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Sample records for l-name increases arachidonic

  1. Nitric oxide donors prevent while the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME increases arachidonic acid plus CYP2E1-dependent toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Defeng; Cederbaum, Arthur . E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

    2006-10-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) play an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury. AA promotes toxicity in rat hepatocytes with high levels of cytochrome P4502E1 and in HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1. Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of various cell activities as well as in cytotoxic events. NO may act as a protectant against cytotoxic stress or may enhance cytotoxicity when produced at elevated concentrations. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously or exogenously produced NO on AA toxicity in liver cells with high expression of CYP2E1 and assess possible mechanisms for its actions. Pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 were treated with AA in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-N {sup G}-Nitroarginine Methylester (L-NAME) or the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and (Z)-1-[-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONO). AA decreased cell viability from 100% to 48 {+-} 6% after treatment for 48 h. In the presence of L-NAME, viability was further lowered to 23 {+-} 5%, while, SNAP or DETA-NONO increased viability to 66 {+-} 8 or 71 {+-} 6%. The L-NAME potentiated toxicity was primarily necrotic in nature. L-NAME did not affect CYP2E1 activity or CYP2E1 content. SNAP significantly lowered CYP2E1 activity but not protein. AA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and lowered GSH levels. L-NAME potentiated while SNAP prevented these changes. Thus, L-NAME increased, while NO donors decreased AA-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants prevented the L-NAME potentiation of AA toxicity. Damage to mitochondria by AA was shown by a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). L-NAME potentiated this decline in MMP in association with its increase in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. NO donors decreased this decline in MMP in association with their decrease in AA

  2. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days) and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  3. Systemic blockage of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME increases left ventricular systolic pressure, which is not augmented further by Intralipid®.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il-Woo; Hah, Young-Sool; Kim, Cheol; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Heewon; Park, Kyeong-Eon; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Heon-Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Shim, Haeng Seon; Lim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) are effective in the treatment of toxicity associated with various drugs such as local anesthetics and other lipid soluble agents. The goals of this study were to examine the effect of LE on left ventricular hemodynamic variables and systemic blood pressure in an in vivo rat model, and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with a particular focus on nitric oxide. Two LEs (Intralipid(®) 20% and Lipofundin(®) MCT/LCT 20%) or normal saline were administered intravenously in an in vivo rat model following induction of anesthesia by intramuscular injection of tiletamine/zolazepam and xylazine. Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), blood pressure, heart rate, maximum rate of intraventricular pressure increase, and maximum rate of intraventricular pressure decrease were measured before and after intravenous administration of various doses of LEs or normal saline to an in vivo rat with or without pretreatment with the non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Administration of Intralipid(®) (3 and 10 ml/kg) increased LVSP and decreased heart rate. Pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) increased LSVP and decreased heart rate, whereas subsequent treatment with Intralipid(®) did not significantly alter LVSP. Intralipid(®) (10 ml/kg) increased mean blood pressure and decreased heart rate. The increase in LVSP induced by Lipofundin(®) MCT/LCT was greater than that induced by Intralipid(®). Intralipid(®) (1%) did not significantly alter nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Taken together, systemic blockage of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME increases LVSP, which is not augmented further by intralipid(®).

  4. Arachidonic acid metabolites mediate the radiation-induced increase in glomerular albumin permeability.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukut; McCarthy, Ellen T; Sharma, Ram; Fish, Brian L; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2006-01-01

    Radiation-induced renal injury is characterized by proteinuria, hypertension, and progressive decline in renal function. We have previously shown that in vivo or in vitro irradiation of glomeruli with a single dose of radiation (9.5 Gy) increases glomerular albumin permeability (P(alb)) within 1 hr. The current studies tested the hypothesis that this early radiation-induced increase in P(alb) is caused by the release of arachidonic acid and by the generation of specific arachidonic acid metabolites. Glomeruli obtained from WAG/Rij/MCW rats and cultured rat glomerular epithelial and mesangial cells were studied after irradiation (9.5 Gy, single dose). Arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid synthesis by glomeruli or cultured glomerular cells were measured after irradiation, and the effect of inhibitors of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygenase (COX) on the irradiation-induced increase in P(alb) was assessed. Arachidonic acid release was demonstrated within 10 mins of irradiation of isolated glomeruli and monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial and mesangial cells. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and PGE2 release was increased after irradiation of isolated glomeruli. Blocking arachidonic acid release or COX activity before irradiation completely prevented the increase in P(alb). COX inhibition immediately after irradiation also diminished the radiation-induced increase in P(alb). We conclude that arachidonic acid and its COX metabolites play an essential role in the early cellular changes that lead to the radiation-induced increase in P(alb). Understanding of the early epigenetic effects of irradiation may lead to new intervention strategies against radiation-induced injury of normal tissues.

  5. Growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) increases free arachidonate levels in the pituitary: a role for lipoxygenase products

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, P.L.; Speciale, C.; Sortino, M.A.; Cronin, M.J.; MacLeod, R.M.; Scapagnini, U.

    1986-01-20

    GRF, a specific stimulator of GH release, increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner pituitary (/sup 3/H)-arachidonate levels in vitro. This effect was antagonized by 100 nM somatostatin. Exogenous arachidonate also stimulated GH release in vitro. Quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, reduced both basal and GRF-stimulated free arachidonate levels as well as GH release. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was ineffective, while BW755c, which also inhibits the lipoxygenase pathway, produced a further increase in the levels of the fatty acid stimulated by GRF and potently reduced GH release. These results provide additional evidence for the involvement of arachidonate metabolism in the hormone-releasing effect of GRF at the somatotroph. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

  7. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Correction to Rao J S, Kim H W, Kellom M, Greenstein D, Chen M, Kraft A D, Harry G J, Rapoport S I, Basselin M. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats. Journal of Neuroinflammation 8:101.

