Fat absorbability, plasma free fatty acids, parameters of intestinal adaptation, enterocytes proliferation and apoptosis were determined. After massive small bowel resection, rats had significant bowel adaptation. Compared with SB rats, SB-Arg rats demonstrated a significant increase in fat absorbability [(84.9+/-3.2)% vs [(81.3+/-3.9)%], plasma level of free fatty acids [(650.0+/-86.5) vs (289.5+/-76.9) mg/L], ileal mucosal weight [(18.0+/-3.5) vs (13.5+/-3.0) mg cm(-1) 100 g(-1)], ileal DNA content [(29.6+/-3.3) vs (26.0+/-2.6) microg cm(-1) 100 g(-1)], jejunal mucosal protein content [(65.5+/-7.3) vs (59.8+/-6.2) microg cm(-1) 100 g(-1)], ileal mucosal protein content[(39.2+/-2.3) vs(35.4+/-2.3) microg cm(-1) 100 g(-1)], jejunal mucosal proliferation index [31+/-4 vs 22+/-3] and ileal mucosal proliferation index [32+/-2 vs 25+/-3] (all P<0.05). Moreover, jejunal and ileal villus length, crypt depth and mucosal thickness in SBS-Arg rats were higher than those in SB rats (P<0.05). In rat SBS model, enteral supplement of arginine appears to stimulate intestinal structural and functional adaptation. The mechanism may be that arginine can stimulate enterocyte proliferation and inhibit enterocyte apoptosis.

  17. Decreased serum L-arginine and L-citrulline levels in major depression.

    PubMed

    Hess, S; Baker, G; Gyenes, G; Tsuyuki, R; Newman, S; Le Melledo, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that endothelial dysfunction caused by a decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to the consistently observed increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in physically healthy patients suffering from major depression (MD). NO is a gas synthesized from Larginine (a conditionally essential amino acid) and oxygen by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The end products of NO production include both NO and L-citrulline. NO is rapidly reduced to the anions nitrite and nitrate, classically referred to as NO metabolites. Their measurement has been used as a surrogate measurement for endothelial NO production. We and others have shown decreased levels of NO metabolites in the serum of MD patients. The mechanism of this decreased production of NO by the endothelium has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to assess serum levels of L-arginine and L-citrulline in patients with MD. Levels of L-arginine and L-citrulline were measured in 35 unmedicated physically healthy MD patients and 36 healthy controls (HCs). L-arginine and L-citrulline concentrations were significantly lower in MD patients than in healthy controls (L-arginine, 73.54 + 21.53 μmol/L and 84.89 + 25.16, p = 0.04 μmol/L and L-citrulline 31.58 + 6.05 μmol/L and 35.19 + 6.85 μmol/L, p = 0.03, respectively). The decrease in L-arginine levels in MD patients is a possible explanation for the decrease in NO metabolites in MD patients and therefore may contribute, through endothelial dysfunction, to the increased CV risk associated with MD.

  18. L-Arginine in the treatment of valproate overdose - five clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Schrettl, Verena; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Rabe, Christian; Fernando, Malkanthi; Eyer, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Valproic acid and its metabolites - particularly valproyl-CoA - are inhibitors of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthetase. The amino acid l-arginine can stimulate N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity and could be potentially used therapeutically to correct hyperammonemia caused by valproate therapy or overdose. Severely valproic-acid-poisoned patients are usually treated with l-carnitine or hemodialysis in order to decrease hyperammonemia. We herein report of five cases, in which l-arginine was administered. Observational study on five cases. Patients with hyperammonemia (i.e., ammonia 80 > μg/dL) and symptoms consistent with valproate overdose (i.e., drowsiness, coma) were selected for treatment with l-arginine. Data was collected retrospectively. l-Arginine decreased ammonia levels in a close temporal relation (case I ammonia in EDTA-plasma [μg/dL] decreased from 381 to 39; case II from 281 to 50; case III from 669 to 74; case IV from 447 to 56; case V from 202 to 60). In cases I and II, hemodialysis was performed and l-carnitine was given before the administration of l-arginine. In case III, hemodialysis was performed after the administration of l-arginine was already started. In cases IV and V, treatment with l-arginine was the sole measure to decrease ammonia levels in plasma. The results suggest that l-arginine may be beneficial in selected cases of valproate overdose complicated by hyperammonemia. l-Arginine could extend our conventional treatment options for valproic acid overdose.

  19. Stability and resilience of oral microcosms toward acidification and Candida outgrowth by arginine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jessica E; Röling, Wilfred F M; Buijs, Mark J; Sissons, Christopher H; ten Cate, Jacob M; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2015-02-01

    Dysbiosis induced by low pH in the oral ecosystem can lead to caries, a prevalent bacterial disease in humans. The amino acid arginine is one of the pH-elevating agents in the oral cavity. To obtain insights into the effect of arginine on oral microbial ecology, a multi-plaque "artificial mouth" (MAM) biofilm model was inoculated with saliva from a healthy volunteer and microcosms were grown for 4 weeks with 1.6 % (w/v) arginine supplement (Arginine) or without (Control), samples were taken at several time-points. A cariogenic environment was mimicked by sucrose pulsing. The bacterial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the presence and amount of Candida and arginine deiminase system genes arcA and sagP by qPCR. Additionally, ammonium and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were determined. The Arginine microcosms were dominated by Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Neisseria and remained stable in time, while the composition of the Control microcosms diverged significantly in time, partially due to the presence of Megasphaera. The percentage of Candida increased 100-fold in the Control microcosms compared to the Arginine microcosms. The pH-raising effect of arginine was confirmed by the pH and ammonium results. The abundances of sagP and arcA were highest in the Arginine microcosms, while the concentration of butyrate was higher in the Control microcosms. We demonstrate that supplementation with arginine serves a health-promoting function; it enhances microcosm resilience toward acidification and suppresses outgrowth of the opportunistic pathogen Candida. Arginine facilitates stability of oral microbial communities and prevents them from becoming cariogenic.

  20. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice. The effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Jelovac, Nikola; Dodig, Goran; Rucman, Rudolf; Petek, Marijan; Turkovic, Branko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol disturbances, NO stimulation (by the NO-precursor L-arginine), and/or NO-synthesis blockade (by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, i.e. L-NAME) were challenged with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which inhibits both acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Mice received intraperitoneally (i.p.) BPC 157 (10 microg/kg), L-NAME (10 mg/kg), and L-arginine (400 mg/kg), alone or in combination, 5 minutes before or after acute ethanol (4 g/kg i.p.) intoxication or after 0, 3, or 7 hours of withdrawal after drinking 20% alcohol for 13 days. BPC 157 rapidly opposes the strongest disturbance presentations in acute intoxication (sustained ethanol anesthesia, complete loss of righting reflex, no reaction to external stimuli, hypothermia, 25% mortality) and withdrawal (prominent seizures). NO-agents: Aggravation of acute alcohol intoxication and opposition to withdrawal are common, but the later intervals affected by L-arginine and the action throughout the experiment by L-NAME are distinctive. Given together, L-arginine and L-NAME counteract each other, while either the "L-NAME presentation" (acute intoxication) or the "L-arginine presentation" (withdrawal) predominates. BPC157+NO-agent: In acute intoxication (L-NAME predominating in NO-system functioning to aggravate intoxication), both BPC157+L-NAME and BPC157+L-arginine follow the presentation of L-NAME, but without worsened mortality. In withdrawal (L-arginine predominating in NO-system functioning to oppose disturbance symptoms), BPC157+L-NAME follows the presentation of L-NAME, while BPC 157+L-arginine imitates that of L-arginine. The relationships among pentadecapeptide BPC 157, the NO-system, acute alcohol intoxication, and opposed withdrawal may be important, presenting pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as a suitable alcohol antagonist.

  1. Improvement of the ammonia assimilation for enhancing L-arginine production of Corynebacterium crenatum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Man, Zaiwei; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Meijuan; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhenghong

    2017-03-01

    There are four nitrogen atoms in L-arginine molecule and the nitrogen content is 32.1%. By now, metabolic engineering for L-arginine production strain improvement was focused on carbon flux optimization. In previous work, we obtained an L-arginine-producing Corynebacterium crenatum SDNN403 (ARG) through screening and mutation breeding. In this paper, a strain engineering strategy focusing on nitrogen supply and ammonium assimilation for L-arginine production was performed. Firstly, the effects of nitrogen atom donor (L-glutamate, L-glutamine and L-aspartate) addition on L-arginine production of ARG were studied, and the addition of L-glutamine and L-aspartate was beneficial for L-arginine production. Then, the glutamine synthetase gene glnA and aspartase gene aspA from E. coli were overexpressed in ARG for increasing the L-glutamine and L-aspartate synthesis, and the L-arginine production was effectively increased. In addition, the L-glutamate supply re-emerged as a limiting factor for L-arginine biosynthesis. Finally, the glutamate dehydrogenase gene gdh was co-overexpressed for further enhancement of L-arginine production. The final strain could produce 53.2 g l -1 of L-arginine, which was increased by 41.5% compared to ARG in fed-batch fermentation.

  2. Influence of L-arginine during bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Silva, Bruno Baraúna; de Sá, André Luiz Alves; da Costa, Nathalia Nogueira; Sampaio, Rafael Vilar; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of using L-arginine during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on in vitro embryonic development using Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen. Effect of different concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 50 mM) of L-arginine, added to the IVF medium, was evaluated on the fertilization rate at 18 h post-fertilization (hpf), NO3(-)/NO2(-) production during IVF by the Griess colorimetric method (30 hpf), cleavage and blastocyst rates (on Day 2 and Day 7 of culture, respectively) and total blastocyst cell number (Day 7 of culture). The results reveal that the addition of 50 mM L-arginine to IVF medium, with either Bos taurus or Bos indicus spermatozoa, decreased the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate compared to the control group. Other concentrations did not affect embryo production. However, 1 mM L-arginine with Bos indicus semen increased the proportion of hatched blastocysts. These results indicate that high L-arginine concentrations may exhibit toxic effects on bovine gametes during in vitro fertilization.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in trained adult men.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bill; Roberts, Mike; Kerksick, Chad; Wilborn, Colin; Marcello, Brandon; Taylor, Lem; Nassar, Erika; Leutholtz, Brian; Bowden, Rodney; Rasmussen, Chris; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of l-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) in trained adult men. Subjects participated in two studies that employed a randomized, double-blind, controlled design. In study 1, 10 healthy men (30-50 y old) fasted for 8 h and then ingested 4 g of time-released or non-timed-released AAKG. Blood samples were taken for 8 h after AAKG ingestion to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of L-arginine. After 1 wk the alternative supplement was ingested. In study 2, which was placebo controlled, 35 resistance-trained adult men (30-50 y old) were randomly assigned to ingest 4 g of AAKG (three times a day, i.e., 12 g daily, n = 20) or placebo (n = 15). Participants performed 4 d of periodized resistance training per week for 8 wk. At 0, 4, and 8 wk of supplementation the following tests were performed: clinical blood markers, one repetition maximum bench press, isokinetic quadriceps muscle endurance, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, total body water, body composition, and psychometric parameters tests. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. In study 1, significant differences were observed in plasma arginine levels in subjects taking non-timed-release and timed-release AAKG. In study 2, significant differences were observed in the AAKG group (P < 0.05) for 1RM bench press, Wingate peak power, blood glucose, and plasma arginine. No significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, total body water, isokinetic quadriceps muscle endurance, or aerobic capacity. AAKG supplementation appeared to be safe and well tolerated, and positively influenced 1RM bench press and Wingate peak power performance. AAKG did not influence body composition or aerobic capacity.

  4. Dietary L-arginine supplementation during mouse gestation enhances reproductive performance and Vegfr2 transcription activity in the fetoplacental unit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regarded as one of the most versatile amino acids, arginine serves as a precursor for many molecules and has been reported to improve the reproductive performance of rats and pigs. To this end, we sought to determine if dietary L-arginine alters fetoplacental vascular endothelial growth factor recep...

  5. L-arginine reverses alterations in drug disposition induced by spinal cord injury by increasing hepatic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Vertiz-Hernandez, Antonio; Castaneda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Grijalva, Israel; Guizar-Sahagun, Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    High hepatic extraction drugs--such as phenacetin, methylprednisolone, and cyclosporine--exhibit an increased bioavailability after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) due to an impaired clearance. For these drugs, metabolic clearance depends on hepatic blood flow. Thus, it is possible that pharmacokinetic alterations can be reversed by increasing liver perfusion. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, on the pharmacokinetics of a prototype drug with high hepatic extraction, and on hepatic microvascular blood flow (MVBF) after acute SCI. Pharmacokinetics of i.v. phenacetin was studied in rats 24 h after a severe T-5 spinal cord contusion; animals being pretreated with L-arginine 100 mg/kg i.v. or vehicle. MVBF was assessed under similar experimental conditions using laser Doppler flowmetry. SCI significantly altered phenacetin pharmacokinetics. Clearance was significantly reduced, resulting in a prolonged half-life and an increase in bioavailability, while volume of distribution was decreased. Pharmacokinetic alterations were reversed when injured rats were pretreated with L -arginine. It was also observed that L-arginine significantly increased hepatic MVBF in injured rats, notwithstanding it exhibited a limited effect on sham-injured animals. Our data hence suggest that L-arginine is able to reverse SCI-induced alterations in phenacetin pharmacokinetics due to an impaired hepatic MVBF, likely by increased nitric oxide synthesis leading to vasodilation. Further studies are warranted to examine the potential usefulness of nitric oxide supplementation in a clinical setting.

  6. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Lauren Izabel Medeiros; Wuicik, William Luiz; Kuhn, Ivan; Capriotti, Juan Rodolfo Vilela; Repka, João Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG), after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG) and the arginine group (AG) respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's t methods were used and p ≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Results In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. Conclusion Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain. PMID:26401505

  7. Impaired nitric oxide production in children with MELAS syndrome and the effect of arginine and citrulline supplementation.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Hsu, Jean W; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Almannai, Mohammed; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is not fully understood and believed to result from several interacting mechanisms including impaired mitochondrial energy production, microvasculature angiopathy, and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. NO deficiency in MELAS syndrome is likely to be multifactorial in origin with the decreased availability of the NO precursors, arginine and citrulline, playing a major role. In this study we used stable isotope infusion techniques to assess NO production in children with MELAS syndrome and healthy pediatric controls. We also assessed the effect of oral arginine and citrulline supplementations on NO production in children with MELAS syndrome. When compared to control subjects, children with MELAS syndrome were found to have lower NO production, arginine flux, plasma arginine, and citrulline flux. In children with MELAS syndrome, arginine supplementation resulted in increased NO production, arginine flux, and arginine concentration. Citrulline supplementation resulted in a greater increase of these parameters. Additionally, citrulline supplementation was associated with a robust increase in citrulline concentration and flux and de novo arginine synthesis rate. The greater effect of citrulline in increasing NO production is due to its greater ability to increase arginine availability particularly in the intracellular compartment in which NO synthesis takes place. This study, which is the first one to assess NO metabolism in children with mitochondrial diseases, adds more evidence to the notion that NO deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome, suggests a better effect for citrulline because of its greater role as NO precursor, and indicates that impaired NO production occurs in children as well as adults with MELAS syndrome. Thus, the initiation of treatment with NO precursors may be

  8. Impaired nitric oxide production in children with MELAS syndrome and the effect of arginine and citrulline supplementation

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Emrick, Lisa T; Hsu, Jean W.; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Almannai, Mohammed; Craigen, William J.; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is not fully understood and believed to result from several interacting mechanisms including impaired mitochondrial energy production, microvasculature angiopathy, and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. NO deficiency in MELAS syndrome is likely to be multifactorial in origin with the decreased availability of the NO precursors, arginine and citrulline, playing a major role. In this study we used stable isotope infusion techniques to assess NO production in children with MELAS syndrome and healthy pediatric controls. We also assessed the effect of oral arginine and citrulline supplementations on NO production in children with MELAS syndrome. When compared to control subjects, children with MELAS syndrome were found to have lower NO production, arginine flux, plasma arginine, and citrulline flux. In children with MELAS syndrome, arginine supplementation resulted in increased NO production, arginine flux, and arginine concentration. Citrulline supplementation resulted in a greater increase of these parameters. Additionally, citrulline supplementation was associated with a robust increase in citrulline concentration and flux and de novo arginine synthesis rate. The greater effect of citrulline in increasing NO production is due to its greater ability to increase arginine availability particularly in the intracellular compartment in which NO synthesis takes place. This study, which is the first one to assess NO metabolism in children with mitochondrial diseases, adds more evidence to the notion that NO deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome, suggests a better effect for citrulline because of its greater role as NO precursor, and indicates that impaired NO production occurs in children as well as adults with MELAS syndrome. Thus, the initiation of treatment with NO precursors may be

  9. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  10. Effects of l-arginine pretreatment on nitric oxide metabolism and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during porcine endotoxemia1234

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J; Kessels, Fons; Luiking, Yvette C; Lamers, Wouter H; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is accompanied by an increased need for and a decreased supply of arginine, reflecting a condition of arginine deficiency. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine pretreatment on arginine–nitric oxide (NO) production and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during subsequent endotoxemia. Design: In a randomized controlled trial, pigs (20–25 kg) received 3 μg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 endotoxin units/ng) intravenously and saline resuscitation. l-Arginine (n = 8; 5.3 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) or saline (n = 8) was infused starting 12 h before LPS infusion and continued for 24 h after the endotoxin infusion ended. Whole-body appearance rates, portal-drained viscera (PDV), and liver fluxes of arginine, citrulline, NO, and arginine de novo synthesis were measured by using stable-isotope infusion of [15N2]arginine and [13C-2H2]citrulline. Hepatosplanchnic perfusion was assessed by using a primed continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid and jejunal intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and was related to systemic hemodynamics. Results: Arginine supplementation before LPS increased whole-body NO production in the PDV but not in the liver. Furthermore, it increased blood flow in the portal vein but not in the aorta and hepatic artery. During endotoxin infusion, arginine pretreatment was associated with an increased whole-body arginine appearance and NO production in the gut. Additional effects included a preserved mean arterial pressure, the prevention of an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, an attenuated metabolic acidosis, and an attenuated increase in the intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Conclusion: Arginine treatment starting before endotoxemia appears to be beneficial because it improves hepatosplanchnic perfusion and oxygenation during prolonged endotoxemia, probably through an enhancement in NO synthesis, without causing deleterious systemic side effects. PMID

  11. Preventive oral supplementation with glutamine and arginine has beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Cui; He, Liuqin

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with a combination of arginine and glutamine on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adult rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight of 185 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: control group A (CA) and control group B (CB), both orally supplemented with 0.9% saline; group Arg, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) arginine; group Gln, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine; group AG, supplemented with 150 mg/kg day(-1) arginine and 150 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine. The experiment lasted for 2 weeks. Food intake and body weight were measured during the experiment. At 10.00 h of day 15, animals were injected with 4 mg/kg LPS (group CB, Arg, Gln, and AG) or sterile saline (group CA) after supplementation. Then at 14.00 h, all animals were killed and blood and tissue collected. The results showed that compared with group CB, arginine concentration tended to be increased (P > 0.05) in group Arg and AG, while there was no significant difference in glutamine concentration among the groups challenged with LPS. Oral supplementation with arginine or/and glutamine mitigated morphology impairment (lower villus height, P < 0.05) in the jejunum and ileum induced by LPS challenge. LPS administration resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA abundance. Arginine only significantly decreased TNF-α mRNA abundance in the ileum, while glutamine significantly decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in the ileum. A combination of arginine and glutamine significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA abundance in both the jejunum and ileum, while they also significantly decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the ileum. These results revealed that an oral supply of combined arginine and glutamine had more favorable effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines than a supply of arginine or glutamine alone.

  12. Perioperative glutamine supplementation restores disturbed renal arginine synthesis after open aortic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Saskia J H; Buijs, Nikki; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Oosterink, Efraim; Schierbeek, Henk; Beishuizen, Albertus; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Wisselink, Willem; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative renal failure is a common complication after open repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The amino acid arginine is formed in the kidneys from its precursor citrulline, and citrulline is formed from glutamine in the intestines. Arginine enhances the function of the immune and cardiovascular systems, which is important for recovery after surgery. We hypothesized that renal arginine production is diminished after ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by clamping of the aorta during open abdominal aortic surgery and that parenteral glutamine supplementation might compensate for this impaired arginine synthesis. This open-label clinical trial randomized patients who underwent clamping of the aorta during open abdominal aortic surgery to receive a perioperative supplement of intravenous alanyl-glutamine (0.5 g·kg(-1)·day(-1); group A, n = 5) or no supplement (group B, n = 5). One day after surgery, stable isotopes and tracer methods were used to analyze the metabolism and conversion of glutamine, citrulline, and arginine. Whole body plasma flux of glutamine, citrulline, and arginine was significantly higher in group A than in group B (glutamine: 391 ± 34 vs. 258 ± 19 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1), citrulline: 5.7 ± 0.4 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1), and arginine: 50 ± 4 vs. 26 ± 2 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1), P < 0.01), as was the synthesis of citrulline from glutamine (4.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)), citrulline from arginine (2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 0.96 ± 0.1 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)), and arginine from glutamine (7.7 ± 0.4 vs. 2.8 ± 0.2 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)), respectively (P < 0.001 for all). In conclusion, the production of citrulline and arginine is severely reduced after clamping during aortic surgery. This study shows that an intravenous supplement of glutamine increases the production of citrulline and arginine and compensates for the inhibitory effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and properties of L-arginine-passivated silver nanocolloids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sunatkari, A. L., E-mail: ashok.sunatkari@rediffmail.com; Talwatkar, S. S.; Tamgadge, Y. S.

    2016-05-06

    We investigate the effect of L-arginine-surface passivation on localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), size and stability of colloidal Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method. The surface Plasmon resonance absorption peak of AgNPs shows blue shift with the increase in L-arginine concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that the average size of AgNPs reduces from 10 nm to 6 nm as the concentration of L-Arginine increased from 1 to 5 mM. The X-ray diffraction study (XRD) confirmed the formation face-centred cubic (fcc) structured AgNPs. FT-IR studies revealed strong bonding between L-arginine functional groups and AgNPs.

  14. New Insights into the Methodology of L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T.; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S.; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5–30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L–arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5–8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

  15. Arginine reduces Cryptosporidium parvum infection in undernourished suckling mice involving both nitric oxide synthase and arginase

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ibraim C.; Oliveira, Bruna B.; Slowikowski, Jacek J.; Coutinho, Bruna P.; Siqueira, Francisco Júlio W.S.; Costa, Lourrany B.; Sevilleja, Jesus Emmanuel; Almeida, Camila A.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Warren, Cirle A.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of L-arginine supplementation to undernourished and Cryptosporidium parvum-infected suckling mice. Methods The following regimens were initiated on the 4th day of life and given subcutaneously daily: either 200mM of L-arginine or PBS for the C. parvum-infected controls. L-arginine-treated mice were grouped to receive either 20mM of NG-nitroarginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) or PBS. Infected mice received orally 106 excysted-C. parvum oocysts on day 6 and were euthanized on day 14th at the infection peak. Results L-arginine improved weight gain compared to the untreated infected controls. L-NAME profoundly impaired body weight gain as compared to all other groups. Cryptosporidiosis was associated with ileal crypt hyperplasia, villus blunting, and inflammation. L-arginine improved mucosal histology following infection. L-NAME abrogated these arginine-induced improvements. Infected control mice showed an intense arginase expression, which was even greater with L-NAME. L-arginine reduced parasite burden, an effect that was reversed by L-NAME. C. parvum infection increased urine NO3-/NO2- concentration when compared to uninfected controls, which was increased by L-arginine supplementation, an effect that was also reversed by L-NAME. Conclusion These findings show a protective role of L-arginine during C. parvum infection in undernourished mice with involvement of arginase I and nitric oxide synthase enzymatic actions. PMID:22261576

  16. Mechanism of allosteric inhibition of N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase by L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Jin, Zhongmin; Caldovic, Ljubica; Morizono, Hiroki; Allewell, Norma M; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang

    2009-02-20

    N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the first committed step in l-arginine biosynthesis in plants and micro-organisms and is subject to feedback inhibition by l-arginine. This study compares the crystal structures of NAGS from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngNAGS) in the inactive T-state with l-arginine bound and in the active R-state complexed with CoA and l-glutamate. Under all of the conditions examined, the enzyme consists of two stacked trimers. Each monomer has two domains: an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain with an AAK-like fold but lacking kinase activity and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain homologous to other GCN5-related transferases. Binding of l-arginine to the AAK domain induces a global conformational change that increases the diameter of the hexamer by approximately 10 A and decreases its height by approximately 20A(.) AAK dimers move 5A outward along their 2-fold axes, and their tilt relative to the plane of the hexamer decreases by approximately 4 degrees . The NAT domains rotate approximately 109 degrees relative to AAK domains enabling new interdomain interactions. Interactions between AAK and NAT domains on different subunits also change. Local motions of several loops at the l-arginine-binding site enable the protein to close around the bound ligand, whereas several loops at the NAT active site become disordered, markedly reducing enzymatic specific activity.

  17. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  18. Does L-arginine induce intestinal adaptation by epithelial growth factor?

    PubMed

    Camli, Alparslan; Barlas, Meral; Yagmurlu, Aydin

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether L-Arginine has an effect on endogenous epidermal growth factor secretion and intestinal adaptation in massive small bowel resection an experimental study was performed. Fourteen albino Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used for the study. After performing 50% small bowel resection and anastomosis the rats were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received 500 mg/kg/day of L-Arginine intraperitoneally for 14 days just after the surgical procedure. The control group received isotonic saline instead. Body weight measurement was preformed daily. At the end of the second postoperative week all rats underwent relaparotomy. Small bowel was resected for histopathological examination. Levels of epidermal growth factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum, saliva, and urine at the end of second postoperative week in both groups. The weight gain was higher in the L-Arginine treated group (P < 0.05). Serum, saliva and urinary epidermal growth factor levels were significantly higher at the end of the second week compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The villus height was higher on histopathological examination in L-Arginine treated group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). L-Arginine resulted in a better intestinal adaptation after massive bowel resection. The high levels of epidermal growth factor in body fluids of L-Arginine treated rats could be the explanation for this effect.

  19. Arginine supplementation modulates pig plasma lipids, but not hepatic fatty acids, depending on dietary protein level with or without leucine.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta Sofia Morgado Dos Santos; Rolo, Eva Sofia Alves; Pires, Virgínia Maria Rico; Alfaia, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus; Coelho, Diogo Francisco Maurício; Lopes, Paula Alexandra Antunes Brás; Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro; Prates, José António Mestre

    2017-05-30

    In the present study, the effect of arginine and leucine supplementation, and dietary protein level, were investigated in commercial crossbred pigs to clarify their individual or combined impact on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid sensitive factors. The experiment was conducted on fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred) from 59 to 92 kg of live weight. Each pig was randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n = 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, providing two levels of arginine supplementation (0 vs. 1%) and three levels of basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet with 2% of leucine, RPDL). Significant interactions between arginine supplementation and protein level were observed across plasma lipids. While dietary arginine increased total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in NPD, the inverse effect was observed in RPD. Overall, dietary treatments had a minor impact on hepatic fatty acid composition. RPD increased 18:1c9 fatty acid while the combination of leucine and RPD reduced 18:0 fatty acid. Arginine supplementation increased the gene expression of FABP1, which contributes for triacylglycerols synthesis without affecting hepatic fatty acids content. RPD, with or without leucine addition, upregulated the lipogenic gene CEBPA but downregulated the fat oxidation gene LPIN1. Arginine supplementation was responsible for a modulated effect on plasma lipids, which is dependent on dietary protein level. It consistently increased lipaemia in NPD, while reducing the correspondent metabolites in RPD. In contrast, arginine had no major impact, neither on hepatic fatty acids content nor on fatty acid composition. Likewise, leucine supplementation of RPD, regardless the presence of arginine, promoted no changes on total fatty acids in

  20. Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rathmacher, J A; Nissen, S; Panton, L; Clark, R H; Eubanks May, P; Barber, A E; D'Olimpio, J; Abumrad, N N

    2004-01-01

    Combining the amino acids arginine and glutamine with the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to reverse lean tissue loss in cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Although each of these nutrients has been shown to be safe, the safety of this mixture has not been reported. Three double-blind studies examined the safety of the combination of HMB, arginine and glutamine on blood chemistries, hematology, emotional profile, and adverse events. Study 1 was conducted in healthy adult males (n = 34), study 2 was in HIV patients with AIDS-associated weight loss (n = 43), and study 3 was in cancer patients with wasting (n = 32). Volunteers were assigned to either a placebo or a mixture of 3 g HMB, 14 g arginine, and 14 g glutamine per day. Across the 3 studies, HMB, arginine, and glutamine supplementation was not associated with any adverse indicators of health. The only significant changes noted were positive indicators of health status. HMB, arginine, and glutamine supplementation was associated with an improvement in emotional profile (p = .05), a decreased feeling of weakness (p = .03), and increased red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (p < .05) when compared with placebo-supplemented subjects. Blood creatinine levels were not changed. However, blood urea nitrogen increased (p = .01) with HMB, arginine, and glutamine supplementation, which was possibly caused by the additional nitrogen consumed or to the fact that ureagenesis is influenced by arginine and glutamine supplementation. These results show that HMB, arginine, and glutamine can be safely used to treat muscle wasting associated with AIDS and cancer.

  1. Mitochondria: role of citrulline and arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and generate most of the cellular energy. Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient ATP to meet the energy needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. Both arginine and citrulline act as NO precursors and their administration results in increased NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. Citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than arginine, therefore, citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. Controlled studies assessing the effects of arginine or citrulline supplementation on different clinical aspects of MELAS syndrome are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does pharmaconutrition with L-arginine and/or alpha-tocopherol improve the gut barrier in bile duct ligated rats?

    PubMed

    Tuncyurek, P; Sari, M; Firat, O; Mutaf, I; Gulter, C; Tunger, A; Yuce, G; Yilmaz, M; Makay, O; Dayangac, M; Ersin, S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide supplementation and antioxidant therapy modulate gut barrier function, but the relationships between enhanced nitric oxide production, antioxidant administration, and biliary obstruction remain unclear. We evaluated the role of nitric oxide and alpha-tocopherol supplementation in bile duct ligated rats. Fifty male Wistar albino rats underwent sham operation (group I; control animals) or bile duct ligation (groups II, III, IV, and V). The ligation groups received the following regimens: standard pellet diet (group II), pellet diet plus intramuscularly administered alpha-tocopherol (group III), and L-arginine-enriched pellet diet without (group IV) or with (group V) alpha-tocopherol. Nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were assessed at the end of 3 weeks. Liver and intestinal samples were scored histologically. Mesenteric lymph node and liver cultures were assessed for bacterial translocation. The liver malondialdehyde concentration was highest in group III. The nitric oxide content in the liver was higher in groups III and V, as were the blood alpha-tocopherol levels. Bacterial translocation was evident following bile duct ligation, but did not differ among the treatment groups. Intestinal histology revealed that group III had the lowest villus height, that group V had the least villus count, and that group II had the highest mucous cell count. The fibrosis scores were higher in groups IV and V. An obvious effect of alpha-tocopherol (with or without L-arginine) on the gut barrier could not be demonstrated. Moreover, the L-arginine-enriched diet promoted fibrosis in the liver. Thus, while biliary duct obstruction triggers bacterial translocation, nitric oxide and/or alpha-tocopherol supplementation did not seem to improve the gut barrier in our model. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Arginine and citrulline for the treatment of MELAS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Almannai, Mohammed; Scaglia, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) syndrome is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. In addition to impaired energy production, nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and leads to impaired blood perfusion in microvasculature that can contribute to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. The supplementation of NO precursors, L-arginine and L-citrulline, increases NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. L-citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than L-arginine; therefore, L-citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. The clinical effect of L-citrulline has not yet been studied and clinical studies on L-arginine, which are limited, only evaluated the stroke-like episodes aspect of the disease. Controlled studies are still needed to assess the clinical effects of L-arginine and L-citrulline on different aspects of MELAS syndrome. PMID:28736735

  4. Arginine and citrulline for the treatment of MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Almannai, Mohammed; Scaglia, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) syndrome is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. In addition to impaired energy production, nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and leads to impaired blood perfusion in microvasculature that can contribute to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. The supplementation of NO precursors, L-arginine and L-citrulline, increases NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. L-citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than L-arginine; therefore, L-citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. The clinical effect of L-citrulline has not yet been studied and clinical studies on L-arginine, which are limited, only evaluated the stroke-like episodes aspect of the disease. Controlled studies are still needed to assess the clinical effects of L-arginine and L-citrulline on different aspects of MELAS syndrome.

  5. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Reduces Bleeding and Thrombocytopenia after Amputation in Rats Treated with Heparin, Warfarin, L-NAME and L-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Stupnisek, Mirjana; Kokot, Antonio; Drmic, Domagoj; Hrelec Patrlj, Masa; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Radic, Bozo; Suran, Jelena; Bojic, Davor; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    BPC 157 is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide recently implicated with a role in hemostasis. While NO is largely implicated in hemostatic mechanisms, in tail-amputation-models under heparin- and warfarin-administration, both the NO-synthase (NOS)-blocker, L-NAME (prothrombotic) and the NOS-substrate L-arginine (antithrombotic), were little investigated. Objective. To investigate the effect of L-NAME and L-arginine on hemostatic parameters, and to reveal the effects of BPC 157 on the L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced hemostatic actions under different pathological condition: tail amputation without or with anticoagulants, heparin or warfarin. Tail amputation, and/or i.v.-heparin (10 mg/kg), i.g.-warfarin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days) were used in rats. Treatment includes BPC 157, L-NAME, L-arginine, per se and their combination. After (tail) amputation, with or without i.v.-heparin or i.g.-warfarin, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, i.p., i.v. (heparin), 10 μg/kg i.g. (warfarin)) always reduced bleeding time and/or haemorrhage and counteracted thrombocytopenia. As for L-NAME and/or L-arginine, we noted: L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.p.)-rats: more bleeding, less/no thrombocytopenia; L-NAME (5 mg/kg i.p.)-rats: less bleeding (amputation only), but present thrombocytopenia; L-NAME+L-arginine-rats also exhibited thrombocytopenia: L-NAME counteracted L-arginine-increased bleeding, L-arginine did not counteract L-NAME-thrombocytopenia. All animals receiving BPC 157 in addition (BPC 157 μg+L-NAME; BPC 157 μg+L-arginine, BPC 157 μg+L-NAME+L-arginine), exhibited decreased haemorrhage and markedly counteracted thrombocytopenia. L-NAME (thrombocytopenia), L-arginine (increased haemorrhage) counteraction and BPC 157 (decreased haemorrhage, counteracted thrombocytopenia) with rescue against two different anticoagulants, implicate a BPC 157 modulatory and balancing role with rescued NO-hemostatic mechanisms.

  6. Mannitol/l-Arginine-Based Formulation Systems for Freeze Drying of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Effect of the l-Arginine Counter Ion and Formulation Composition on the Formulation Properties and the Physical State of Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein storage stability in freeze-dried l-arginine-based systems improved in the presence of chloride ions. However, chloride ions reduced the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg') and made freeze drying more challenging. In this study, l-arginine was freeze dried with mannitol to obtain partially crystalline solids that can be freeze dried in a fast process and result in elegant cakes. We characterized the effect of different l-arginine counter ions on physicochemical properties of mannitol compared with mannitol/sucrose systems. Thermal properties of formulations with different compositions were correlated to thermal history during freeze drying and to physicochemical properties (cake appearance, residual moisture, reconstitution time, crystallinity). Partially crystalline solids were obtained even at the highest l-arginine level (mannitol:l-arginine of 2:1) used in this study. All l-arginine-containing formulations yielded elegant cakes. Only cakes containing l-arginine chloride and succinate showed a surface "crust" formed by phase separation. X-ray powder diffraction showed that inhibition of mannitol crystallization was stronger for l-arginine compared with sucrose and varied with the type of l-arginine counter ion. The counter ion affected mannitol polymorphism and higher levels of mannitol hemi-hydrate were obtained at high levels of l-arginine chloride. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism of Allosteric Inhibition of N-Acetyl-L-glutamate Synthase by L-Arginine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Min, Li; Jin, Zhongmin; Caldovic, Ljubica

    2010-01-07

    N-Acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the first committed step in L-arginine biosynthesis in plants and micro-organisms and is subject to feedback inhibition by L-arginine. This study compares the crystal structures of NAGS from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngNAGS) in the inactive T-state with L-arginine bound and in the active R-state complexed with CoA and L-glutamate. Under all of the conditions examined, the enzyme consists of two stacked trimers. Each monomer has two domains: an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain with an AAK-like fold but lacking kinase activity and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain homologous to other GCN5-related transferases. Binding of L-arginine to the AAKmore » domain induces a global conformational change that increases the diameter of the hexamer by {approx}10 {angstrom} and decreases its height by {approx}20{angstrom}. AAK dimers move 5{angstrom} outward along their 2-fold axes, and their tilt relative to the plane of the hexamer decreases by {approx}4{sup o}. The NAT domains rotate {approx}109{sup o} relative to AAK domains enabling new interdomain interactions. Interactions between AAK and NAT domains on different subunits also change. Local motions of several loops at the L-arginine-binding site enable the protein to close around the bound ligand, whereas several loops at the NAT active site become disordered, markedly reducing enzymatic specific activity.« less

  8. Esophagogastric anastomosis in rats: Improved healing by BPC 157 and L-arginine, aggravated by L-NAME

    PubMed Central

    Djakovic, Zeljko; Djakovic, Ivka; Cesarec, Vedran; Madzarac, Goran; Becejac, Tomislav; Zukanovic, Goran; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Pajtak, Alen; Knez, Nikica; Japjec, Mladen; Luetic, Kresimir; Stancic-Rokotov, Dinko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    AIM To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. METHODS Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function. Additionally, BPC 157 particularly interacts with the NO-system. In the 4 d after esophagogastric anastomosis creation, rats received medication (/kg intraperitoneally once daily: BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), or L-arginine (100 mg) alone and/or combined or BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng) in drinking water). For rats underwent esophagogastric anastomosis, daily assessment included progressive stomach damage (sum of the longest diameters, mm), esophagitis (scored 0-5), weak anastomosis (mL H2O before leak), low pressure in esophagus at anastomosis and in the pyloric sphincter (cm H2O), progressive weight loss (g) and mortality. Immediate effect assessed blood vessels disappearance (scored 0-5) at the stomach surface immediately after anastomosis creation. RESULTS BPC 157 (all regimens) fully counteracted the perilous disease course from the very beginning (i.e., with the BPC 157 bath, blood vessels remained present at the gastric surface after anastomosis creation) and eliminated mortality. Additionally, BPC 157 treatment in combination with L-NAME nullified any effect of L-NAME that otherwise intensified the regular course. Consistently, with worsening (with L-NAME administration) and amelioration (with L-arginine), either L-arginine amelioration prevails (attenuated esophageal and gastric lesions) or they counteract each other (L-NAME + L-arginine

  9. Esophagogastric anastomosis in rats: Improved healing by BPC 157 and L-arginine, aggravated by L-NAME.

    PubMed

    Djakovic, Zeljko; Djakovic, Ivka; Cesarec, Vedran; Madzarac, Goran; Becejac, Tomislav; Zukanovic, Goran; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Pajtak, Alen; Knez, Nikica; Japjec, Mladen; Luetic, Kresimir; Stancic-Rokotov, Dinko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-11-07

    To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function. Additionally, BPC 157 particularly interacts with the NO-system. In the 4 d after esophagogastric anastomosis creation, rats received medication (/kg intraperitoneally once daily: BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), or L-arginine (100 mg) alone and/or combined or BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng) in drinking water). For rats underwent esophagogastric anastomosis, daily assessment included progressive stomach damage (sum of the longest diameters, mm), esophagitis (scored 0-5), weak anastomosis (mL H 2 O before leak), low pressure in esophagus at anastomosis and in the pyloric sphincter (cm H 2 O), progressive weight loss (g) and mortality. Immediate effect assessed blood vessels disappearance (scored 0-5) at the stomach surface immediately after anastomosis creation. BPC 157 (all regimens) fully counteracted the perilous disease course from the very beginning ( i.e ., with the BPC 157 bath, blood vessels remained present at the gastric surface after anastomosis creation) and eliminated mortality. Additionally, BPC 157 treatment in combination with L-NAME nullified any effect of L-NAME that otherwise intensified the regular course. Consistently, with worsening (with L-NAME administration) and amelioration (with L-arginine), either L-arginine amelioration prevails (attenuated esophageal and gastric lesions) or they counteract each other (L-NAME + L-arginine); with

  10. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Reduces Bleeding and Thrombocytopenia after Amputation in Rats Treated with Heparin, Warfarin, L-NAME and L-Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Stupnisek, Mirjana; Kokot, Antonio; Drmic, Domagoj; Hrelec Patrlj, Masa; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Radic, Bozo; Suran, Jelena; Bojic, Davor; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Background BPC 157 is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide recently implicated with a role in hemostasis. While NO is largely implicated in hemostatic mechanisms, in tail-amputation-models under heparin- and warfarin-administration, both the NO-synthase (NOS)-blocker, L-NAME (prothrombotic) and the NOS-substrate L-arginine (antithrombotic), were little investigated. Objective. To investigate the effect of L-NAME and L-arginine on hemostatic parameters, and to reveal the effects of BPC 157 on the L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced hemostatic actions under different pathological condition: tail amputation without or with anticoagulants, heparin or warfarin. Methods Tail amputation, and/or i.v.-heparin (10 mg/kg), i.g.-warfarin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days) were used in rats. Treatment includes BPC 157, L-NAME, L-arginine, per se and their combination. Results After (tail) amputation, with or without i.v.-heparin or i.g.-warfarin, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, i.p., i.v. (heparin), 10 μg/kg i.g. (warfarin)) always reduced bleeding time and/or haemorrhage and counteracted thrombocytopenia. As for L-NAME and/or L-arginine, we noted: L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.p.)–rats: more bleeding, less/no thrombocytopenia; L-NAME (5 mg/kg i.p.)-rats: less bleeding (amputation only), but present thrombocytopenia; L-NAME+L-arginine-rats also exhibited thrombocytopenia: L-NAME counteracted L-arginine-increased bleeding, L-arginine did not counteract L-NAME-thrombocytopenia. All animals receiving BPC 157 in addition (BPC 157μg+L-NAME; BPC 157μg+L-arginine, BPC 157μg+L-NAME+L-arginine), exhibited decreased haemorrhage and markedly counteracted thrombocytopenia. Conclusions L-NAME (thrombocytopenia), L-arginine (increased haemorrhage) counteraction and BPC 157 (decreased haemorrhage, counteracted thrombocytopenia) with rescue against two different anticoagulants, implicate a BPC 157 modulatory and balancing role with rescued NO-hemostatic mechanisms. PMID:25897838

  11. Duodenocutaneous fistula in rats as a model for "wound healing-therapy" in ulcer healing: the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester and L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Skorjanec, S; Kokot, A; Drmic, D; Radic, B; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Kolenc, D; Zenko, A; Lovric Bencic, M; Belosic Halle, Z; Situm, A; Zivanovic Posilovic, G; Masnec, S; Suran, J; Aralica, G; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2015-08-01

    While very rarely reported, duodenocutanenous fistula research might alter the duodenal ulcer disease background and therapy. Our research focused on rat duodenocutaneous fistulas, therapy, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, an anti-ulcer peptide that healed other fistulas, nitric oxide synthase-substrate L-arginine, and nitric oxide synthase-inhibitor L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The hypothesis was, duodenal ulcer-healing, like the skin ulcer, using the successful BPC 157, with nitric oxide-system involvement, the "wound healing-therapy", to heal the duodenal ulcer, the fistula-model that recently highlighted gastric and skin ulcer healing. Pressure in the lower esophageal and pyloric sphincters was simultaneously assessed. Duodenocutaneous fistula-rats received BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, intraperitoneally or perorally (in drinking water)), L-NAME (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally), L-arginine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) alone and/or together, throughout 21 days. Duodenocutaneous fistula-rats maintained persistent defects, continuous fistula leakage, sphincter failure, mortality rate at 40% until the 4(th) day, all fully counteracted in all BPC 157-rats. The BPC 157-rats experienced rapidly improved complete presentation (maximal volume instilled already at 7(th) day). L-NAME further aggravated the duodenocutaneous fistula-course (mortality at 70% until the 4(th) day); L-arginine was beneficial (no mortality; however, maximal volume instilled not before 21(st) day). L-NAME-worsening was counteracted to the control level with the L-arginine effect, and vice versa, while BPC 157 annulled the L-NAME effects (L-NAME + L-arginine; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157 brought below the level of the control). It is likely that duodenocutaneous fistulas, duodenal/skin defect simultaneous healing, reinstated sphincter function, are a new nitric oxide-system related phenomenon. In conclusion, resolving the duodenocutanenous fistulashealing

  12. L-arginine and Arginase Products Potentiate Dexmedetomidine-induced Contractions in the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Man, Ricky Y K; Ng, Kwok F J; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2018-03-01

    The α2-adrenergic sedative/anesthetic agent dexmedetomidine exerts biphasic effects on isolated arteries, causing endothelium-dependent relaxations at concentrations at or below 30 nM, followed by contractions at higher concentrations. L-arginine is a common substrate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginases. This study was designed to investigate the role of L-arginine in modulating the overall vascular response to dexmedetomidine. Isometric tension was measured in isolated aortic rings of Sprague Dawley rats. Cumulative concentrations of dexmedetomidine (10 nM to 10 μM) were added to quiescent rings (with and without endothelium) after previous incubation with vehicle, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), prazosin (α1-adrenergic antagonist), rauwolscine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (arginase inhibitor), N-hydroxy-L-arginine (arginase inhibitor), urea and/or ornithine. In some preparations, immunofluorescent staining, immunoblotting, or measurement of urea content were performed. Dexmedetomidine did not contract control rings with endothelium but evoked concentration-dependent increases in tension in such rings treated with L-NAME (Emax 50 ± 4%) or after endothelium-removal (Emax 74 ± 5%; N = 7 to 12). Exogenous L-arginine augmented the dexmedetomidine-induced contractions in the presence of L-NAME (Emax 75 ± 3%). This potentiation was abolished by (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (Emax 16 ± 4%) and N-hydroxy-L-arginine (Emax 18 ± 4%). Either urea or ornithine, the downstream arginase products, had a similar potentiating effect as L-arginine. Immunoassay measurements demonstrated an upregulation of arginase I by L-arginine treatment in the presence of L-NAME (N = 4). These results suggest that when vascular nitric oxide homeostasis is impaired, the potentiation of the vasoconstrictor effect of

  13. Effects of L-arginine on solubilization and purification of plant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Junji; Uegaki, Masamichi; Ishimizu, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    Biochemical analysis of membrane proteins is problematic at the level of solubilization and/or purification because of their hydrophobic nature. Here, we developed methods for efficient solubilization and purification of membrane proteins using L-arginine. The addition of 100 mM of basic amino acids (L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine) to a detergent-containing solubilization buffer enhanced solubilization (by 2.6-4.3 fold) of a model membrane protein-polygalacturonic acid synthase. Of all the amino acids, arginine was the most effective additive for solubilization of this membrane protein. Arginine addition also resulted in the best solubilization of other plant membrane proteins. Next, we examined the effects of arginine on purification of a model membrane protein. In anion-exchange chromatography, the addition of arginine to the loading and elution buffers resulted in a greater recovery of a membrane protein. In ultrafiltration, the addition of arginine to a protein solution significantly improved the recovery of a membrane protein. These results were thought to be due to the properties of arginine that prevent aggregation of hydrophobic proteins. Taken together, the results of our study showed that arginine is useful for solubilization and purification of aggregate-prone membrane proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insights into the arginine paradox: evidence against the importance of subcellular location of arginase and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Elms, Shawn; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Qian, Jin; Askari, Bardia; Yu, Yanfang; Pandey, Deepesh; Iddings, Jennifer; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the first indications of endothelial dysfunction and precedes overt cardiovascular disease. Increased expression of Arginase has been proposed as a mechanism to account for diminished NO production. Arginases consume l-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and l-arginine depletion is thought to competitively reduce eNOS-derived NO. However, this simple relationship is complicated by the paradox that l-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis. One mechanism proposed to explain this is compartmentalization of intracellular l-arginine into distinct, poorly interchangeable pools. In the current study, we investigated this concept by targeting eNOS and Arginase to different intracellular locations within COS-7 cells and also BAEC. We found that supplemental l-arginine and l-citrulline dose-dependently increased NO production in a manner independent of the intracellular location of eNOS. Cytosolic arginase I and mitochondrial arginase II reduced eNOS activity equally regardless of where in the cell eNOS was expressed. Similarly, targeting arginase I to disparate regions of the cell did not differentially modify eNOS activity. Arginase-dependent suppression of eNOS activity was reversed by pharmacological inhibitors and absent in a catalytically inactive mutant. Arginase did not directly interact with eNOS, and the metabolic products of arginase or downstream enzymes did not contribute to eNOS inhibition. Cells expressing arginase had significantly lower levels of intracellular l-arginine and higher levels of ornithine. These results suggest that arginases inhibit eNOS activity by depletion of substrate and that the compartmentalization of l-arginine does not play a major role. PMID:23792682

  15. Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Christoph; Macêdo, Juan P; Hürlimann, Daniel; Wirdnam, Corina; Haindrich, Alexander C; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; González-Salgado, Amaia; Schmidt, Remo S; Inbar, Ehud; Mäser, Pascal; Bütikofer, Peter; Zilberstein, Dan; Rentsch, Doris

    2017-01-01

    For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei.

  16. Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Daniel; Wirdnam, Corina; Haindrich, Alexander C.; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; González-Salgado, Amaia; Schmidt, Remo S.; Inbar, Ehud; Mäser, Pascal; Bütikofer, Peter; Zilberstein, Dan; Rentsch, Doris

    2017-01-01

    For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei. PMID:28045943

  17. Effects of exercise and L-arginine on ventricular remodeling and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Weiyan; Lao, Shunhua; Wilson, Bryan S; Erikson, John M; Zhang, John Q

    2010-02-01

    Our aim was to characterize the changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance, protein, and activity levels of the enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase by exercise training combined with L-arginine after myocardial infarction (MI). L-Arginine (1 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) were administered in drinking water for 8 wk. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: sham-operated control (Sham); MI sedentary (Sed); MI exercise (Ex); MI sedentary + L-arginine (Sed + LA); MI exercise + L-arginine (Ex + LA); MI sedentary + L-NAME (Sed + L-NAME); and MI exercise + L-NAME (Ex + L-NAME). The glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and gp91(phox) mRNA levels were comparable among all the groups. The SOD mRNA level was significantly increased in the Ex group (5.43 +/- 0.87) compared with the Sed group (1.74 +/- 0.29), whereas this effect was pronouncedly down-regulated by the L-NAME intervention (2.51 +/- 1.17, P < 0.05). The protein levels of SOD in the Sed and Ex groups were both significantly decreased with the administration of L-NAME. The protein levels of catalase were significantly higher in the Ex and Ex + LA groups than that in the Sed, Sed + LA, and L-NAME-treated groups. The collagen volume fraction was significantly lowered by the exercise and/or L-arginine treatment when compared with the Sed group. Fractional shortening was significantly preserved in the trained groups compared with their corresponding sedentary groups with or without drug treatments. However, the beneficial effect was not further improved by L-arginine treatment. Our results suggest that exercise training exerts antioxidative effects and attenuates myocardial fibrosis in the MI rats. These improvements, in turn, alleviate cardiac stiffness and preserve post-MI cardiac function. In addition, L-arginine appears to have no additive effect on cardiac function or expression of

  18. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P < 0.001). Regardless of supplementation, fetal weight remained below that of control fetuses. Yet, compared with the LP group, l-citrulline and l-arginine equally increased fetal weight to 4.15 ± 0.08 g (P < 0.05) and 4.13 ± 0.1 g (P < 0.05 compared with LP), respectively, whereas NEAA did not (4.05 ± 0.05 g; P = 0.07). Fetal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 35% lower in the LP fetuses (41% ± 11%/d) than in the control (61% ± 13%/d) fetuses (P < 0.001) and was normalized by l-citrulline (56% ± 4%/d; P < 0.05 compared with LP, NS compared with control) and not by other supplements. Urinary nitrite and nitrate excretion was lower in the LP group (6.4 ± 0.8 μmol/d) than in the control group (17.9

  19. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A; Elias, D; Abate, E; Diro, E; Moges, F; Kassu, A; Ayele, B; Forslund, T; Getachew, A; Britton, S; Stendahl, O; Sundqvist, T

    2011-09-01

    In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from Gondar, Ethiopia (n = 180) were randomized to a food supplementation rich in arginine (peanuts, equivalent to 1 g of arginine/day) or with a low arginine content (wheat crackers, locally called daboqolo) during four weeks. The primary outcome was cure rate according to the WHO classification and secondary outcomes were sputum smear conversion, weight gain, sedimentation rate, reduction of cough and chest X-ray improvement as well as levels of NO in urine (uNO) or exhaled air (eNO) at two months. There was no effect of the intervention on the primary outcome (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.69-3.0, p = 0.39) or secondary outcomes. In the subgroup analysis according to HIV status, peanut supplemented HIV+/TB patients showed increased cure rate (83.8% (31/37) vs 53.1% (17/32), p < 0.01). A low baseline eNO (<10 ppb) in HIV+/TB patients was associated with a decreased cure rate. We conclude that nutritional supplementation with a food supplement rich in arginine did not have any overall clinical effect. In the subgroup of HIV positive TB patients, it significantly increased the cure rate and as an additional finding in this subgroup, low initial levels of NO in exhaled air were associated with a poor clinical outcome but this needs to be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. L-arginine plus drospirenone-ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of patients with PCOS: a prospective, placebo controlled, randomised, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Cesare; Mancini, Fulvia; Battaglia, Bruno; Facchinetti, Fabio; Artini, Paolo G; Venturoli, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    To verify the effects of a pill containing drospirenone on the surrogate markers of arterial function and to evaluate the possible improvements induced by the addition of L-arginine. A prospective, placebo controlled, randomised, pilot study. University of Bologna. Twenty-eight young women with PCOS. Random submission to: drospirenone + ethinylestradiol+ a placebo (Group I; n = 15) or drospirenone + ethinylestradiol + oral L-arginine (4 g × 2/daily) (Group II, n = 13). Medical examination; blood measurement of nitrites/nitrates, biochemical and hormonal parameters; ultrasonographic analysis and colour Doppler evaluation of uterine, stromal ovarian and ophthalmic arteries; analysis of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation; and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The above parameters were evaluated before and after 6 months. The low dose oral contraceptive containing drospirenone favoured a pre-hypertensive state. The L-arginine supplementation increased the circulating levels of nitrites/nitrates and improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation counteracting the negative effect of the contraceptive pill. Although, the present pilot study was conducted in a limited number of patients, it seems that the L-arginine co-treatment may improve the long-term side effects of the pill reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Effects of supplemental L-arginine on the intestinal adaptive response after massive small-bowel resection in rats.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Hayrettin; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan; Yağmur, Yusuf; Sari, Ibrahim

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate whether L-arginine methyl ester (L-Arg) can improve the structure of the small intestine and enhance adaptation in an experimental model of short-bowel syndrome (SBS), 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups of 10 each. In one group only a laparotomy was performed (G1). The remaining 30 rats underwent 90% small-bowel resection (SBR) and formed the three experimental groups: the SBR/untreated group (G2), the SBR/L-NAME-treated group (G3), and the SBR/ L-Arg-treated group (G4). Rats in G2 received no therapeutic treatment. Rats in the SBR/L-NAME and SBR/L-Arg treated groups received N-G-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) and L-Arg intraperitoneally for 3 weeks, respectively. The animals were weighed daily. All rats underwent a relaparotomy on day 21 of the experiment. Remnant small bowel was excised and evaluated for villus height and crypt cell mitoses. After the 90% SBR, all animals had from diarrhea and weight loss between the 1st and 6th postoperative days (POD). The body weight of the SBR/L-Arg group showed significant increases at POD 10 and 21 in comparison to the SBR/untreated and SBR/L-NAME groups (P < 0.001). The rats treated with L-Arg had significantly greater villus height and crypt-cell mitoses compared to the other groups (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001). These observations suggest that L-Arg treatment increases villus height and crypt-cell mitoses after massive SBR and may play a considerable role in the mucosal adaptive response in SBS in rats.

  2. Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cheng Wei; Oike, Masahiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu

    2005-09-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation inmore » response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients and cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[{sup 3}H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine.« less

  3. Roles of export genes cgmA and lysE for the production of L-arginine and L-citrulline by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Dorit; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Taniguchi, Hironori; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-10-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid with application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Metabolic engineering strategies have been applied for overproduction of L-arginine by Corynebacterium glutamicum. LysE was the only known L-arginine exporter of this bacterium. However, an L-arginine-producing strain carrying a deletion of lysE still accumulated about 10 mM L-arginine in the growth medium. Overexpression of the putative putrescine and cadaverine export permease gene cgmA was shown to compensate for the lack of lysE with regard to L-arginine export. Moreover, plasmid-borne overexpression of cgmA rescued the toxic effect caused by feeding of the dipeptide Arg-Ala to lysE-deficient C. glutamicum and argO-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Deletion of the repressor gene cgmR improved L-arginine titers by 5 %. Production of L-lysine and L-citrulline was not affected by cgmA overexpression. Taken together, CgmA may function as an export system not only for the diamine putrescine and cadaverine but also for L-arginine. The major export system for L-lysine and L-arginine LysE may also play a role in L-citrulline export since production of L-citrulline was reduced when lysE was deleted and improved by 45 % when lysE was overproduced.

  4. High asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine and L-arginine levels in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Reyhani, Aylin; Celik, Yahya; Karadag, Hakan; Gunduz, Ozgur; Asil, Talip; Sut, Necdet

    2017-07-01

    Experimental and clinical data strongly suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in migraine. This is also supported by studies of migraine induced by substances that release NO. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by endothelial NO synthase (NOS). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the major endogenous competitive inhibitor of NOS. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is an inactive stereoisomer of ADMA. It may reduce NO production by competing with arginine for cellular uptake. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of ADMA, SDMA and L-arginine in migraine patients during the interictal period. One hundred migraine patients and 100 healthy volunteers were recruited. The patients were in the interictal period and classified into two groups as having migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Their serum ADMA, SDMA and L-arginine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) method. ADMA, SDMA and L-arginine levels were significantly higher in migraine patients compared to the control group. But there was no difference between the patients with and without aura. These results suggest that NOS inhibitors and L-arginine/NO pathway plays an important role in migraine pathopysiology.

  5. Reengineering of the feedback-inhibition enzyme N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase to enhance L-arginine production in Corynebacterium crenatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Meijuan; Ge, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Rao, Zhiming

    2017-02-01

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the second step of L-arginine biosynthesis and is inhibited by L-arginine in Corynebacterium crenatum. To ascertain the basis for the arginine sensitivity of CcNAGK, residue E19 which located at the entrance of the Arginine-ring was subjected to site-saturated mutagenesis and we successfully illustrated the inhibition-resistant mechanism. Typically, the E19Y mutant displayed the greatest deregulation of L-arginine feedback inhibition. An equally important strategy is to improve the catalytic activity and thermostability of CcNAGK. For further strain improvement, we used site-directed mutagenesis to identify mutations that improve CcNAGK. Results identified variants I74V, F91H and K234T display higher specific activity and thermostability. The L-arginine yield and productivity of the recombinant strain C. crenatum SYPA-EH3 (which possesses a combination of all four mutant sites, E19Y/I74V/F91H/K234T) reached 61.2 and 0.638 g/L/h, respectively, after 96 h in 5 L bioreactor fermentation, an increase of approximately 41.8% compared with the initial strain.

  6. Voluntary wheel running augments aortic l-arginine transport and endothelial function in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martens, Christopher R; Kuczmarski, James M; Kim, Jahyun; Guers, John J; Harris, M Brennan; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G

    2014-08-15

    Reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to risk for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular uptake of the NO precursor l-arginine (ARG) is attenuated in rodents with CKD, resulting in reduced substrate availability for NO synthesis and impaired vascular function. We tested the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running (RUN) and/or ARG supplementation on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rats with CKD. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ⅚ ablation infarction surgery to induce CKD, or SHAM surgery as a control. Beginning 4 wk following surgery, CKD animals either remained sedentary (SED) or received one of the following interventions: supplemental ARG, RUN, or combined RUN+ARG. Animals were euthanized 8 wk after surgery, and EDR was assessed. EDR was significantly impaired in SED vs. SHAM animals after 8 wk, in response to ACh (10(-9)-10(-5) M) as indicated by a reduced area under the curve (AUC; 44.56 ± 9.01 vs 100 ± 4.58, P < 0.05) and reduced maximal response (Emax; 59.9 ± 9.67 vs. 94.31 ± 1.27%, P < 0.05). AUC was not improved by ARG treatment but was significantly improved above SED animals in both RUN and RUN+ARG-treated animals. Maximal relaxation was elevated above SED in RUN+ARG animals only. l-[(3)H]arginine uptake was impaired in both SED and ARG animals and was improved in RUN and RUN+ARG animals. The results suggest that voluntary wheel running is an effective therapy to improve vascular function in CKD and may be more beneficial when combined with l-arginine. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Alterations in plasma L-arginine and methylarginines in heart failure and after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jakob; Sandqvist, Anna; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Wikström, Gerhard; Rådegran, Göran

    2018-04-12

    Endothelial function, including the nitric oxide (NO)-pathway, has previously been extensively investigated in heart failure (HF). In contrast, studies are lacking on the NO pathway after heart transplantation (HT). We therefore investigated substances in the NO pathway prior to and after HT in relation to hemodynamic parameters. 12 patients (median age 50.0 yrs, 2 females), heart transplanted between June 2012 and February 2014, evaluated at our hemodynamic lab, at rest, prior to HT, as well as four weeks and six months after HT were included. All patients had normal left ventricular function post-operatively and none had post-operative pulmonary hypertension or acute cellular rejection requiring therapy at the evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, L-Arginine, L-Ornithine and L-Citrulline were analyzed at each evaluation. In comparison to controls, the plasma L-Arginine concentration was low and ADMA high in HF patients, resulting in low L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio pre-HT. Already four weeks after HT L-Arginine was normalized whereas ADMA remained high. Consequently the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio improved, but did not normalize. The biomarkers remained unchanged at the six-month evaluation and the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio correlated inversely to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) six months post-HT. Plasma L-Arginine concentrations normalize after HT. However, as ADMA is unchanged, the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio remained low and correlated inversely to PVR. Together these findings suggest that (i) the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio may be an indicator of pulmonary vascular tone after HT, and that (ii) NO-dependent endothelial function is partly restored after HT. Considering the good postoperative outcome, the biomarker levels may be considered "normal" after HT.

  8. Poly-L-arginine: Enhancing Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of Doxorubicin and Necrotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Bahareh; Jalal, Razieh; Mohammadi, Zobeideh; Aldaghi, Seyyede Araste

    2018-04-11

    Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay. The influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin delivery into cells was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. DAPI and ethidium bromide-acridine orange stainings, flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide, western blot analysis with anti-p21 antibody and caspase-3 activity were used to examine the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin-induced cell death. Poly-L-arginine had no cytotoxicity at low concentrations and short exposure times. Poly-L-arginine increased the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in DU145 cells in a time-dependent manner. But no significant reduction was found in HFF cell viability. Poly-L-arginine seems to facilitate doxorubicin uptake and increase its intracellular concentration. 24 h combined treatment of cells with doxorubicin (0.5 μM) and poly-L-arginine (1 μg ml-1) caused a small increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and significant elevated necrosis in DU145 cells as compared to each agent alone. Conlusion: Our results indicate that poly-L-arginine at lowest and highest concentrations act as proliferation-inducing and antiproliferative agents, respectively. Between these concentrations, poly-L-arginine increases the cellular uptake of doxorubicin and its cytotoxicity through induction of necrosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Enteral Arginine Does Not Increase Superior Mesenteric Arterial Blood Flow but Induces Mucosal Growth in Neonatal Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Puiman, Patrycja J.; Stoll, Barbara; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Arginine is an essential amino acid in neonates synthesized by gut epithelial cells and a precursor for NO that regulates vasodilatation and blood flow. Arginine supplementation has been shown to improve intestinal integrity in ischemia-reperfusion models and low plasma levels are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. We hypothesized that enteral arginine is a specific stimulus for neonatal intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth under conditions of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or partial enteral nutrition (PEN). We first tested the dose dependence and specificity of acute (3 h) enteral arginine infusion on superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow in pigs fed TPN or PEN. We then determined whether chronic (4 d) arginine supplementation of PEN increases mucosal growth and if this was affected by treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Acute enteral arginine infusion increased plasma arginine dose dependently in both TPN and PEN groups, but the plasma response was markedly higher (100–250%) in the PEN group than in the TPN group at the 2 highest arginine doses. Baseline SMA blood flow was 90% higher in the PEN (2.37 ± 0.32 L⋅kg−1⋅h−1) pigs than in the TPN pigs (1.23 ± 0.17 L⋅kg−1⋅h−1), but was not affected by acute infusion individually of arginine, citrulline, or other major gut fuels. Chronic dietary arginine supplementation in PEN pigs induced mucosal growth in the intestine, but this effect was not prevented by treatment with L-NAME. Intestinal crypt cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6 kinase were not affected by dietary arginine. We conclude that partial enteral feeding, but not acute enteral arginine, increases SMA blood flow in the neonatal pig. Furthermore, supplementing arginine in partial enteral feeding modestly increases intestinal mucosal growth and was NO independent. PMID:21106927

  10. Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.

    2011-05-01

    Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( p<0.05) and 40% and 25% in the HSN group, as compared to the CTR group ( p<0.05), respectively. CSA of ST and FT muscle fibers were 25% and 16% larger in the HSL group in comparison with the HS group ( p<0.05), respectively. The atrophy of FT muscle fibers in the HSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, p<0.05). The destructions in dystrophin layer integrity and reductions of desmin content were significantly prevented in HSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L-arginine

  11. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  12. The effects of L-arginine, alone and combined with vitamin C, on mineral status in relation to its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in male rats on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Jablecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the intake of L-arginine alone and of L-arginine with vitamin C on mineral concentration in rats fed with a high-fat diet, and to assess the lipid glucose, insulin, and total antioxidant status (TAS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha serum levels that result. Wistar rats were assigned to groups fed with either a standard control diet (C), a diet high in fat (FD), a diet high in fat with L-arginine, or a diet high in fat with L-arginine and vitamin C. After 6 weeks, the length and weight of the rats were measured, and the animals were euthanized. The liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, heart, and gonads were collected, as were blood samples. The total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, insulin, TAS, and TNF alpha levels were measured. The tissue calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper concentrations were determined. It was found that L-arginine supplementation diminished the effect of the modified diet on the concentration of iron in the liver and spleen and of copper in heart. At the same time, it was observed that L-arginine supplementation reduced the effect of the high-fat diet on insulin, TNF alpha, and TAS. The combination of L-arginine and vitamin C produced a similar effect on the mineral levels in the tissues as did L-arginine used alone. Moreover, positive correlations between serum insulin and iron in the liver, between TNF alpha and iron in the liver, and between TNF alpha and copper in the heart were observed. The level of TAS in serum was inversely correlated with the copper level in the heart and the iron level in the liver. We concluded that the beneficial influence of L-arginine on insulin, TAS, and TNF alpha serum level is associated with changes in the iron and copper status in rats fed with a high-fat diet. No synergistic effect of L-arginine and vitamin C in the biochemical parameters or in the mineral status in rats fed with the modified diet was observed.

  13. The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia – host cell interactions in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under non-homeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during intestinal protozoan infections. Results RNA expression analyses of major arginine-metabolizing enzymes revealed the arginine-utilizing pathways in human IECs (differentiated Caco-2 cells) grown in vitro. Most genes were constant or down-regulated (e.g. arginase 1 and 2) upon interaction with Giardia, whereas inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were up-regulated within 6 h of infection. Giardia was shown to suppress cytokine-induced iNOS expression, thus the parasite has both iNOS inducing and suppressive activities. Giardial arginine consumption suppresses NO production and the NO-degrading parasite protein flavohemoglobin is up-regulated in response to host NO. In addition, the secreted, arginine-consuming giardial enzyme arginine deiminase (GiADI) actively reduces T-cell proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, the effects on NO production and T cell proliferation could be reversed by addition of external arginine or citrulline. Conclusions Giardia affects the host’s arginine metabolism on many different levels. Many of the effects can be reversed by addition of arginine or citrulline, which could be a beneficial supplement in oral rehydration therapy. PMID:24228819

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Koppelmann, Tal; Pollak, Yulia; Mogilner, Jorge; Bejar, Jacob; Coran, Arnold G; Sukhotnik, Igor

    2012-04-30

    Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX) was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat.

  15. Glutamine supplementation, citrulline production, and de novo arginine synthesis: Is there a relation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We would like to comment on the recent publications by Buijs et al. The authors hypothesized that a parenteral supplement of glutamine stimulates citrulline formation and enhances de novo arginine synthesis. To test this hypothesis, they conducted an experiment with stable isotopes in patients under...

  16. l-arginine and l-NMMA for assessing cerebral endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and N G -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies investigated the effect of age (n=2), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=1), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) (n=1), leukoaraiosis (n=1), and prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic stroke or TIA reported both enhanced and impaired EDV to l-arginine. Responses to l-NMMA deviated between subjects with type 2 DM and the elderly. We found only few studies investigating cerebral endothelial responses to l-arginine and l-NMMA in subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Improvement of retinal functions after ischemia with L-arginine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, S X; Chiou, G C; Varma, R S

    1995-01-01

    Retinal ischemia was created by occlusion of rat central retinal artery for 30 minutes. The loss of retinal function was indicated by the loss of b-wave of electroretinogram. The recovery of retinal function after reperfusion of central retinal artery was observed with the gradual recovery of b-wave amplitude to approximately 20% of original b-wave amplitude. When L-arginine (RVC-579) was administered at the time of retina ischemia, the b-wave amplitudes recovered up to 64% of original height and were significantly higher than corresponding controls at 120, 180, and 240 min after ischemia. When the derivative of L-arginine, N alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (RVC-578), was administered, the b-wave recovery was significantly higher than corresponding controls at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after ischemia; the recovery reached 51% of the original b-wave value. These results indicate that the L-arginine and its lipophilic derivatives could be used for the treatment of ischemic retinopathy. Since L-arginine is a natural amino acid, it is not expected to produce major side effects, if any, and could pave the way for the development of a safer drug to be used in the clinics. Compounds which increase the formation of NO in vivo, dilate blood vessels. Both L-arginine and RVC-578 can be placed in this category. They may improve effects of retinal ischemia by increasing NO production.

  18. l-Arginine Pathway Metabolites Predict Need for Intra-operative Shunt During Carotid Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Szabo, P; Lantos, J; Nagy, L; Keki, S; Volgyi, E; Menyhei, G; Illes, Z; Molnar, T

    2016-12-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and is a marker of atherosclerosis. This study examined the correlation between pre-operative l-arginine and ADMA concentration during carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and jugular lactate indicating anaerobic cerebral metabolism, jugular S100B reflecting blood-brain barrier integrity, and with factors of surgical intervention. The concentration of l-arginine, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine was measured in blood taken under regional anaesthesia from the radial artery of 55 patients prior to CEA. Blood gas parameters, concentration of lactate, and S100B were also serially measured in blood taken from both the radial artery and the jugular bulb before and after carotid clamping, and after release of the clamp. To estimate anaerobic metabolism, the jugulo-arterial ratio of CO 2 gap/oxygen extraction was calculated. Positive correlation was found between pre-operative ADMA levels and the ratio of jugulo-arterial CO 2 gap/oxygen extraction during clamp and reperfusion (p = .005 and p = .01, respectively). An inverse correlation was found between the pre-operative l-arginine concentration and jugular lactate at each time point (both p = .002). The critical pre-operative level of l-arginine was determined by receiver operator curve analysis. If l-arginine was below the cutoff value of 35 μmol/L, jugular S100B concentration was higher 24 h post-operatively (p = .03), and jugular lactate levels were increased during reperfusion (p = .02). The median pre-operative concentration of l-arginine was lower in patients requiring an intra-operative shunt than in patients without need of shunt (median: 30.3 μmol/L [interquartile range 24.4-34.4 μmol/L] vs. 57.6 μmol/L [interquartile range 42.3-74.5 μmol/L]; p = .002). High pre-operative ADMA concentration predicts poor cerebral perfusion indicated by elevated jugulo-arterial CO 2 gap/oxygen extraction. Low pre-operative l-arginine

  19. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME

    PubMed Central

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-01-01

    AIM To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. METHODS Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. RESULTS This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). CONCLUSION BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs’ post-surgery application and NO system involvement. PMID:28839430

  20. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME.

    PubMed

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-07

    To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs' post-surgery application and NO system involvement.

  1. Effects of enteral arginine supplementation on the structural intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sukhotnik, Igor; Lerner, Aaron; Sabo, Edmund; Krausz, Michael M; Siplovich, Leonardo; Coran, Arnold G; Mogilner, Jorge; Shiloni, Eitan

    2003-07-01

    The nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (ARG) has been shown to influence intestinal morphology and intestinal absorptive function. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of enteral ARG supplementation on structural intestinal adaptation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three experimental groups: Sham rats underwent bowel transection, SBS rats underwent 75% small bowel resection, and SBS-ARG rats underwent bowel resection and were treated with ARG given in the drinking water (2%). Parameters of intestinal adaptation, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined on day 14 following operation. We have demonstrated that SBS-ARG animals had a lower jejunal and ileal mucosal weight, jejunal mucosal DNA and protein, ileal mucosal protein, jejunal villus height, jejunal and ileal crypt depth, and enterocyte proliferation index and a greater enterocyte apoptosis compared to SBS untreated animals. We conclude that in a rat model of SBS enteral L-arginine inhibits structural intestinal adaptation. Possible mechanism for this effect may be decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis.