  8. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS.

  9. Is increased arachidonic acid release a cause or a consequence of replicative senescence?

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, A; Hrelia, S; Bordoni, A; Biagi, P; Frisoni, L; Marinucci, T; Cristofalo, V J

    2001-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) has been related to both stimulation and inhibition of cellular proliferation. During replicative senescence of human fibroblasts, increased levels of AA have been thought to play a causal role in the limited proliferative capacity of the cells. To clarify the role of AA in the proliferation of normal fibroblasts and in cellular senescence, we examined uptake from and release of AA into the culture media and its effects on DNA synthesis. Our results indicate that some aspects of AA metabolism in normal human fibroblasts aged in culture are significantly different in comparison to early passage cells. Particularly, AA release following different mitogenic stimulation is higher in senescent than in young cells. Notwithstanding this significant difference, AA, at the concentration used, has no inhibitory effect on fibroblast DNA synthesis. Moreover AA and prostaglandins are responsible for the proliferative block in neither senescent cells nor mediate ceramide inhibition of DNA synthesis. So our results suggest that the increasing AA release is not causal, but rather the result of in vitro aging.

  10. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  11. Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular free calcium level and arachidonic acid release from cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Legere, R.H.; Majerus, B.J.; Petrali, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanism of action of the alkylating agent bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM) was studied using the in thai vitro mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG 108-1 S clonal p cell line model. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, cell viability remained high (>80% of untreated control) up to 9 hr and then declined steadily to about 40% of control after 20-24 hr. During the early period of SM exposure, when there was no significant cell viability loss, the following effects were observed. The cellular glutathione level decreased 20% after 1 hr and 34% after 6 hr. Between 2 and 6 hr, there was a time-dependent increase (about 10 to 30%) in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+), which was localized to the limiting membrane of swollen endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria, to euchromatin areas of the nucleus, and to areas of the cytosol and plasma membrane. Moreover,there was also a time-dependent increase in the release of isotopically labeled arachidonic acid ((3H)AA) from cellular membranes. Increase in (3H)AA release was 28% at 3 hr and about 60-80% between 6 and 9 hr. This increase in I3HIAA release was inhibited by quinacrine (20 uM), which is a phospholipase (PLA2) inhibitor. At 16 hr after SM exposure, there was a large increase (about 200% of control) in I3HIAA release, which was coincident with a 50% loss of cell viability. These results suggest a Ca2+-mediated toxic mechanism of SM via PLA2 activation and arachidonate release.

  12. Sympathetic activation in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, V C; Bergamaschi, C T; Lopes, O U; Campos, R R

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the hemodynamic pattern and the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system in conscious and anesthetized (1.4 g/kg urethane, iv) Wistar rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension (20 mg/kg daily). The basal hemodynamic profile was similar for hypertensive animals, conscious (N = 12) or anesthetized (N = 12) treated with L-NAME for 2 or 7 days: increase of total peripheral resistance associated with a decrease of cardiac output (CO) compared to normotensive animals, conscious (N = 14) or anesthetized (N = 14). Sympathetic blockade with hexamethonium essentially caused a decrease in total peripheral resistance in hypertensive animals (conscious, 2 days: from (means +/- SEM) 2.47 +/- 0.08 to 2.14 +/- 0.07; conscious, 7 days: from 2.85 +/- 0.13 to 2.07 +/- 0.33; anesthetized, 2 days: from 3.00 +/- 0.09 to 1.83 +/- 0.25 and anesthetized, 7 days: from 3.56 +/- 0.11 to 1.53 +/- 0.10 mmHg mL-1 min-1) with no change in CO in either group. However, in the normotensive group a fall in CO (conscious: from 125 +/- 4.5 to 96 +/- 4; anesthetized: from 118 +/- 1.5 to 104 +/- 5.5 mL/min) was observed. The responses after hexamethonium were more prominent in the hypertensive anesthetized group. However, no difference was observed between conscious and anesthetized normotensive rats in response to sympathetic blockade. The present study shows that the vasoconstriction in response to L-NAME was mediated by the sympathetic drive. The sympathetic tone plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension.

  13. cAMP increases mitochondrial cholesterol transport through the induction of arachidonic acid release inside this organelle in Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana Fernanda; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Castilla, Rocío; Duarte, Alejandra; Maloberti, Paula; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of arachidonic acid on cholesterol transport in intact cells or isolated mitochondria from steroidogenic cells and the effect of cyclic-AMP on the specific release of this fatty acid inside the mitochondria. We show for the first time that cyclic-AMP can regulate the release of arachidonic acid in a specialized compartment of MA-10 Leydig cells, e.g. the mitochondria, and that the fatty acid induces cholesterol transport through a mechanism different from the classical pathway. Arachidonic acid and arachidonoyl-CoA can stimulate cholesterol transport in isolated mitochondria from nonstimulated cells. The effect of arachidonoyl-CoA is inhibited by the reduction in the expression or in the activity of a mitochondrial thioesterase that uses arachidonoyl-CoA as a substrate to release arachidonic acid. cAMP-induced arachidonic acid accumulation into the mitochondria is also reduced when the mitochondrial thioesterase activity or expression is blocked. This new feature in the regulation of cholesterol transport by arachidonic acid and the release of arachidonic acid in specialized compartment of the cells could offer novel means for understanding the regulation of steroid synthesis but also would be important in other situations such as neuropathological disorders or oncology disorders, where cholesterol transport plays an important role.