  2. A prescribed walking regimen plus arginine supplementation improves function and quality of life for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mary Beth; Kempf, Attie; Collins, Catherine M.; Long, Gary M.; Owens, Matthew; Gupta, Shikha; Hellman, Yaron; Wong, Vincent; Farber, Mark; Lahm, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that exercise training is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Unfortunately, the standard supervised, hospital-based programs limit patient accessibility to this important intervention. Our proof-of-concept study aimed to provide insight into the usefulness of a prescribed walking regimen along with arginine supplementation to improve outcomes for patients with PAH. Twelve PAH patients (all women) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC) II (n = 7) or III (n = 5) and in stable condition for ≥ 3 months were enrolled. Patients performed home- and fitness-center- based walking at 65–75% heart rate (HR) reserve for 45 min, six sessions/week for 12 weeks. Concomitant L-arginine supplementation (6000 mg/day) was provided to maximize beneficial endothelial training adaptations. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-min walk testing (6MWT), echocardiography, laboratory studies, and quality of life (QoL) survey (SF-36) were performed at baseline and 12 weeks. Eleven patients completed the study (72 session adherence rate = 96 ± 3%). Objective improvement was demonstrated by the 6MWT distance (increased by 40 ± 13 m, P = 0.01), VO2max (increased by 2 ± 0.7 mL/kg/min, P = 0.02), time-to-VO2max (increased by 2.5 ± 0.6 min, P = 0.001), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (increased by 1.3 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min, P = 0.04), HR recovery (reduced by 68 ± 23% in slope, P = 0.01), and SF-36 subscales of Physical Functioning and Energy/Fatigue (increased by 70 ± 34% and 74 ± 34%, respectively, P < 0.05). No adverse events occurred, and right ventricular function and brain natriuretic peptide levels remained stable, suggesting safety of the intervention. This proof-of-concept study indicates that a simple walking regimen with arginine supplementation is a safe and efficacious intervention for clinically stable PAH patients, with gains in objective

  3. Arginine methylation catalyzed by PRMT1 is required for B cell activation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Simona; Light, Amanda; O'Donnell, Kristy; Bryant, Vanessa; Avery, Danielle T; Elliott, Michael; Tangye, Stuart G; Belz, Gabrielle; Mackay, Fabienne; Richard, Stephane; Tarlinton, David

    2017-10-12

    Arginine methylation catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) is a common post-translational modification in mammalian cells, regulating many important functions including cell signalling, proliferation and differentiation. Here we show the role of PRMT1 in B-cell activation and differentiation. PRMT1 expression and activity in human and mouse peripheral B cells increases in response to in vitro or in vivo activation. Deletion of the Prmt1 gene in mature B cells establishes that although the frequency and phenotype of peripheral B cell subsets seem unaffected, immune responses to T-cell-dependent and -independent antigens are substantially reduced. In vitro activation of Prmt1-deficient B cells with a variety of mitogens results in diminished proliferation, differentiation and survival, effects that are correlated with altered signal transduction from the B cell receptor. Thus PRMT1 activity in B cells is required for correct execution of multiple processes that in turn are necessary for humoral immunity.PRMT1 is an arginine methyltransferase involved in a variety of cell functions. Here the authors delete PRMT1 specifically in mature B cells to show the importance of arginine methylation for B cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and thereby for humoral immunity.

  4. Mechanisms for Improved Hygroscopicity of L-Arginine Valproate Revealed by X-Ray Single Crystal Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masataka; Nambu, Kaori; Sakon, Aya; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Noguchi, Shuji; Terada, Katsuhide

    2017-03-01

    Valproic acid is widely used as an antiepileptic agent. Valproic acid is in liquid phase while sodium valproate is in solid phase at room temperature. Sodium valproate is hard to manufacture because of its hygroscopic and deliquescent properties. To improve these, cocrystal and salt screening for valproic acid was employed in this study. Two solid salt forms, l-arginine valproate and l-lysine valproate, were obtained and characterized. By using dynamic vapor sorption method, the critical relative humidity of sodium valproate, l-arginine valproate, and l-lysine valproate were measured. Critical relative humidity of sodium valproate was 40%, of l-lysine valproate was 60%, and of l-arginine valproate was 70%. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination of l-arginine valproate was employed. l-Lysine valproate was of low diffraction quality, and l-arginine valproate formed a 1:1 salt. Crystal l-arginine valproate has a disorder in the methylene carbon chain that creates 2 conformations. The carboxylate group of valproic acid is connected to the amino group of l-arginine. Crystalline morphologies were calculated from its crystal structure. Adsorption of water molecules to crystal facets was simulated by Material Studio. When comparing adsorption energy per site of these salts, sodium valproate is more capable of adsorption of water molecule than l-arginine valproate. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. L-Arginine and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Horky, Laura L.; Friedlich, Avi L.; Shi, Ying; Rogers, Jack T.; Huang, Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and loss of cognitive and memory functions. Although the exact causes of AD are still unclear, evidence suggests that atherosclerosis, redox stress, inflammation, neurotransmitter dysregulation, and impaired brain energy metabolism may all be associated with AD pathogenesis. Herein, we explore a possible role for L-arginine (L-arg) in AD, taking into consideration known functions for L-arg in atherosclerosis, redox stress and the inflammatory process, regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and modulation of glucose metabolism and insulin activity. L-arg, a precursor of nitric oxide and polyamine, exhibits multiple functions in human health and may play a prominent role in age-related degenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:19079617

  6. Hypermagnesemia disturbances in rats, NO-related: pentadecapeptide BPC 157 abrogates, L-NAME and L-arginine worsen.

    PubMed

    Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Stambolija, Vasilije; Kolenc, Danijela; Katancic, Jadranka; Murselovic, Tamara; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Strbe, Sanja; Drmic, Domagoj; Barisic, Ivan; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, administered before a high-dose magnesium injection in rats, might be a useful peptide therapy against magnesium toxicity and the magnesium-induced effect on cell depolarization. Moreover, this might be an NO-system-related effect. Previously, BPC 157 counteracts paralysis, arrhythmias and hyperkalaemia, extreme muscle weakness; parasympathetic and neuromuscular blockade; injured muscle healing and interacts with the NOS-blocker and NOS-substrate effects. Assessment included magnesium sulfate (560 mg/kg intraperitoneally)-induced muscle weakness, muscle and brain lesions, hypermagnesemia, hyperkalaemia, increased serum enzyme values assessed in rats during and at the end of a 30-min period and medication (given intraperitoneally/kg at 15 min before magnesium) [BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), L-arginine (100 mg), alone and/or together]. In HEK293 cells, the increasing magnesium concentration from 1 to 5 mM could depolarize the cells at 1.75 ± 0.44 mV. L-NAME + magnesium-rats and L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited worsened severe muscle weakness and lesions, brain lesions, hypermagnesemia and serum enzymes values, with emerging hyperkalaemia. However, L-NAME + L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited all control values and normokalaemia. BPC 157 abrogated hypermagnesemia and counteracted all of the magnesium-induced disturbances (including those aggravated by L-NAME or L-arginine). Thus, cell depolarization due to increasing magnesium concentration was inhibited in the presence of BPC 157 (1 µM) in vitro. BPC 157 likely counteracts the initial event leading to hypermagnesemia and the life-threatening actions after a magnesium overdose. In contrast, a worsened clinical course, higher hypermagnesemia, and emerging hyperkalaemia might cause both L-NAME and L-arginine to affect the same events adversely. These events were also opposed by BPC 157.

  7. Erythrocytes L-arginine y+ transporter inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide in ice-bath.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira Ercília; de Almeida, Priscilla Barcellos; Conceição, Ioná Rosine; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; d'Avila, Domingos O; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake is conveyed by y+ and y+L membrane transport systems. Pre-incubation with N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 37°C inhibits the y+ system. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal pre-incubation temperature in evaluating y+ and y+L systems. Cells were pre-incubated with or without N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 4°C and 37°C. L: -Arginine uptake was quantified by radioisotope and standard erythrocytes membrane flux methodology. Results demonstrate that erythrocytes L: -arginine content is depleted by pre-incubation at 37°C for 10 min, thus changing the V (max) measurement. The inhibitory effect of N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation was temperature independent and already complete after 1 min of incubation. No significant difference in kinetic parameters was detected between cells pre-incubated at 37°C or 4°C, under zero-trans conditions. In conclusion, we suggest that measurement of erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake by y+ and y+L systems could be carried out without N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation at 37°C.

  8. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Methods Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Results MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX) was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat. PMID:22545735

  9. Activation of l-arginine transport by protein kinase C in rabbit, rat and mouse alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Racké, Kurt; Hey, Claudia; Mössner, Jutta; Hammermann, Rainer; Stichnote, Christina; Wessler, Ignaz

    1998-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C in controlling L-arginine transport in alveolar macrophages was investigated. L-[3H]Arginine uptake in rabbit alveolar macrophages declined by 80 % after 20 h in culture. 4β-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not 4α-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (α-PMA), present during 20 h culture, enhanced L-[3H]arginine uptake more than 10-fold. Staurosporine and chelerythrine opposed this effect. L-[3H]Arginine uptake was saturable and blockable by L-lysine. After PMA treatment Vmax was increased more than 5-fold and Km was reduced from 0.65 to 0.32 mM. Time course experiments showed that PMA increased L-[3H]arginine uptake almost maximally within 2 h. This short-term effect was not affected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. L-[3H]Arginine uptake and its stimulation by PMA was also observed in sodium-free medium. L-Leucine (0.1 mM) inhibited L-[3H]arginine uptake by 50 % in sodium-containing medium, but not in sodium-free medium. At 1 mM, L-leucine caused significant inhibition in sodium-free medium also. L-Leucine showed similar effects on PMA-treated cells. N-Ethylmaleimide (200 μm, 10 min) reduced L-[3H]arginine uptake by 70 % in control cells, but had no effect on PMA-treated (20 or 2 h) cells. In alveolar macrophages, multiple transport systems are involved in L-arginine uptake, which is markedly stimulated by protein kinase C, probably by modulation of the activity of already expressed cationic amino acid transporters. PMID:9714862

  10. Complementary dietary treatment using lysine-free, arginine-fortified amino acid supplements in glutaric aciduria type I - A decade of experience.

    PubMed

    Kölker, Stefan; Boy, S P Nikolas; Heringer, Jana; Müller, Edith; Maier, Esther M; Ensenauer, Regina; Mühlhausen, Chris; Schlune, Andrea; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Koeller, David M; Hoffmann, Georg F; Haege, Gisela; Burgard, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The cerebral formation and entrapment of neurotoxic dicarboxylic metabolites (glutaryl-CoA, glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid) are considered to be important pathomechanisms of striatal injury in glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I). The quantitatively most important precursor of these metabolites is lysine. Recommended therapeutic interventions aim to reduce lysine oxidation (low lysine diet, emergency treatment to minimize catabolism) and to enhance physiologic detoxification of glutaryl-CoA via formation of glutarylcarnitine (carnitine supplementation). It has been recently shown in Gcdh(-/-) mice that cerebral lysine influx and oxidation can be modulated by arginine which competes with lysine for transport at the blood-brain barrier and the inner mitochondrial membrane [Sauer et al., Brain 134 (2011) 157-170]. Furthermore, short-term outcome of 12 children receiving arginine-fortified diet showed very promising results [Strauss et al., Mol. Genet. Metab. 104 (2011) 93-106]. Since lysine-free, arginine-fortified amino acid supplements (AAS) are commercially available and used in Germany for more than a decade, we evaluated the effect of arginine supplementation in a cohort of 34 neonatally diagnosed GA-I patients (median age, 7.43 years; cumulative follow-up period, 221.6 patient years) who received metabolic treatment according to a published guideline [Kölker et al., J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30 (2007) 5-22]. Patients used one of two AAS product lines during the first year of life, resulting in differences in arginine consumption [group 1 (Milupa Metabolics): mean=111 mg arginine/kg; group 2 (Nutricia): mean=145 mg arginine/kg; p<0.001]. However, in both groups the daily arginine intake was increased (mean, 137 mg/kg body weight) and the dietary lysine-to-arginine ratio was decreased (mean, 0.7) compared to infants receiving human milk and other natural foods only. All other dietary parameters were in the same range. Despite significantly different arginine intake

  11. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-15

    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Renal response to L-arginine in diabetic rats. A possible link between nitric oxide system and aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, María C; Albertoni Borghese, María F; Balonga, Sabrina E; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana L; Elesgaray, Rosana; Costa, María A; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO) system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression.

  13. Reengineering of a Corynebacterium glutamicum L-arginine and L-citrulline producer.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji; Hayashi, Mikiro

    2009-03-01

    Toward the creation of a robust and efficient producer of L-arginine and L-citrulline (arginine/citrulline), we have performed reengineering of a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain by using genetic information of three classical producers. Sequence analysis of their arg operons identified three point mutations (argR123, argG92(up), and argG45) in one producer and one point mutation (argB26 or argB31) in each of the other two producers. Reconstitution of the former three mutations or of each argB mutation on a wild-type genome led to no production. Combined introduction of argB26 or argB31 with argR123 into a wild type gave rise to arginine/citrulline production. When argR123 was replaced by an argR-deleted mutation (Delta argR), the production was further increased. The best mutation set, Delta argR and argB26, was used to screen for the highest productivity in the backgrounds of different wild-type strains of C. glutamicum. This yielded a robust producer, RB, but the production was still one-third of that of the best classical producer. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the arg operon of the classical producer was much more highly upregulated than that of strain RB. Introduction of leuC456, a mutation derived from a classical L-lysine producer and provoking global induction of the amino acid biosynthesis genes, including the arg operon, into strain RB led to increased production but incurred retarded fermentation. On the other hand, replacement of the chromosomal argB by heterologous Escherichia coli argB, natively insensitive to arginine, caused a threefold-increased production without retardation, revealing that the limitation in strain RB was the activity of the argB product. To overcome this, in addition to argB26, the argB31 mutation was introduced into strain RB, which caused higher deregulation of the enzyme and resulted in dramatically increased production, like the strain with E. coli argB. This reconstructed strain displayed an enhanced performance

  14. L-arginine and arginine analogues: effects on isolated blood vessels and cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, H. H.; Baeblich, S. E.; Zernikow, B. C.; Klein, M. M.; Böhme, E.

    1990-01-01

    1. The present study examined effects of arginine (Arg) and various Arg analogues on the vascular tone of rabbit and rat aortic rings, the release of nitrite from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and the metabolism of L-Arg in bovine and porcine endothelial cell homogenates. The respective D-enantiomers or N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester did not substitute for L-Arg. 2. In bovine aortic endothelial cells, the release of nitrite was only observed in the presence of L-Arg or L-Arg methyl ester in the cell culture medium. 3. In dialyzed homogenates of porcine and bovine aortic endothelial cells, L-Arg was metabolized independently of NADPH and Ca2+ to yield L-ornithine (L-Orn) and L-citrulline (L-Cit). No concomitant nitrite formation was detected. 4. Pretreatment of rabbit and rat aortic rings with L-canavanine (L-Can) or NG-monomethyl-L-Arg (L-NMMA) inhibited ATP- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations (endothelium-dependent) but not glyceryltrinitrate-induced relaxations (endothelium-independent). 5. In rabbit aortic rings, Arg and monomeric Arg analogues induced endothelium-independent relaxations. L-Arg methyl ester induced an endothelium-independent contraction, and L-NMMA induced a relaxation in the absence of endothelium and a contraction in the presence of endothelium. Polymeric basic amino acids such as poly L-Arg induced endothelium-dependent relaxations (inhibited by L-Can), a subsequent refractoriness to endothelium-dependent vasodilators (not prevented by L-Can) and endothelial cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2282457

  15. Dietary arginine depletion reduces depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Weber, Michael D; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-09-30

    Previous behavioral studies have manipulated nitric oxide (NO) production either by pharmacological inhibition of its synthetic enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or by deletion of the genes that code for NOS. However manipulation of dietary intake of the NO precursor, L-arginine, has been understudied in regard to behavioral regulation. L-Arginine is a common amino acid present in many mammalian diets and is essential during development. In the brain L-arginine is converted into NO and citrulline by the enzyme, neuronal NOS (nNOS). In Experiment 1, paired mice were fed a diet comprised either of an L-arginine-depleted, L-arginine-supplemented, or standard level of L-arginine during pregnancy. Offspring were continuously fed the same diets and were tested in adulthood in elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests. L-Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice and failed to significantly alter anxiety-like or aggressive behaviors. Arginine depletion throughout life reduced body mass overall and eliminated the sex difference in body mass. Additionally, arginine depletion significantly increased corticosterone concentrations, which negatively correlated with time spent floating. In Experiment 2, adult mice were fed arginine-defined diets two weeks prior to and during behavioral testing, and again tested in the aforementioned tests. Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test, but did not alter behavior in the elevated plus maze or the resident intruder aggression test. Corticosterone concentrations were not altered by arginine diet manipulation in adulthood. These results indicate that arginine depletion throughout development, as well as during a discrete period during adulthood ameliorates depressive-like responses. These results may yield new insights into the etiology and sex differences of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of L-arginine in the biological effects of blue light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Anu M.

    2005-11-01

    Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, and metabolites of arginine exert multiple biological effects. It has been known that arginine causes the release of various hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenal catecholamines. Arginine infusion also produces vasodilation, and in the kidney increased plasma flow accompanied by increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Recent studies have showed that blue and red light irradiation in vitro and in vivo can increase production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS). These then can modulate the production and secretion of several cytokines and other mediators and play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes which can then modulate the production, mobilization and homing of stem cells. It is proposed that some of the therapeutic effects of light can be considered to be due to the changes in the metabolism of L-arginine. The regulation of L-arginine turnover by the use of light at blue wavelengths between 400nm and 510nm can be the explanation for some of the observed effects of blue light: lowering of blood pressure, pain killing effect, regulating insulin production, anti-inflammatory action, and possible effects on the release and homing of stem cells.

  17. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  18. Developmental changes of l-arginine transport at the blood-brain barrier in rats.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Masanori; Hirose, Shirou; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Matsuyama, Ryo; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-01

    l-Arginine is required for regulating synapse formation/patterning and angiogenesis in the developing brain. We hypothesized that this requirement would be met by increased transporter-mediated supply across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the purpose of this work was to test the idea that elevation of blood-to-brain l-arginine transport across the BBB in the postnatal period coincides with up-regulation of cationic acid transporter 1 (CAT1) expression in developing brain capillaries. We found that the apparent brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp, app) of l-arginine after intravenous administration during the first and second postnatal weeks was 2-fold greater than that at the adult stage. Kp, app of l-serine was also increased at the first postnatal week. In contrast, Kp, app of d-mannitol, a passively BBB-permeable molecule, did not change, indicating that increased transport of l-arginine and l-serine is not due to BBB immaturity. Double immunohistochemical staining of CAT1 and a marker protein, glucose transporter 1, revealed that CAT1 was localized on both luminal and abluminal membranes of brain capillary endothelial cells during the developmental and adult stages. A dramatic increase in CAT1 expression in the brain was seen at postnatal day 7 (P7) and day 14 (P14) and the expression subsequently decreased as the brain matured. In accordance with this, intense immunostaining of CAT1 was observed in brain capillaries at P7 and P14. These findings strongly support our hypothesis and suggest that the supply of blood-born l-arginine to the brain via CAT1 at the BBB plays a key role in meeting the elevated demand for l-arginine in postnatal brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of L-carnitine and L-arginine against busulfan-induced oligospermia in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elrazek, A M; Ahmed-Farid, O A H

    2018-02-01

    Busulfan is an anticancer drug caused variety of adverse effects for patients with cancer. But it could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine and L-arginine on semen quality, oxidative stress parameters and testes cell energy after busulfan treatment. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control (Con), busulfan (Bus), busulfan plus L-arginine (Bus + L-arg) and busulfan plus L-carnitine (Bus + L-car). After 28 days, the semen was collected from the epididymis and the testes were assessed. Sperm count, motility and velocity were measured by CASA, and smears were prepared for assessment of sperm morphology. Serum and testes supernatants were separated for DNA metabolites, oxidative stress and cell energy parameters. Testes tissues also subjected for caspase-3. The results showed significant improvement in sperm morphology, motility, velocity and count in the groups treated with L-arginine and L-carnitine and accompanied with an increase in MDA, GSSG and ATP, reduction in GSH, AMP, ADP, NO and 8-OHDG also recorded. These results are supported by caspase-3. Administration of L-arg and L-car attenuated the cytotoxic effects of busulfan by improving semen parameters, reducing oxidative stress and maintaining cell energy. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Spontaneous, L-arginine-induced and spironolactone-induced regression of protein remodeling of the left ventricle in L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Simko, F; Potácová, A; Pelouch, V; Paulis, L; Matúsková, J; Krajcírovicová, K; Pechánová, O; Adamcová, M

    2007-01-01

    N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension is associated with protein remodeling of the left ventricle. The aim of the study was to show, whether aldosterone receptor blocker spironolactone and precursor of NO-production L-arginine were able to reverse the protein rebuilding of the left ventricle. Six groups of male Wistar rats were investigated: control 4 (4 weeks placebo), L-NAME (4 weeks L-NAME), spontaneous-regression (4 weeks L-NAME + 3 weeks placebo), spironolactone-regression (4 weeks L-NAME + 3 weeks spironolactone), L-arginine-regression (4 weeks L-NAME + 3 weeks arginine), control 7 (7 weeks placebo). L-NAME administration induced hypertension, hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV), and the increase of metabolic and contractile as well as soluble and insoluble collagenous protein concentration. The systolic blood pressure and relative weight of the LV decreased in all three groups with regression, while the most prominent attenuation of the LVH was observed after spironolactone treatment. In the spontaneous-regression and L-arginine-regression groups the concentrations of individual proteins were not significantly different from the control value. However, in the spironolactone-regression group the concentration of metabolic, contractile and insoluble collagenous proteins remained significantly increased in comparison with the control group. The persistence of the increased protein concentration in the spironolactone group may be related to the more prominent reduction of myocardial water content by spironolactone.

  1. A relative L-arginine deficiency contributes to endothelial dysfunction across the stages of the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Klawitter, Jelena; Hildreth, Kerry L; Christians, Uwe; Kohrt, Wendy M; Moreau, Kerrie L

    2017-09-01

    Vascular endothelial function declines across the menopause transition in women. We tested the hypothesis that reduced availability of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] substrate L-arginine is an underlying mechanism to vascular endothelial dysfunction across menopause stages. Endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) and plasma markers of L-arginine metabolism (citrulline, N G -mono-methyl-ւ-arginine [L-NMMA] asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA] and N G -N 'G -dimethyl-l-arginine [SDMA]), were measured in 129 women: 36 premenopausal (33 ± 7 years), 16 early- (49 ± 3 years) or 21 late- (50 ± 4 years) perimenopausal, and 21 early- (55 ± 3 years) or 35 late- (61 ± 4 years) postmenopausal. FMD was progressively reduced across menopause stages ( P  < 0.001). Menopause stage was associated with L-arginine concentrations ( P  = 0.012), with higher levels in early postmenopausal compared to early and late perimenopausal women ( P  < 0.05). The methylarginine and eNOS inhibitor L-NMMA was higher in early and late postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal and early and late perimenopausal women (all P  < 0.001), and was inversely correlated with FMD ( r  = -0.30, P  = 0.001). The L-arginine/L-NMMA ratio, a potential biomarker of relative L-arginine levels, was lower in postmenopausal compared to either premenopausal or perimenopausal women (both P  < 0.001), and was positively correlated with FMD ( r  = 0.33, P  < 0.001). There were no differences in plasma citrulline, ADMA or SDMA across groups. These data suggest that a relative L-arginine deficiency may be a mechanism underlying the decline in endothelial function with the menopause transition in women. The relative L-arginine deficiency may be related to elevated levels of the methylarginine L-NMMA, which would compete with L-arginine for eNOS and for intracellular transport, reducing NO biosynthesis. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological

  2. Safety of dietary supplementation with arginine in adult humans.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Catherine J; Meininger, Cynthia J; Wilborn, Colin D; Tekwe, Carmen D; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies with animals and humans have shown beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) on reducing white fat and improving health. At present, a long-term safe level of Arg administration to adult humans is unknown. The objective of this study was to conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the safety and tolerability of oral Arg in overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index of ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . A total of 142 subjects completed a 7-day wash-in period using a 12 g Arg/day dose. All the remaining eligible 101 subjects who tolerated the wash-in dose (45 men and 56 women) were assigned randomly to ingest 0, 15 or 30 g Arg (as pharmaceutical-grade Arg-HCl) per day for 90 days. Arg was taken daily in at least two divided doses by mixing with a flavored beverage. At Days 0 and 90, blood pressures of study subjects were recorded, their physical examinations were performed, and their blood and 24-h urine samples were obtained to measure: (1) serum concentrations of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and related metabolites; and (2) renal, hepatic, endocrine and metabolic parameters. Our results indicate that the serum concentration of Arg in men or women increased (P < 0.05) progressively with increasing oral Arg doses from 0 to 30 g/day. Dietary supplementation with 30 g Arg/day reduced (P < 0.05) systolic blood pressure and serum glucose concentration in females, as well as serum concentrations of free fatty acids in both males and females. Based on physiological and biochemical variables, study subjects tolerated oral administration of 15 and 30 g Arg/day without adverse events. We conclude that a long-term safe level of dietary Arg supplementation is at least 30 g/day in adult humans.

  3. Renal Response to L-Arginine in Diabetic Rats. A Possible Link between Nitric Oxide System and Aquaporin-2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, María C.; Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Balonga, Sabrina E.; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana L.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Costa, María A.; Majowicz, Mónica P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation modifies nitric oxide (NO) system and consequently aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the renal outer medulla of streptozotocin-diabetic rats at an early time point after induction of diabetes. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Control, Diabetic, Diabetic treated with L-Arginine and Control treated with L-Arginine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was estimated by [14C] L-citrulline production in homogenates of the renal outer medulla and by NADPH-diaphorase staining in renal outer medullary tubules. Western blot was used to detect the expression of AQP2 and NOS types I and III; real time PCR was used to quantify AQP2 mRNA. The expression of both NOS isoforms, NOS I and NOS III, was decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg failed to prevent these decreases. However, L-Arg improved NO production, NADPH-diaphorase activity in collecting ducts and other tubular structures, and NOS activity in renal homogenates from diabetic rats. AQP2 protein and mRNA were decreased in the renal outer medulla of diabetic rats and L-Arg administration prevented these decreases. These results suggest that the decreased NOS activity in collecting ducts of the renal outer medulla may cause, at least in part, the decreased expression of AQP2 in this model of diabetes and constitute additional evidence supporting a role for NO in contributing to renal water reabsorption through the modulation of AQP2 expression in this pathological condition. However, we cannot discard that another pathway different from NOS also exists that links L-Arg to AQP2 expression. PMID:25111608

  4. Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol® and l-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction (SDys) are common problems that affect quality of life (QOL) in elderly men. In addition to prescribed drugs, many over-the-counter medications including supplements are used to treat QOL diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to be effective for both LUTS and SDys by increasing nitric oxide levels. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol ® , which is a potent nitric oxide donor, is reported to be effective for SDys. However, no reports have been published on whether it ameliorates LUTS. Open-labeled, randomized study. The effects of two supplements, Nokogiriyashi EX ® containing 160 mg saw palmetto (SP) extract per tablet and Edicare ® containing 10 mg of Pycnogenol ® , 115 mg of l-arginine and 92 mg of aspartate (PAA) per tablet on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), urinary 8-OHdG and uroflowmetry (UFM) of total 40 men with LUTS and SDys were examined. 19 subjects were instructed to take two tablets of SP, on the other 20 were on four tablets of PAA for 16 weeks. IPSS and IPSS-QOL showed statistically significant improvements in both groups. OABSS and IIEF5 were significantly improved in the PAA group. Conversely, ICIQ-SF, 8-OHdG and UFM did not change in either group. PAA might be an effective therapeutic alternative for elderly patients with LUTS and SDys.

  5. l-Arginine Modifies the Exopolysaccharide Matrix and Thwarts Streptococcus mutans Outgrowth within Mixed-Species Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    He, Jinzhi; Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Lizeng; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya; Santarpia, Peter; Zhou, Xuedong; Koo, Hyun

    2016-10-01

    l-Arginine, a ubiquitous amino acid in human saliva, serves as a substrate for alkali production by arginolytic bacteria. Recently, exogenous l-arginine has been shown to enhance the alkalinogenic potential of oral biofilm and destabilize its microbial community, which might help control dental caries. However, l-arginine exposure may inflict additional changes in the biofilm milieu when bacteria are growing under cariogenic conditions. Here, we investigated how exogenous l-arginine modulates biofilm development using a mixed-species model containing both cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and arginolytic (Streptococcus gordonii) bacteria in the presence of sucrose. We observed that 1.5% (wt/vol) l-arginine (also a clinically effective concentration) exposure suppressed the outgrowth of S. mutans, favored S. gordonii dominance, and maintained Actinomyces naeslundii growth within biofilms (versus vehicle control). In parallel, topical l-arginine treatments substantially reduced the amounts of insoluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) by >3-fold, which significantly altered the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the biofilm. Intriguingly, l-arginine repressed S. mutans genes associated with insoluble EPS (gtfB) and bacteriocin (SMU.150) production, while spxB expression (H2O2 production) by S. gordonii increased sharply during biofilm development, which resulted in higher H2O2 levels in arginine-treated biofilms. These modifications resulted in a markedly defective EPS matrix and areas devoid of any bacterial clusters (microcolonies) on the apatitic surface, while the in situ pH values at the biofilm-apatite interface were nearly one unit higher in arginine-treated biofilms (versus the vehicle control). Our data reveal new biological properties of l-arginine that impact biofilm matrix assembly and the dynamic microbial interactions associated with pathogenic biofilm development, indicating the multiaction potency of this promising biofilm disruptor. Dental caries is one

  6. l-Arginine Modifies the Exopolysaccharide Matrix and Thwarts Streptococcus mutans Outgrowth within Mixed-Species Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinzhi; Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Lizeng; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya; Santarpia, Peter; Zhou, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT l-Arginine, a ubiquitous amino acid in human saliva, serves as a substrate for alkali production by arginolytic bacteria. Recently, exogenous l-arginine has been shown to enhance the alkalinogenic potential of oral biofilm and destabilize its microbial community, which might help control dental caries. However, l-arginine exposure may inflict additional changes in the biofilm milieu when bacteria are growing under cariogenic conditions. Here, we investigated how exogenous l-arginine modulates biofilm development using a mixed-species model containing both cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and arginolytic (Streptococcus gordonii) bacteria in the presence of sucrose. We observed that 1.5% (wt/vol) l-arginine (also a clinically effective concentration) exposure suppressed the outgrowth of S. mutans, favored S. gordonii dominance, and maintained Actinomyces naeslundii growth within biofilms (versus vehicle control). In parallel, topical l-arginine treatments substantially reduced the amounts of insoluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) by >3-fold, which significantly altered the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the biofilm. Intriguingly, l-arginine repressed S. mutans genes associated with insoluble EPS (gtfB) and bacteriocin (SMU.150) production, while spxB expression (H2O2 production) by S. gordonii increased sharply during biofilm development, which resulted in higher H2O2 levels in arginine-treated biofilms. These modifications resulted in a markedly defective EPS matrix and areas devoid of any bacterial clusters (microcolonies) on the apatitic surface, while the in situ pH values at the biofilm-apatite interface were nearly one unit higher in arginine-treated biofilms (versus the vehicle control). Our data reveal new biological properties of l-arginine that impact biofilm matrix assembly and the dynamic microbial interactions associated with pathogenic biofilm development, indicating the multiaction potency of this promising biofilm disruptor. IMPORTANCE

  7. Augmented endothelial l-arginine transport ameliorates pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Johnston, Tamara; Kiriazis, Helen; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kaye, David M

    2015-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? What is the potential role of endothelial NO production via overexpression of the l-arginine transporter, CAT1, as a mitigator of cardiac hypertrophy? What is the main finding and its importance? Augmentation of endothelium-specific l-arginine transport via CAT1 can attenuate pressure-overload-dependent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Our findings support the conclusion that interventions that improve endothelial l-arginine transport may provide therapeutic utility in the setting of myocardial hypertrophy. Such modifications may be introduced by exercise training or locally delivered gene therapy, but further experimental and clinical studies are required. Endothelial dysfunction has been postulated to play a central role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, probably as a result of reduced NO bioavailability. We tested the hypothesis that increased endothelial NO production, mediated by increased l-arginine transport, could attenuate pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and blood pressure measurements were performed 15 weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in wild-type (WT) mice (n = 12) and in mice with endothelium-specific overexpression of the l-arginine transporter, CAT1 (CAT+; n = 12). Transverse aortic constriction induced greater increases in heart weight to body weight ratio in WT (by 47%) than CAT+ mice (by 25%) compared with the respective controls (P ≤ 0.05). Likewise, the increase in left ventricular wall thickness induced by TAC was significantly attenuated in CAT+ mice (P = 0.05). Cardiac collagen type I mRNA expression was greater in WT mice with TAC (by 22%; P = 0.03), but not in CAT+ mice with TAC, compared with the respective controls. Transverse aortic constriction also induced lesser increases in β-myosin heavy chain mRNA expression in CAT+ mice compared with WT (P ≤ 0.05). Left ventricular systolic pressure after TAC was 36 and 39% greater in WT and

  8. Evaluation of growth hormone release in children using arginine and L-dopa in combination.

    PubMed

    Weldon, V V; Gupta, S K; Klingensmith, G; Clarke, W L; Duck, S C; Haymond, M W; Pagliara, A S

    1975-10-01

    L-Dopa in a dose ranging from 125-500 mg and arginine monochloride in a dose of 0.5 gm/kg were given simultaneously to 56 children with short stature (height less than third percentile). Sixteen of these children were subsequently diagnosed as having growth hormone deficiency. The diagnosis of hyposomatotropism was based on clinical findings and on responses to the combination test and to arginine and L-dopa administered as separate tests. All of the remaining 40 children had a normal GH response of greater than 6 ng/ml to the combination test. However, in this group, nine children were identified who responded to the combination test but who failed to respond to arginine and L-dopa in individual tests. The data suggest that a positive response to arginine and L-dopa in combination in children, who do not respond to the usual provocative tests when administered individually, may fail to identify children with partial GH deficiency who would benefit from treatment. The integrated stimulated GH response in the 31 children in whom a normal GH response to all three tests occurred suggests that the effects of L-dopa and arginine are additive.

  9. Cationic amino acid transporter 1-mediated L-arginine transport at the inner blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Tomi, Masatoshi; Kitade, Naohisa; Hirose, Shirou; Yokota, Noriko; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the transporter mediating l-arginine transport at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The apparent uptake clearance of [(3)H]L-arginine into the rat retina was found to be 118 microL/(min.g retina), supporting a carrier-mediated influx transport of L-arginine at the BRB. [(3)H]L-arginine uptake by a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells), used as an in vitro model of the inner BRB, was primarily an Na(+)-independent and saturable process with Michaelis-Menten constants of 11.2 microM and 530 microM. This process was inhibited by rat cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 1-specific small interfering RNA as well as substrates of CATs, L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine. The expression of cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 1 mRNA was 25.9- and 796-fold greater than that of CAT3 in TR-iBRB2 and magnetically isolated rat retinal vascular endothelial cells, respectively. The expression of CAT1 protein was detected in TR-iBRB2 cells and immunostaining of CAT1 was observed along the rat retinal capillaries. In conclusion, CAT1 is localized in retinal capillary endothelial cells and at least in part mediates L-arginine transport at the inner BRB. This process seems to be closely involved in visual functions by supplying precursors of biologically important molecules like nitric oxide in the neural retina.

  10. Deprivation of L-Arginine Induces Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Leishmania donovani Promastigotes: Contribution of the Polyamine Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Roy, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Verma, Sudha; Saini, Savita; Singh, Ruby; Abhishek, Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Mandal, Chitra; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The growth and survival of intracellular parasites depends on the availability of extracellular nutrients. Deprivation of nutrients viz glucose or amino acid alters redox balance in mammalian cells as well as some lower organisms. To further understand the relationship, the mechanistic role of L-arginine in regulation of redox mediated survival of Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated. L-arginine deprivation from the culture medium was found to inhibit cell growth, reduce proliferation and increase L-arginine uptake. Relative expression of enzymes, involved in L-arginine metabolism, which leads to polyamine and trypanothione biosynthesis, were downregulated causing decreased production of polyamines in L-arginine deprived parasites and cell death. The resultant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to L-arginine deprivation, correlated with increased NADP+/NADPH ratio, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, increased lipid peroxidation and reduced thiol content. A deficiency of L-arginine triggered phosphatidyl serine externalization, a change in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of intracellular calcium and cytochrome-c. This finally led to DNA damage in Leishmania promastigotes. In summary, the growth and survival of Leishmania depends on the availability of extracellular L-arginine. In its absence the parasite undergoes ROS mediated, caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death. Therefore, L-arginine metabolism pathway could be a probable target for controlling the growth of Leishmania parasites and disease pathogenesis. PMID:26808657

  11. [l-arginine efficiency in MELAS syndrome. A case report].

    PubMed

    Moutaouakil, F; El Otmani, H; Fadel, H; Sefrioui, F; Slassi, I

    2009-05-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stoke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA. We report the case of a 12-year-old child with MELAS syndrome who presented with recurrent migraine-like headache and sudden blindness suggesting stroke-like episodes. Furthermore, he developed progressive muscular impairment with bilateral hearing loss. Serum lactate and pyruvate levels were elevated and the muscle biopsy showed an aspect of red-ragged fibers with Gomori trichrome. Brain imaging showed calcifications of basal ganglia on the CT scan and a parieto-occipital high signal on diffusion-weighted MRI. A genetic analysis was not performed but the presence of hearing loss in the patient's mother was suggestive of maternal transmission. Stroke-like episodes in the form of migraine-like headache and blindness were the patient's major complaint and did not improve despite analgesic drugs. After oral administration of l-arginine at the dose of 0.4mg/kg per day, stroke-like symptoms totally and rapidly disappeared. The efficiency of l-arginine in stroke-like episodes was initially reported then confirmed in a controlled study. The pathophysiology of stoke-like episodes and the mechanisms underlying the action of l-arginine are discussed.