  14. Antihypertensive mechanisms of chronic captopril or N-acetylcysteine treatment in L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zicha, Josef; Dobesová, Zdenka; Kunes, Jaroslav

    2006-12-01

    Hypertension due to chronic inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration is characterized by both impaired NO-dependent vasodilation and enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in the participation of major vasoactive systems in L-NAME-treated rats which were subjected to simultaneous antihypertensive (captopril) or antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC) treatment. Three-month-old Wistar males treated with L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks were compared to rats in which L-NAME treatment was combined with simultaneous chronic administration of captopril or NAC. Basal blood pressure (BP) and its acute responses to consecutive i.v. injections of captopril (10 mg/kg), pentolinium (5 mg/kg), L-NAME (30 mg/kg), tetraethylammonium (TEA, 16 mg/kg) and nitroprusside (NP, 20 microg/kg) were determined in conscious rats at the end of the study. The development of L-NAME hypertension was prevented by captopril treatment, whereas NAC treatment caused only a moderate BP reduction. Captopril treatment normalized the sympathetic BP component and significantly reduced residual BP (measured at full NP-induced vasodilation). In contrast, chronic NAC treatment did not modify the sympathetic BP component or residual BP, but significantly enhanced NO-dependent vasodilation. Neither captopril nor NAC treatment influenced the compensatory increase of TEA-sensitive vasodilation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in L-NAME-treated rats. Chronic captopril treatment prevented L-NAME hypertension by lowering of sympathetic tone, whereas chronic NAC treatment attenuated L-NAME hypertension by reduction in the vasodilator deficit due to enhanced NO-dependent vasodilation.

  15. Lisinopril attenuates renal oxidative injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Faruk; Kirbas, Aynur; Armagan, Abdullah; Kuybulu, Ayca Esra; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Ozguner, Fehmi; Uz, Efkan

    2011-06-01

    Hypertension and related oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of any renal diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have multi-directional renoprotective effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether lisinopril treatment has any biochemical alterations on renal tissue in L-NAME (Nε-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) induced hypertension model. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were included in this study and divided into four equal groups (n = 7): control group, L-NAME treated group (75 mg/kg/day), L-NAME plus lisinopril treated group and only lisinopril treated group (10 mg/kg/day). L-NAME and lisinopril were continued for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressures were measured by using tail cuff method. In biochemical analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation) levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in renal tissues were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced renal impairment. Microalbumin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in urine were determined as markers of renal tubular damage related to hypertension. Chronic L-NAME administration resulted in a significant depletion of serum nitric oxide (NO). When compared with control group, serum creatinine, microalbumin, urine NAG, renal tissue MDA level, and CAT activities were significantly high, while renal tissue SOD and GSH-Px activities low in L-NAME group. In the L-NAME plus lisinopril treated group, serum creatinine, microalbumin and urine NAG, renal MDA level and CAT activity decreased, whereas SOD, GSH-Px activities in renal tissue and serum NO levels were increased. Thus, lisinopril treatment reversed these effects. There were not any significant difference between L-NAME plus lisinopril treated group and control group concerning serum creatinine, renal tissue MDA level and SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activities. These results suggest that lisinopril could diminish biochemical alterations in L: -NAME

  16. Improved Mitochondrial Function with Diet-Induced Increase in Either Docosahexaenoic Acid or Arachidonic Acid in Membrane Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Kim, Junhwan; O'Shea, Karen M.; O'Connell, Kelly A.; Brown, Bethany H.; Galvao, Tatiana; Daneault, Caroline; Rosiers, Christine Des; Polster, Brian M.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Stanley, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca2+ load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6). Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca2+-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca2+ load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs. PMID:22479624

  17. Arachidonic acid increases choline acetyltransferase activity in spinal cord neurons through a protein kinase C-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; King-Pospisil, Kelley; Pedersen, Ward A; Malecki, Andrzej; Wylegala, Edward; Mattson, Mark P; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2004-08-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) plays an important role as a signaling factor in the CNS. Therefore, exposure to AA may affect cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, mRNA expression and activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was measured in cultured spinal cord neurons treated with increasing concentrations (0.1-10 microm) of AA. Exposure to AA increased mRNA levels and activity of ChAT in dose- and time-dependent manners. The most marked effect of AA on ChAT expression was observed in spinal cord neurons treated with 10 microm AA for 1 h. To study the mechanisms associated with these effects, ChAT mRNA levels and activity were measured in cultured spinal cord neurons exposed to AA and inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), such as 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dichloride (H-7) and chelerythrine. Inhibition of PKC completely prevented an AA-induced increase in ChAT expression. In addition, exposure of spinal cord neurons to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, mimicked AA-induced stimulation of ChAT activity. The AA-mediated increase in ChAT mRNA levels and activity was also prevented by treatments with EGTA, indicating the role of calcium metabolism in induction of this enzyme. In contrast, treatments with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a specific inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase), sodium vanadate (NaV, a non-specific inhibitor of phosphatases), and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) had no effect on AA-induced changes in ChAT activity. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide completely blocked AA-mediated increase in ChAT activity. These results indicate that the AA-evoked increase in ChAT activity in spinal cord neurons is mediated by PKC, presumably at the transcriptional level.