  12. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Lance H.; Wells, Greg D.; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E.; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by 31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. Methods We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNAleu(UUR) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. Results At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 31P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg2+ (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO2peak. On 31P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. Significance These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Classification of Evidence Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446. PMID:25993630

  13. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodan, Lance H; Wells, Greg D; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR)) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 3(1)P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg(2+) (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO(2peak). On (31)P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  14. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  15. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    PubMed Central

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  16. Oral Supplementation with Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate, Arginine, and Glutamine Improves Lean Body Mass in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Hunter, Gary R; Goss, Amy M; Gower, Barbara A

    2018-04-19

    Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults. Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women, aged 65-89 years, were randomized to either two oral doses of the amino acid supplement (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g arginine, 14 g glutamine) or placebo daily for six months. At baseline and month six, lean body mass was measured by air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and four-compartment model. Muscle volume of quadriceps was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and participants performed a battery of tests to assess physical function. As compared to the placebo group, the treatment group exhibited improvement in a timed stair climb (p =.016) as well as significant increases in lean body mass by all methods of assessment (p <.05). Regional analysis by DXA revealed increased arm lean mass in the supplement group only (p =.035). However, no change was observed in MRI-derived quadriceps volume. Dietary supplementation with HMB, arginine, and glutamine improved total body lean mass among a small sample of healthy older adults. Further research is indicated to elucidate mechanisms of action and to determine whether supplementation may benefit frail elders. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT01057082.

  17. Proliferative, anti-apoptotic and immune-enhancing effects of L-arginine in culture of skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kocic, H; Arsic, I; Stankovic, M; Tiodorovic, D; Ciric, V; Kocic, G

    2017-01-01

    Semi-essential amino acid L-arginine may be of fundamental importance in various intracellular and intercellular pathways related to skin repair and wound healing. Our current study was aimed to explore the effect of L-arginine on skin fibroblast (L929) signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation (Akt-pAkt kinase, Erk/pErk1/2 kinase, JNK/pJNK kinase and pStat-1), apoptosis (Bcl2 and Bax) and immune defense (NF-κB and CD26). Significant upregulation of Erk (p<0.011), pErk (p<0.017) and JNK (p<0.002) was documented, while the rise was not significant for pJNK kinase. The Akt/pAkt signaling pathway did not change significantly for the above-mentioned time and dose, while pStat-1 was significantly down regulated (p<0.011). The exposure of skin fibroblasts to L-arginine increased anti-apoptotic Bcl2/Bax stoichiometry ratio (p<0.05), obtained by calculation of their individual quantities. L-arginine was able to elicit NF-κB signaling through the increase of p65 active subunit level (p<0.004), while CD26 surface antigen level was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the exposure of skin fibroblasts to L-arginine may help in maintaining and stimulating skin fibroblast proliferative, anti-apoptotic and immune defense function. Therefore, the proposed L-arginine dose may be used for tissue regeneration application, which would be of importance in regenerative medicine, skin rejuvenation approaches and wound healing.

  18. Effect of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage on L-arginine production in recombinant Corynebacterium crenatum using coenzyme regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meijuan; Qin, Jingru; Rao, Zhiming; You, Hengyi; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Taowei; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-01-19

    Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA 5 is the industrial strain for L-arginine production. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a kind of biopolymer stored as bacterial reserve materials for carbon and energy. The introduction of the PHB synthesis pathway into several strains can regulate the global metabolic pathway. In addition, both the pathways of PHB and L-arginine biosynthesis in the cells are NADPH-dependent. NAD kinase could upregulate the NADPH concentration in the bacteria. Thus, it is interesting to investigate how both PHB and NAD kinase affect the L-arginine biosynthesis in C. crenatum SYPA 5. C. crenatum P1 containing PHB synthesis pathway was constructed and cultivated in batch fermentation for 96 h. The enzyme activities of the key enzymes were enhanced comparing to the control strain C. crenatum SYPA 5. More PHB was found in C. crenatum P1, up to 12.7 % of the dry cell weight. Higher growth level and enhanced glucose consumptions were also observed in C. crenatum P1. With respect to the yield of L-arginine, it was 38.54 ± 0.81 g/L, increasing by 20.6 %, comparing to the control under the influence of PHB accumulation. For more NADPH supply, C. crenatum P2 was constructed with overexpression of NAD kinase based on C. crenatum P1. The NADPH concentration was increased in C. crenatum P2 comparing to the control. PHB content reached 15.7 % and 41.11 ± 1.21 g/L L-arginine was obtained in C. crenatum P2, increased by 28.6 %. The transcription levels of key L-arginine synthesis genes, argB, argC, argD and argJ in recombinant C. crenatum increased 1.9-3.0 times compared with the parent strain. Accumulation of PHB by introducing PHB synthesis pathway, together with up-regulation of coenzyme level by overexpressing NAD kinase, enables the recombinant C. crenatum to serve as high-efficiency cell factories in the long-time L-arginine fermentation. Furthermore, batch cultivation of the engineered C. crenatum revealed that it could accumulate both extracellular L-arginine

  19. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase abrogates lipopolysaccharides-induced up-regulation of L-arginine uptake in rat alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hammermann, Rainer; Stichnote, Christina; Closs, Ellen Ildicho; Nawrath, Hermann; Racké, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    It was tested whether the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway might be involved in lipopolysaccharides-(LPS)-induced up-regulation of L-arginine transport in rat alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). AMΦ were cultured in absence or presence of LPS. Nitrite accumulation was determined in culture media and cells were used to study [3H]-L-arginine uptake or to isolate RNA for RT – PCR. Culture in presence of LPS (1 μg ml−1, 20 h) caused 11 fold increase of nitrite accumulation and 2.5 fold increase of [3H]-L-arginine uptake. The inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT) present alone during culture had only marginal effects on [3H]-L-arginine uptake. However, AMT present during culture additionally to LPS, suppressed LPS-induced nitrite accumulation and LPS-stimulated [3H]-L-arginine uptake in the same concentration-dependent manner. AMT present only for the last 30 min of the culture period had similar effects on [3H]-L-arginine uptake. AMT present only during the uptake period also inhibited LPS-stimulated [3H]-L-arginine uptake, but with lower potency. The inhibitory effect of AMT could not be opposed by the NO releasing compound DETA NONOate. LPS caused an up-regulation of the mRNA for the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B, and this effect was not affected by AMT. AMT (100 μM) did not affect L-arginine transport studied by electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing either the human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-1 or hCAT-2B. In conclusion, iNOS inhibition in rat AMΦ abolished LPS-activated L-arginine uptake. This effect appears to be caused by reduced flow of L-arginine through the iNOS pathway. PMID:11375254

  20. Mature coconut water exhibits antidiabetic and antithrombotic potential via L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preetha, Prabhakaran Prabha; Devi, Vishalakshiamma Girija; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether the antidiabetic activity of mature coconut water (MCW) is mediated through L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in diabetic rats, and to study the effects of MCW on blood coagulation. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting them with alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). MCW (4 mL/100 g body weight) and L-arginine (7.5 mg/100 g body weight) was given orally for 45 days. L-NAME was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), L-arginine, urine volume and urinary creatinine levels, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and arginase as well as the abnormalities in hemostasis and thrombosis were measured in all the experimental groups. Treatment with MCW and L-arginine reduced the concentration of blood glucose and HbA1c in diabetic rats. MCW and L-arginine treatment exhibited significant antithrombotic activity in diabetic rats, which was evident from the reduced levels of WBC, platelets, fibrin, and fibrinogen. MCW and L-arginine treatment prolonged the prothrombin time in diabetic rats and reduced the activity of Factor V. In addition to this, the activity of nitric oxide synthase, liver and plasma arginine content, and urinary nitrite were higher in MCW-treated diabetic rats whereas L-NAME treatment inhibited the beneficial effects induced by MCW and arginine. The results clearly indicate that L-arginine is a major factor responsible for the antidiabetic and antithrombotic potential of coconut water, and is mediated through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.

  1. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying-ping; Wu, Tian-xing; Hong, Qi-hua; Sun, Jiang-ming; Chen, An-guo; Yang, Cai-mei; Li, Xiao-yan

    2012-07-01

    A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups. One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group), whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine, respectively, representing Gln group or control group. Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment. Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones. These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism, aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism, galactose metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Dietary Gln supplementation increased the levels of creatinine, D-xylose, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, palmitelaidic acid, and α-L-galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets, and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. A leave-one-out cross-validation of random forest analysis indicated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups. Notably, the concentration of creatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets, and increased (P=0.0003) in Gln-supplemented piglets. A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that early weaning changed the metabolic pathways, leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which could be partially improved by dietary Gln supplementation. These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early

  2. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying-ping; Wu, Tian-xing; Hong, Qi-hua; Sun, Jiang-ming; Chen, An-guo; Yang, Cai-mei; Li, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups. One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group), whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine, respectively, representing Gln group or control group. Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment. Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones. These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism, aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism, galactose metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Dietary Gln supplementation increased the levels of creatinine,D-xylose, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, palmitelaidic acid, and α-L-galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets, and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. A leave-one-out cross-validation of random forest analysis indicated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups. Notably, the concentration of creatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets, and increased (P=0.0003) in Gln-supplemented piglets. A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that early weaning changed the metabolic pathways, leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which could be partially improved by dietary Gln supplementation. These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early

  3. L-arginine enhances immunity to parasitoids in Drosophila melanogaster and increases NO production in lamellocytes.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Alex R; Elrayes, Naji P; Schuppe, Hansjürgen; Newland, Philip L

    2011-08-01

    Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model system to explore the link between nutrition and immunity, and to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in enhancing immunity following dietary enhancement with L-arginine. First, we show that adding L-arginine to the food medium increases the ability of D. melanogaster larvae to encapsulate the eggs of the parasitoid Asobara tabida. Secondly, we show that the increase in immunity is specific to L-arginine, and not to an enhanced calorific content, and that immunity decreases when larvae are fed food with added L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Finally, we show that parasitised larvae fed L-arginine have increased haemocyte numbers, and that the lamellocytes (haemocytes which play a key role in encapsulation) show evidence of an increased production of NO. These results suggest that NO plays a key role in immunity and that the effect of NO is mostly targeted via the lamellocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. L-arginine fails to prevent ventricular remodeling and heart failure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Wesley W; Conrad, Chester H; Robinson, Kathleen G; Colucci, Wilson S; Bing, Oscar H L

    2009-02-01

    The effects of long-term oral administration of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) production, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, myocardial function and the prevention of heart failure (HF) was compared to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a rat model of hypertensive HF (aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)). SHRs and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were assigned to either no treatment, treatment with L-arginine (7.5 g/l in drinking water) or captopril (1 g/l in drinking water) beginning at 14 months of age, a time when SHRs exhibit stable compensated hypertrophy with no hemodynamic impairment; animals were studied at 23 months of age or at the time of HF. In untreated SHR, relative to WKY, there was significant LV hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and isolated LV muscle performance and response to isoproterenol (ISO) were depressed; and, 7 of 10 SHRs developed HF. Captopril administration to six SHRs attenuated hypertrophy and prevented impaired inotropic responsiveness to ISO, contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, increased passive stiffness, and HF. In contrast, L-arginine administration to SHR increased LV hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis while cardiac performance was depressed; and 7 of 9 SHRs developed HF. In WKY, L-arginine treatment but not captopril resulted in increased LV weight and the contractile response to ISO was blunted. Neither L-arginine nor captopril treatment of WKY changed fibrosis and HF did not occur. These data demonstrate that in contrast to captopril, long-term treatment with L-arginine exacerbates age-related cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and did not prevent contractile dysfunction or the development of HF in aging SHR.

  5. The presence of African American race predicts improvement in coronary endothelial function after supplementary L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Jan L; Philbin, Edward F; Strogatz, David S; Torosoff, Mikhail T; Fein, Steven A; Kuhner, Patricia A; Smith, Vivienne E; Carr, Albert A

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of our study was to determine if the presence of African American ethnicity modulates improvement in coronary vascular endothelial function after supplementary L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is an early stage in the development of coronary atherosclerosis and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Amelioration of endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with established coronary atherosclerosis or with risk factors in response to infusion of L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide. Racial and gender patterns in L-arginine responsiveness have not, heretofore, been studied. Invasive testing of coronary artery and microvascular reactivity in response to graded intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine (ACh) +/- L-arginine was carried out in 33 matched pairs of African American and white subjects with no angiographic coronary artery disease. Pairs were matched for age, gender, indexed left ventricular mass, body mass index and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition to the matching parameters, there were no significant differences in peak coronary blood flow (CBF) response to intracoronary adenosine or in the peak CBF response to ACh before L-arginine infusion. However, absolute percentile improvement in CBF response to ACh infusion after L-arginine, as compared with before, was significantly greater among African Americans as a group (45 +/- 10% vs. 4 +/- 6%, p = 0.0016) and after partitioning by gender. The mechanism of this increase was mediated through further reduction in coronary microvascular resistance. L-arginine infusion also resulted in greater epicardial dilator response after ACh among African Americans. We conclude that intracoronary infusion of L-arginine provides significantly greater augmentation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in those of African American ethnicity when compared with matched white subjects drawn from a cohort electively referred for coronary

  6. Modulatory effects of arginine, glutamine and branched-chain amino acids on heat shock proteins, immunity and antioxidant response in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-09-20

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cell's tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have similar effects to that of glutamine, our objective was to evaluate the effects of leucine, valine, isoleucine and arginine as potential stimulators of HSPs 25, 60, 70 and 90 in rats subjected to acute exercise as a stressing factor. The immune markers, antioxidant system, blood parameters, glycogen and amino acid profile responses were also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-arginine and l-glutamine. Except for the control, all animals were exercised and received every amino acid by oral gavage. Arginine supplementation up-regulated muscle HSP70 and HSP90 and serum HSP70, however, none of the amino acids affected the HSP25. All amino acids increased exercise-induced HSP60 expression, except for valine. Antioxidant enzymes were reduced by exercise, but both glutamine and arginine restored glutathione peroxidase, while isoleucine and valine restored superoxide dismutase. Exercise reduced monocyte, platelet, lymphocyte and erythrocyte levels, while leucine stimulated immune response, preserved the levels of the lymphocytes and increased leukocytes and maintained platelets at control levels. Plasma and muscle amino acid profiles showed specific metabolic features. The data suggest that the tissue-protecting effects of arginine could proceed by enhancing specific HSPs in the body.

  7. Maternal Dietary L-Arginine and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Darling, Anne Marie; McDonald, Chloe R; Urassa, Willy S; Kain, Kevin C; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2017-09-01

    The amino acid arginine is a physiological precursor to nitric oxide, which is a key mediator of embryonic survival, fetal growth, and pregnancy maintenance. We evaluated the association between consumption of the amino acid arginine and the rate of adverse birth outcomes using data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled micronutrient supplementation trial among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2001-2004). Dietary intakes of arginine were assessed using repeated 24-hour recalls that were administered throughout pregnancy. Participants (n = 7,591) were monitored by research midwives throughout follow-up to assess pregnancy outcomes. Cubic-restricted splines and multivariable log-Poisson regression with empirical standard errors were used to estimate the continuous and categorical associations between arginine intake and adverse birth outcomes. Compared with women within the lowest quintile of arginine intake, those within the highest quintile had 0.79 times the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks (95% confidence interval: 0.63, 1.00; P = 0.03). The continuous associations of arginine intake with preterm birth before 37 weeks and with preterm birth before 34 weeks were characterized by an initial rapid decrease in risk with increasing intake (P for nonlinearity < 0.01). Arginine intake was not associated with fetal loss or giving birth to infants who were born small for their gestational ages. This data suggest that the association between dietary arginine intake and preterm birth warrants further investigation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    differentially. Our results indicated that antioxidant therapy, by melatonin or N-acetylcysteine, in pregnant rats with nitric oxide deficiency can prevent programmed hypertension in male adult offspring. Early intervention with specific antioxidants that target redox imbalance in pregnancy to reprogram hypertension may well allow us to reduce the future burden of hypertension. The roles of transcriptome changes that are induced by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in the offspring kidney require further clarification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arginine in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction: enantioselectivity facilitated by glycine, L- and D-histidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Fraser, Donald G; Rode, Bernd M

    2010-07-01

    The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been proposed as a conceivable preliminary to the prebiotic evolution of peptides. In the present paper, the behaviour of arginine is reported for this reaction together with a discussion of the catalytic effects of glycine, and L- and D-histidine. Importantly, the behaviour of the two histidine enantiomers is different. Both histidine enantiomers perform better than glycine in enhancing the yields of arginine dipeptide with L-histidine being more effective than D-histidine. Yields in the presence of histidine are up to 70 times greater than for arginine solutions alone. This compares with 4.2 times higher in the presence of glycine. This difference is most pronounced in the most concentrated (containing 80 mM arginine) reaction solution where arginine has the lowest reactivity. A distinct preference for dimerisation of L-arginine also appears in the 80 mM cases for catalyses of other amino acids. This phenomenon is different from the behaviour of aliphatic amino acids, which display obvious inherent enantioselectivity for the L-stereomers in the SIPF reaction on their own rather than when catalysed by glycine or histidine.

  10. Genome-wide association reveals that common genetic variation in the kallikrein-kinin system is associated with serum L-arginine levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Jernerén, Fredrik; Lehne, Benjamin C; Chen, Ming-Huei; Luben, Robert N; Johnston, Carole; Elshorbagy, Amany; Eppinga, Ruben N; Scott, William R; Adeyeye, Elizabeth; Scott, James; Böger, Rainer H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chambers, John C; Refsum, Helga; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2016-11-30

    L-arginine is the essential precursor of nitric oxide, and is involved in multiple key physiological processes, including vascular and immune function. The genetic regulation of blood L-arginine levels is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic factors determining serum L-arginine levels, amongst 901 Europeans and 1,394 Indian Asians. We show that common genetic variations at the KLKB1 and F12 loci are strongly associated with serum L-arginine levels. The G allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs71640036 (T/G) in KLKB1 is associated with lower serum L-arginine concentrations (10 µmol/l per allele copy, p=1×10 -24 ), while allele T of rs2545801 (T/C) near the F12 gene is associated with lower serum L-arginine levels (7 µmol/l per allele copy, p=7×10 -12 ). Together these two loci explain 7 % of the total variance in serum L-arginine concentrations. The associations at both loci were replicated in independent cohorts with plasma L-arginine measurements (p<0.004). The two sentinel SNPs are in nearly complete LD with the nonsynonymous SNP rs3733402 at KLKB1 and the 5'-UTR SNP rs1801020 at F12, respectively. SNPs at both loci are associated with blood pressure. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic regulation of L-arginine and its potential relationship with cardiovascular risk.

  11. Electron Transfer Dissociation with Supplemental Activation to Differentiate Aspartic and Isoaspartic Residues in Doubly Charged Peptide Cations

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Yi Kelly; Chan, T. W. Dominic; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) with supplemental activation of the doubly charged deamidated tryptic digested peptide ions allows differentiation of isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid residues using c + 57 or z• − 57 peaks. The diagnostic peak clearly localizes and characterizes the isoaspartic acid residue. Supplemental activation in ETD of the doubly charged peptide ions involves resonant excitation of the charge reduced precursor radical cations and leads to further dissociation, including extra backbone cleavages and secondary fragmentation. Supplemental activation is essential to obtain a high quality ETD spectrum (especially for doubly charged peptide ions) with sequence information. Unfortunately, the low-resolution of the ion trap mass spectrometer makes detection of the diagnostic peak for the aspartic acid residue difficult due to interference with side-chain loss from arginine and glutamic acid residues. PMID:20304674

  12. Vasodilatory effect of L-arginine on isolated rabbit and human posterior ciliary arteries in vitro and increased optic disc blood flow in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chuman, Hideki; Sugimoto, Takako; Nao-I, Nobuhisa

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the vasodilatory effect of L-arginine on isolated rabbit and human posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs) and to investigate changes in optic disc blood flow after an infusion of L-arginine in vivo. Vascular ring segments were mounted on a double myograph system. After obtaining maximal contraction following administration of high-K solution, L-arginine was administrated. Six volunteers received an intravenous drip infusion of 100 ml of L-arginine or saline. Changes in optic disc blood flow were measured by laser speckle flowgraphy. L-arginine relaxed high-K solution-induced contracted rabbit PCAs. Carboxy-PTIO (nitric oxide scavenger) and L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) inhibited L-arginine-induced relaxation in rabbit PCAs. After removal of the endothelium of the rabbit PCAs, L-arginine still relaxed rabbit PCAs. L-arginine relaxed human PCAs, despite the lack of nitric oxide production. In the L-arginine infusion group, the mean blur rate was significantly greater than that of the control group in vivo. L-arginine has both nitric oxide-dependent and independent vasodilatory effect on high K- induced contractions in isolated rabbit and human PCAs. L-arginine increased optic disc blood flow in vivo.

  13. L-Arginine regulates protein turnover in porcine mammary epithelial cells to enhance milk protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingquan; Hu, Shengdi; Bannai, Makoto; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-05-01

    Milk is an important food for mammalian neonates, but its insufficient production is a nutritional problem for humans and other animals. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) increases milk production in mammals, including sows, rabbits, and cows. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study was conducted with porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs) to test the hypothesis that Arg enhances milk protein synthesis via activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling. PMECs were cultured for 4 days in Arg-free basal medium supplemented with 10, 50, 200, or 500 μmol/L Arg. Rates of protein synthesis and degradation in cells were determined with the use of L-[ring-2,4- 3 H]phenylalanine. Cell medium was analyzed for β-casein and α-lactalbumin, whereas cells were used for quantifying total and phosphorylated levels of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), ubiquitin, and proteasome. Addition of 50-500 μmol/L Arg to culture medium increased (P < 0.05) the proliferation of PMECs and the synthesis of proteins (including β-casein and α-lactalbumin), while reducing the rates of proteolysis, in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylated levels of mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP1 were elevated (P < 0.05), but the abundances of ubiquitin and proteasome were lower (P < 0.05), in PMECs supplemented with 200-500 μmol/L Arg, compared with 10-50 μmol/L Arg. These results provide a biochemical basis for the use of Arg to enhance milk production by sows and have important implications for improving lactation in other mammals (including humans and cows).

  14. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation: Effects on performance and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Afsarian, O; Shahir, M H; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfolahian, H; Hoseini, A; Lourens, A

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (16 replicates of 75 eggs per treatment). The eggs were incubated at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of 37.8ºC throughout the incubation period (CON) or were periodically exposed to 15°C for one hour on days 11, 13, 15, and 17 of incubation and the EST was measured (periodical low EST; PLE). After hatching, 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks from both treatment groups were reared for 42 d with or without dietary arginine supplementation in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In order to induce ascites, all chicks were exposed to a 15°C room temperature from 14 d onwards. Results showed that second grade chicks and yolk sac weight were decreased, and final body weight was increased in the PLE group. Ascites mortality rate was decreased only in the PLE group and dietary arginine supplementation had no apparent effect. In the PLE group, the packed cell volume (PCV) percentage and red blood cell (RBC) count were decreased. In conclusion, the results showed that the PLE treatment during incubation was associated with improved hatchability, chick quality, and productive performance of broilers and decreased ascites incidence during post hatch cold exposure. Dietary arginine supplementation had no beneficial effects in cold exposed broilers. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 modulates innate immune responses through regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tikhanovich, Irina; Zhao, Jie; Olson, Jody; Adams, Abby; Taylor, Ryan; Bridges, Brian; Marshall, Laurie; Roberts, Benjamin; Weinman, Steven A

    2017-04-28

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that has been shown to regulate both gene expression and extranuclear signaling events. We recently reported defects in protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) activity and arginine methylation in the livers of cirrhosis patients with a history of recurrent infections. To examine the role of PRMT1 in innate immune responses in vivo , we created a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model. We showed that myeloid-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice demonstrate higher proinflammatory cytokine production and a lower survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture. We found that this defect is because of defective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-dependent M2 macrophage differentiation. PPARγ is one of the key transcription factors regulating macrophage polarization toward a more anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving phenotype. We found that PRMT1 knock-out macrophages failed to up-regulate PPARγ expression in response to IL4 treatment resulting in 4-fold lower PPARγ expression in knock-out cells than in wild-type cells. Detailed study of the mechanism revealed that PRMT1 regulates PPARγ gene expression through histone H4R3me2a methylation at the PPARγ promoter. Supplementing with PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and GW1929 was sufficient to restore M2 differentiation in vivo and in vitro and abrogated the difference in survival between wild-type and PRMT1 knock-out mice. Taken together these data suggest that PRMT1-dependent regulation of macrophage PPARγ expression contributes to the infection susceptibility in PRMT1 knock-out mice. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. l-Arginine Uptake by Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Promotes Intra-Macrophage Survival of Leishmania donovani by Enhancing Arginase-Mediated Polyamine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Kumar, Ajay; Roy, Saptarshi; Verma, Sudha; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Singh, Ruby; Abhishek, Kumar; Saini, Savita; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Purkait, Bidyut; Kumar, Ashish; Mandal, Chitra; Das, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The survival of intracellular protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL), depends on the activation status of macrophages. l-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid plays a crucial regulatory role for activation of macrophages. However, the role of l-arginine transport in VL still remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability of extracellular l-arginine. Infection of THP-1-derived macrophage/human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM) with Leishmania, resulted in upregulation of l-arginine transport. While investigating the involvement of the transporters, we observed that Leishmania survival was greatly impaired when the transporters were blocked either using inhibitor or siRNA-mediated downregulation. CAT-2 was found to be the main isoform associated with l-arginine transport in L. donovani-infected macrophages. l-arginine availability and its transport regulated the host arginase in Leishmania infection. Arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were reciprocally regulated when assayed using specific inhibitors and siRNA-mediated downregulation. Interestingly, induction of iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were observed in case of inhibition of arginase in infected macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of l-arginine transport as well as arginase resulted in decreased polyamine production, limiting parasite survival inside macrophages. l-arginine availability and transport regulated Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in case of Leishmania infection. Upregulation of l-arginine transport, induction of host arginase, and enhanced polyamine production were correlated with increased level of IL-10 and decreased level of IL-12 and TNF-α in L. donovani-infected macrophages. Our findings provide clear evidence for targeting the metabolism of l-arginine and l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes as an important therapeutic and

  17. Antioxidative and myocardial protective effects of L-arginine in oxygen radical-induced injury of isolated perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Suessenbacher, Astrid; Lass, Achim; Mayer, Bernd; Brunner, Friedrich

    2002-04-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals and oxidants (reactive oxygen intermediates, ROI) have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. The protective role of nitric oxide (NO) against ROI-mediated tissue injury is not resolved. We tested the effects of exogenous NO, L- and D-arginine and a NO synthase inhibitor on electrolysis-induced cardiac injury and the generation of ROI by electrolysis. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were used for comparison. Hearts ( n=7) from male rats (350+/-30 g) were perfused in vitro at 10 ml min(-1) g(-1), ROI generated by electrolysis of the perfusion medium (15 mA, 10 s), and cardiac function and the level of isoluminol-derived chemiluminescence in electrolysed perfusion medium documented for 15 min ( n=4). The ROI-induced maximal reduction of left ventricular developed pressure to 55+/-5% of baseline, and a 2.2+/-0.1-fold rise in coronary perfusion pressure 3 min after electrolysis, were prevented by SOD (50 U ml(-1)), catalase (100 U ml(-1)), S-nitroso- N-acetyl- D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, 100 nmol l(-1)); L-arginine (1 mmol l(-1)), N(G)-nitro- L-arginine (L-NNA, 200 micromol l(-1)) or D-arginine (1 mmol l(-1)). The effect of L-arginine was concentration dependent. In all cases, the beneficial effects were closely matched by a near-total reduction of ROI in the perfusion medium.We conclude that, besides mimicking or enhancing NO activity, L-arginine and donor-derived exogenous NO are cardioprotective by reducing ROI-mediated tissue injury. The protective effect of L-NNA and D-arginine implies that the protection results from a direct chemical interaction between the drug and the oxidizing species.

  18. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.

    2007-11-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolicmore » sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented.« less

  19. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luis Carlos; Bessa, Artur; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Luzes, Rafael; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro Saar; Bassini, Adriana; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2012-06-26

    Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student's t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson's test. In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism.

  20. Arginine for gestating sows and foetal development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Palencia, J Y P; Lemes, M A G; Garbossa, C A P; Abreu, M L T; Pereira, L J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2018-02-01

    The use of functional amino acids during pregnancy has been linked to improved reproduction in mammals. In this context, arginine is a precursor in the synthesis of numerous molecules, such as nitric oxide and polyamines, which play an important role during reproduction. However, contradictory studies are found in the literature, particularly regarding the amount of supplementation and the period of pregnancy in which it is used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine supplementation for pregnant sows on foetal development via a systematic review. The search for papers was performed during the month of December 2015, in the databases ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and SciELO. From a total of 5675 returned studies, only 13 papers were selected after applying selection criteria. Most (47%) of the studies that evaluated the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on foetal development in pigs used 1% arginine. Supplementation was initiated in the first third of pregnancy in 47% of tests, including in both primiparous and multiparous sows. These studies showed positive results for embryo survival and foetal development, evidenced by the increase in placental weight and the number and weight of piglets born alive. Of all evaluated studies, 53% showed benefits on foetal development. It is concluded that supplementing dietary arginine in gestating sows can benefit embryo survival and foetal development. However, to establish a supplementation plan with this amino acid, aspects related to the period of pregnancy, supplementation levels, and source of arginine must be well defined. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. A novel nitric oxide-based anticancer therapeutics by macrophage-targeted poly(l-arginine)-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shinpei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-11-10

    In the immune system, macrophages in tumor tissue generate nitric oxide (NO), producing versatile effects including apoptosis of tumor cells, because inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the cytoplasm of a macrophage produces NO using l-arginine as a substrate. Here, we propose novel NO-triggered immune therapeutics based on our newly designed nanoparticle system. We designed a poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-arginine) (i.e., PEG-b-P(l-Arg)) block copolymer and prepared polyion complex micelles (PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m) composed of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) and chondroitin sulfate for systemic anticancer immunotherapy. iNOS treatment of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) did not generate NO, but NO molecules were detected after trypsin pretreatment, indicating that hydrolysis of P(l-Arg) to monomeric arginine was taking place in vitro. RAW264.7 macrophages abundantly generated NO from the PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m in comparison with control micelles; this finding is indicative of robustness of the proposed method. It is interesting to note that systemic administration of PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m had no noticeable adverse effects and suppressed the tumor growth rate in C26 tumor-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner. Our newly designed nanoparticle-assisted arginine delivery system seems to hold promise as an NO-mediated anticancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio by L-arginine and SOD mimic in diabetic rat skin.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Ferreri, Carla; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2016-11-01

    Setting the correct ratio of superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and nitric oxide ( • NO) radicals seems to be crucial in restoring disrupted redox signaling in diabetic skin and improvement of • NO physiological action for prevention and treatment of skin injuries in diabetes. In this study we examined the effects of L-arginine and manganese(II)-pentaazamacrocyclic superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic - M40403 in diabetic rat skin. Following induction of diabetes by alloxan (blood glucose level ≥12 mMol l  -1 ) non-diabetic and diabetic male Mill Hill hybrid hooded rats were divided into three subgroups: (i) control, and receiving: (ii) L-arginine, (iii) M40403. Treatment of diabetic animals started after diabetes induction and lasted for 7 days. Compared to control, lower cutaneous immuno-expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), manganese SOD (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in parallel with increased NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nitrotyrosine levels characterized diabetic skin. L-arginine and M40403 treatments normalized alloxan-induced increase in nitrotyrosine. This was accompanied by the improvement/restitution of eNOS and HO1 or MnSOD and GSH-Px protein expression levels in diabetic skin following L-arginine, i.e. SOD mimic treatments, respectively. The results indicate that L-arginine and M40403 stabilize redox balance in diabetic skin and suggest the underlying molecular mechanisms. Restitution of skin redox balance by L-arginine and M40403 may represent an effective strategy to ameliorate therapy of diabetic skin.

  3. The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008), were recruited. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary intake of l-arginine was calculated. To determine any association between dietary l-arginine and serum NOx, linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used. Mean age of participants (39.2% men) was 45.9 ± 15.9 years. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, a significant positive association was observed between l-arginine intake and serum NOx concentrations in the fourth quartile of l-arginine (β = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.14, 9.12, p for trend = 0.001), an association stronger in women. Further analysis, stratified by age, body mass index and hypertension status categories, showed a greater association in middle-aged and older adults (β = 9.12, 95% CI = 3.99, 13.6 and β = 12.1, 95% CI = 6.48, 17.7, respectively). l-arginine intakes were also strongly associated with serum NOx levels in overweight and obese subjects in the upper quartile (β = 10.7, 95% CI = 5.43, 16.0 and β = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.29, 17.5); a greater association was also observed between l-arginine intakes and serum NOx in non-hypertensive (HTN) compared to HTN subjects (β = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.1–3.2 vs. β = 1.25, 95% CI = −1.64–4.15). Dietary l-arginine intakes were associated to serum NOx and this association may be affected by sex, age, body mass index, and hypertension status. PMID:27213443

  4. Dietary L-Arginine Intakes and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A 6-Year Follow-Up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of L-arginine could affect the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Eligible adult men and women (n=1,237), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were followed for a median of 6.3 years. Dietary intakes of L-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentration were assessed at baseline (2006~2008), and demographics, anthropometrics, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examinations. The occurrence of MetS was assessed in relation to total L-arginine, intakes of L-arginine from animal and plant sources, with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Participants who had higher intake of L-arginine also had higher serum NOx at baseline (35.0 vs. 30.5 μmol/L, P <0.05). After 6 years of follow-up, higher intakes of L-arginine from animal sources were accompanied with increased risk of MetS [odd ratios (OR)=1.49, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.02~2.18]. Compared to the lowest, the highest intakes of L-arginine from plant sources were related to significantly reduced risk of MetS (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.32~0.99). In conclusion, our findings suggest a potentially protective effect of plant derived L-arginine intakes against development of MetS and its phenotypes; moreover, higher intakes of L-arginine from animal sources could be a dietary risk factor for development of metabolic disorders.

  5. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Inhibition of arginase in rat and rabbit alveolar macrophages by Nω-hydroxy-D,L-indospicine, effects on L-arginine utilization by nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Claudia; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Ketterer, Gabi; Wessler, Ignaz; Racké, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) exhibit arginase activity and may, in addition, express an inducible form of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS). Both pathways may compete for the substrate, L-arginine. The present study tested whether two recently described potent inhibitors of liver arginase (Nω-hydroxy-D,L-indospicine and 4-hydroxyamidino-D,L-phenylalanine) might also inhibit arginase in AMΦ and whether inhibition of arginase might affect L-arginine utilization by iNOS. AMΦ obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage of rat and rabbit isolated lungs were disseminated (2.5 or 3×106 cells per well) and allowed to adhere for 2 h. Thereafter, they were either used to study [*H]-L-arginine uptake (37 kBq, 0.1 μM, 2 min) or cultured for 20 h in the absence or presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cultured AMΦ were incubated for 1 h with [*H]-L-arginine (37 kBq, 0.1 μM) and the accumulation of [*H]-L-citrulline (NOS activity) and [*H]-L-ornithine (arginase activity) was determined. During 1 h incubation of rabbit AMΦ with [*H]-L-arginine, no [*H]-L-citrulline, but significant amounts of [*H]-L-ornithine (150 d.p.m.×1000) were formed. Nω-hydroxy-D,L-indospicine and 4-hydroxyamidino-D,L-phenylalanine, present during incubation, concentration-dependently reduced [*H]-L-ornithine formation (IC50: 2 and 45 μM, respectively). Nω-hydroxy-D,L-indospicine (up to 100 μM) had no effect on [*H]-L-arginine uptake into rabbit AMΦ, whereas 4-hydroxyamidino-D,L-phenylalanine caused a concentration-dependent inhibition (IC50: 300 μM). Rat AMΦ, cultured in the absence of LPS, formed significant amounts of [*H]-L-citrulline and [*H]-L-ornithine (133 and 212 d.p.m.×1000, respectively) when incubated for 1 h with [*H]-L-arginine. When AMΦ had been cultured in the presence of 0.1 or 1 μg ml−1 LPS, the formation of [*H]-L-citrulline was enhanced by 37±8.3 and 99±12% and that of [*H]-L-ornithine reduced by 21±8.7 and 70±2.5%, respectively

  7. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  8. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O 2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  9. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  10. Glutamine supplementation, but not combined glutamine and arginine supplementation, improves gut barrier function during chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.

    PubMed

    Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ouelaa, Wassila; Guérin, Charlène; Belmonte, Liliana; Aziz, Moutaz; Tennoune, Naouel; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Galas, Ludovic; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2014-08-01

    Increased intestinal permeability occurs during chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. Previous data suggest that glutamine and arginine may have additive or synergic effects to limit intestinal damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine and arginine, each alone or in combination, on gut barrier function during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in rats. Eighty Sprague Dawley rats received during 7 days (d) standard chow supplemented with protein powder (PP), glutamine (G, 2%), arginine (A, 1.2%) or glutamine plus arginine (GA). All diets were isonitrogenous. Rats received subcutaneous injections of MTX (2.5 mg/kg) from d0 to d2. The intestinal permeability and tight junction proteins were assessed at d4 and d9 in the jejunum by FITC-dextran and by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. At d4, intestinal permeability was increased in MTX-PP, MTX-A and MTX-GA rats compared with controls but not in MTX-G rats. The expression of claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 was decreased in MTX-PP group compared with controls but was restored in MTX-G and MTX-A rats. In MTX-GA rats, occludin expression remained decreased. These effects could be explained by an increase of erk phosphorylation and a decrease of IκBα expression in MTX-PP and MTX-GA rats. At d9, Intestinal permeability remained higher only in MTX-GA rats. This was associated with a persistent decrease of occludin expression. Glutamine prevents MTX-induced gut barrier disruption by regulating occludin and claudin-1 probably through erk and NF-κB pathways. In contrast, combined glutamine and arginine has no protective effect in this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth and dielectric, mechanical, thermal and etching studies of an organic nonlinear optical L-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystal

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arjunan, S.; Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2008-08-04

    L-arginine trifluoroacetate, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been synthesized from aqueous solution. Bulk single crystal of dimension 57 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm has been grown by temperature lowering technique. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Linear optical property of the grown crystal has been studied by UV-vis spectrum. Dielectric response of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal was analysed for different frequencies and temperatures in detail. Microhardness study on the sample reveals that the crystal possesses relatively higher hardness compared to many organic crystals. Thermal analyses confirmed that the L-argininemore » trifluoroacetate material is thermally stable upto 212 deg. C. The etching studies have been performed to assess the perfection of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical properties of the as-grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal.« less

  12. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Methods Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student’s t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson’s test. Results In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. Conclusions These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism. PMID:22734448

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model for the Effect of l-Arginine on Endothelial Function in Patients with Moderately Severe Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Brussee, Janneke M.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired organ perfusion in severe falciparum malaria arises from microvascular sequestration of parasitized cells and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction in malaria is secondary to impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, in part due to decreased plasma concentrations of l-arginine, the substrate for endothelial cell NO synthase. We quantified the time course of the effects of adjunctive l-arginine treatment on endothelial function in 73 patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria derived from previous studies. Three groups of 10 different patients received 3 g, 6 g, or 12 g of l-arginine as a half-hour infusion. The remaining 43 received saline placebo. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model was developed to describe the time course of changes in exhaled NO concentrations and reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) index values describing endothelial function and then used to explore optimal dosing regimens for l-arginine. A PK model describing arginine concentrations in patients with moderately severe malaria was extended with two pharmacodynamic biomeasures, the intermediary biochemical step (NO production) and endothelial function (RH-PAT index). A linear model described the relationship between arginine concentrations and exhaled NO. NO concentrations were linearly related to RH-PAT index. Simulations of dosing schedules using this PKPD model predicted that the time within therapeutic range would increase with increasing arginine dose. However, simulations demonstrated that regimens of continuous infusion over longer periods would prolong the time within the therapeutic range even more. The optimal dosing regimen for l-arginine is likely to be administration schedule dependent. Further studies are necessary to characterize the effects of such continuous infusions of l-arginine on NO and microvascular reactivity in severe malaria. PMID:26482311

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation improves the intestinal development through increasing mucosal Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signals in intra-uterine growth retarded piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Genlai; Liao, Zhiyong; Ahmad, Hussain; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-28

    Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and development of the small intestine (SI) in neonatal pigs and infants. L-Arginine (Arg), a critical amino acid involved in promoting growth and metabolism in young mammals, is more deficient in IUGR fetuses. However, little is known whether dietary Arg supplementation would accelerate the impaired development of the SI induced by IUGR in piglets. In the present study, a total of six litters of newborn piglets were used. In each litter, one normal and two IUGR littermates were obtained. Piglets were fed milk-based diets supplemented with 0 (Normal), 0 (IUGR) and 0·60% Arg (IUGR+Arg) from 7 to 14 d of age, respectively. Compared with Normal piglets at 14 d of age, IUGR decreased (P < 0·05) the growth performance, entire SI weight, and villus height in the jejunum and ileum. IUGR piglets had lower (P < 0·05) mucosal concentrations of Arg, insulin, insulin growth factor 1, as well as phosphorylated Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70 S6 kinase but higher (P < 0·05) enterocyte apoptosis index (AI). After Arg treatment in IUGR piglets, the growth performance, weight of entire SI and mucosa, and villus height in the jejunum and ileum were increased (P < 0·05). Diet supplemented with Arg also increased (P < 0·05) the levels of Arg, insulin, phosphorylated Akt and mTOR in SI mucosa of IUGR piglets, and decreased (P < 0·05) the AI and caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, Arg has a beneficiary effect in improving the impaired SI development in IUGR piglets via regulating cell apoptosis and activating Akt and mTOR signals in SI mucosa.

  15. The synthesis and cell interaction of statistical L-arginine - glycine - L-aspartic acid terpolypeptides.

    PubMed

    Mbizana, Siyasanga; Hlalele, Lebohang; Pfukwa, Rueben; du Toit, Andre; Lumkwana, Dumisile; Loos, Benjamin; Klumperman, Bert

    2018-05-01

    Copolymerizations and terpolymerizations of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) of glycine (Gly), Nδ-carbobenzyloxy-L-ornithine ((Z)-Orn) and β-benzyl-L-aspartate ((Bz)-Asp) were investigated. In situ 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor individual comonomer consumptions during binary and ternary copolymerizations. The six relevant reactivity ratios were determined from copolymerizations of the NCAs of amino acids via nonlinear least squares curve fitting. The reactivity ratios were subsequently used to maximize the occurrence of the Asp-Gly-Orn (DGR') sequence in the terpolymers. Terpolymers with variable probability of occurrence of DGR' were prepared in the lab. Subsequently, the ornithine residues on the terpolymers were converted to L-arginine (R) residues via guanidination reaction after removal of the protecting groups. The resulting DGR terpolymers translate to traditional peptides and proteins with variable RGD content, due to the convention in nomenclature that peptides are depicted from N- to C-terminus, whereas the NCA ring-opening polymerization is conducted from C- to N-terminus. The L-arginine containing terpolymers were evaluated for cell interaction, where it was found that neuronal cells display enhanced adhesion and process formation when plated in the presence of statistical DGR terpolymers.

  16. Dietary supplementation of tiger nut alters biochemical parameters relevant to erectile function in l-NAME treated rats.

    PubMed

    Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Bottari, Nathieli B; Lopes, Thauan F; da Costa, Pauline; Stefanelo, Naiara; Morsch, Vera M; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2018-07-01

    Tiger nut tubers have been reportedly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in folk medicine without scientific basis. Hence, this study evaluated the effect of tiger nut on erectile dysfunction by assessing biochemical parameters relevant to ED in male rats by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) treatment. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 10) each: Control group; l-NAME plus basal diet; l-NAME plus Sildenafil citrate; diet supplemented processed tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME;diet supplemented raw tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME. l-NAME pre-treatment (40 mg/kg/day) lasted for 14 days. Arginase, acetycholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities as well as nitric oxide levels (NO) in serum, brain and penile tissue were measured. l-NAME increased the activity of arginase, AChE and ADA and reduced NO levels. However, dietary supplementation with tiger nut caused a reduction on the activities of the above enzymes and up regulated nitric oxide levels when compared to the control group. The effect of tiger nut supplemented diet may be said to prevent alterations of the activities of the enzymes relevant in erectile function. Quercetin was revealed to be the most active component of tiger nut tuber by HPLC finger printing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Arginine depletion increases susceptibility to serious infections in preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Mulongo, Musa; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm newborns are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. This susceptibility is regarded as being due to immaturity of multiple pathways of the immune system. However, it is unclear whether a mechanism that unifies these different, suppressed pathways exists. Here, we argue that the immune vulnerability of the preterm neonate is critically related to arginine depletion. Arginine, a “conditionally essential” amino acid, is depleted in acute catabolic states, including sepsis. Its metabolism is highly compartmentalized and regulated, including by arginase-mediated hydrolysis. Recent data suggest that arginase II-mediated arginine depletion is essential for the innate immune suppression that occurs in newborn models of bacterial challenge, impairing pathways critical for the immune response. Evidence that arginine depletion mediates protection from immune activation during first gut colonization suggests a regulatory role in controlling gut-derived pathogens. Clinical studies show that plasma arginine is depleted during sepsis. In keeping with animal studies, small clinical trials of L-arginine supplementation have shown benefit in reducing necrotizing enterocolitis in premature neonates. We propose a novel, broader hypothesis that arginine depletion during bacterial challenge is a key factor limiting the neonate's ability to mount an adequate immune response, contributing to the increased susceptibility to infections, particularly with respect to gut-derived sepsis. PMID:25360828

  18. Bi-enzyme L-arginine-selective amperometric biosensor based on ammonium-sensing polyaniline-modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Smutok, Oleh; Gayda, Galina; Vus, Bohdan; Koval'chuk, Yevgen; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2012-01-01

    A novel L-arginine-selective amperometric bi-enzyme biosensor based on recombinant human arginase I isolated from the gene-engineered strain of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and commercial urease is described. The biosensing layer was placed onto a polyaniline-Nafion composite platinum electrode and covered with a calcium alginate gel. The developed sensor revealed a good selectivity to L-arginine. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 110 ± 1.3 nA/(mM mm(2)) with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) derived from an L-arginine (L-Arg) calibration curve of 1.27 ± 0.29 mM. A linear concentration range was observed from 0.07 to 0.6mM, a limit of detection being 0.038 mM and a response time - 10s. The developed biosensor demonstrated good storage stability. A laboratory prototype of the proposed amperometric biosensor was applied to the samples of three commercial pharmaceuticals ("Tivortin", "Cytrarginine", "Aminoplazmal 10% E") for L-Arg testing. The obtained L-Arg-content values correlated well with those declared by producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. L-Arginine attenuates the ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in ininephrectomized hypertensive rats: role of KIM-1, NGAL, and NOs.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Patil, Mithun V K; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2015-05-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) exposure caused formation of calcium oxalate crystal that led to renal failure, which is associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. L-Arginine is known to have an antioxidant and nephro-protective potential. To evaluate the effect of L-arginine against EG-induced urolithiasis in uninephrectomized hypertensive rats. Uninephrectomized male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used to induce urinary calculi through oral administration of EG (0.75%) in distilled water. Rats were treated with either distilled water (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or telmisartan (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o.) or L-arginine (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Various hemodynamic, biochemical, molecular, and histological parameters were assessed in kidney and heart. Rats treated with L-arginine (500 and 1000 mg/kg) significantly restored altered relative organ weight, urine output, urine density, urinary pH, and water intake. EG-induced alterations in electrocardiographic (QRS interval, HR, and ST height) and hemodynamic (SBP, DBP, MABP, and LVEDP) abnormalities were significantly restored by L-arginine (500 and 1000 mg/kg) treatment. It also significantly restored alteration in serum and urine biochemical parameters induced by EG. The elevated oxido-nitrosative stress was also significantly decreased by L-arginine (500 and 1000 mg/kg) treatment. It also significantly down-regulated EG-induced up-regulated renal KIM-1, NGAL, eNOS, and iNOs mRNA expressions. Histological aberrations induced in the renal and cardiac tissues were also ameliorated by l-arginine treatment. L-Arginine exerts its nephro- and cardio-protective potential in EG-induced urolithiasis in uninephrectomized hypertensive rats via modulation of KIM-1, NGAL, eNOS, and iNOs mRNA expression.

  20. Melatonin attenuates Leishmania (L.) amazonensis infection by modulating arginine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira-Silva, Maria Fernanda; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Muxel, Sandra M; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria; Markus, Regina P

    2015-11-01

    Acute inflammatory responses induced by bacteria or fungi block nocturnal melatonin synthesis by rodent pineal glands. Here, we show Leishmania infection does not impair daily melatonin rhythm in hamsters. Remarkably, the attenuated parasite burden and lesion progression in hamsters infected at nighttime was impaired by blockage of melatonin receptors with luzindole, whereas melatonin treatment during the light phase attenuated Leishmania infection. In vitro studies corroborated in vivo observations. Melatonin treatment reduced macrophage expression of Cat-2b, Cat1, and ArgI, genes involved in arginine uptake and polyamine synthesis. Indeed, melatonin reduced macrophage arginine uptake by 40%. Putrescine supplementation reverted the attenuation of infectivity by melatonin indicating that its effect was due to the arrest of parasite replication. This study shows that the Leishmania/host interaction varies in a circadian manner according to nocturnal melatonin pineal synthesis. Our results provide new data regarding Leishmania infectiveness and show new approaches for applying agonists of melatonin receptors in Leishmaniasis therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysis of L-citrulline and L-arginine in Ficus deltoidea leaf extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Aisha, Abdalrahim F. A.; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids. Objective: The aim was to develop a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection that involves precolumn derivatisation with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of two amino acids L-citrulline and L-arginine in FD leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: An isocratic elution program consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: Water at 45:45:10 v/v (solvent A) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (solvent B) at A: B v/v ratio of 80:20 on Zorbax Eclipse C18 SB-Aq column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) were used. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min and detection was carried out at 338 nm with 30 min separation time. Results: Good linearity for L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained in the range 0.1-1000 μg/ml at R2 ≥ 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for both L-citrulline and L-arginine were 1 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The average of recoveries was in the range 94.94-101.95%, with relative standard deviation (%RSD) less than 3%. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range 96.36-102.43% with RSD less than 2%. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate the method is reliable and efficient for simultaneous determination of L-citrulline and L-arginine for routine analysis of FD. PMID:25598632

  2. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Applegate, Todd J; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-10-14

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (11·1, 13·3 and 20·2 g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7 d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P< 0·05). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1β, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P< 0·05) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P< 0·05); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P< 0·05) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P< 0·05). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating m

  3. Decreased Reactivity of Skin Microcirculation in Response to l-Arginine in Later-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer-Geryk, Jolanta; Kozera, Grzegorz M.; Wolnik, Bogumil; Szczyrba, Sebastian; Nyka, Walenty M.; Bieniaszewski, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of our study was to evaluate the vasodilatory effect of l-arginine infusion on the skin microcirculation and to assess the relationship between this effect and the presence of microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Capillaroscopy was performed before and after l-arginine infusion in 48 diabetic patients (26 women and 22 men; age, 39.8 ± 6.3 years) and 24 volunteers free of any chronic disease (13 women and 11 men; age, 38.0 ± 6.7 years). The skin microcirculation reactivity, as expressed by the percentage of area covered by capillaries (coverage) and the distance between capillaries (distance), and the relationship between microcirculation reactivity and the presence of microangiopathic complications were assessed. RESULTS The distance before l-arginine infusion was significantly lower in patients than in controls (221 [153–311] vs. 240 [185–356] µm; P = 0.02) and did not differ after l-arginine infusion (223.5 [127–318] vs. 242.5 [181–341] µm; P = 0.27). The difference between the coverage values obtained before and after l-arginine infusion (Δcoverage) was significantly different from zero in the control group but not in the diabetes group. Patients with later onset of diabetes were characterized by decreased skin microcirculation reactivity when compared with patients with earlier onset of diabetes (−1.18 [−5.07 to 11.60] vs. 1.36 [−6.00 to 8.06]; P = 0.02) despite the higher prevalence of retinopathy in patients with earlier onset of diabetes (64% vs. 26%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Skin microvascular reactivity is impaired in patients with later onset of type 1 diabetes. Capillaroscopy with l-arginine infusion is useful for the identification of skin microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23150282

  4. Effects of six-month supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Amy; Patterson, Morgan; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David; Gower, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial function declines with advancing age, due in part to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and this age-related vascular dysfunction has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a dietary supplement containing β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine on endothelial-dependent vasodilation of older adults. Subjects/Methods Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women aged 65-87 years were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group received two doses of the supplement daily (totaling 3g HMB, 14g glutamine, 14g arginine) for six months while the control group received an isocaloric placebo. At baseline and week 24, vascular endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and fasting blood samples were obtained to measure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results Paired samples t-tests revealed a 27% increase in flow-mediated dilation among the treatment group (p=0.003) while no change was observed in the placebo group (p=0.651). Repeated-measures ANOVA verified a significant time by group interaction (p=0.038). Although no significant changes were observed for hsCRP or TNF-α, a trend was observed for increasing hsCRP among the placebo group only (p=0.059). Conclusions These results suggest that dietary supplementation of HMB, glutamine, and arginine may favorably impact vascular endothelial function in older adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether reduced inflammation or other mechanisms may underlie the benefits of supplementation. PMID:26306566

  5. Effects of 6-month supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A C; Patterson, M; Dudenbostel, T; Calhoun, D; Gower, B

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial function declines with advancing age, due in part to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and this age-related vascular dysfunction has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a dietary supplement containing β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine and arginine on endothelial-dependent vasodilation of older adults. A total of 31 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-87 years were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group received two doses of the supplement daily (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g glutamine and 14 g arginine) for 6 months, whereas the control group received an isocaloric placebo. At baseline and week 24, vascular endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and fasting blood samples were obtained to measure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Paired sample t-tests revealed a 27% increase in flow-mediated dilation among the treatment group (P=0.003), whereas no change was observed in the placebo group (P=0.651). Repeated-measures analysis of variance verified a significant time by group interaction (P=0.038). Although no significant changes were observed for hsCRP or TNF-α, a trend was observed for increasing hsCRP among the placebo group only (P=0.059). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of HMB, glutamine and arginine may favorably affect vascular endothelial function in older adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether reduced inflammation or other mechanisms may underlie the benefits of supplementation.

  6. Effects of adenosine monophosphate used in combination with L-arginine on female rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue.

    PubMed

    Stücker, Olivier; Pons, Catherine; Neuzillet, Yann; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Lebret, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available. The aim of this study was to study the effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) alone or its combination with L-Arginine on the relaxation of the female rabbit corpus cavernosum. Cylinder strips from the corporal body of the excised clitoris from female New Zealand White rabbits were incubated in Krebs solution. Phenylephrine (PE) precontraction was achieved, then the drugs AMP and L-Arginine were administered either independently or in sequential combinations to the strips under precontracted conditions. Contraction percentages were compared. When precontraction was induced by PE 8 μM or 20 μM, AMP was shown to induce relaxation up to 25% in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxation induced by L-Arginine reached 15.6% at 5.10(-4) M vs. 16.5% at AMP 5.10(-4) M under the same experimental conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited the relaxing effect provoked by AMP, suggesting that the action mechanism of this nucleotide is related to the NO pathway. The combination of L-Arginine at 5.10(-4) M with AMP at different doses ranging from 5.10(-4) M to 10(-3) M significantly amplified the relaxing response up to 40.7% and 58%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that AMP induces a relaxing effect on the female rabbit corpora. They also show that L-Arginine and AMP can potentiate each other and that a synergistic effect can be obtained by their combined use. Because only slight differences exist between both sexes in response to NO donors and/or nucleotide purines or in their use together, it is very likely that close biochemical mechanisms, although not to the same degree and not quite similar, are involved in the engorgement of the penis and the clitoris of New Zealand White rabbits. Stücker O, Pons C, Neuzillet Y, Laemmel E, and Lebret T. Original research-sexual medicine: Effects of

  7. The L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio is improved by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in inflammatory arthropathies. Associations with aortic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Angel, Kristin; Provan, Sella Aarrestad; Mowinckel, Petter; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Kvien, Tore Kristian; Atar, Dan

    2012-11-01

    Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α therapy improves vascular pathology in inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The l-arginine/ADMA ratio is important for modulation of the nitric oxide synthase activity. We examined the effect of TNF-α antagonists on ADMA and l-arginine/ADMA, and associations between ADMA, L-arginine/ADMA, aortic stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. Forty-eight patients who started with anti-TNF-α therapy were compared with a non-treated group of 32 patients. Plasma ADMA and L-arginine were assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. In a subgroup of 55 patients, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured at baseline, 3 and 12 moths, and CIMT was examined at baseline and 12 months. Anti-TNF-α therapy increased the L-arginine/ADMA ratio (mean [SD]) in the treatment group compared to the control group after 3 months (12 [29] vs. -13 [20], P < 0.001) and 12 months (7 [27] vs. -8 [19], P = 0.008), but did not affect ADMA (3 months: 0.00 [0.09] μmol/L vs. 0.02 [0.07] μmol/L, P = 0.42, 12 months: 0.01 [0.08] μmol/L vs. 0.01 [0.09] μmol/L, P = 0.88). Baseline aPWV was associated with ADMA (P = 0.02) and L-arginine/ADMA (P = 0.02) in multiple regression analyses, and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio was continuously associated with aPWV after initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy (P = 0.03). ADMA and L-arginine/ADMA were not correlated with CIMT. Anti-TNF-α therapy improved the L-arginine/ADMA ratio in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. ADMA and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio were associated with aPWV, and might have a mechanistic role in the aortic stiffening observed in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effect of L-arginine against necrosis and apoptosis induced by experimental ischemic and reperfusion in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Shukla, Gunjan; Wahi, Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of L-arginine on apoptosis and necrosis induced by 1-h ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Adult Wistar rats underwent 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) group (0.9 % saline (5 mL/kg, orally) for 7 days) (II) (n = 6), and L-arginine-treated group (10 mg/kg body weight daily orally for 7 days before inducing ischemia-reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, nitric oxide levels in hepatocytes, Bcl-2 mRNA, and Bcl-2 protein were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology, and electron microscopy. An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased serum ALT, AST, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis associated marker gene Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in I/R group. Pretreatment with L-arginine significantly decreased serum ALT and AST level and apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Nitric oxide production in hepatocytes was increased twofold by L-arginine treatment when compared with I/R group. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in L-arginine-pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R. Thus, it may be concluded that L-arginine afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury by upregulated Bcl-2 gene and nitric oxide production.

  9. N-carbamylglutamate and L-arginine improved maternal and placental development in underfed ewes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Ziyu; Deng, Mingtian; Nie, Haitao; Zhang, Guomin; Ma, Tiewei; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected L-arginine (RP-Arg) in nutrient-restricted pregnant Hu sheep would affect (1) maternal endocrine status; (2) maternal, fetal, and placental antioxidation capability; and (3) placental development. From day 35 to day 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin fetuses were allocated randomly into four groups: 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations, 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20g/day RP-Arg, and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5g/day NCG product. The results showed that in maternal and fetal plasma and placentomes, the activities of total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase were increased (P<0.05); however, the activity of glutathione peroxidase and the concentration of maleic dialdehyde were decreased (P<0.05) in both NCG- and RP-Arg-treated underfed ewes. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 was increased (P<0.05) in 50% NRC ewes than in 100% NRC ewes, and had no effect (P>0.05) in both NCG- and RP-Arg-treated underfed ewes. A supplement of RP-Arg and NCG reduced (P<0.05) the concentrations of progesterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17β; had no effect on T4/T3; and improved (P<0.05) the concentrations of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1, tri-iodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in serum from underfed ewes. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of NCG and RP-Arg in underfed ewes could influence maternal endocrine status, improve the maternal-fetal-placental antioxidation capability, and promote fetal and placental development during early-to-late gestation. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. The acute effects of L-arginine on hormonal and metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2013-08-01

    L-arginine may enhance endurance performance mediated by two primary mechanisms including enhanced secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH) and as a precursor of nitric oxide (NO); however, research in trained participants has been equivocal. The purpose was to investigate the effect of acute L-arginine ingestion on the hormonal and metabolic response during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists. Fifteen aerobically trained men (age: 28 ± 5 y; body mass: 77.4 ± 9.5 kg; height: 180.9 ± 7.9 cm; VO2max: 59.6 ± 5.9 ml·kg- 1·min-1) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0. 075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of submaximal exercise (60 min at 80% of power output achieved at ventilatory threshold). The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~146%), while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, glucose, VO2, VCO2, RER, CHO oxidation, and NOx. There was reduced fat oxidation at the start of exercise (ARG: 0.36 ± 0.25 vs. PLA: 0.42 ± 0.23 g·min-1, p < .05) and an elevated plasma glycerol concentrations at the 45-min time point (ARG: 340.3 vs. PLA: 288.5 μmol·L-1, p < .05) after L-arginine consumption. In conclusion, the acute ingestion of L-arginine did not alter any hormonal, metabolic, or cardio-respiratory responses during submaximal exercise except for a small but significant increase in glycerol at the 45-min time point and a reduction in fat oxidation at the start of exercise.

  11. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  12. L-arginine reduces liver and biliary tract damage after liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donor pigs.

    PubMed

    Valero, R; García-Valdecasas, J C; Net, M; Beltran, J; Ordi, J; González, F X; López-Boado, M A; Almenara, R; Taurá, P; Elena, M; Capdevila, L; Manyalich, M; Visa, J

    2000-09-15

    To evaluate whether L-arginine reduces liver and biliary tract damage after transplantation from non heart-beating donor pigs. Twenty-five animals received an allograft from non-heart-beating donors. After 40 min of cardiac arrest, normothermic recirculation was run for 30 min. The animals were randomly treated with L-arginine (400 mg x kg(-1) during normothermic recirculation) or saline (control group). Then, the animals were cooled and their livers were transplanted after 6 hr of cold ischemia. The animals were killed on the 5th day, liver damage was assessed on wedged liver biopsies by a semiquantitative analysis and by morphometric analysis of the necrotic areas, and biliary tract damage by histological examination of the explanted liver. Seventeen animals survived the study period. The histological parameters assessed (sinusoidal congestion and dilatation, sinusoidal infiltration by polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes, endothelitis, dissociation of liver cell plates, and centrilobular necrosis) were significantly worse in the control group. The necrotic area affected 15.9 +/- 14.5% of the liver biopsies in the control group and 3.7 +/- 3.1% in the L-arginine group (P<0.05). Six of eight animal in the control group and only one of eight survivors in the L-arginine group developed ischemic cholangitis (P<0.01). L-Arginine administration was associated with higher portal blood flow (676.9 +/- 149.46 vs. 475.2 +/- 205.6 ml x min x m(-2); P<0.05), higher hepatic hialuronic acid extraction at normothermic recirculation (38.8 +/- 53.7% vs. -4.2 +/- 18.2%; P<0.05) and after reperfusion (28.6 +/- 55.5% vs. -10.9 +/- 15.5%; P<0.05) and lower levels of alpha-glutation-S-transferase at reperfusion (1325 +/- 1098% respect to baseline vs. 6488 +/- 5612%; P<0.02). L-Arginine administration during liver procurement from non heart beating donors prevents liver and biliary tract damage.

  13. Time-dependent alterations in serum NO concentration after oral administration of l-arginine, l-NAME, and allopurinol in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yanni, Amalia E; Margaritis, Eleutherios; Liarakos, Nikolaos; Pantopoulou, Alkisti; Poulakou, Maria; Kostakis, Maria; Perrea, Despoina; Kostakis, Alkis

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of oral administration of a nitric oxide (NO) donor l-arginine (l-Arg), a NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, allopurinol (Allo), on serum NO concentration and catalase activity after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats received per os l-Arg (800 mg/kg) or l-NAME (50 mg/kg) or Allo (100 mg/kg) 24 hrs, 12 hrs and 1 hr before underwent 1 hr occlusion of superior mesenteric artery followed by 1 hr of reperfusion (l-Arg(IR1), l-NAME(IR1) and Allo(IR1) respectively) or 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (l-Arg(IR8), l-NAME(IR8) and Allo(IR8) respectively). There was one group underwent 1 hr occlusion (I), a group underwent 1 hr occlusion followed by 1 hr reperfusion (IR1), a group subjected to 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (IR8) and a last group that served as control (C). Serum NO concentration and catalase activity were measured. Results After 1 hr of reperfusion serum NO concentration was elevated in IR1 and l-Arg(IR1) groups compared with group C but not in l-NAME(IR1) and Allo(IR1) group. Catalase activity was enhanced in l-NAME(IR1) group. Interestingly, serum NO concentration was increased after 8 hrs of reperfusion in all groups (IR8, l-Arg(IR8), l-NAME(IR8) and Allo(IR8)) compared with control while catalase activity did not show significant difference in any group. Conclusions The results of the present study show that NO concentration is elevated in serum after intestinal I/R and the elevation sustained after administration of l-Arg but not after administration of l-NAME or Allo after 1 hr reperfusion. However, after 8 hrs of reperfusion NO concentration was increased in all groups studied, focusing attention on its possible important role in a complicated situation such as intestinal I/R that involves intestine and other organs. Serum catalase activity does not seem to be affected by per os

  14. Involvement of l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in anxiolytic-like effects of zinc chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Navabi, Seyedeh Parisa; Eshagh Harooni, Hooman; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Khajepour, Lotfolah; Fathinia, Kosar

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is crucial for normal development of the brain, and Zinc deficiency has been shown to associate with neurological disorders (e.g. anxiety) through interactions with several neurotransmitter systems such as nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, our study aimed to evaluate the possible involvement of l-arginine NO pathway on anxiolytic effects of zinc in adult male rats. Zinc chloride at doses of 2.5 and 10mg/kg (intraperitoneal or ip) or saline (1ml/kg, ip) were injected 30min before the anxiety test. Zinc administrated rats (10mg/kg) were pre-treated with intra-CA1 microinjection of l-arginine in sub-effective dose of 1μg/rat (dorsal hippocampus, vehicle: saline1μl/rat). In addition, zinc chloride and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) were intraperitoneally co-administrated in sub-effective doses of 2.5mg/kg and 80mg/kg, respectively. The percentage of open arm time (OAT%), percentage of open arm entry (OAE%), as measures of anxiety, and total number of arm entries, as measures of locomotor activity, were recorded. Treatment with zinc (10mg/kg) markedly produced an increase in OAT% and OAE% in the Elevated plus maze test (EPM). A decrease of OAT% and OAE% was shown in groups which received zinc (10mg/kg) and l-arginine (1μg/rat) concomitantly as compared to the control group. Moreover, an increase of OAE% was revealed in the group exposed to Zinc (2.5mg/kg) and l-NAME (80mg/kg) co-administration. Although, Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences of anxiety indices in rats received drug+zinc chloride in compare to the zinc pretreated with saline group. Anxiolytic- like effect of zinc reversed by nitric oxide precursor l-arginine. Additionally, the synergistic effects of l-NAME and ZnCl 2 were shown in the EPM. Thus our findings suggest that at least in part the anxiolytic effects of zinc can be mediated through the nitric oxide system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel mass spectrometry-based method for simultaneous determination of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, l-arginine and l-citrulline optimized for LC-MS-TOF and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Jerzy; Fleszar, Mariusz G; Piechowicz, Joanna; Krzystek-Korpacka, Małgorzata; Chachaj, Angelika; Szuba, Andrzej; Lorenc-Kukula, Katarzyna; Masłowski, Leszek; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Gamian, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule involved in many biological processes. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthase by conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline. l-Arginine methylated derivatives, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA), regulate l-arginine availability and the activity of nitric oxide synthase. As such, they have been frequently investigated as potential biomarkers in pathologies associated with dysfunctions in NO synthesis. Here, we present a new multistep analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for the accurate identification of l-arginine, l-citrulline, ADMA and SDMA. Compounds are measured as stable 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoyl chloride derivatives, which allows for simultaneous analysis of all compounds through chromatographic separation of ADMA and SDMA using a reverse-phase column. Serum aliquots (100 μL) were spiked with isotope-labeled internal standards and sodium carbonate buffer. The derivatization process was carried out at 25°C for 10 minu using pentafluorobenzoyl chloride as derivatization reagent. Calibration demonstrated good linearity (R 2  = 0.9966-0.9986) for all derivatized compounds. Good accuracy (94.67-99.91%) and precision (1.92-11.8%) were observed for the quality control samples. The applicability of the method was evaluated in a cohort of angiological patients and healthy volunteers. The method discerned significantly lower l-arginine and l-citrulline in angiologic patients. This robust and fast LC-ESI-MS method may be a useful tool in quantitative analysis of l-arginine, ADMA, SDMA and l-citrulline. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of L-arginine on anatomical and electrophysiological deterioration of the eye in a rodent model of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chuman, Hideki; Maekubo, Tomoyuki; Osako, Takako; Ishiai, Michitaka; Kawano, Naoko; Nao-I, Nobuhisa

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effectiveness of L-arginine (1) for reducing the severity of anatomical changes in the eye and improving visual function in the acute stage of a rodent model of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION) and (2) in preventing those changes in anatomy and visual function. For the first aim, L-arginine was intravenously injected into rats 3 h after rNAION induction; for the second aim, rNAION was induced after the oral administration of L-arginine for 7 days. The inner retinal thickness was determined over time by optical coherence tomography, and the amplitude of the scotopic threshold response (STR) and the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were measured. These data were compared with the baseline data from the control group. Both intravenous infusion of L-arginine after rNAION induction and oral pretreatment with L-arginine significantly decreased optic disc edema in the acute stage and thinning of the inner retina, reduced the decrease in STR amplitude, and reduced the decrease in the number of RGCs during rNAION. Based on these results, we conclude that L-arginine treatment is effective for reducing anatomical changes in the eye and improving visual function in the acute stage of rNAION and that pretreatment with L-arginine is an effective therapy to reduce the severity of the condition during recurrence in the other eye.

  17. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( < 0.05) in the percentage of SFA. In the Glu group, the final BW, phase 1 (d 1 to 30) and phase 2 (d 31 to 60) ADFI, and average back fat thickness of the pigs decreased ( < 0.05) by 7.14%, 23.43%, 8.03%, and 33.88%, respectively, when compared with the basal diet group. Dietary Arg+Glu supplementation had no effect ( > 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( < 0.05) their phase 1 ADFI, average back fat thickness, and percentage of SFA in the LD muscle and back fat, and increased ( < 0.05) the i.m. fat (IMF) content of the LD and biceps femoris muscles when compared with the basal diet group. Furthermore, a 16% decrease in yellowness (b* value; < 0.05) was observed in the Arg+Glu group pigs when compared with the isonitrogenous group. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with both Arg and Glu beneficially increases the IMF deposition and improves the meat color and fatty acid

  18. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  19. Intracellular acidification reduces l-arginine transport via system y+L but not via system y+/CATs and nitric oxide synthase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Marco A; Morales, Jorge; Cornejo, Marcelo; Blanco, Elias H; Mancilla-Sierpe, Edgardo; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-04-01

    l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y + /CATs) and system y + L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y + /CATs and system y + L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. We studied whether an acidic pHi modulates l-arginine transport and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Cells loaded with a pH-sensitive probe were subjected to 0.1-20 mmol/L NH 4 Cl pulse assay to generate pHi 7.13-6.55. Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y + /CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy + L substrate) was measured. Protein abundance for eNOS and serine 1177 or threonine 495 phosphorylated eNOS was determined. The results show that intracellular acidification reduced system y + L but not system y + /CATs mediated l-arginine maximal transport capacity due to reduced maximal velocity. Acidic pHi reduced NO synthesis and eNOS serine 1177 phosphorylation. Thus, system y + L activity is downregulated by an acidic pHi, a phenomenon that may result in reduced NO synthesis in HUVECs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine and left ventricular structure and function in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Benndorf, Ralf A; Benjamin, Emelia J; Sullivan, Lisa M; Maas, Renke; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Aragam, Jayashri; Schulze, Friedrich; Böger, Rainer H; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2009-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cardiac structure and function are modulated by the nitric oxide (NO) system. Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase) have been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is unclear if circulating ADMA and L-arginine levels are related to cardiac structure and function in the general population. We related plasma ADMA and L-arginine (the amino acid precursor of NO) to echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) mass, left atrial (LA) size and fractional shortening (FS) using multivariable linear regression analyses in 1919 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 57 years, 58% women). Overall, neither ADMA or L-arginine, nor their ratio was associated with LV mass, LA size and FS in multivariable models (p>0.10 for all). However, we observed effect modification by obesity of the relations of ADMA and LA size (p for interaction p=0.04): ADMA was positively related to LA size in obese individuals (adjusted-p=0.0004 for trend across ADMA quartiles) but not in non-obese people. In our large community-based sample, plasma ADMA and l-arginine concentrations were not related to cardiac structure or function. The observation of positive relations of LA size and ADMA in obese individuals warrants confirmation.

  1. Serum L-arginine and dimethylarginine levels in migraine patients with brain white matter lesions.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi-Bótor, Szilvia; Komáromy, Hedvig; Kamson, David Olayinka; Kovács, Norbert; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Molnár, Tihamér; Illes, Zsolt; Nagy, Lajos; Kéki, Sándor; Deli, Gabriella; Bosnyák, Edit; Trauninger, Anita; Pfund, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    Background/Aim Migraine is a risk factor for the formation of silent brain white matter lesions (WMLs) that are possibly ischemic in nature. Although dysfunction of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in migraine, its role in WML development has not been specifically investigated. Thus, this prospective study aimed to measure the serum concentrations of the NO substrate L-arginine, the NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and the L-arginine transport regulator symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in migraine patients in a headache-free period. Methods All participants underwent MR imaging to assess for the presence of WMLs on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging. Altogether 109 migraine patients (43 with lesions, 66 without lesions) and 46 control individuals were studied. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify L-arginine, ADMA and SDMA serum concentrations. Migraine characteristics were investigated, and participants were screened for risk factors that can lead to elevated serum ADMA levels independent of migraine. Results Migraine patients and controls did not differ in regard to vascular risk factors. Migraineurs with WMLs had a longer disease duration ( p < 0.001) and a higher number of lifetime headache attacks ( p = 0.005) than lesion-free patients. Higher L-arginine serum levels were found in both migraine subgroups compared to controls ( p < 0.001). Migraine patients with WMLs showed higher ADMA concentrations than lesion-free patients and controls ( p < 0.001, for both). In migraineurs, the presence of WMLs, aura and increasing age proved to be significant predictors of increased ADMA levels ( p = 0.008, 0.047 and 0.012, respectively). SDMA serum levels of lesional migraineurs were higher than in nonlesional patients ( p < 0.001). The presence of lesions and increasing age indicated an increased SDMA level ( p

  2. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

  3. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W H; Daeschner, C W; Files, B A; McConnell, M E; Strandjord, S E

    2001-10-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

  4. Optimum dietary arginine:lysine ratio for broiler chickens is altered during heat stress in association with changes in intestinal uptake and dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Balnave, D; Dibner, J J

    1998-12-01

    1. The effects of varying the dietary arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys) ratio for broiler chickens at thermoneutral and high temperatures was studied in a series of 5 experiments which measured intestinal epithelial transport or evaluated growth and food efficiency with practical diets or diets supplemented with L-arginine free base. 2. The growth studies showed that increasing the Arg:Lys ratio at high temperatures produced consistent improvements in food conversion without any loss in growth. 3. Increasing dietary sodium chloride concentration reduced the Arg:Lys ratio necessary for optimum food conversion. 4. Food conversion responses were improved whether L-arginine free base was used as a dietary supplement in place of an inert filler or practical diets with differing ingredients were used to vary the Arg:Lys ratio. 5. In the presence of an equimolar concentration of lysine the uptake of arginine by the intestinal epithelium of heat-stressed broilers was reduced significantly compared with that of broilers at thermoneutral temperatures. 6. The results indicate that the ideal amino acid balance for broilers varies with ambient temperature.