  18. Effect of Sildenafil on Pre-Eclampsia-Like Mouse Model Induced By L-Name.

    PubMed

    Motta, C; Grosso, C; Zanuzzi, C; Molinero, D; Picco, N; Bellingeri, R; Alustiza, F; Barbeito, C; Vivas, A; Romanini, M C

    2015-08-01

    N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreases the vasodilator effect of nitric oxide (NO) and induces pre-eclampsia in mouse. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of nitric oxide and increases vasodilation. This study aimed to determine the effects of sildenafil citrate on angiogenesis and oxidative stress at the maternal foetal interface on pre-eclampsia-like mouse model induced by L-NAME. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into four groups: (i) vehicle control; (ii) L-NAME; (iii) sildenafil; (4) L-NAME+sildenafil. L-NAME was administered from day 7 of pregnancy and sildenafil from day 8 until day 16; animals were euthanized on day 17. Placental and foetal sizes and weights were measured; lipid peroxide levels and catalase activity in placental homogenates were determined, and placental vascular endothelia were identified by lectin-histochemistry using BSA-I lectin. Western blot analysis was used to determine VEGF expression in placental homogenates. No changes were seen in placental and foetal development in mice with normal pregnancies treated with sildenafil. Treatments with L-NAME reduced significantly the placental weight and average height and decreased the percentage of the endothelial surface. These alterations may be mediated by the reduction of NO levels in trophoblastic cells, due to the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) synthesis. This effect was offset by the treatment with sildenafil, with an increase in the percentage of the endothelial surface. In conclusion, our results indicate that treatment with sildenafil on pre-eclampsia mouse model can be used without adverse effects on the concept and its use in the treatment of pre-eclampsia is promising.

  19. Increased concentrations of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins E2, D2, and 6-oxo-F1 alpha, and histamine in human skin following UVA irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, J.L.; Black, A.K.; Jaenicke, K.F.; Barr, R.M.; Soter, N.A.; Mallett, A.I.; Gilchrest, B.A.; Hensby, C.N.; Parrish, J.A.; Greaves, M.W.

    1983-06-01

    The buttock skin of clinically normal human subjects was subjected to approximately 2.5 minimal erythema doses of ultraviolet A irradiation. Deep red erythema developed during irradiation, faded slightly within the next few hours, increased to maximum intensity between 9-15 h, and decreased gradually thereafter although still persisting strongly at 48 h. Suction blister exudates were obtained at 0, 5, 9, 15, 24, and 48 h after irradiation as well as suction blister exudates from a contralateral control site and assayed for arachidonic acid, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and the prostacyclin breakdown product 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for histamine by radioenzyme assay. Increased concentrations of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins D2, E2, and 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha were found maximally between 5-9 h after irradiation, preceding the phase of maximal erythema. Elevations of histamine concentration occurred 9-15 h after irradiation, preceding and coinciding with the phase of maximal erythema. At 24 h, still at the height of the erythemal response, all values had returned to near control levels. Hence increased concentrations of arachidonic acid and its products from the cyclooxygenase pathway, and of histamine, accompany the early stages up to 24 h. A causal role in production of the erythema seems likely for these substances although other mediators are almost certainly involved.

  20. Barnidipine ameliorates the vascular and renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alp Yildirim, F Ilkay; Eker Kizilay, Deniz; Ergin, Bülent; Balci Ekmekçi, Özlem; Topal, Gökçe; Kucur, Mine; Demirci Tansel, Cihan; Uydeş Doğan, B Sönmez

    2015-10-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of Barnidipine treatment on early stage hypertension by determining the function and morphology of the mesenteric and renal arteries as well as the kidney in N(ω)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Barnidipine (3 mg/kg/day p.o) was applied to rats after 2 weeks of L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) administration, and continued for the next 3 weeks concomitantly with L-NAME. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was determined to decrease significantly in Barnidipine treated hypertensive group when compared to that of rats received L-NAME alone. Myograph studies demonstrated that the contractile reactivity to noradrenaline were significantly reduced in both of the resistance arteries while endothelium-dependent relaxations to acethylcholine were significantly diminished particularly in the mesenteric arteries of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The impaired contractile and endothelial responses were completely restored by concomitant treatment of Barnidipine with L-NAME. Histopathological examinations verified structural alterations in the arteries as well as the kidney. Moreover, a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was presented both in the arteries and kidney of hypertensive rats which were increased following Barnidipine treatment. Elevated plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also reduced in Barnidipine treated hypertensive rats. In conclusion, besides to its efficacy in reducing the elevated SBP, amelioration of vascular function, modulation of arterial and renal eNOS expressions as well as reduction of the plasma levels of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers are possible supportive mechanisms mediating the favorable implications of Barnidipine in L-NAME-induced hypertension model.

  1. Increased fatty acid unsaturation and production of arachidonic acid by homologous over-expression of the mitochondrial malic enzyme in Mortierella alpina.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Du, Kai; Huang, Xiaoyun; Song, Yuanda; Gu, Zhennan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2014-09-01

    Malic enzyme (ME) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate and provides NADPH for intracellular metabolism, such as fatty acid synthesis. Here, the mitochondrial ME (mME) gene from Mortierella alpina was homologously over-expressed. Compared with controls, fungal arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4 n-6) content increased by 60 % without affecting the total fatty acid content. Our results suggest that enhancing mME activity may be an effective mean to increase industrial production of ARA in M. alpina.

  2. The Effect of Magnesium on Visual Evoked Potentials in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ulker Karadamar, Pinar; Nasircilar Ulker, Seher; Kocer, Gunnur; Senturk, Umit Kemal; Basrali, Filiz; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Ozyurt, Dilek; Agar, Aysel

    2016-08-01

    In the literature, although there are many studies regarding complications of hypertension, information concerning its influence on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) is limited. This study aims to clarify the possible therapeutic effects of the preferential magnesium (Mg) treatment on VEPs in an experimental hypertension model. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: control, Mg treated (Mg), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertension, and L-NAME hypertension + Mg treated (L-NAME + Mg). Hypertension was induced by L-NAME which was given to rats orally over 6 weeks (25 mg/kg/day in drinking water). A magnesium-enriched diet (0.8 g/kg) was given to treatment groups for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined by using the tail-cuff method. Flash VEPs were recorded. Our results revealed that the SBP was significantly increased in the L-NAME group compared to control. Magnesium treatment significantly attenuated SBP in the hypertensive rats compared to the L-NAME group. The mean latencies of P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 components were significantly prolonged in hypertensive rats compared to control. Treatment with Mg provided a significant decrease in the latencies of P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 potentials in the L-NAME + Mg group compared to the L-NAME group. Plasma Mg levels were increased in the L-NAME + Mg group compared to the L-NAME group. No change was detected in the Mg levels of the brains in all experimental groups. Magnesium treatment had no effect on the brain nitrate/nitrite and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels in hypertensive rats compared to non-treated rats. There was a positive correlation between the brain TBARS levels and SBP of the rats. The present study suggests that Mg supplementation has the potential to prevent VEP changes in the L-NAME-induced hypertension model.