  5. Cyclophosphamide induced stomach and duodenal lesions as a NO-system disturbance in rats: L-NAME, L-arginine, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Luetic, Krešimir; Sucic, Mario; Vlainic, Josipa; Halle, Zeljka Belosic; Strinic, Dean; Vidovic, Tinka; Luetic, Franka; Marusic, Marinko; Gulic, Sasa; Pavelic, Tatjana Turudic; Kokot, Antonio; Seiwerth, Ranka Serventi; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-04-01

    We revealed a new point with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 days): we counteracted both rat stomach and duodenal ulcers and increased NO- and MDA-levels in these tissues. As a NO-system effect, BPC 157 therapy (10 µg/kg, 10 ng/kg, intraperitoneally once a day or in drinking water, till the sacrifice) attenuated the increased NO- and MDA-levels and nullified, in rats, severe cyclophosphamide-ulcers and even stronger stomach and duodenal lesions after cyclophosphamide + L-NAME (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day). L-arginine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day not effective alone) led L-NAME-values only to the control values (cyclophosphamide + L-NAME + L-arginine-rats). Briefly, rats were sacrificed at 24 h after last administration on days 1, 2, 3, or 7, and assessment included sum of longest lesions diameters (mm) in the stomach and duodenum, oxidative stress by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactivity as malondialdehyde equivalents (MDA), NO in stomach and duodenal tissue samples using the Griess reaction. All these parameters were highly exaggerated in rats who underwent cyclophosphamide treatment. We identified high MDA-tissue values, high NO-tissue values, ulcerogenic and beneficial potential in cyclophosphamide-L-NAME-L-arginine-BPC 157 relationships. This suggests that in cyclophosphamide damaged rats, NO excessive release generated by the inducible isozyme, damages the vascular wall and other tissue cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates, while failing endothelial production and resulting in further aggravation by L-NAME which was inhibited by L-arginine. Finally, BPC 157, due to its special relations with NO-system, may both lessen increased MDA- and NO-tissues values and counteract effects of both cyclophosphamide and L-NAME on stomach and duodenal lesions.

  6. Killing of Leishmania parasites in activated murine macrophages is based on an L-arginine-dependent process that produces nitrogen derivatives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maul, J.R.; Ransijn, A.; Buchmueller-Rouiller, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were aimed at determining whether L-arginine (L-arg)-derived nitrogen oxidation products (nitric oxide, nitrous acid, nitrites) are involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania parasites by activated murine macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal or bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with L. enriettii or L. major, then activated by exposure to recombinant murine interferon-gamma or to macrophage activating factor (MAF)-rich media in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Activation of macrophages in regular (i.e., arginine-containing) culture medium led to complete destruction of the microorganisms within 24 h (L. enriettii) or 48 h (L. major), concomitant with accumulation of nitritesmore » (NO2-) in the culture fluids. When macrophage activation was carried out in L-arg-free medium, however, neither parasite killing nor NO2- production was obtained. A similar inhibition of macrophage leishmanicidal activity and of NO2- release was observed using media treated with arginase (which converts L-arg to urea and ornithine), or supplemented with NG-monomethyl-L-arg or guanidine (which inhibit the conversion of L-arg to nitrogen oxidation products). In all these situations, an excellent correlation between the levels of NO2- production by macrophages and intracellular killing of Leishmania was observed, whereas no strict correlation was detectable between leishmanicidal activity and superoxide production. Intracellular parasite killing by activated macrophages could be prevented by addition of iron salts to the incubation fluids. Incubation of free parasites with NaNO2 at acid pH led to immobilisation, multiplication arrest, and morphological degeneration of the microorganisms. Similarly, exposure of infected cells to NaNO2 led to killing of the intracellular parasite without affecting macrophage viability.« less

  7. L-arginine transport in retinas from streptozotocin diabetic rats: correlation with the level of IL-1 beta and NO synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A; Cunha-Vaz, J G; Carvalho, A P; Lopes, M C

    1999-11-01

    Several evidences suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and the radical NO are implicated as effectors molecules in the pancreatic beta-cells dysfunction; an event preceding the pathogenesis of diabetes. IL-1 beta induces the expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS), which use L-arginine as substrate to overproduce NO. However, it is not known whether these events may participate in the development of diabetic retinopathy, which is the main cause of blindness. In this work, we found an increased level of IL-1 beta in retinas from streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. We also observed that the activity of the NO synthase (NOS) and the L-arginine uptake are enhanced in retinas from STZ-induced diabetic rats as compared to retinas from control rats. We found that the uptake of L-arginine in retinas from control and diabetic rats occurs through a transporter resembling the Y + system, i.e. it is saturable, not affected over the pH range 6.5 to 7.4, and is independent of the extracellular Na+. Nevertheless, the L-arginine transport in retinas from diabetic rats occurs through a carrier with lower affinity (K(m) = 25 microM) and higher capacity (Vmax = 295 +/- 22.4 pmol L-arginine/mg protein) than in retinas from control rats (K(m) = 5 microM and Vmax = 158 +/- 12.8 pmol L-arginine/mg protein) which is correlated with the increased NOS activity and consequent depletion of the intracellular pool of L-arginine.

  8. N-mustard analogs of S-adenosyl-L-methionine as biochemical probes of protein arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Hymbaugh Bergman, Sarah J; Comstock, Lindsay R

    2015-08-01

    Nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin, undergo post-synthetic modifications and play a major role in the regulation of transcriptional processes. Combinations of these modifications, including methylation, regulate chromatin structure, determining its different functional states and playing a central role in differentiation. The biological significance of cellular methylation, particularly on chromatin, is widely recognized, yet we know little about the mechanisms that link biological methylation events. To characterize and fully understand protein methylation, we describe here novel N-mustard analogs of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as biochemical tools to better understand protein arginine methylation events using protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Specifically, azide- and alkyne-functionalized N-mustard analogs serve as cofactor mimics of SAM and are enzymatically transferred to a model peptide substrate in a PRMT1-dependent fashion. Once incorporated, the resulting alkynes and azides can be modified through chemoselective ligations, including click chemistry and the Staudinger ligation. These results readily demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing N-mustard analogs as biochemical tools to site-specifically label substrates of PRMT1 and serve as an alternative approach to study protein methylation events. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Creatine Transporter (SLC6A8) Deficiency With Oral S-Adenosyl Methionine as Adjunct to L-arginine, Glycine, and Creatine Supplements.

    PubMed

    Jaggumantri, Sravan; Dunbar, Mary; Edgar, Vanessa; Mignone, Cristina; Newlove, Theresa; Elango, Rajavel; Collet, Jean Paul; Sargent, Michael; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2015-10-01

    Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) deficiency is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency, behavioral problems, seizures, hypotonia, and intellectual developmental disability. A third of patients are amenable to treatment with high-dose oral creatine, glycine, and L-arginine supplementation. Given the limited treatment response, we initiated an open-label observational study to evaluate the effect of adjunct S-adenosyl methionine to further enhance intracerebral creatine synthesis. Significant and reproducible issues with sleep and behavior were noted in both male patients on a dose of 50/mg/kg. One of the two patients stopped S-adenosyl methionine and did not come for any follow-up. A safe and tolerable dose (17 mg/kg/day) was identified in the other patient. On magnetic resonance spectroscopy, this 8-year-old male did not show an increase in intracerebral creatine. However, significant improvement in speech/language skills, muscle mass were observed as well as in personal outcomes as defined by the family in activities related to communication and decision making. Further research is needed to assess the potential of S-adenosyl methionine as an adjunctive therapy for creatine transporter deficiency patients and to define the optimal dose. Our study also illustrates the importance of pathophysiology-based treatment, individualized outcome assessment, and patient/family participation in rare diseases research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodelling in NO-deficient hypertensive rats: effect of L-arginine and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Paulis, L; Matuskova, J; Adamcova, M; Pelouch, V; Simko, J; Krajcirovicova, K; Potacova, A; Hulin, I; Janega, P; Pechanova, O; Simko, F

    2008-09-01

    We investigated, whether the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) formation -L-arginine - and the aldosterone receptor antagonist - spironolactone - are able to reverse alterations of the left ventricle (LV) and aorta in N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Six groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: controls after 4 and 7 weeks of experiment, rats treated with L-NAME for 4 weeks and three recovery groups: spontaneous-reversion (4 weeks L-NAME + 3 weeks placebo), spironolactone-induced reversion (4 weeks L-NAME + 3 weeks spironolactone) and L-arginine-induced reversion (4 weeks L-NAME+ 3 weeks L-arginine). Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Relative weight of the LV, myocardial fibrosis (based upon histomorphometry and hydroxyproline determination) and conjugated dienes in the LV and aortic cross-sectional area, inner diameter and wall thickness were determined. NO-synthase activity was investigated in the LV and aorta. L-NAME administration induced hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LV fibrosis, aortic thickening and diminution of NO-synthase activity in the LV and aorta. Reduction in blood pressure and regression of LVH were observed in all recovery groups, yet reduction in LV fibrosis and aortic thickening were not. NO-synthase activity was restored only in the L-arginine and spironolactone group. In our study, the reversion of hypertension and LVH was not dependent on the restoration of NO-synthase activity. Moreover, LV fibrosis and aortic remodelling seem to be more resistant to conditions resulting in regression of LVH. Preserved level of fibrosis in the initial period of LVH regression might result in loss of structural homogeneity and possible functional alterations of the LV.

  11. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of L-arginine and silymarin on TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Drees, Abdul; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease that affects quality of life. Various mediators are involved in IBD pathogenesis including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cytochrome c, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. L-Arginine (L-Arg) can be depleted in IBD, and silymarin inhibits neutrophil infiltration, NF-κB, and TNF-α, which have crucial roles in inducing IBD. This study aimed to investigate whether silymarin and L-Arg supplementation decreases IBD progression in trinitrobenzine-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Fifty adult male albino rats were randomized into five groups (10 animals per group): Group I rats orally received 100 mg silymarin/kg body weight once daily; Group II rats orally received 2 mg L-Arg/100 g body weight in 5 mL distilled water once daily; Group III rats rectally received 0.85 mL TNBS in 50% ethanol to induce colitis; Group IV rats were treated similar to group III and, on recovery from anesthesia, received silymarin as described for group I; and Group V rats were treated similar to group III and, on recovery from anesthesia, received L-Arg as described for group II. On day 7, the rats were anesthetized, and blood samples were collected to determine the serum concentrations of TNF-α. Laparotomy and total colectomy were performed for macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations. The results showed that silymarin and L-Arg macroscopically and microscopically ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis; significantly decreased the serum levels of TNF-α; inhibited the colonic expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome c; and increased expression of HSP70. Our results suggest that these complementary medicines could be used to supplement current treatments for IBD.

  12. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine and Left Ventricular Structure and Function in a Community-based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Benndorf, Ralf A.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Maas, Renke; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Aragam, Jayashri; Schulze, Friedrich; Böger, Rainer H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence indicates that cardiac structure and function are modulated by the nitric oxide (NO) system. Elevated plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase) have been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is unclear if circulating ADMA and L-arginine levels are related to cardiac structure and function in the general population. Methods We related plasma ADMA and L-Arginine (the amino acid precursor of NO) to echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) mass, left atrial (LA) size and fractional shortening (FS) using multivariable linear regression analyses in 1,919 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 57 years, 58 % women). Results Overall, neither ADMA or L-arginine, nor their ratio was associated with LV mass, LA size and FS in multivariable models (p>0.10 for all). However, we observed effect modification by obesity of the relations of ADMA and LA size (p for interaction p=0.04): ADMA was positively related to LA size in obese individuals (adjusted-p=0.0004 for trend across ADMA quartiles) but not in non-obese people. Conclusion In our large community-based sample, plasma ADMA and L-arginine concentrations were not related to cardiac structure or function. The observation of positive relations of LA size and ADMA in obese individuals warrants confirmation. PMID:18829028

  13. Effect of Exercise Training and L-arginine on Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Function in the Post-ischemic Failing Rat Heart.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Nazem, Farzad; Nazari, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (ET) and L-arginine on oxidative stress and ventricular function in rat with myocardial infarction (MI). Four weeks after the surgical procedures, 40 Wistar male rats were randomized to the following groups: MI-sedentary (Sed); MI-exercise (Ex); MI-sedentary + L-arginine (Sed + LA); and MI-exercise + L-arginine (Ex + LA); the rats were subjected to aerobic training in the form of treadmill running. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % L-arginine. Before and after the training program, all subjects underwent resting echocardiography. Catalase (CAT) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening in Ex and Ex + LA groups significantly increased in comparison with the Sed group. Cardiac systolic function indices in Ex + LA group were significantly greater than Ex group. Also, GPx activity and MDA, respectively, increased and decreased in response to ET, but no change was observed in MPO and CAT. These results suggest that ET increased LV function by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense system in rats with MI. In addition in response to training, L-arginine appears to have additive effect on cardiac function, but have no effect on oxidative stress indices.

  14. L-arginine levels are diminished in adult acute vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Bernard L; Kreshak, Allyson A; Morris, Claudia R; Davis-Moon, Linda; Ballas, Samir K; Ma, Xin-Liang

    2003-02-01

    Paediatric studies have demonstrated that l-arginine (l-arg), the precursor to nitric oxide, is diminished in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). This study aimed to determine whether l-arginine levels are altered in adult VOC in the emergency department. Plasma l-arg and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) levels were obtained in adult VOC patients presenting to the emergency department. Fifty patients had significantly low plasma l-arg (29.78 micromol/l +/- 11.21, P < 0.05 vs steady-state control = 41.16 micromol/l +/- 5.04) and significantly low plasma NOx (12.33 micromol/l +/- 10.28, P < 0.05 vs steady-state control = 25.2 +/- 2.6 micro mol/l). Neither l-arg nor NOx levels could predict VOC clinical course.

  15. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference.

    PubMed

    Bjørke-Jenssen, Astrid; Ueland, Per Magne; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-12-14

    Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6) µmol/L) compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2) µmol/L, p = 0.003). Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13-15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  16. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1α Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Myra O; Matsukawa, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroko

    2018-05-24

    L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg -1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated. In addition, mice muscles were weighed and evaluated for the expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-regulated genes. Mice orally supplemented with L-citrulline had significantly higher gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscle mass. Although not statistically significant, L-citrulline prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion. PGC-1α upregulation was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) upregulation. VEGFα and IGF1 are important for angiogenesis and muscle growth, respectively, and are regulated by PGC-1α. Treatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, suppressed the L-citrulline-induced PGC-1α upregulation in-vitro. Supplementation with L-citrulline upregulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels resulting to higher skeletal muscle weight that improves time to exhaustion during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats: effect of l-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M Del Carmen; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Albertoni Borghese, M Florencia; Balonga, Sabrina; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana Laura; Cicerchia, Daniela; Majowicz, Monica; Bustamante, Juanita

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many diseases, including diabetes. It is well known that oxygen free radical species are produced endogenously by mitochondria, and also nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) associated to mitochondrial membranes, in consequence these organelles constitute main targets for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to analyze mitochondrial physiology and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats in an early stage of diabetes and the potential effect of L-arginine administration. The diabetic condition was characterized by a clear hyperglycaemic state with loose of body weight after 4 days of STZ injection. This hyperglycaemic state was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction that was evident by an impairment of the respiratory activity, increased production of superoxide anion and a clear mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, the alteration in mitochondrial physiology was associated with a significant decrease in both NO production and nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS I) expression associated to the mitochondrial membranes. An increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain cortex homogenates from STZ-diabetic rats indicated the presence of lipid peroxidation. L-arginine treatment to diabetic rats did not change blood glucose levels but significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lower TBARS and a lower level of superoxide anion. This effect was paralleled by improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function and a partial mitochondrial repolarization.In addition, the administration of L-arginine to diabetic rats prevented the decrease in NO production and NOSI expression. These results could indicate that exogenously administered L-arginine may have beneficial effects on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats.

  18. Dietary Supplementation of Honey Bee Larvae with Arginine and Abscisic Acid Enhances Nitric Oxide and Granulocyte Immune Responses after Trauma.

    PubMed

    Negri, Pedro; Ramirez, Leonor; Quintana, Silvina; Szawarski, Nicolás; Maggi, Matías; Le Conte, Yves; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Eguaras, Martin

    2017-08-15

    Many biotic and abiotic stressors impact bees' health, acting as immunosupressors and contribute to colony losses. Thus, the importance of studying the immune response of honey bees is central to develop new strategies aiming to enhance bees' fitness to confront the threats affecting them. If a pathogen breaches the physical and chemical barriers, honey bees can protect themselves from infection with cellular and humoral immune responses which represent a second line of defense. Through a series of correlative studies we have previously reported that abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) share roles in the same immune defenses of Apis mellifera ( A. mellifera ). Here we show results supporting that the supplementation of bee larvae's diet reared in vitro with l-Arginine (precursor of NO) or ABA enhanced the immune activation of the granulocytes in response to wounding and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection.

  19. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    PubMed

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2014-05-01

    The cumulative effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig longissimus lumborum muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were investigated. The experiment was performed on fifty-four intact male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred), with a live weight ranging from 59 to 92 kg. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two levels of arginine supplementation (0 v. 1 %) and three levels of a basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet to achieve 2 % of leucine, RPDL). The results showed that dietary arginine supplementation did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and back fat thickness, but increased the total fat in SAT. This effect was associated with an increase in fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in SAT, which suggests that arginine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in pig muscle and SAT. The increase in IMF content under the RPD, with or without leucine supplementation, was accompanied by increased FASN and SCD mRNA levels. Arginine supplementation did not influence the percentage of main fatty acids, while the RPD had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in both tissues. Leucine supplementation of RPD did not change IMF, total fat of SAT and back fat thickness, but increased 16 : 0 and 18 : 1cis-9 and decreased 18 : 2n-6 in muscle.

  1. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  2. Effect of L-arginine on blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Neri, Isabella; Jasonni, Valerio M; Gori, Gian Franco; Blasi, Immacolata; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of L-arginine (L-Arg) repeated infusions in women affected by gestational hypertension. The women were referred to obstetric units in order to assess their clinical conditions and to exclude the presence of severe fetal and/or maternal complications. Inclusion criteria were: maternal age range 16-45 years, diagnosis of gestational hypertension without proteinuria (patients normotensive until the 20th week), and gestational age ranging between 24 and 36 weeks. Each woman was allocated to receive either L-arginine (20 g/500 mL) or placebo treatment through an i.v. line. The infusion was carried out in the morning from 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. and it was repeated for the next four consecutive days. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values as well as heart rate were recorded with the patient in an upright, seated position at 08:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 h. Maternal clinical features such as age, height, weight, and gestational age at inclusion were similar between groups. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced by treatment, the effect of L-arginine being significantly higher than that of the placebo (systolic values F = 8.59, p < 0.005; diastolic values F = 3.36; p < 0.001). Twenty women assigned to the L-Arg group (32.2%) and 23 to the placebo group (37.7%) were concomitantly treated with antihypertensives before starting the study. Analyzing the subgroup of patients not receiving antihypertensive drugs we found that L-arginine was superior to placebo in lowering systolic (F = 5.42, p < 0.005) and diastolic (F = 2.20, p < 0.005) blood pressure values. In conclusion, these data support the use of L-Arg as an antihypertensive agent for gestational hypertension especially in view of the other beneficial effects nitric oxide donors display in pregnancy. Further, L-Arg seems well tolerated since in this sample none of the patients reported adverse effects requiring study interruption.

  3. Evidence that high-dose L-arginine may be inappropriate for use by diabetic patients as a prophylactic blocker of methylglyoxal glycation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Hung; Pan, Tai-Long; Lee, Ying-Shiung; Tai, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Tsan-Zon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that high-dose L-arginine could be used in diabetic patients as a prophylactic blocker for the initial glycation reaction of proteins by methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive dicarbonyl compound of glucose metabolism. Here, we present several lines of evidence to substantiate that this prophylactic intervention may be inappropriate and should be used with care. First, we demonstrated that when various concentrations of L-arginine (2.0-8.0 mM) were added to a fixed concentration of MG (1.56 microM) in a buffered lucigenin solution, dose-dependent generation of superoxide anion (O(-)(2))-mediated ultraweak chemiluminescence (uwCL) occurs. The suppression of uwCL generation by exogenously added superoxide dismutase further substantiated that the interaction between MG and L-arginine generated O(-)(2). This phenomenon can also be demonstrated in a serum-based system. Furthermore, when a fixed concentration of L-arginine (8.0 mM) was added exogenously to a group of sera obtained from either diabetic patients (n = 10) or their matched nondiabetic controls (n = 10), a marked discrepancy in the generation of O(-)(2)-mediated uwCL could be demonstrated (12,534 +/- 3,147 vs. 950 +/- 350 counts; p < 0.001). Taken together, this evidence demonstrates that the appropriateness of using high-dose L-arginine for prophylactic measures in diabetic patients may be questioned, because the inhibition of the glycation reaction between MG and proteins by high-dose L-arginine unexpectedly produces plethoric O(-)(2) as a by-product, which may subsequently aggravate the preexisting oxidative stress status of diabetic patients.

  4. Preferential interactions of trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and sodium chloride with therapeutically relevant IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sudrik, Chaitanya; Cloutier, Theresa; Pham, Phuong; Samra, Hardeep S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-01

    Preferential interactions of weakly interacting formulation excipients govern their effect on the equilibrium and kinetics of several reactions of protein molecules in solution. Using vapor pressure osmometry, we characterized the preferential interactions of commonly used excipients trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and NaCl with three therapeutically-relevant, IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that have similar size and shape, but differ in their surface hydrophobicity and net charge. We further characterized the effect of these excipients on the reversible self-association, aggregation and viscosity behavior of these antibody molecules. We report that trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and NaCl are all excluded from the surface of the three IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, and that the exclusion behavior is linearly related to the excipient molality in the case of trehalose and NaCl, whereas a non-linear behavior is observed for L-arginine.HCl. Interestingly, we find that the magnitude of trehalose exclusion depends upon the nature of the protein surface. Such behavior is not observed in case of NaCl and L-arginine.HCl as they are excluded to the same extent from the surface of all three antibody molecules tested in this study. Analysis of data presented in this study provides further insight into the mechanisms governing excipient-mediated stabilization of mAb formulations.

  5. Insulin restores L-arginine transport requiring adenosine receptors activation in umbilical vein endothelium from late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, R; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, E; Sáez, T; Bugueño, K; Ramírez, M A; Farías, M; Pardo, F; Leiva, A; Sanhueza, C; Mate, A; Vázquez, C; Sobrevia, L

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with impaired placental vasodilation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in the foetoplacental circulation. Adenosine and insulin stimulate vasodilation in endothelial cells, and this activity is mediated by adenosine receptor activation in uncomplicated pregnancies; however, this activity has yet to be examined in preeclampsia. Early onset preeclampsia is associated with severe placental vasculature alterations that lead to altered foetus growth and development, but whether late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE) alters foetoplacental vascular function is unknown. Vascular reactivity to insulin (0.1-1000 nmol/L, 5 min) and adenosine (1 mmol/L, 5 min) was measured in KCl-preconstricted human umbilical vein rings from normal and LOPE pregnancies using a wire myograph. The protein levels of human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1), adenosine receptor subtypes, total and Ser¹¹⁷⁷- or Thr⁴⁹⁵-phosphorylated eNOS were detected via Western blot, and L-arginine transport (0-1000 μmol/L L-arginine, 3 μCi/mL L-[³H]arginine, 20 s, 37 °C) was measured in the presence or absence of insulin and adenosine receptor agonists or antagonists in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from normal and LOPE pregnancies. LOPE increased the maximal L-arginine transport capacity and hCAT-1 and eNOS expression and activity compared with normal conditions. The A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects of LOPE. Insulin-mediated umbilical vein ring relaxation was lower in LOPE pregnancies than in normal pregnancies and was restored using the A(2A)AR antagonist. The reduced foetoplacental vascular response to insulin may result from A(2A)AR activation in LOPE pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, inhibits inducible nitric oxide production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Goto, Kaoru; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    Although diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is known to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell, its functional significance remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that DGK is involved in the pathway of cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, on inducible nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cell. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were used to elucidate the effects of R59949 on basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced NO production. The effects of R59949 on protein and mRNA expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and on transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake were also evaluated using RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with R59949 (10 μM) inhibited IL-1β (10 ng/ml)-induced NO production but not basal NO production. Neither protein nor mRNA expression level of iNOS after stimulation with IL-1β was significantly affected by R59949. Estimated enzymatic activities of iNOS in RASMCs were comparable in the absence and presence of R59949. Stimulation of RASMCs with IL-1β caused a marked increase in transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake into RASMCs. L-Arginine uptake in the presence of IL-1β was markedly inhibited by R59949, while basal L-arginine uptake was not significantly affected by R59949. Both IL-1β-induced NO production and L-arginine uptake were abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (1 μM). The results indicate that R59949 inhibits inducible NO production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake. DGK is suggested to be involved in cytokine-stimulated L-arginine transport and regulate its intracellular concentration in vascular smooth muscle cell.

  7. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid enhances key lipogenic gene expression in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Su, J Y; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-12-01

    Our previous study showed dietary supplementation with Arg and Glu increased intramuscular fat deposition and decreased back fat thickness in pigs, suggesting that the genes involved in lipid metabolism might be regulated differently in muscle and s.c. adipose (SA) tissues. Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (castrated male to female ratio = 1:1). Pigs in the control group were fed a basic diet, and those in experimental groups were fed the basic diet supplemented with 2.05% alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.00% arginine (Arg group), 1.00% glutamic acid + 1.44% alanine (Glu group), or 1.00% arginine + 1.00% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). Fatty acid percentages and mRNA expression levels of the genes involved in lipid metabolism in muscle and SA tissues were examined. The percentages of C14:0 and C16:0 in the SA tissue of Glu group pigs and C14:0 in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Glu and Arg+Glu groups decreased ( < 0.05) compared to the basic diet group. The Arg+Glu group showed the highest ( < 0.05) hormone-sensitive lipase expression level in SA tissue and higher ( < 0.05) mRNA levels of in the LD muscle than the basic diet and isonitrogenous groups. Additionally, the mRNA level of fatty acid synthase in the Arg+Glu group was more upregulated ( < 0.05) than that of the Arg group. An increase in the mRNA level of in the biceps femoris muscle was also observed in the Arg+Glu group ( < 0.05) compared with the basic diet and isonitrogenous groups. Collectively, these findings suggest that dietary supplementation with Arg and Glu upregulates the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis in muscle tissues and lipolysis in SA tissues.

  8. The effects of L-arginine on cerebral hemodynamics after controlled cortical impact injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Goodman, J Clay; Robertson, Claudia S

    2002-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces vascular changes that may influence neurological outcome by causing the brain to be more susceptible to secondary ischemic insults. In rat models of TBI, L-arginine administration has been shown to restore cerebral blood flow and improve neurological outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoperfusion occurs in a mouse model of TBI and if L-arginine administration has the same beneficial effects after injury in the mouse. C57BL6 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, intubated and mechanically ventilated, and underwent a 3-m/sec, 1.5-mm deformation cortical impact injury. Five minutes after injury, L-arginine, 300 mg/kg, or saline were administered. Arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, and laser Doppler flow at the impact site were monitored for 3 h after the injury. The cerebral hemodynamic effects of the TBI induced by cortical impact injury were similar to that previously observed in rats. Intracranial hypertension, with ICP peaking at 46+/-2 mm Hg, and systemic hypotension both contributed to a reduction in CPP. In addition, LDF decreased significantly at the impact site. L-Arginine administration restored LDF to near baseline levels without increasing ICP. These studies demonstrate that cerebral hemodynamics can be measured in mouse models of TBI. The changes in cerebral hemodynamics are relatively simlar to those see in the rat model of cortical impact injury and suggest an important role for nitric oxide metabolism in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow following TBI.

  9. Protective effect of chlorogenic acid on the inflammatory damage of pancreas and lung in mice with l-arginine-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatitis is characterized by inflammatory disease with severe tissue injury in pancreas, and the incidence of pancreatitis has been recently increasing. Although several treatments of acute pancreatitis have been developed, some patients have been resistant to current therapy. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the polyphenols, and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on experimental pancreatitis in mice. Pancreatitis was induced by twice injection of l-arginine (5g/kg body weight). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CGA (20mg/kg or 40mg/kg) 1h before administration of l-arginine. Administration of 40mg/kg of CGA decreased the histological severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Moreover, administration of CGA inhibited the levels of pancreatic enzyme activity. Interestingly, CGA reduced the serum and pancreatic levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in mice with l-arginine-induced pancreatitis. Our results suggest that CGA has an anti-inflammatory effect on l-arginine-induced pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics and molecular characteristics of arginine transport by Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Kandpal, M; Fouce, R B; Pal, A; Guru, P Y; Tekwani, B L

    1995-05-01

    Characteristics of transport of L-arginine were studied in Leishmania donovani promastigotes grown in vitro in a defined medium. The promastigotes exhibited a time-dependent, temperature-sensitive, pH-dependent and saturable uptake of arginine. Metabolic inhibitors caused 81-92% inhibition, indicating that arginine influx in promastigotes is an energy requiring process. The presence of Na+ ions was necessary for full activity. Considerable inhibition was also noticed with valinomycin, gramicidin and amiloride. The transporter seems to involve an -SH group at the active site. The most distinctive feature of the leishmanial transporter was that lysine and ornithine did not show significant competition with arginine transport. Other neutral and acidic amino acids, as well as polyamines were also ineffective. The arginine analogues, viz., nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-nitro-L-arginine, aminoguanidine, agmatine and D-arginine were not recognised by the transporter, while N-methyl-L-arginine acetate and phospho-L-arginine showed competition, indicating stereo-specificity of the transporter and recognition of both the guanidino group, as well as the arginine side chain by the transporter. No exchange of intracellular [14C]arginine taken up by the promastigotes was noticed during incubation with 2 or 5 mM arginine in the extracellular medium. Eighty percent of the arginine taken up remained in the trichloroacetic acid-soluble fraction. Pentamidine caused competitive inhibition of arginine transport, exhibiting an IC50 value of 40 microM. Results indicate the presence of a novel distinct arginine transporter in Leishmania promastigotes.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Honey Bee Larvae with Arginine and Abscisic Acid Enhances Nitric Oxide and Granulocyte Immune Responses after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Leonor; Quintana, Silvina; Szawarski, Nicolás; Maggi, Matías; Le Conte, Yves; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Eguaras, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic stressors impact bees’ health, acting as immunosupressors and contribute to colony losses. Thus, the importance of studying the immune response of honey bees is central to develop new strategies aiming to enhance bees’ fitness to confront the threats affecting them. If a pathogen breaches the physical and chemical barriers, honey bees can protect themselves from infection with cellular and humoral immune responses which represent a second line of defense. Through a series of correlative studies we have previously reported that abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) share roles in the same immune defenses of Apis mellifera (A. mellifera). Here we show results supporting that the supplementation of bee larvae’s diet reared in vitro with l-Arginine (precursor of NO) or ABA enhanced the immune activation of the granulocytes in response to wounding and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PMID:28809782

  12. [Effect of L-arginine and the nitric oxide synthase blocker L-NNA on calcium capacity in rat liver mitochondria with differing resistance to hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Kurhaliuk, N M; Ikkert, O V; Vovkanych, L S; Horyn', O V; Hal'kiv, M O; Hordiĭ, S K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of L-arginine and blockator of nitric oxide synthase L-NNA on processes of calcium mitochondrial capacity in liver with different resistance to hypoxia in the experiments with Wistar rats has been studied using the followrng substrates of energy support: succinic, alpha-ketoglutaric acids, alpha-ketolutarate and inhibitor succinatedehydrogenase malonate. As well we used substrates mixtures combination providing for activation of aminotransferase mechanism: glutamate and piruvate, glutamate and malate. It has been shown that L-arginine injection increases calcium mitochondrial capacity of low resistant rats using as substrates the succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of donors nitric oxide on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  13. Insights into the molecular basis for substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type L-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC.

    PubMed

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gapsys, Vytautas; Ucurum, Zöhre; de Groot, Bert L; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-13

    Pathogenic enterobacteria need to survive the extreme acidity of the stomach to successfully colonize the human gut. Enteric bacteria circumvent the gastric acid barrier by activating extreme acid-resistance responses, such as the arginine-dependent acid resistance system. In this response, l-arginine is decarboxylated to agmatine, thereby consuming one proton from the cytoplasm. In Escherichia coli, the l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC facilitates the export of agmatine in exchange of l-arginine, thus providing substrates for further removal of protons from the cytoplasm and balancing the intracellular pH. We have solved the crystal structures of wild-type AdiC in the presence and absence of the substrate agmatine at 2.6-Å and 2.2-Å resolution, respectively. The high-resolution structures made possible the identification of crucial water molecules in the substrate-binding sites, unveiling their functional roles for agmatine release and structure stabilization, which was further corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Structural analysis combined with site-directed mutagenesis and the scintillation proximity radioligand binding assay improved our understanding of substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Finally, we present a potential mechanism for conformational changes of the AdiC transport cycle involved in the release of agmatine into the periplasmic space of E. coli.

  14. Early obesity leads to increases in hepatic arginase I and related systemic changes in nitric oxide and L-arginine metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Funakubo, Narumi; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Eguchi, Eri; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for vascular endothelial cell dysfunction characterized by low-grade, chronic inflammation. Increased levels of arginase I and concomitant decreases in L-arginine bioavailability are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. In the present study, we focused on changes in the systemic expression of arginase I as well as L-arginine metabolism in the pre-disease state of early obesity prior to the onset of atherosclerosis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD; 10% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat) for 8 weeks. The mRNA expression of arginase I in the liver, adipose tissue, aorta, and muscle; protein expression of arginase I in the liver and plasma; and systemic levels of L-arginine bioavailability and NO 2 - were assessed. HFD-fed mice showed early obesity without severe disease symptoms. Arginase I mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed obese mice than in CD-fed mice. Arginase I levels were slightly increased, whereas L-arginine levels were significantly reduced, and these changes were followed by reductions in NO 2 - levels. Furthermore, hepatic arginase I levels positively correlated with plasma arginase I levels and negatively correlated with L-arginine bioavailability in plasma. These results suggested that increases in the expression of hepatic arginase I and reductions in plasma L-arginine and NO 2 - levels might lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pre-disease state of early obesity.

  15. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  16. Heat Shock Proteins, L-Arginine, and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    İn, Erdal; Özdemir, Cengiz; Kaman, Dilara; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime

    2015-11-01

    Vascular endothelial inflammation and enhanced oxidative stress are important factors in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The aim of this study was to determine the levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP70, HSP90, L-arginine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with OSAS and determine their relationship with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Forty patients with OSAS, comprising 26 with and 14 without traditional CV risk factors (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking), and 20 control subjects without OSAS were included. All patients underwent a full polysomnographic evaluation, and blood samples were obtained in the morning after the night the diagnostic study was performed. No significant differences were found in serum HSP27 and HSP70 levels between the groups. HSP90 and ADMA levels increased significantly, whereas L-arginine levels decreased significantly in patients with OSAS, both with and without CV risk factors, compared with controls, but were not different among the subgroups. In all patients with OSAS, serum HSP70 levels were positively correlated with a percent time with saturation<90% (r=.349, P=.027). Serum L-arginine levels were negatively correlated with desaturation number (r=-.360, P=.022) and apnea-hypopnea index (r=-.354, P=.025) and positively correlated with mean oxygen saturation (r=.328, P=.039). Serum levels of HSP90 and ADMA increased, whereas those of L-arginine decreased in patients with OSAS regardless of CV risk factors. These findings indicate the presence of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Midkine is overexpressed in acute pancreatitis and promotes the pancreatic recovery in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Qiao, Zhenguo; Xu, Chunfang; Shen, Jiaqing

    2017-06-01

    Midkine (MK) is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous malignancies, but the expression and effect of MK in acute pancreatitis (AP) have not been well studied and documented. In this study, the expression of MK was assayed in mice with L-arginine-induced AP. A recombinant human MK (rhMK) was introduced in this study to test the effect of MK on the L-arginine-induced AP. Serum amylase and lipase were assayed. Pancreas tissue samples were also collected for the evaluation of histological injury. Western blot and immunochemical staining of α-amylase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were applied for the study of acinar regeneration in the pancreas. The elevation of MK expression was found in mice with AP induced by L-arginine. After rhMK administration, rhMK did not affect the severity of acute pancreatic injury in acute phase in L-arginine-induced pancreatitis in mice, in accordance with changes of serum amylase and lipase and the histological evaluation. But during the recovery phase, the area of remaining acinar cells was increased and the fibrosis was reduced in rhMK-treated mice. Furthermore, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and α-amylase was also upregulated after rhMK treatment. Midkine is over-expressed during AP in the animal model. Recombinant MK could promote the recovery of L-arginine-induced pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, MK may be involved in the regeneration of acinar cells in AP, and rhMK may be a possible therapeutic intervention for the repairment of AP. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Protective effect of quercetin and/or l-arginine against nano-zinc oxide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faddah, L. M.; Baky, Nayira A. Abdel; Mohamed, Azza M.; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M.; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of quercetin and/or l-arginine against the cardiotoxic potency of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP)-induced cardiac infarction. ZnO-NPs (50 nm) were administered orally at either 600 mg or 1 g/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. The results revealed that co-administration of quercetin and/or l-arginine (each 200 mg/kg body weight) daily for 3 weeks to rats intoxicated by either of the two doses markedly ameliorated increases in serum markers of cardiac infarction, including troponin T, creatine kinase-MB, and myoglobin, as well as increases in proinflammatory biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, compared with intoxicated, untreated rats. Each agent alone or in combination also successfully modulated the alterations in serum vascular endothelial growth factor, cardiac calcium concentration, and oxidative DNA damage as well as the increase in the apoptosis marker caspase 3 of cardiac tissue in response to ZnO-NP toxicity. In conclusion, early treatment with quercetin and l-arginine may protect cardiac tissue from infarction induced by the toxic effects of ZnO-NPs.

  19. Cloning and expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from a cestode parasite and its solubilization from inclusion bodies using l-arginine.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Asim K; Ramnath; Dkhar, Barilin; Tandon, Veena; Das, Bidyadhar

    2016-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida, and is considered a potential target for anthelmintic action because of its differential activity from that of its avian host. However, due to the unavailability of its structure, the mechanism of regulation of PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (rePEPCK) and its interaction with possible modulators remain unclear. Hence, in this study, the rePEPCK gene was cloned into pGEX-4T-3 and overexpressed for its characterization. On being induced by IPTG, the recombinant rePEPCK was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs); hence, various agents, like different inducer concentrations, temperature, time, host cell types, culture media, pH, and additives, were used to bring the protein to soluble form. Finally, a significant amount (∼46%) of rePEPCK was solubilized from IBs by adding 2M l-arginine. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra analysis indicated that l-arginine (2M) had no effect on the conformation of the protein. In this study, we have reported a yield of ∼73mg of purified rePEPCK per 1L of culture. The purified rePEPCK retained its biological activity, and Km of the enzyme for its substrate was determined and discussed. The availability of recombinant rePEPCK may help in biochemical- and biophysical-studies to explore its molecular mechanisms and regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition in critically ill diabetic and obese rats: a dose-ranging study evaluating nutritional status and macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Sandra; Belabed, Linda; Blanc, Marie-Céline; Neveux, Nathalie; Cynober, Luc; Darquy, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill diabetic and obese patients are at high risk of complications. Arginine availability is lowered in diabetes and in stress situations, yet arginine is necessary for immune response, mainly by its action through nitric oxide (NO). These facts argue for arginine-supplemented diets in critically ill patients. However, studies have raised concerns about possible adverse effects of such diets in intensive-care patients. We therefore analyzed the metabolic and immunologic effects of an arginine-enriched diet in stressed diabetic-obese rats. Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (fa/fa) were made endotoxemic by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and then fed 4-d enteral nutrition enriched with arginine (ARG group) or a non-essential amino acid mix (NEAA group). The two groups each were subdivided into three subgroups: the ARG subgroups received 0.5 g (ARG0.5), 2 g (ARG2), and 5 g (ARG5) of arginine per kilogram daily, and the NEAA groups were made isonitrogenous with the corresponding ARG subgroups (NEAA0.5, NEAA2, and NEAA5). Plasma and urinary biomarkers were measured. Cytokine and NO production levels and inducible NO synthase and arginase protein levels were determined from peritoneal macrophages. The survival rate was lower in the ARG5 and NEAA5 subgroups than in all the other subgroups. The nitrogen balance was higher in the ARG5 group than in the NEAA5 group. Plasma triacylglycerol levels were lower in the ARG2 group than in the NEAA2 group. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NO production in the macrophages decreased and arginase-1 was upregulated in the ARG-treated rats. In this model, mortality was increased by the nitrogen burden rather than by arginine per se. Arginine improved nitrogen balance and had an anti-inflammatory action on macrophages by regulating NO production, probably through arginase-1 expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Progesterone up-regulates vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gangula, P R; Wimalawansa, S J; Yallampalli, C

    1997-04-01

    We recently reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide can reverse the hypertension produced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in pregnant rats. In the current study we investigated whether these vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were progesterone dependent. Calcitonin gene-related peptide or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was infused through osmotic minipumps, either separately or in combination, to groups of five pregnant rats from day 17 of gestation until day 8 post partum or to nonpregnant ovariectomized rats for 8 days. Progesterone was injected during days 1 to 6 post partum and for 6 days after ovariectomy. Systolic blood pressure was measured daily. Animals receiving N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester exhibited significant elevations of blood pressure during pregnancy and post partum. Coadministration of calcitonin gene-related peptide to these rats reversed the hypertension during pregnancy but not during the postpartum period. At the dose used in this study calcitonin gene-related peptide administered alone was without significant effects on blood pressure. However, it reduced both the mortality and growth restriction of the fetus associated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in these animals. Calcitonin gene-related peptide reversed the hypertension in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-infused postpartum rats during the periods of progesterone treatment only, and these effects were lost when progesterone treatment was stopped. Neither progesterone nor calcitonin gene-related peptide alone were effective. To further confirm these observations, progesterone effects were tested in ovariectomized adult rats. Similar to the findings in postpartum rats, calcitonin gene-related peptide completely reversed the elevation in blood pressure in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats receiving progesterone injections. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were apparent only during the progesterone treatment

  2. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  7. Enhanced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the myocardium ameliorates the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy in L-arginine treated Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Sattar, M A; Rathore, H A; Abdulla, M H; Khan, S A; Abdullah, N A; Johns, E J

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. The effect of L-arginine administration on cardiac structure, arterial stiffness, renal and systemic hemodynamic parameters was studied and the change in expression of eNOS and cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium of LVH rats was evaluated. LVH was induced using isoprenaline (5 mg/kg, S.C.) and caffeine (62 mg/L in drinking water) for 14 days. Following to that, L-arginine (1.25 g/L in drinking water) was given for 5 weeks as a donor of NO. eNOS and CSE gene expressions were down regulated in the LVH group by about 35% and 67% respectively when compared to control. However, in the LVH group treated with L-arginine there was up regulation of eNOS by almost 27% and down regulation in CSE by 24% when compared to control (all P < 0.05). Heart index and H2S plasma levels were reduced by almost 53% in the L-arginine treated LVH group compared to the control (all P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and pulse wave velocity were reduced while renal blood perfusion increased in L-arginine treated LVH rats compared to their untreated counterparts (all P < 0.05). The enhanced expression of eNOS in L-arginine treated LVH rats resulted in the amelioration of oxidative and haemodynamic parameters suggesting that NO system is an important therapeutic target in cardiac and LV hypertrophies.

  8. Class side effects: decreased pressure in the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincters after the administration of dopamine antagonists, neuroleptics, anti-emetics, L-NAME, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Belosic Halle, Zeljka; Vlainic, Josipa; Drmic, Domagoj; Strinic, Dean; Luetic, Kresimir; Sucic, Mario; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Pavelic Turudic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Igor; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-05-17

    The ulcerogenic potential of dopamine antagonists and L-NAME in rats provides unresolved issues of anti-emetic neuroleptic application in both patients and experimental studies. Therefore, in a 1-week study, we examined the pressures within the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincters in rats [assessed manometrically (cm H 2 O)] after dopamine neuroleptics/prokinetics, L-NAME, L-arginine and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were administered alone and/or in combination. Medication (/kg) was given once daily intraperitoneally throughout the 7 days, with the last dose at 24 h before pressure assessment. Given as individual agents to healthy rats, all dopamine antagonists (central [haloperidol (6.25 mg, 16 mg, 25 mg), fluphenazine (5 mg), levomepromazine (50 mg), chlorpromazine (10 mg), quetiapine (10 mg), olanzapine (5 mg), clozapine (100 mg), sulpiride (160 mg), metoclopramide (25 mg)) and peripheral(domperidone (10 mg)], L-NAME (5 mg) and L-arginine (100 mg) decreased the pressure within both sphincters. As a common effect, this decreased pressure was rescued, dose-dependently, by BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng) (also note that L-arginine and L-NAME given together antagonized each other's responses). With haloperidol, L-NAME worsened both the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincter pressure, while L-arginine ameliorated lower oesophageal sphincter but not pyloric sphincter pressure, and antagonized L-NAME effect. With domperidone, L-arginine originally had no effect, while L-NAME worsened pyloric sphincter pressure. This effect was opposed by L-arginine. All these effects were further reversed towards a stronger beneficial effect, close to normal pressure values, by the addition of BPC 157. In addition, NO level was determined in plasma, sphincters and brain tissue. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also assessed. Haloperidol increased NO levels (in both sphincters, the plasma and brain), consistently producing increased

  9. L-Arginine Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in Rats Submitted to Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Taha, M O; de Oliveira, J V; Dias Borges, M; de Lucca Melo, F; Gualtieri, F G; E Silva Aidar, A L; Pacheco, R L; de Melo Alexandre E Silva, T; Klajner, R K; Iuamoto, L R; Munhoz Torres, L; Morais Mendes de Paula, B J; de Campos, K; Oliveira-Junior, I S; Fagundes, D J

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether exogenous offer of L-arginine (LARG) modulates the gene expression of intestinal dysfunction caused by ischemia and reperfusion. Eighteen Wistar-EPM1 male rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized and subjected to laparotomy. The superior mesenteric vessels were exposed, and the rats were randomized into 3 groups (n = 6): the control group (CG), with no superior mesenteric artery interruption; the ischemia/reperfusion group (IRG), with 60 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion and saline injections; and the L-arginine group (IRG + LARG), with L-arginine injected in the femoral vein 5 minutes before ischemia, 5 minutes after reperfusion, and after 55 minutes of reperfusion. The total RNA was extracted and purified from samples of the small intestine. The concentration of each total RNA sample was determined by using spectrophotometry. The first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized in equal amounts of cDNA and the Master Mix SYBR Green qPCR Mastermix (SABiosciences, a Qiagen Company, Frederick, Md). Amounts of cDNA and Master Mix SYBR Green qPCR Mastermix were distributed to each well of the polymerase chain reaction microarray plate containing the predispensed gene-specific primer sets for Bax and Bcl2. Each sample was evaluated in triplicate, and the Student t test was applied to validate the homogeneity of each gene expression reaction (P < .05). The gene expression of Bax in IRG (+1.48) was significantly higher than in IRG-LARG (+9.69); the expression of Bcl2L1 in IRG (+1.01) was significantly higher than IRG-LARG (+22.89). The apoptotic cell pathway of 2 protagonists showed that LARG improves the gene expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2l1 (Bcl2-like 1) more than the pro-apoptotic Bax (Bcl2-associated X protein). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Effect of Carbohydrates and Arginine on Arginine Metabolism by Excised Bean Leaves in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cecil R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate on arginine utilization by excised bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Tendergreen) leaves in the dark was studied by adding arginine to leaves differing in carbohydrate levels, and measuring the arginine content of the leaves at intervals. In nonstarved leaves, the arginine content decreased steadily after vacuum infiltration of 10 mm arginine and was essentially completely utilized by 36 hours after infiltration. In starved leaves, the arginine content did not decrease except for a brief period of about 4 hours after infiltration. The distribution of 14C after adding 14C-arginine to starved and nonstarved leaves indicated that the presence of carbohydrates in the leaves stimulates the utilization of arginine for protein synthesis and conversion to other amino acids, organic acids, and CO2 (catabolism). Adding sucrose along with arginine to starved leaves stimulated this utilization of arginine for both protein synthesis and catabolism. This effect of sugar on catabolism is different than results of similar studies done previously with proline. Increasing the concentration of added arginine greatly increased arginine catabolism but had a relatively small effect on utilization of arginine for protein synthesis. This result is the same as similar results from adding different concentrations of proline to excised leaves. PMID:16659159

  11. Role of adenosine transport in gestational diabetes-induced l-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Gustavo; Sanhueza, Felipe; Vásquez, Rodrigo; González, Marcelo; Martín, Rody San; Casanello, Paola; Sobrevia, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with increased l-arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and reduced adenosine transport in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Adenosine increases endothelial l-arginine/NO pathway via A2 purinoceptors in HUVEC from normal pregnancies. It is unknown whether the effect of gestational diabetes is associated with activation of these purinoceptors or altered expression of human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1) or human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), or endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in HUVEC. Cells were isolated from normal or gestational diabetic pregnancies and cultured up to passage 2. Gestational diabetes increased hCAT-1 mRNA expression (2.4-fold) and activity, eNOS mRNA (2.3-fold), protein level (2.1-fold), and phosphorylation (3.8-fold), but reduced hENT1 mRNA expression (32%) and activity. Gestational diabetes increased extracellular adenosine (2.7 μm), and intracellular l-arginine (1.9 mm) and l-citrulline (0.7 mm) levels compared with normal cells (0.05 μm, 0.89 mm, 0.35 mm, respectively). Incubation of HUVEC from normal pregnancies with 1 μm nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) mimicked the effect of gestational diabetes, but NBMPR was ineffective in diabetic cells. Gestational diabetes and NBMPR effects involved eNOS, PKC and p42/44mapk activation, and were blocked by the A2a purinoceptor antagonist ZM-241385. Thus, gestational diabetes increases the l-arginine/NO pathway involving activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, protein kinase C (PKC) and NO cell signalling cascades following activation of A2a purinoceptors by extracellular adenosine. A functional relationship is proposed between adenosine transport and modulation of l-arginine transport and NO synthesis in HUVEC, which could be determinant in regulating vascular reactivity in diabetes mellitus. PMID:15272035

  12. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  13. Novel photoluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on supramolecular host-guest recognition using L-arginine/6-aza-2-thiothymine-stabilized gold nanocluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youmei; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2018-06-30

    A new photoluminescence (PL) enzyme immunoassay was designed for sensitive detection of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) via an innovative enzyme substrate, 6-aza-2-thiothymine-stabilized gold nanocluster (AAT-AuNC) with L-arginine. The enzyme substrate with strong PL intensity was formed through supramolecular host-guest assembly between guanidine group of L-arginine and AAT capped on the surface of AuNC. Upon arginase introduction, the captured L-arginine was hydrolyzed into ornithine and urea, thus resulting in the decreasing PL intensity. Based on this principle, a novel competitive-type immunoreaction was first carried out on AFB 1 -bovine serum albumin (AFB 1 -BSA) conjugate-coated microplate, using arginase-labeled anti-AFB 1 antibody as the competitor. Under the optimum conditions, the PL intensity increased with the increment of target AFB 1 , and allowed the detection of the analyte at concentrations as low as 3.2 pg mL -1 (ppt). Moreover, L-arginine-AAT-AuNC-based PL enzyme immunoassay afforded good reproducibility and acceptable specificity. In addition, the accuracy of this methodology, referring to commercial AFB 1 ELISA kit, was evaluated to analyze naturally contaminated or spiked peanut samples, giving well-matched results between two methods, thus representing a useful scheme for practical application in quantitative monitoring of mycotoxins in foodstuff. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety and Effectiveness of Arginine in Adults.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Catherine J; Meininger, Cynthia J; Reddy, Deepika; Wilborn, Colin D; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-12-01

    l-Arginine (Arg) appears to have a beneficial effect on the regulation of nutrient metabolism to enhance lean tissue deposition and on insulin resistance in humans. The observed safe level for oral administration of Arg is ∼20 g/d, but higher levels have been tested in short-term studies without serious adverse effects; however, more data are needed in both animal models and humans to fully evaluate safety as well as efficacy. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and effectiveness of oral Arg in adults. Arg supplementation has been used safely in vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women, preterm infants, and individuals with cystic fibrosis. Several recent studies have shown beneficial effects of Arg in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that Arg supplementation is a safe and generally well-tolerated nutriceutical that may improve metabolic profiles in humans. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Changes in N-acetylglutamate are involved in regulating urea synthesis in rats given a low gluten diet supplemented with L-lysine, L-methinone and L-threonine.

    PubMed

    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Tuchiya, Tamami; Shi, Xianglan; Ohsumi, Miho; Hayase, Kazutoshi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that urinary urea excretion decreased in rats fed a low gluten diet supplemented with dietary limiting amino acids. The purpose of present study was to determine whether the addition of dietary limiting amino acids to a low gluten diet affected the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate and regulated urea synthesis. Experiments were done on two groups of rats, given diets containing 10% gluten or 10% gluten+0.5% L-lysine, 0.2% L-threonine and 0.2% L-methionine for 10 d. The urinary excretion of urea, and the liver concentration of N-acetylglutamate, and the liver activity of N-acetylglutamate synthetase decreased with the addition of dietary L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. N-Acetylglutamate concentration in the liver was closely correlated with the N-acetylglutamate synthetase activity in the liver and excretion of urea. The greater degradation of N-acetylglutamate was observed in the group fed the 10% gluten+L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine. The hepatic concentration of glutamate and plasma concentration of arginine were not related to the N-acetylglutamate concentration in the liver. These results suggest that the addition of limiting amino acids to the low gluten diet controls the synthesis and degradation of N-acetylglutamate in the liver and lowers urea synthesis.

  16. Inhibition of nitric oxide production and the effects of arginine and Lactobacillus administration in an acute liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Adawi, D; Molin, G; Jeppsson, B

    1998-12-01

    To study the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide production and the effects of arginine and lactobacilli administration in an acute liver injury (LI) model. Infectious complications caused by enteric bacteria are common in patients with liver diseases and those who have undergone liver surgery. Increased bacterial translocation has been proposed as one underlying mechanism. Lactobacilli constitute an integral part of the normal gastrointestinal microecology; they are involved in host metabolism and have many beneficial properties. Arginine has numerous roles in cellular metabolism and may be metabolized by lactobacilli in some cases. We have previously shown that rectal administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (strain 299v), with and without arginine, in an acute LI model significantly reduces the extent of the LI and reduces bacterial translocation. To clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms, we studied the role of nitric oxide in the effects of L. plantarum and arginine in acute LI, as determined by bacterial translocation, ileal, cecal, and colonic nucleotides, RNA, and DNA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. L. plantarum, 2% arginine, and/or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), as appropriate, were administered rectally once daily for 8 days. Acute LI was induced on the eighth day by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (1.1 g/kg body weight), and samples were collected after 24 hours. Bacterial translocation was evaluated by culture of portal and arterial blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and liver tissue. Liver enzymes and bilirubin were assayed in the serum. The bacterial load in the cecum and colon was determined. Ileal, cecal, and colonic mucosal nucleotides, RNA, and DNA were evaluated. The levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin were lower in liver-injured rats supplemented with arginine and Lactobacillus, and this effect was abolished by the addition of L-NAME. Inhibition of nitric oxide production (by L-NAME) increased bacterial

  17. l-Arginine normalizes NOS activity and zinc-MT homeostasis in the kidney of mice chronically exposed to inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Francesco; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Muti, Elisa; Tesei, Silvia; Pierpaoli, Sara; Basso, Andrea; Bracci, Massimo; Bonacucina, Viviana; Santarelli, Lory; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2009-09-28

    Inorganic mercury (HgCl2) exposure provokes damage in many organs, especially kidney. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, total NOS activity and the profiles of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Hg as well as their distribution when bound to specific intracellular proteins, including metallothioneins (MT), were studied during HgCl2 exposure and after l-arginine treatment in C57BL/6 mouse kidney. HgCl2 exposure modulates differently iNOS expression and NOS activity, increasing iNOS expression but, conversely, decreasing total NOS activity in the mouse kidney. Moreover, during Hg exposure an increased MT production occurs. The kidney damage leads to a loss of urinary proteins, increased plasma creatinine and high Zn mobilization with consequent increased urinary Zn excretion. l-arginine treatment recovers NOS activity and induces a normalization of MT induction, plasma creatinine values and urinary proteins excretion, suggesting that l-arginine may limit kidney damages by Hg exposure.

  18. Differential effects of arginine, glutamate and phosphoarginine on Ca(2+)-activation properties of muscle fibres from crayfish and rat.

    PubMed

    Jame, David W; West, Jan M; Dooley, Philip C; Stephenson, D George

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two amino acids, arginine which has a positively charged side-chain and glutamate which has a negatively charged side-chain on the Ca2+-activation properties of the contractile apparatus were examined in four structurally and functionally different types of skeletal muscle; long- and short-sarcomere fibres from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean), and fast- and slow-twitch fibres from limb muscles of the rat. Single skinned fibres were activated in carefully balanced solutions of different pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) that either contained the test solute ("test") or not ("control"). The effect of phosphoarginine, a phosphagen that bears a nett negative charge, was also compared to the effects of arginine. Results show that (i) arginine (33-36 mmol l(-1)) significantly shifted the force-pCa curve by 0.08-0.13 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction in all fibre types; (ii) phosphoarginine (9-10 mmol l(-1)) induced a significant shift of the force-pCa curve by 0.18-0.24 pCa units in the direction of increased sensitivity to Ca2+ in mammalian fast- and slow-twitch fibres, but had no significant effects on the force-pCa relation in either long- or short-sarcomere crustacean fibres; (iii) glutamate (36-40 mmol l(-1)), like arginine affected the force-pCa relation of all fibre types investigated, but in the opposite direction, causing a significant decrease in the sensitivity to Ca2+-activated contraction by 0.08-0.19 pCa units; (iv) arginine, phosphoarginine and glutamate had little or no effect on the maximum Ca2+-activated force of crustacean and mammalian fibres. The results suggest that the opposing effects of glutamate and arginine are not related to simply their charge structure, but must involve complex interactions between these molecules, Ca2+ and the regulatory and other myofibrillar proteins.

  19. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Colas, Claire; Ucurum, Zöhre; Schlessinger, Avner; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures (Tms) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting Tms indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which Tms and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5), an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family. PMID:29558430

  20. Interfacial electrostatics of poly(vinylamine hydrochloride), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), poly-l-lysine, and poly-l-arginine interacting with lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    McGeachy, A C; Dalchand, N; Caudill, E R; Li, T; Doğangün, M; Olenick, L L; Chang, H; Pedersen, J A; Geiger, F M

    2018-04-25

    Charge densities of cationic polymers adsorbed to lipid bilayers are estimated from second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements. The systems surveyed included poly(vinylamine hydrochloride) (PVAm), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), poly-l-lysine (PLL), and poly-l-arginine (PLR), as well as polyalcohol controls. Upon accounting for the number of positive charges associated with each polyelectrolyte, the binding constants and apparent free energies of adsorption as estimated from SHG data are comparable despite differences in molecular masses and molecular structure, with ΔGads values of -61 ± 2, -58 ± 2, -57 ± 1, -52 ± 2, -52 ± 1 kJ mol-1 for PDADMAC400, PDADMAC100, PVAm, PLL, and PLR, respectively. Moreover, we find charge densities for polymer adlayers of approximately 0.3 C m-2 for poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) while those of poly(vinylamine) hydrochloride, poly-l-lysine, and poly-l-arginine are approximately 0.2 C m-2. Time-dependent studies indicate that polycation adsorption to supported lipid bilayers is only partially reversible for most of the polymers explored. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) does not demonstrate reversible binding even over long timescales (>8 hours).

  1. Characterization of casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. α- and β-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). (PLArg/casein) films deposited in 0.15M NaCl exhibit fast (exponential-like) growth of the film thickness with the number of layers. The resulting films were c.a. 10 times thicker than obtained for poly-L-arginine and natural polyanions. We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation, finding that films with α-casein were slightly thicker than ones with β-casein. The effect of polyethylene imine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films was similar as for linear polyelectrolyte pairs. Thickness of "wet" films was c.a. two times larger than measured after drying that suggests their large hydration. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability. Films remain stable in the neutral and weakly basic conditions that includes HEPES buffer, which is widely used in cell culture and biomedical experiments. At the conditions of high ionic strength films swell but their swelling is reversible. Films containing caseins as polyanion appear to be more elastic and the same time more viscous than one formed with polyelectrolyte pairs. XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease. PMID:27529679

  3. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  4. L-arginine mediated renaturation enhances yield of human, α6 type IV collagen non-collagenous domain from bacterial inclusion bodies

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Venugopal; Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Raj Kumar; Guda, Chittibabu; Akul Sudhakar, Yakkanti

    2012-01-01

    The anti-angiogenic, carboxy terminal non-collagenous domain (NC1) derived from human Collagen type IV alpha 6 chain, [α6(IV)NC1] or hexastatin, was earlier obtained using different recombinant methods of expression in bacterial systems. However, the effect of L-arginine mediated renaturation in enhancing the relative yields of this protein from bacterial inclusion bodies has not been evaluated. In the present study, direct stirring and on-column renaturation methods using L-arginine and different size exclusion chromatography matrices were applied for enhancing the solubility in purifying the recombinant α6(IV)NC1 from bacterial inclusion bodies. This methodology enabled purification of higher quantities of soluble protein from inclusion bodies, which inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Thus, the scope for L-arginine mediated renaturation in obtaining higher yields of soluble, biologically active NC1 domain from bacterial inclusion bodies was evaluated. PMID:22512648

  5. L-arginine mediated renaturation enhances yield of human, α6 Type IV collagen non-collagenous domain from bacterial inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Venugopal; Boosani, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Raj Kumar; Guda, Chittibabu; Sudhakar, Yakkanti Akul

    2012-10-01

    The anti-angiogenic, carboxy terminal non-collagenous domain (NC1) derived from human Collagen type IV alpha 6 chain, [α6(IV)NC1] or hexastatin, was earlier obtained using different recombinant methods of expression in bacterial systems. However, the effect of L-arginine mediated renaturation in enhancing the relative yields of this protein from bacterial inclusion bodies has not been evaluated. In the present study, direct stirring and on-column renaturation methods using L-arginine and different size exclusion chromatography matrices were applied for enhancing the solubility in purifying the recombinant α6(IV)NC1 from bacterial inclusion bodies. This methodology enabled purification of higher quantities of soluble protein from inclusion bodies, which inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Thus, the scope for L-arginine mediated renaturation in obtaining higher yields of soluble, biologically active NC1 domain from bacterial inclusion bodies was evaluated.

  6. Dose-Dependent Effects of L-Arginine on PROP Bitterness Intensity and Latency and Characteristics of the Chemical Interaction between PROP and L-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ability to taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a complex trait that has been used to predict food preferences and eating habits. PROP tasting is primarily controlled by polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene. However, a variety of factors are known to modify the phenotype. Principle among them is the salivary protein Ps-1 belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). Recently, we showed that oral supplementation with Ps-1 as well as its related free amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) enhances PROP bitterness perception, especially for PROP non-tasters who have low salivary levels of Ps-1. Here, we show that salivary L-Arg levels are higher in PROP super-tasters compared to medium tasters and non-tasters, and that oral supplementation with free L-Arg enhances PROP bitterness intensity as well as reduces bitterness latency in a dose-dependent manner, particularly in individuals with low salivary levels of both free L-Arg and Ps-1 protein. Supplementation with L-Arg also enhanced the bitterness of caffeine. We also used 1H-NMR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) to characterize the chemical interaction between free L-Arg and the PROP molecule. Results showed that the -NH2 terminal group of the L-ArgH+ side chain interacts with the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups of PROP by forming two hydrogen bonds with the resulting charged adduct. The formation of this PROP•ArgH+ hydrogen-bonded adduct could enhance bitterness intensity by increasing the solubility of PROP in saliva and its availability to receptor sites. Our data suggest that L-Arg could act as a 'carrier' of various bitter molecules in saliva.

  7. Dose-Dependent Effects of L-Arginine on PROP Bitterness Intensity and Latency and Characteristics of the Chemical Interaction between PROP and L-Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J.; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ability to taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a complex trait that has been used to predict food preferences and eating habits. PROP tasting is primarily controlled by polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene. However, a variety of factors are known to modify the phenotype. Principle among them is the salivary protein Ps-1 belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). Recently, we showed that oral supplementation with Ps-1 as well as its related free amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) enhances PROP bitterness perception, especially for PROP non-tasters who have low salivary levels of Ps-1. Here, we show that salivary L-Arg levels are higher in PROP super-tasters compared to medium tasters and non-tasters, and that oral supplementation with free L-Arg enhances PROP bitterness intensity as well as reduces bitterness latency in a dose-dependent manner, particularly in individuals with low salivary levels of both free L-Arg and Ps-1 protein. Supplementation with L-Arg also enhanced the bitterness of caffeine. We also used 1H-NMR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) to characterize the chemical interaction between free L-Arg and the PROP molecule. Results showed that the –NH2 terminal group of the L-ArgH+ side chain interacts with the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups of PROP by forming two hydrogen bonds with the resulting charged adduct. The formation of this PROP•ArgH+ hydrogen-bonded adduct could enhance bitterness intensity by increasing the solubility of PROP in saliva and its availability to receptor sites. Our data suggest that L-Arg could act as a ‘carrier’ of various bitter molecules in saliva. PMID:26103639

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats.

    PubMed

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg(-1)) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats.

  9. Nitrate supplementation and human exercise performance: too much of a good thing?

    PubMed

    Poortmans, Jacques R; Gualano, Bruno; Carpentier, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Ergogenic supplements in sport events are widely used by popular and competitive athletes to enhance performance and reduce oxygen cost. Beetroot juice and nitrate salts have been increasingly used for the past 5-6 years. The present review discusses the scientific background, the efficiency and potential adverse effects of excessive nitrate supplementation. There is clear evidence that nitrate from different food ingredients (such as beetroot juice and other vegetables) is converted into nitrite and possibly into nitric oxide, which may promote vasodilation, angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. The high affinity of nitric oxide towards different enzyme pathways inhibits excessive mitochondrial respiration and, therefore, tissue oxygen consumption. In addition, L-arginine supplements are proposed to stimulate nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium. On the basis of these biochemical properties, nitrate supplementation has been suggested to athletes to enhance exercise performance. The recent publications in human individuals based on L-arginine, beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation revealed either a minor positive effect or no systematic effect on exercise performance, especially in trained athletes. Of note, the sugar content of whole beetroot juice might induce a slightly more pronounced effect. Although reasonable intake of nitrate salts (up to 1 g/day) has no detrimental effect on kidney function, the risk and benefit of higher nitrate intake needs to be evaluated to define the optimal range of supplementation.

  10. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Analysis of physicochemical properties of ternary systems of oxaprozin with randomly methylated-ß-cyclodextrin and l-arginine aimed to improve the drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2016-09-10

    The influence of l-arginine on the complexing and solubilizing power of randomly-methylated-β-cyclodextrin (RameβCD) towards oxaprozin, a very poorly soluble anti-inflammatory drug, was examined. The interactions between the components were investigated both in solution, by phase-solubility analysis, and in the solid state, by differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR and X-ray powder diffractometry. The morphology of the solid products was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results of phase-solubility studies indicated that addition of arginine enhanced the RameβCD complexing and solubilizing power of about 3.0 and 4.5 times, respectively, in comparison with the binary complex (both at pH≈6.8). The effect of arginine was not simply additive, but synergistic, being the ternary system solubility higher than the sum of those of the respective drug-CD and drug-arginine binary systems. Solid equimolar ternary systems were prepared by physical mixing, co-grinding, coevaporation and kneading techniques, to explore the effect of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of the final products. The ternary co-ground product exhibited a dramatic increase in both drug dissolution efficiency and percent dissolved at 60min, whose values (83.6 and 97.1, respectively) were about 3 times higher than the sum of those given by the respective drug-CD and drug-aminoacid binary systems. Therefore, the ternary co-ground system with arginine and RameβCD appears as a very valuable product for the development of new more effective delivery systems of oxaprozin, with improved safety and bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Receptor-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthesis by arginine in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mahesh S.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Johnson, Fruzsina K.; Johnson, Robert A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    Arginine contains the guanidinium group and thus has structural similarity to ligands of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors (α-2 AR). Therefore, we investigated the possibility that exogenous arginine may act as a ligand for these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and activate intracellular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Idazoxan, a mixed antagonist of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors, partly inhibited l-arginine-initiated NO formation as measured by a Griess reaction. Rauwolscine, a highly specific antagonist of α-2 AR, at very low concentrations completely inhibited NO formation. Like l-arginine, agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) also activated NO synthesis, however, at much lower concentrations. We found that dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of α-2 AR was very potent in activating cellular NO, thus indicating a possible role for α-2 AR in l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis. d-arginine also activated NO production and could be inhibited by imidazoline and α-2 AR antagonists, thus indicating nonsubstrate actions of arginine. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G proteins, attenuated l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis, thus indicating mediation via G proteins. l-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine and phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 inhibited NO formation and thus implicated participation of a second messenger pathway. Finally, in isolated rat gracilis vessels, rauwolscine completely inhibited the l-arginine-initiated vessel relaxation. Taken together, these data provide evidence for binding of arginine to membrane receptor(s), leading to the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) NO production through a second messenger pathway. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of l-arginine in the cardiovascular system and thus provide new potential avenues for therapeutic development. PMID:17535904

  13. Effects of arginine and trehalose on post-thawed bovine sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Caner; Güngör, Şükrü; Ataman, Mehmet Bozkurt; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Başpinar, Nuri; Ili, Pınar; Inanç, Muhammed Enes

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of arginine and trehalose on post-thaw bull sperm and oxidative stress parameters. Five ejaculates for each bull were used in the study. Each ejaculate, split into three equal aliquots and diluted at 37 °C with base extenders containing 2 mM arginine, 25 mM trehalose and no antioxidant (control) was cooled to 5 °C and then frozen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for evaluation. Supplementation of the semen extender with arginine decreased the percentages of post-thawed subjective motility (29 ± 8.21%), CASA motility (12.2 ± 5.69%) and progressive motility (3.52 ± 2.13%), compared with the controls (43 ± 2.73%, 55.4 ± 6.78% and 33.48 ± 4.14%, respectively, P < 0.05). Supplementation of the semen extender with trehalose produced a higher mitochondrial activity and sperm viability (36.3 ± 3.99% and 44.1 ± 2.18%) compared with the control (13 ± 8.15 and 31.7 ± 3.94%, respectively, P < 0.05). It was established that trehalose (95.1%) and arginine (92.8%) protect DNA integrity compared to the control (90.4%) (P < 0.05). Trehalose supplementation in semen extenders provided great benefit in terms of viability, mitochondrial activity, and intact sperm DNA on frozen-thawed bull sperm.

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of immature osteoblasts: Interplay of cell culture media and supplements.

    PubMed

    Brauer, A; Pohlemann, T; Metzger, W

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of immature osteoblasts to mature osteoblasts in vitro initially was induced by supplementing the medium with β-gylcerophosphate and dexamethasone. Later, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, vitamin K3 and TGFβ1 were used in varying concentrations as supplements to generate a mature osteoblast phenotype. We tested the effects of several combinations of cell culture media, seeding protocols and osteogenic supplements on osteogenic differentiation of human primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed by staining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP/NBT) and by von Kossa staining of deposited calcium phosphate. The combinations of culture media and supplements significantly influenced osteogenic differentiation, but the seeding protocol did not. Staining of ALP and calcium phosphate could be achieved only if our own mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or if a commercial mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with osteoblast growth medium. Especially for von Kossa, we observed great variations in the staining intensity. Because osteogenic differentiation is a complex process, the origin of the osteoblasts, cell culture media and osteogenic supplements should be established by preliminary experiments to achieve optimal differentiation. Staining of ALP or deposited calcium phosphate should be supplemented with qRT-PCR studies to learn more about the influence of specific supplements on osteogenic markers.

  15. Local antinociceptive action of fluoxetine in the rat formalin assay: role of l-arginine/nitric oxide/cGMP/KATP channel pathway.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Alboghobeish, Soheila

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the local antinociceptive actions of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and the possible involvement of the l-arginine/NO/cGMP/K ATP channel pathway in this effect using the formalin test in rats. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, animals were pre-treated with l-NAME, aminoguanidine, methylene blue, glibenclamide, l-arginine, sodium nitroprusside, or diazoxide. Local ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of fluoxetine (10-300 μg/paw) dose-dependently suppressed flinching number during both early and late phases of the test, and this was comparable with morphine also given peripherally. Pre-treatment with l-NAME, aminoguanidine, methylene blue, or glibenclamide dose-dependently prevented fluoxetine (100 μg/paw)-induced antinociception in the late phase. In contrast, administration of l-arginine, sodium nitroprusside, and diazoxide significantly enhanced the antinociception caused by fluoxetine in the late phase of the test. However, these treatments had no significant effect on the antinociceptive response of fluoxetine in the early phase of the formalin test. Our data demonstrate that local peripheral antinociception of fluoxetine during the late phase of the formalin test could be due to activation of l-arginine/NO/cGMP/K ATP channel pathway. The peripheral action of fluoxetine raises the possibility that topical application of this drug (e.g., as a cream, ointment, or jelly) may be a useful method for relieving the inflammatory pain states.