  3. Vascular xanthine oxidoreductase contributes to the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marcelo F; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2014-06-01

    Nitrate and nitrite have emerged as an important novel source of nitric oxide (NO). We have previously demonstrated that sodium nitrite is an antihypertensive compound that exerts antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. These unpredicted antioxidant effects of nitrite raised the question whether the beneficial effects found were caused by its conversion to NO or simply due to reversal of endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of its antioxidant effects. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects of a daily dose of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. We studied the effects of nitrite on markers of NO bioavailability, vascular oxidative stress, and expression of xanthine oxidoreductase. Moreover, we tested if xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition could attenuate the acute hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertensive rats. We found that a single pharmacological dose of sodium nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension. While the beneficial antihypertensive properties of nitrite were associated with increased levels of NO metabolites, hypertension increased vascular xanthine oxidoreductase expression by approximately 40%, with minor increases in vascular superoxide production. The inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase by oxypurinol attenuated the acute hypotensive effects of nitrite. Taken together, our results show that nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats and provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase plays an important role in this antihypertensive effect.

  4. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice.

    PubMed

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Borkowska, Alison G; Bernhard, Annette; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Lock, Erik-Jan; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Torstensen, Bente E; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct spillover effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed, reflected in the salmon, and hence also in the mice diets, led to a selectively increased abundance of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool in the livers of the mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of hepatic ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduced abundance of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the observed marked metabolic differences between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 contents in colon, but does not affect severity or prostaglandin E2 content in murine colitis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid and a major constituent of biomembranes. It is converted into various lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). The effects of dietary ARA on colon maintenance are unclear because PGE2 has both mucosal protective and proinflammatory effects, and LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory role. Our objective is to clarify the effects of dietary ARA on an experimental murine colitis model. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed three types of ARA diet (0.075%, 0.15% or 0.305% ARA in diet), DHA diet (0.315% DHA) or control diet for 6 weeks, and were then administered dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. We evaluated colitis severity, fatty acid and lipid mediator contents in colonic tissue, and the expression of genes related to lipid mediator formation. Results ARA composition of colon phospholipids was significantly elevated in an ARA dose-dependent manner. ARA, as well as DHA, did not affect colitis severity (body weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and hemoccult phenomena) and histological features. PGE2 contents in the colon were unchanged by dietary ARA, while LXA4 contents increased in an ARA dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was unchanged, while that of 12/15-lipoxgenase (LOX) was significantly increased by dietary ARA. ARA composition did not correlate with neither colon length nor PGE2 contents, but significantly correlated with LXA4 content. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary ARA increases ARA and LXA4 contents in colon, but that it has no effect on severity and PGE2 content in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. PMID:24507383

  6. Differential responses of mesenteric arterial bed to vasoactive substances in L-NAME-induced preeclampsia: Role of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Taline A S; Ognibene, Dayane T; Carvalho, Lenize C R M; Rocha, Ana Paula M; Costa, Cristiane A; Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Angela C

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the systemic and placental oxidant status as well as vascular function in experimental preeclampsia (PE) induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Fetal parameters and maternal blood pressure, proteinuria, mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) reactivity, and systemic and placental oxidative stress were compared between four groups: pregnant rats receiving L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day, orally) (P + L-NAME) or vehicle (P) from days 13 to 20 of pregnancy and nonpregnant rats receiving L-NAME (NP + L-NAME) or vehicle (NP) during 7 days. L-NAME administration during pregnancy induced some hallmarks of PE, such as hypertension and proteinuria. The P + L-NAME group presented lower weight gain and placental mass as well as reduced number and weight of live fetuses than P group. The vasodilator effect induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and angiotensin II (Ang II) was lower in the perfused MAB from NP + L-NAME and P + L-NAME than in control groups. Otherwise, the nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation and the phenylephrine- and Ang II-induced vasoconstriction were higher in MAB from NP + L-NAME and P + L-NAME groups than in the respective controls. Systemic and placental oxidative damage, assessed by malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels, was increased and activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were reduced in P + L-NAME and NP + L-NAME groups compared to controls. The present data suggest that the oxidative stress and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide may contribute to attenuation of vasodilator responses to ACh and Ang II, and hyperreactivity to Ang II in the mesentery of preeclamptic rat, which may contribute to the increased peripheral vascular resistance and BP, as well as intrauterine growth restriction in L-NAME-induced PE.

  7. L-NAME raises systolic blood pressure in the pithed rat by a direct adrenal epinephrine releasing action.

    PubMed

    Elayan, Hamzeh H; Kennedy, Brian P; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-04-21

    It is generally thought that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase leads to blood pressure elevation largely through reduction in vascular levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide. However, there are several reports suggesting that NO synthase inhibitors cause adrenal epinephrine (E) release by both central and peripheral mechanisms. We investigated the role of adrenal E in the pressor effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME in the pithed rat to help distinguish central from peripherally mediated actions. L-NAME (10 mg/kg) raised both systolic and diastolic BP by about 30 mm Hg (P < .01) in the absence of exogenous electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves. During stimulation at 10 V and frequencies of 1 or 2 Hz, systolic BP was about 70 mm Hg higher in L-NAME treated rats than in drug free stimulated rats. This enhancement of systolic BP by L-NAME was less pronounced at 5 or 10 Hz stimulation frequencies. Following these types of electrical stimulations of pithed rats, both plasma norepinephrine (NE) and E levels were dramatically elevated above resting plasma levels. L-NAME pretreatment of these electrically stimulated rats increased plasma E levels by an additional 60% and decreased NE by 18%. Acute adrenalectomy dramatically reduced plasma E levels and abolished the ability of L-NAME to enhance the pressor effect of sympathetic stimulation. In contrast, acute adrenalectomy of unstimulated pithed rats did not significantly reduce the pressor response to L-NAME. We conclude that adrenal E release may mediate much of the systolic pressor response of L-NAME in the stimulated pithed rat, but the magnitude of this effect varies with stimulation frequency. Since pithing disrupts central pathways, this induction of adrenal E release by L-NAME is a peripheral effect.

  8. Dietary arachidonic acid increases deleterious effects of amyloid-β oligomers on learning abilities and expression of AMPA receptors: putative role of the ACSL4-cPLA2 balance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mélanie H; Paris, Cédric; Magnien, Mylène; Colin, Julie; Pelleïeux, Sandra; Coste, Florence; Escanyé, Marie-Christine; Pillot, Thierry; Olivier, Jean-Luc

    2017-08-29

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a crucial role in neuronal function, and the modification of these compounds in the brain could have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the fact that arachidonic acid is the second foremost polyunsaturated fatty acid besides docosahexaenoic acid, its role and the regulation of its transfer and mobilization in the brain are poorly known. Two groups of 39 adult male BALB/c mice were fed with an arachidonic acid-enriched diet or an oleic acid-enriched diet, respectively, for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diet, mice received intracerebroventricular injections of either NaCl solution or amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers. Y-maze and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate short- and long-term memory. At 12 weeks on the diet, mice were killed, and blood, liver, and brain samples were collected for lipid and protein analyses. We found that the administration of an arachidonic acid-enriched diet for 12 weeks induced short-term memory impairment and increased deleterious effects of Aβ oligomers on learning abilities. These cognitive alterations were associated with modifications of expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in mouse cortex or hippocampus by the arachidonic acid-enriched diet and Aβ oligomer administration. This diet also led to an imbalance between the main ω-6 fatty acids and the ω-3 fatty acids in favor of the first one in erythrocytes and the liver as well as in the hippocampal and cortical brain structures. In the cortex, the dietary arachidonic acid also induced an increase of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipid species in phosphatidylserine class, whereas intracerebroventricular injections modified several arachidonic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-containing species in the four phospholipid classes. Finally, we observed that dietary arachidonic acid

  9. The Effects of Dexamethasone and L-NAME on Acute Lung Injury in Rats with Lung Contusion.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Ahmet; Kilic, Nermin; Alacam, Hasan; Guzel, Ahmet; Guvenc, Tolga; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of an anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone (DXM), and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), in lung tissue injury after lung contusion was investigated. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), YKL-40, an inflammatory peptide, inducible NOS (iNOS), and Clara cell protein 16 (CC-16) were evaluated. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed, and the lung tissue was examined histopathologically. The study consisted of eight groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group), weighing 250-300 g: (1) control, (2) contusion, (3) control + DXM, (4) contusion + DXM, (5) control + L-NAME (6) contusion + L-NAME, (7) control + DXM + L-NAME, and (8) contusion + DXM + L-NAME. A previously developed lung contusion model was used, in addition to the control group. The rats were administered DXM and L-NAME intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 15 and 60 mg/kg/day, respectively. DXM and L-NAME administration decreased the iNOS level in the contusion groups. DXM increased the levels of YKL-40 and IL-10 in both the control and contusion groups, with higher levels in the contusion groups. L-NAME increased the serum level of IL-10 in the lung contusion groups. DXM increased the synthesis of CC-16 in the control and contusion groups. The combined use of a high-dose steroid and NOS inhibitor resulted in the death of the rats. Steroids can increase the level of cytokines, such as YKL-40 and IL-10, and the synthesis of CC-16 and prevent pneumonia, ALI/ARDS, and sepsis in lung contusion.

  10. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries of L-NAME-treated Wistar and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Matsuda, Kyoko; Kawata, Kyoko; Negishi, Maki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Shimamur, Keiichi; Sunano, Satoru

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate whether the elevated blood pressure induced by chronic treatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) contributes to an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR), the effects of chronic treatment of Wistar rats with L-NAME on systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial blood pressure and EDR of the pulmonary arteries were studied and compared with those of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). While the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of Wistar rats was increased above that of controls by chronic treatment with L-NAME, it was still significantly lower than that of SHRSP. Chronic treatment with L-NAME did not affect pulmonary arterial blood pressure. On the other hand, the pulmonary arterial blood pressure of SHRSP was slightly but significantly higher than that of the control normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). EDR in response to acetylcholine in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats was significantly smaller than that in control Wistar rats. The EDR markedly increased in the presence of L-arginine and completely disappeared in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Indomethacin hardly affected EDR. In preparations from SHRSP, the EDR was not different from that in those from WKY. Relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was identical in all preparations. Elevation of SBP and the impairment of EDR observed in L-NAME-treated rats recovered two weeks following cessation of treatment. These results suggest that the impaired EDR in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats is not due to an L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure but due to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by the drug remaining in the endothelium.