  16. Arginine Catabolism by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Purification and Characterization of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Mariotti, Liberato; Rossi, Jone; Servili, Maurizio; Fox, Patrick F.; Rollán, Graciela; Gobbetti, Marco

    2002-01-01

    The cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), and carbamate kinase (CK) activities, which comprise the ADI (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. Only obligately heterofermentative strains such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1; Lactobacillus brevis AM1, AM8, and 10A; Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B; and Lactobacillus fructivorans DD3 and DA106 showed all three enzyme activities. Lactobacillus plantarum B14 did not show CK activity. L. sanfranciscensis CB1 showed the highest activities, and the three enzymes were purified from this microorganism to homogeneity by several chromatographic steps. ADI, OTC, and CK had apparent molecular masses of ca. 46, 39, and 37 kDa, respectively, and the pIs were in the range of 5.07 to 5.2. The OTCs, CKs, and especially ADIs were well adapted to pH (acidic, pH 3.5 to 4.5) and temperature (30 to 37°C) conditions which are usually found during sourdough fermentation. Internal peptide sequences of the three enzymes had the highest level of homology with ADI, OTC, and CK of Lactobacillus sakei. L. sanfranciscensis CB1 expressed the ADI pathway either on MAM broth containing 17 mM arginine or during sourdough fermentation with 1 to 43 mM added arginine. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that ADI, OTC, and CK were induced by factors of ca. 10, 4, and 2 in the whole-cell extract of cells grown in MAM broth containing 17 mM arginine compared to cells cultivated without arginine. Arginine catabolism in L. sanfranciscensis CB1 depended on the presence of a carbon source and arginine; glucose at up to ca. 54 mM did not exert an inhibitory effect, and the pH was not relevant for induction. The pH of sourdoughs fermented by L. sanfranciscensis CB1 was dependent on the amount of arginine added to the dough. A low supply of arginine (6 mM) during sourdough fermentation by L. sanfranciscensis CB1

  17. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Colas, Claire; Ucurum, Zöhre; Schlessinger, Avner; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2018-03-20

    The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting T m s indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which T m s and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5), an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family.

  18. Non-invasive measurement of the haemodynamic effects of inhaled salbutamol, intravenous L-arginine and sublingual nitroglycerin

    PubMed Central

    Tahvanainen, Anna; Leskinen, Miia; Koskela, Jenni; Ilveskoski, Erkki; Alanko, Juha; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Moilanen, Eeva; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To examine the effects of salbutamol and L-arginine, two compounds acting largely on the endothelium, and the endothelium-independent agent nitroglycerin on blood pressure, arterial compliance, cardiac function and vascular resistance. METHODS Continuous radial pulse wave analysis, whole-body impedance cardiography, and plethysmographic blood pressure from fingers in the supine position and during head-up tilt were recorded in nine healthy subjects. Data were captured before and after L-arginine (10 mg mg−1 min−1) or saline infusion, salbutamol (400 µg) or placebo inhalation, and sublingual nitroglycerin (0.25 mg) or placebo resoriblet. RESULTS The results of all measurements were comparable before drug administration. The effects of inhaled salbutamol were apparent in the supine position: systemic vascular resistance (−9.2 ± 2.6%) and augmentation index (−4.0 ± 1.5%) decreased, and heart rate (8.6 ± 2.5%) and cardiac output (8.8 ± 3.1%) increased. L-arginine had no clear effects on supine haemodynamics, but during head-up tilt blood pressure was moderately decreased and reduction in aortic reflection time prevented, indicating improved large arterial compliance. Nitroglycerin reduced supine vascular resistance (−6.7 ± 1.8%) and augmentation index (−7.4 ± 1.6%), and increased cardiac output (+9.2 ± 2.7%). During head-up tilt, nitroglycerin increased cardiac output (+10.6 ± 5.6%) and heart rate (+40 ± 7.5%), decreased vascular resistance (−7.8 ± 5.8%) and augmentation index (−18.7 ± 3.2%), and prevented the decrease in aortic reflection time. CONCLUSIONS Inhaled salbutamol predominantly changed supine haemodynamics, whereas the moderate effects of L-arginine were observed during the head-up tilt. In contrast, small doses of nitroglycerin induced major changes in haemodynamics both supine and during the head-up tilt. Altogether, these results emphasize the importance of haemodynamic measurements in both the supine and upright

  19. Betaine and arginine supplementation of low protein diets improves plasma lipids but does not affect hepatic fatty acid composition and related gene expression profiling in pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva A; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Denis A; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia Mr; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui Ma; Prates, José Am

    2018-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of betaine and arginine supplemented to reduced protein diets were investigated on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors in commercial pigs. Betaine has previously been shown to reduce carcass fat deposition and arginine improves meat quality of finishing pigs. Forty male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to one of five diets (n = 8): 160 g kg -1 of crude protein (NPD), 130 g kg -1 of crude protein (RPD), RPD with 3.3 g kg -1 of betaine, RPD with 15 g kg -1 of arginine, and RPD with 3.3 g kg -1 of betaine and 15 g kg -1 of arginine. The restriction of dietary protein increased total lipids (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001). Betaine and arginine, individually or combined, reduced the majority of plasma lipids (P < 0.05) without affecting total fatty acids in the liver and the overall gene expression pattern. These findings suggest a positive effect of betaine and arginine, singly or combined, by reversing plasma lipids increase promoted by dietary protein restriction. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [State of mitochondrial respiration and calcium capacity in livers of rats with different resistance to hypoxia after injections of L-arginine].

    PubMed

    Kurhaliuk, N M

    2001-01-01

    In experiments on rats with different resistance to hypoxia are investigated processes of mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation and calcium capacity in liver under precursor nitric oxide L-arginine (600 mg/kg) and blockator nitric oxide synthase L-NNA (35 mg/kg) injections. We are used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate and 2 mM malonic acid. Increasing of ADP-stimulation respiration states under exogenous L-arginine injection, decreasing efficacy of respiration processes (respiration control on Chance and ADP/O) under such substrates oxidation, testify to oxide energy support decreasing and reversing nitric oxide inhibit in such conditions. This will be used as mechanism cell regulation succinate dehydrogenase activity. It has shown that L-arginine injection increase calcium mitochondrial capacity low resistance to hypoxia rats using substrates of oxidation succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of nitric oxide precursor influence on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  1. Synergies between vaccination and dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation improve the immune response of channel catfish against Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F; Mwangi, Waithaka; Smith, Roger; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-09-01

    Channel catfish was used to investigate the enhancement of vaccine efficacy following dietary supplementation with arginine (ARG, 4% of diet), glutamine (GLN, 2% of diet), or a combination of both. After vaccination against Edwardsiella ictaluri, humoral and cellular immune responses, along with lymphoid organ responses were evaluated. E. ictaluri-specific antibody titers in plasma were higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed the supplemented diets compared to those fed the basal diet as early as 7 d post-vaccination (dpv). B-cell proportion in head-kidney was higher (P < 0.05) at 14 dpv in vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet. The responsiveness of spleen and head-kidney lymphocytes against E. ictaluri was enhanced (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation of ARG or GLN at 14 dpv. Additionally, at 7 dpv, vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet had higher (P < 0.05) head kidney weights relative to the other dietary treatments, and vaccinated fish fed ARG-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.05) protein content in this tissue. Results from this study suggest that dietary supplementation of ARG and GLN may improve specific cellular and humoral mechanisms, enhancing the acquired immunity in vaccinated channel catfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    PubMed

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effect of L-arginine on hemodynamics and vascular capacitance in the canine pacing model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R I; Zborowska-Sluis, D

    1995-09-01

    The effect of L-arginine, 250 mg/kg over 10 min, on hemodynamics and venous function was studied in nine splenectomized dogs under light pentobarbital anesthesia before and after 17 +/- 1 days of rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP) at 250 beats/min. Chronic RRVP induced mild congestive heart failure with increased mean circulatory filling (Pmcf), right atrial (Pra) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (Ppcw), and reduced cardiac output (CO). During the development of heart failure, total vascular compliance assessed from Pmcf-blood volume relationships during circulatory arrest was unchanged, but total vascular capacitance was markedly reduced, with an increase in stressed and reduction in unstressed blood volumes. At baseline but not after RRVP, L-arginine increased CO and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. There were no significant changes in Pra, Ppcw, or total peripheral resistance. L-Arginine failed to alter total vascular compliance and capacitance or central blood volume in the baseline or failure state. These results do not support the hypothesis that increased Pmcf and reduced total vascular capacitance in the early stages of pacing-induced heart failure are caused by reduced substrate availability for or an endogenous competitive antagonist of NO synthase in venous endothelial cells.

  4. N-hydroxylamine is not an intermediate in the conversion of L-arginine to an activator of soluble guanylate cyclase in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pou, S; Pou, W S; Rosen, G M; el-Fakahany, E E

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of N-hydroxylamine (NH2OH) in activating soluble guanylate cyclase in the mouse neuroblastoma clone N1E-115. It has been proposed that NH2OH is a putative intermediate in the biochemical pathway for the generation of nitric oxide (NO)/endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from L-arginine. NH2OH caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in cyclic GMP formation in intact cells. This response was not dependent on Ca2+. In cytosol preparations the activation of guanylate cyclase by L-arginine was dose-dependent and required Ca2+ and NADPH. In contrast, NH2OH itself did not activate cytosolic guanylate cyclase but it inhibited the basal activity of this enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of cyclic GMP in the cytosolic fractions in response to NH2OH required the addition of catalase and H2O2. On the other hand, catalase and/or H2O2 lead to a decrease in L-arginine-induced cyclic GMP formation. Furthermore, NH2OH inhibited L-arginine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced cyclic GMP formation in the cytosol. The inhibition of L-arginine-induced cyclic GMP formation in the cytosol by NH2OH was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase. These data strongly suggest that NH2OH is not a putative intermediate in the metabolism of L-arginine to an activator of guanylate cyclase. PMID:1671745

  5. Effects of L-arginine pre-treatment in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s diseases in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hami, Javad; Hosseini, Mehran; Shahi, Sekineh; Lotfi, Nassim; Talebi, Abolfazl; Afshar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease resulting from the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Increasing evidence demonstrated that mice treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in motor functions associated with disruption of DA neurons in SNc conceivably analogous to those observed in PD. L-arginine has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective agent that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of L-arginine on the numerical density of dark neurons (DNs) in the SNc of Balb/c mice subjected to MPTP administration. Methods: In the present study, we demonstrated that repeated treatment with L-arginine (300 mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 consecutive days attenuated the production of DNs in SNc of adult male Balb/c mice infused with a single intranasal administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril). Results: Pre-treatment with L-arginine significantly decreased the numerical density of DNs in SNc of mice 21 days after intranasal MPTP administration. Conclusion: This investigation provides new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that L-arginine represents a potential neuroprotective agent for the prevention of DA neuron degeneration in SNc observed in PD patients. PMID:26885338

  6. Improvement of the intracellular environment for enhancing l-arginine production of Corynebacterium glutamicum by inactivation of H2O2-forming flavin reductases and optimization of ATP supply.

    PubMed

    Man, Zaiwei; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Meijuan; Guo, Jing; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-11-01

    l-arginine, a semi essential amino acid, is an important amino acid in food flavoring and pharmaceutical industries. Its production by microbial fermentation is gaining more and more attention. In previous work, we obtained a new l-arginine producing Corynebacterium crenatum (subspecies of Corynebacterium glutamicum) through mutation breeding. In this work, we enhanced l-arginine production through improvement of the intracellular environment. First, two NAD(P)H-dependent H 2 O 2 -forming flavin reductases Frd181 (encoded by frd1 gene) and Frd188 (encoded by frd2) in C. glutamicum were identified for the first time. Next, the roles of Frd181 and Frd188 in C. glutamicum were studied by overexpression and deletion of the encoding genes, and the results showed that the inactivation of Frd181 and Frd188 was beneficial for cell growth and l-arginine production, owing to the decreased H 2 O 2 synthesis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and increased intracellular NADH and ATP levels. Then, the ATP level was further increased by deletion of noxA (encoding NADH oxidase) and amn (encoding AMP nucleosidase), and overexpression of pgk (encoding 3-phosphoglycerate kinase) and pyk (encoding pyruvate kinase), and the l-arginine production and yield from glucose were significantly increased. In fed-batch fermentation, the l-arginine production and yield from glucose of the final strain reached 57.3g/L and 0.326g/g, respectively, which were 49.2% and 34.2% higher than those of the parent strain, respectively. ROS and ATP are important elements of the intracellular environment, and l-arginine biosynthesis requires a large amount of ATP. For the first time, we enhanced l-arginine production and yield from glucose through reducing the H 2 O 2 synthesis and increasing the ATP supply. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypercholesterolemia enhances thromboembolism in arterioles but not venules: complete reversal by L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Martijn A W; Tangelder, Geert Jan; Slaaf, Dick W; Reneman, Robert S; oude Egbrink, Mirjam G A

    2002-04-01

    We investigated in vivo the effect of cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia (HC) on thromboembolism in nonatherosclerotic rabbit mesenteric arterioles and venules (diameter 21 to 45 micrometer). After mechanical vessel wall injury, the ensuing thromboembolic reaction was studied by intravital videomicroscopy. A dramatic prolongation of embolization duration (median >600 seconds) was observed in the arterioles of the HC group compared with the arterioles of a normal chow-fed (NC) control group (142 seconds, P<0.0001); concomitantly, relative thrombus height increased (thrombus height/vessel diameter was 68% for the HC group and 58% for the NC group; P<0.05). By contrast, in venules, cholesterol did not affect embolization duration (42 seconds for HC group, 34 seconds for NC group) and thrombus height (66% for HC group, 64% for NC group). Furthermore, the role of endothelial NO synthesis was studied. In arterioles, stimulation of endogenous NO synthesis through mesenteric superfusion of L-arginine (1 mmol/L) completely reversed cholesterol-enhanced embolization (152 seconds) but did not influence thrombus height (63%). L-Arginine had no effect in venules of the HC group (51 seconds) and nor in the arterioles and venules of the NC group (177 seconds for arterioles, 43 seconds for venules). This study indicates that hypercholesterolemia selectively enhances thrombus formation and embolization in arterioles but not in venules and that stimulation of endogenous NO production antagonizes this enhancement of arteriolar thromboembolism.

  8. Trypanosomatid Infections: How Do Parasites and Their Excreted–Secreted Factors Modulate the Inducible Metabolism of l-Arginine in Macrophages?

    PubMed Central

    Holzmuller, Philippe; Geiger, Anne; Nzoumbou-Boko, Romaric; Pissarra, Joana; Hamrouni, Sarra; Rodrigues, Valérie; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Vincendeau, Philippe; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages) are among the first host cells to face intra- and extracellular protozoan parasites such as trypanosomatids, and significant expansion of macrophages has been observed in infected hosts. They play essential roles in the outcome of infections caused by trypanosomatids, as they can not only exert a powerful antimicrobial activity but also promote parasite proliferation. These varied functions, linked to their phenotypic and metabolic plasticity, are exerted via distinct activation states, in which l-arginine metabolism plays a pivotal role. Depending on the environmental factors and immune response elements, l-arginine metabolites contribute to parasite elimination, mainly through nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or to parasite proliferation, through l-ornithine and polyamine production. To survive and adapt to their hosts, parasites such as trypanosomatids developed mechanisms of interaction to modulate macrophage activation in their favor, by manipulating several cellular metabolic pathways. Recent reports emphasize that some excreted–secreted (ES) molecules from parasites and sugar-binding host receptors play a major role in this dialog, particularly in the modulation of the macrophage’s inducible l-arginine metabolism. Preventing l-arginine dysregulation by drugs or by immunization against trypanosomatid ES molecules or by blocking partner host molecules may control early infection and is a promising way to tackle neglected diseases including Chagas disease, leishmaniases, and African trypanosomiases. The present review summarizes recent knowledge on trypanosomatids and their ES factors with regard to their influence on macrophage activation pathways, mainly the NO synthase/arginase balance. The review ends with prospects for the use of biological knowledge to develop new strategies of interference in the infectious processes used by trypanosomatids, in particular for the development of vaccines

  9. [Effects of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine on photoreceptor apoptosis in inherited retinal degeneration of RCS rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-jun; Fang, Jun; Zhu, Xiu-an

    2004-08-18

    To investigate inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) activity of retina and the effects of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine(N-Arg) on photoreceptor apoptosis in inherited retinal degeneration of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. iNOS activity was assayed in the whole retinal homogenates of RCS rats and Wistar rats by monitoring the conversion rate of (3)H-arginine to (3)H-citrulline. Intravitreal injection of the NOS inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine(N-Arg), in one lateral eye on postnatal days 17 (P17), P22, P27 and P32 was performed, while the other lateral eye was treated with PBS by intravitreal injection as controls. Then the retinas of the RCS rats were studied by TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) for apoptosis on P38. The enzymatic activity of iNOS was elevated in RCS rat retinas on P25. In RCS rats on P38, the percent area of apoptotic photoreceptor nuclei and the thickness of rod and cone layer in the treated group were significantly reduced compared with the controls, while the thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONL) was increased. The inhibitor of NOS might supply a potential medicine for inherited retinal degeneration.

  10. Arginine de novo and nitric oxide production in disease states

    PubMed Central

    Luiking, Yvette C.; Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO. Depletion of BH4 in oxidative-stressed endothelial cells can result in so-called NOS3 “uncoupling,” resulting in production of superoxide instead of NO. Moreover, distribution of arginine between intracellular transporters and arginine-converting enzymes, as well as between the arginine-converting and arginine-synthesizing enzymes, determines the metabolic fate of arginine. Alternatively, NO can be derived from conversion of nitrite. Reduced arginine availability stemming from reduced de novo production and elevated arginase activity have been reported in various conditions of acute and chronic stress, which are often characterized by increased NOS2 and reduced NOS3 activity. Cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension are characterized by NOS3 uncoupling. Therapeutic applications to influence (de novo) arginine and NO metabolism aim at increasing substrate availability or at influencing the metabolic fate of specific pathways related to NO bioavailability and prevention of NOS3 uncoupling. These include supplementation of arginine or citrulline, provision of NO donors including inhaled NO and nitrite (sources), NOS3 modulating agents, or the targeting of endogenous NOS inhibitors like asymmetric dimethylarginine. PMID:23011059

  11. Agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effect of lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Khodadad, Tina Kabiri; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hedayat, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-07-01

    After nearly 60years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition to its antimanic and antidepressant effects, lithium also has anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine plays a protective role in the central nervous system against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This study was designed to investigate: (1) whether agmatine and lithium exert a synergistic effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and (2) whether or not this synergistic effect is mediated through inhibition of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In our study, acute administration of a single potent dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg ip) increased seizure threshold, whereas pretreatment with a low and independently noneffective dose of agmatine (3mg/kg) potentiated a subeffective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 1 and 5mg/kg and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 15 and 30mg/kg augmented the anticonvulsant effect of the noneffective combination of lithium (10mg/kg ip) and agmatine (1mg/kg), whereas several doses (20 and 40mg/kg) of aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) failed to alter the seizure threshold of the same combination. Furthermore, pretreatment with independently noneffective doses (30 and 60mg/kg) of L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase) inhibited the potentiating effect of agmatine (3mg/kg) on lithium (10mg/kg). Our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride have synergistic anticonvulsant properties that may be mediated through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase versus inducible nitric oxide synthase is prominent in this phenomenon

  12. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats.

    PubMed

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  13. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  14. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P < 0.05) than the other 2 groups. In experiment 2, twenty 11-d-old ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P < 0.07) and plasma nitric oxide concentration (P < 0.05) 2 h postinjection in the L-NAME administered group were lower than those of the control group. In conclusion, the study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Exogenous L-Arginine Attenuates the Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Hemodynamics and the Pressure Natriuresis-Diuresis Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Administration of exogenous L-Arginine (L-Arg) attenuates Angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure-diuresis-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg/min, iv) or AngII + L-Arg (300 µg/kg/min, iv). Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from approximately 100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a 9–10 fold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40–42% and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54–58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Experiments in isolated aortic rings were performed to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10−10M to 10−7M) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27±3% of the response to 10−5M phenylephrine. Contraction to 10−7M AngII was blunted by 75±3% with 10−4M L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Moreover, the addition of 10−3M cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies indicate that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and NOS-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg. PMID:24472006

  16. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-04-09

    The present study was performed to determine how basal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions affect fluid-electrolyte balance and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism supplemented with melatonin. The rats were divided into four groups of twenty-four subjects each kept under the following treatments during one month: (1) Controls; (2) treated with L-thyroxine; (3) treated with L-thyroxine and sham melatonin and (4) treated with L-thyroxine and melatonin. After this each group was further subdivided into subgroups that were subject to normal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions. The plasma AVP, total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), total thyroxine (TT(4)) and melatonin levels were measured in plasma by means of a Phoenix Pharmaceutical RIA test kit. Hematocrit and osmolality levels were also determined. There were significant increases of total T3 and T4 levels in the L-thyroxine treated groups, p<0.001. The AVP levels were also increased in groups 2 and 3, but not so in the rats treated with melatonin (p<0.001), which also showed increased plasma melatonin levels (p<0.001). These results indicate that treatment with L-thyroxine increases stimulated and non-stimulated AVP release that are inhibited by melatonin supplementation. It was also shown that AVP response to hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions was not affected by L-thyroxine treatment and/or L-thyroxine+melatonin treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiguang; Fouad, Ahmed Mohamed; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Fan, Qiuli; Wang, Ying; Cui, Yiyan; Zheng, Chuntian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the arginine requirements of Longyan ducks from 17 to 31 wk of age based on egg production, egg quality, plasma, and ovarian indices, as well as the expression of vitellogenesis-related genes. In total, 660 Longyan ducks with similar body weight at 15 wk of age were assigned randomly to 5 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 22 birds, and fed a corn-corn gluten meal basal diet (0.66% arginine) supplemented with either 0, 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, or 0.80% arginine. Dietary arginine did not affect egg production by laying ducks, but it increased (linear, P < 0.01) the egg weight at 22 to 31 and 17 to 31 wk of age. Dietary arginine increased the yolk color score (linearly, P < 0.05) and the yolk percentage (quadratic, P < 0.05), where the maximum values were obtained with 1.26% arginine. Dietary arginine affected the total shell percentage and shell thickness, with the highest values using 1.46% arginine (P < 0.01). The weight and number of small yellow follicles (SYFs) increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level and there was a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in terms of the SYFs weight/ovarian weight; the highest values were obtained in ducks fed 1.26% arginine. The plasma arginine concentration exhibited a quadratic (P < 0.05) response to dietary arginine. The plasma progesterone concentration decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary arginine increased. The mRNA abundance of the very low density lipoprotein receptor-b increased in the second large yellow follicle membranes (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level, where the highest value occurred with 1.26% arginine. According to the regression model, the dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks aged 17 to 31 wk are 1.06%, 1.13%, 1.22%, and 1.11% to obtain the maximum yolk percentage, SYFs number, SYFs weight, and SYFs weight/ovarian weight, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Arginine-Ornithine Antiporter ArcD Controls Arginine Metabolism and Interspecies Biofilm Development of Streptococcus gordonii*♦

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Akito; Kuboniwa, Masae; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Hashino, Ei; Amano, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Arginine is utilized by the oral inhabitant Streptococcus gordonii as a substrate of the arginine deiminase system (ADS), eventually producing ATP and NH3, the latter of which is responsible for microbial resistance to pH stress. S. gordonii expresses a putative arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD) whose function has not been investigated despite relevance to the ADS and potential influence on inter-bacterial communication with periodontal pathogens that utilize amino acids as a main energy source. Here, we generated an S. gordonii ΔarcD mutant to explore the role of ArcD in physiological homeostasis and bacterial cross-feeding. First, we confirmed that S. gordonii ArcD plays crucial roles for mediating arginine uptake and promoting bacterial growth, particularly under arginine-limited conditions. Next, metabolomic profiling and transcriptional analysis of the ΔarcD mutant revealed that deletion of this gene caused intracellular accumulation of ornithine leading to malfunction of the ADS and suppression of de novo arginine biosynthesis. The mutant strain also showed increased susceptibility to low pH stress due to reduced production of ammonia. Finally, accumulation of Fusobacterium nucleatum was found to be significantly decreased in biofilm formed by the ΔarcD mutant as compared with the wild-type strain, although ornithine supplementation restored fusobacterium biovolume in dual-species biofilms with the ΔarcD mutant and also enhanced single species biofilm development by F. nucleatum. Our results are the first direct evidence showing that S. gordonii ArcD modulates not only alkali and energy production but also interspecies interaction with F. nucleatum, thus initiating a middle stage of periodontopathic biofilm formation, by metabolic cross-feeding. PMID:26085091

  19. Potential of single cationic amino acid molecule "Arginine" for stimulating oral absorption of insulin.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Khafagy, El-Sayed; Hirose, Jun; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-04-15

    We have reported that cell-penetrating peptides, such as oligoarginine, act as powerful absorption enhancers for the development of oral insulin delivery systems. However, the minimal essential sequence of oligoarginine that stimulates intestinal insulin absorption remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was conducted to clarify this minimum sequence of oligoarginine and to examine the effect of single cationic amino acid arginine on the intestinal and oral absorption of insulin. The results demonstrated that a remarkable enhancement of intestinal insulin absorption was observed after coadministration of insulin with l-arginine. The efficacy of d-forms of oligoarginine/arginine tended to decrease with a decreasing number of amino acid residues, whereas the effect of l-arginine was the strongest of any of the l-forms of oligoarginine/arginine. Interestingly, the effect of l-arginine was stronger than that of d-arginine at various concentrations, and the effect of other cationic amino acids such as lysine and histidine was relatively lower than that of arginine. In addition, no leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from the intestinal epithelium and no change in the transepithelial electrical resistance of a Caco-2 cell monolayer were detected after administration of l-arginine as the single amino acid, which suggests that there were no undesirable effects of arginine on the integrity of cell membranes and paracellular tight junctions. Oral administration study in mice demonstrated that the stronger hypoglycemic effects were observed after coadministration of insulin with l-arginine. In this study, we found that arginine is a key cationic amino acid for delivering insulin across intestinal epithelial barriers and hopefully accelerating the clinical development of oral insulin delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chondrogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells photoencapsulated within poly(ethylene glycol)-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine thiol-methacrylate mixed-mode networks.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Chelsea N; Cole, Brook B; Kasko, Andrea M; Anseth, Kristi S

    2007-05-01

    Chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels was studied in the presence and absence of 5 ng/mL transforming growth factor beta and chondrogenic medium to better understand the role of the gel environment on this process. The lack of any cell-polymer interactions led to decreasing cell viability, as measured using adenosine triphosphate, over a 14-day period. The extent of chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated by immunostaining, and although viability dramatically decreased, cells cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium expressed higher levels of collagen type II. Cells cultured in hMSC control medium remained undifferentiated and continued to express CD105, a MSC marker. To increase cell survival, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS) was incorporated into gels using a novel mixed-mode thiol-ene reaction by synthesizing a cysteine-cysteine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-cysteine-cysteine-glycine, N-terminus to C-terminus peptide sequence with pendant cysteine residues. A concentration of 5 mM RGDS incorporated into the network maintained 75% viability in control cultures. Further studies demonstrated that 5-mM RGDS chondrogenic cultures had greater gene expression for aggrecan and collagen II in conjunction with producing twice as much glycosaminoglycan as 0-mM chondrogenic cultures and 7 times that of control cultures. Incorporation of this peptide sequence not only allows for sustained viability, but also contributes to initiating chondrogenesis.

  1. Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Hanft, J R; Driver, V R; Smith, A P S; Lazaro-Martinez, J L; Reyzelman, A M; Furst, G J; Vayser, D J; Cervantes, H L; Snyder, R J; Moore, M F; May, P E; Nelson, J L; Baggs, G E; Voss, A C

    2014-09-01

    Among people with diabetes, 10-25% will experience a foot ulcer. Research has shown that supplementation with arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate may improve wound repair. This study tested whether such supplementation would improve healing of foot ulcers in persons with diabetes. Along with standard of care, 270 subjects received, in a double-blinded fashion, (twice per day) either arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate or a control drink for 16 weeks. The proportion of subjects with total wound closure and time to complete healing was assessed. In a post-hoc analysis, the interaction of serum albumin or limb perfusion, as measured by ankle-brachial index, and supplementation on healing was investigated. Overall, there were no group differences in wound closure or time to wound healing at week 16. However, in subjects with an albumin level of ≤ 40 g/l and/or an ankle-brachial index of < 1.0, a significantly greater proportion of subjects in the arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate group healed at week 16 compared with control subjects (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). Those with low albumin or decreased limb perfusion in the supplementation group were 1.70 (95% CI 1.04-2.79) and 1.66 (95% CI 1.15-2.38) times more likely to heal. While no differences in healing were identified with supplementation in non-ischaemic patients or those with normal albumin, addition of arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as an adjunct to standard of care may improve healing of diabetic foot ulcers in patients with risk of poor limb perfusion and/or low albumin levels. Further investigation involving arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate in these high-risk subgroups might prove clinically valuable. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  2. Fluorometric enzymatic assay of L-arginine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gayda, Galina; Yepremyan, Hasmik; Stepien, Agnieszka; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2017-01-01

    The enzymes of L-arginine (further - Arg) metabolism are promising tools for elaboration of selective methods for quantitative Arg analysis. In our study we propose an enzymatic method for Arg assay based on fluorometric monitoring of ammonia, a final product of Arg splitting by human liver arginase I (further - arginase), isolated from the recombinant yeast strain, and commercial urease. The selective analysis of ammonia (at 415 nm under excitation at 360 nm) is based on reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in the presence of sulfite in alkali medium: these conditions permit to avoid the reaction of OPA with any amino acid. A linearity range of the fluorometric arginase-urease-OPA method is from 100 nM to 6 μМ with a limit of detection of 34 nM Arg. The method was used for the quantitative determination of Arg in the pooled sample of blood serum. The obtained results proved to be in a good correlation with the reference enzymatic method and literature data. The proposed arginase-urease-OPA method being sensitive, economical, selective and suitable for both routine and micro-volume formats, can be used in clinical diagnostics for the simultaneous determination of Arg as well as urea and ammonia in serum samples.

  3. Microhardness study of the nonlinear optical crystal L-arginine hydrochloride monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerji, Sudeshna; Kar, Tanusree

    2000-12-01

    The results of measurement of the Vickers microhardness ( H v ) of the (100), (010), and (001) faces of the nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal L-arginine hydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) have been reported. It was observed that the microhardnesses of the three crystal planes decrease with the increase of applied load, and the hardness profile is different for different planes. The proportional specimen-resistance (PSR) model of Li and Bradt is used to explain the microhardness behavior of LAHCl. The indentation work-hardening coefficients ( n) for three planes were found to be greater than 1.8, and this indicates that LAHCl is a soft crystal.

  4. Characterization of casein and poly-l-arginine multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability, while the XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers.

  5. Mammalian Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) Specifically Targets RXR Sites in Lysine- and Arginine-rich Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, You; Maity, Ranjan; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Li, Ziwei; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Al-Hadid, Qais; Clark, Amander T.; Bedford, Mark T.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Clarke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) has been implicated in roles of transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation, and metastasis. However, the type of reaction that it catalyzes and its substrate specificity remain controversial. In this study, we purified a recombinant mouse PRMT7 expressed in insect cells that demonstrates a robust methyltransferase activity. Using a variety of substrates, we demonstrate that the enzyme only catalyzes the formation of ω-monomethylarginine residues, and we confirm its activity as the prototype type III protein arginine methyltransferase. This enzyme is active on all recombinant human core histones, but histone H2B is a highly preferred substrate. Analysis of the specific methylation sites within intact histone H2B and within H2B and H4 peptides revealed novel post-translational modification sites and a unique specificity of PRMT7 for methylating arginine residues in lysine- and arginine-rich regions. We demonstrate that a prominent substrate recognition motif consists of a pair of arginine residues separated by one residue (RXR motif). These findings will significantly accelerate substrate profile analysis, biological function study, and inhibitor discovery for PRMT7. PMID:24247247

  6. Mammalian protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) specifically targets RXR sites in lysine- and arginine-rich regions.

    PubMed

    Feng, You; Maity, Ranjan; Whitelegge, Julian P; Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Li, Ziwei; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Al-Hadid, Qais; Clark, Amander T; Bedford, Mark T; Masson, Jean-Yves; Clarke, Steven G

    2013-12-27

    The mammalian protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) has been implicated in roles of transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation, and metastasis. However, the type of reaction that it catalyzes and its substrate specificity remain controversial. In this study, we purified a recombinant mouse PRMT7 expressed in insect cells that demonstrates a robust methyltransferase activity. Using a variety of substrates, we demonstrate that the enzyme only catalyzes the formation of ω-monomethylarginine residues, and we confirm its activity as the prototype type III protein arginine methyltransferase. This enzyme is active on all recombinant human core histones, but histone H2B is a highly preferred substrate. Analysis of the specific methylation sites within intact histone H2B and within H2B and H4 peptides revealed novel post-translational modification sites and a unique specificity of PRMT7 for methylating arginine residues in lysine- and arginine-rich regions. We demonstrate that a prominent substrate recognition motif consists of a pair of arginine residues separated by one residue (RXR motif). These findings will significantly accelerate substrate profile analysis, biological function study, and inhibitor discovery for PRMT7.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of L-Arginine and Dimethylarginines Reveals Novel Metabolic Pathway for Symmetric Dimethylarginine

    PubMed Central

    Lüneburg, Nicole; Lieb, Wolfgang; Zeller, Tanja; Chen, Ming-Huei; Maas, Renke; Carter, Angela M.; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Glazer, Nicole L; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W.T.; Fornage, Myriam; König, Inke R.; Loley, Christina; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Schillert, Arne; Wang, Thomas J.; Sticht, Heinrich; Kittel, Anja; König, Jörg; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Bernges, Isabel; Anderssohn, Maike; Ziegler, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wild, Philipp S.; Schunkert, Heribert; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas; Lackner, Karl; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Munzel, Thomas; Grant, Peter J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Böger, Rainer H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dimethylarginines (DMA) interfere with nitric oxide (NO) formation by inhibiting NO synthase (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA) and L-arginine uptake into the cell (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA). In prospective clinical studies ADMA has been characterized as a cardiovascular risk marker whereas SDMA is a novel marker for renal function and associated with all-cause mortality after ischemic stroke. The aim of the current study was to characterise the environmental and genetic contributions to inter-individual variability of these biomarkers. Methods and Results This study comprised a genome-wide association analysis of 3 well-characterized population-based cohorts (FHS (n=2992), GHS (n=4354) and MONICA/KORA F3 (n=581)) and identified replicated loci (DDAH1, MED23, Arg1 and AGXT2) associated with the inter-individual variability in ADMA, L-arginine and SDMA. Experimental in-silico and in-vitro studies confirmed functional significance of the identified AGXT2 variants. Clinical outcome analysis in 384 patients of the Leeds stroke study demonstrated an association between increased plasma levels of SDMA, AGXT2 variants and various cardiometabolic risk factors. AGXT2 variants were not associated with post-stroke survival in the Leeds study, nor were they associated with incident stroke in the CHARGE consortium. Conclusion These GWAS support the importance of DDAH1 and MED23/Arg1 in regulating ADMA and L-arginine metabolism, respectively, and identify a novel regulatory renal pathway for SDMA by AGXT2. AGXT2 variants might explain part of the pathogenic link between SDMA, renal function, and outcome. An association between AGXT2 variants and stroke is unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:25245031

  8. In Lactobacillus plantarum, Carbamoyl Phosphate Is Synthesized by Two Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthetases (CPS): Carbon Dioxide Differentiates the Arginine-Repressed from the Pyrimidine-Regulated CPS

    PubMed Central

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Hubert, Jean-Claude; Bringel, Françoise

    2000-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate (CP) is an intermediate in pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPS) contains a small amidotransferase subunit (GLN) that hydrolyzes glutamine and transfers ammonia to the large synthetase subunit (SYN), where CP biosynthesis occurs in the presence of ATP and CO2. Lactobacillus plantarum, a lactic acid bacterium, harbors a pyrimidine-inhibited CPS (CPS-P; Elagöz et al., Gene 182:37–43, 1996) and an arginine-repressed CPS (CPS-A). Sequencing has shown that CPS-A is encoded by carA (GLN) and carB (SYN). Transcriptional studies have demonstrated that carB is transcribed both monocistronically and in the carAB arginine-repressed operon. CP biosynthesis in L. plantarum was studied with three mutants (ΔCPS-P, ΔCPS-A, and double deletion). In the absence of both CPSs, auxotrophy for pyrimidines and arginine was observed. CPS-P produced enough CP for both pathways. In CO2-enriched air but not in ordinary air, CPS-A provided CP only for arginine biosynthesis. Therefore, the uracil sensitivity observed in prototrophic wild-type L. plantarum without CO2 enrichment may be due to the low affinity of CPS-A for its substrate CO2 or to regulation of the CP pool by the cellular CO2/bicarbonate level. PMID:10852872

  9. [L-arginine metabolism enzyme activities in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation].

    PubMed

    Kopyl'chuk, G P; Buchkovskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The features of arginase and NO-synthase pathways of arginine's metabolism have been studied in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation. During the experimental period (28 days) albino male rats were kept on semi synthetic casein diet AIN-93. The protein deprivation conditions were designed as total absence of protein in the diet and consumption of the diet partially deprived with 1/2 of the casein amount compared to in the regular diet. Daily diet consumption was regulated according to the pair feeding approach. It has been shown that the changes of enzyme activities, involved in L-arginine metabolism, were characterized by 1.4-1.7 fold decrease in arginase activity, accompanied with unchanged NO-synthase activity in cytosol. In mitochondrial fraction the unchanged arginase activity was accompanied by 3-5 fold increase of NO-synthase activity. At the terminal stages of the experiment the monodirectional dynamics in the studied activities have been observed in the mitochondrial and cytosolfractions in both experimental groups. In the studied subcellular fractions arginase activity decreased (2.4-2.7 fold with no protein in the diet and 1.5 fold with partly supplied protein) and was accompanied by NO-synthase activity increase by 3.8 fold in cytosole fraction, by 7.2 fold in mitochondrial fraction in the group with no protein in the diet and by 2.2 and 3.5 fold in the group partialy supplied with protein respectively. The observed tendency is presumably cause