  11. IL-1. alpha. increases arachidonyl-CoA: Lysophospholipid acyltransterase activity and stimulates ( sup 3 H) arachidonate incorporation into phospholipids in rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazato, Y.; Sedor, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1{alpha} is a potent stimulus of prostaglandin synthesis. The authors have previously shown that IL-1 amplifies mesangial cell prostaglandin synthesis by inducing synthesis of a non-pancreatic phospholipase A{sub 2}. Phospholipase A{sub 2}. Phospholipase A{sub 2} activation results in the formation of lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. They now investigate the effects of IL-1{alpha} on reacylation of lysophospholipids. Incubations with IL-1{alpha} for 24 hours significantly stimulated mesangial cell ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid incorporation but not ({sup 3}H)oleic acid incorporation into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity was measured in vitro. Cytokine treatment increased enzyme activity when lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylinositol were used as exogenous substrates. They conclude that IL-1 promotes cellular phospholipid remodeling by stimulating the deacylation and reacylation of phospholipids.

  12. Mechanisms of the antihypertensive effects of Nigella sativa oil in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Foong, Wai Dic; Yeoh, Min Hui; Kamarul, Zaman Yusoff Nik; Qodriyah, Haji Mohd Saad; Azman, Abdullah; Zuhair, Japar Sidik Fadhlullah; Juliana, Abdul Hamid; Kamisah, Yusof

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension.

  13. Mechanisms of the antihypertensive effects of Nigella sativa oil in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Foong, Wai Dic; Yeoh, Min Hui; Kamarul, Zaman Yusoff Nik; Qodriyah, Haji Mohd Saad; Azman, Abdullah; Zuhair, Japar Sidik Fadhlullah; Juliana, Abdul Hamid; Kamisah, Yusof

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. RESULTS Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. CONCLUSION: The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension. PMID:26602523

  14. Dietary nitrite supplementation attenuates cardiac remodeling in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Kunihiro; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Junta; Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Tamada, Hazuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability underlies the development of hypertensive heart disease. We investigated the effects of dietary nitrite on N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an untreated control group, an l-NAME-treated group, and three other l-NAME-treated groups supplemented with 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L of nitrite or 100 mg/L of captopril in drinking water. After the 8-week experimental period, mean arterial blood pressure was measured, followed by sampling of blood and heart tissue for assessment of nitrite/nitrate levels in the plasma and heart, the plasma level of angiotensin II (AT II), and the heart transcriptional levels of AT II type 1 receptor (AT1R), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue proteins such as type 1 collagen and fibronectin. Heart tissue was analyzed by histopathological morphometry, including assessments of ventricular and coronary vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as immunohistochemistry analyses of myocardial expression of AT1R. l-NAME treatment reduced the plasma nitrate level and led to the development of hypertension, with increased plasma levels of AT II and increased heart transcriptional levels of AT1R and TGF-β1-mediated connective tissue proteins, showing myocardial and coronary arteriolar hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, dietary nitrite supplementation inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cardiac remodeling by suppressing AT II and AT1R. These results suggest that dietary nitrite levels achievable via a daily high-vegetable diet could improve hypertensive heart disease by inhibiting AT II-AT1R-mediated cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity. PMID:20927244

  16. Renal 20-HETE inhibition attenuates changes in renal hemodynamics induced by L-NAME treatment in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhou, Yiqiang; Raju, Venugopal T; Du, Juan; Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Wang, Cong-Yi; Brands, Michael W; Falck, John R; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2005-11-01

    We previously reported that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) during late pregnancy leads to increased production of renal vascular 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 4A-derived vasoconstrictor, in pregnant rats. However, the effect of upregulation of vascular 20-HETE production on renal function after NO inhibition is not known. To test the hypothesis that increased gestational vascular 20-HETE synthesis after NO inhibition is involved in mediating blood pressure and renal functional changes, we first determined the IC(50) value of the effect of nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on renal 20-HETE production in cortical microsomes. We then divided pregnant rats and age-matched virgin rats into a vehicle control group, an L-NAME treatment group (0.25 mg/ml in drinking water), and a group treated with L-NAME plus N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS; CYP4A-selective inhibitor, 10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) iv). After 4 days of treatment, we measured blood pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), renal vascular resistance (RVR), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in each group. The addition of SNP (IC(50) = 22 microM) decreased renal cortical 20-HETE production. In pregnant rats, L-NAME treatment led to significantly higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and RVR, and lower RBF and GFR. Combined treatment with DDMS and L-NAME significantly attenuated the increases in MAP and RVR and the decrease in GFR, but not the reduction in RBF induced by L-NAME treatment. L-NAME and L-NAME plus DDMS had no significant impact on renal hemodynamics in virgin rats. In addition, chronic treatment with DDMS selectively inhibited cortical 20-HETE production without a significant effect on CYP4A expression in L-NAME-treated pregnant rats. In conclusion, NO effectively inhibits renal cortical microsomal 20-HETE production in female rats. In pregnant rats, the augmentation of renal 20-HETE production after

  17. Dietary nitrite ameliorates renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tomita, Shuhei; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Abe, Shinji; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2010-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions in the kidney, and long-term blockage of nitric oxide synthases in rats by L-NAME results in severe hypertension and progressive kidney damage. On the other hand, NO production seems to be low in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and NO deficiency may play a role in CKD progression. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of amelioration of renal injury induced by L-NAME treated rats by treatment of nitrite. First, we demonstrate whether orally-administrated nitrite-derived NO can shift to the circulation. When 3mg/kg body weight Na(15)NO(2) was orally administered to rats, an apparent EPR signal derived from Hb(15)NO (A(z)=23.4 gauss) appeared in the blood, indicating that orally ingested nitrite can be a source of NO in vivo. Next, in order to clarify the capacity of nitrite to prevent renal disease, we administered low-dose nitrite (LDN: 0.1mg of sodium nitrite in 1L of drinking water), medium-dose nitrite (MDN: 1mg sodium nitrite/L, which corresponds to the amount of nitrite ingested by vegetarians), or high-dose nitrite (HDN: 10mg sodium nitrite/L) to rats simultaneously with L-NAME (1 g l-NAME/L) for 8 weeks, then examined the blood NO level as a hemoglobin-NO adduct (iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin) using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, urinary protein excretion, and renal histological changes at the end of the experiment. It was found that oral administration of MDN and HDN but not LDN increased the blood iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin concentration to the normal level, ameliorated the L-NAME-induced proteinuria, and reduced renal histological damage. The findings demonstrate that chronic administration of a mid-level dietary dose of nitrite restores the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin levels reduced by L-NAME and that maintenance of the circulating iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin level in a controlled range protects against L-NAME-induced renal injury. Taking these findings together, we

  18. High dietary arachidonic acid levels induce changes in complex lipids and immune-related eicosanoids and increase levels of oxidised metabolites in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Adam, Anne-Catrin; Lie, Kai K; Moren, Mari; Skjærven, Kaja H

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the effect of high dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (high ARA) compared with low dietary ARA levels (control) on the general metabolism using zebrafish as the model organism. The fatty acid composition of today's 'modern diet' tends towards higher n-6 PUFA levels in relation to n-3 PUFA. Low dietary n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio is a health concern, as n-6 PUFA give rise to eicosanoids and PG, which are traditionally considered pro-inflammatory, especially when derived from ARA. Juvenile zebrafish fed a high-ARA diet for 17 d had a lower whole-body n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with zebrafish fed a low-ARA (control) diet (0·6 in the control group v. 0·2 in the high-ARA group). Metabolic profiling revealed altered levels of eicosanoids, PUFA, dicarboxylic acids and complex lipids such as glycerophospholipids and lysophospholipids as the most significant differences compared with the control group. ARA-derived hydroxylated eicosanoids, such as hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids, were elevated in response to high-ARA feed. In addition, increased levels of oxidised lipids and amino acids indicated an oxidised environment due to n-6 PUFA excess in the fish. To conclude, our results indicate that an ARA-enriched diet induces changes in complex lipids and immune-related eicosanoids and increases levels of oxidised lipids and amino acids, suggesting oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  19. Intrastriatal pre-treatment with L-NAME protects rats from diquat neurotoxcity.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Marina D; Ninkovic, Milica; Stevanovic, Ivana; Curcic, Marijana; Topic, Aleksandra; Vujanovic, Dragana; Djurdjevic, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Contact herbicide diquat (DQ), redox cycling compound, mediates its systemic toxicity throughout the enlarged production of free radicals. Target organs are liver and kidney in humans. To-date, the mechanism of DQ-induced neurotoxicity has not been rationalized. The objectives of the study were to examine the ability of DQ to induce oxidative stress (OS) and/or nitrosative stress (NS) upon intrastriatal (i.s.) administration and to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO(x)) using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the pretreatment of DQ i.s. administration. The experiment was conducted on Wistar rats, randomly divided in experimental groups, receiving different treatments i.s. applied. Parameters of OS/NS such as: superoxide anion radical (O(2)(•-)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrates (NO(3)(-)) were measured in the cortex (bilaterally), at 30(th) min, 24 hours and 7 days after the treatments. Lethargy and high mortality rate were observed only in the DQ group (within 24 hours and 2-3 hours, respectively) after awakening from anesthesia. Markedly increased production of NO(x) and O(2)(•-) along with elevated lipid peroxidation altogether contributed to DQ neurotoxicity. The most importantly, the L-NAME i.s. pretreatment protected treated animals from dying and diminished OS/NS response against DQ-induced neurotoxicity. The i.s. pretreatment with L-NAME resulted in neuroprotection against DQ neurotoxity, based on animal survival and reduced LPO in the cortex.

  20. Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation for 15 weeks reduces arachidonic acid concentrations while increasing n-3 PUFA concentrations in organs of post-weaning male rats

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miki; Gao, Fei; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Ma, Kaizong; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined effects of feeding animals a diet deficient in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but with an adequate amount of n-3 PUFAs. To do this, we fed post-weaning male rats a control n-6 and n-3 PUFA adequate diet and an n-6 deficient diet for 15 weeks, and measured stable lipid and fatty acid concentrations in different organs. The deficient diet contained nutritionally essential linoleic acid (LA,18:2n-6) as 2.3% of total fatty acids (10% of the recommended minimum LA requirement for rodents) but no arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), and an adequate amount (4.8% of total fatty acids) of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). The deficient compared with adequate diet did not significantly affect body weight, but decreased testis weight by 10%. AA concentration was decreased significantly in serum (−86%), brain (−27%), liver (−68%), heart (−39%), testis (−25%), and epididymal adipose tissue (−77%). Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) concentrations were increased in all but adipose tissue, and the total monounsaturated fatty acid concentration was increased in all organs. The concentration of 20:3n-9, a marker of LA deficiency, was increased by the deficient diet, and serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and total phospholipid were reduced. In summary, 15 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA deficiency with n-3 PUFA adequacy significantly reduced n-6 PUFA concentrations in different organs of male rats, while increasing n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations. This rat model could be used to study metabolic, functional and behavioral effects of dietary n-6 PUFA deficiency. PMID:19073280

  1. Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene E(4) are increased in the urine of smokers: evidence that celecoxib shunts arachidonic acid into the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.

    PubMed

    Duffield-Lillico, Anna J; Boyle, Jay O; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Ghosh, Aradhana; Butala, Geera S; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Newman, Robert A; Morrow, Jason D; Milne, Ginger L; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) play a role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Biomarkers that reflect tobacco smoke-induced tissue injury are needed. In this study, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)), biomarkers of the COX and 5-LO pathways, were compared in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. The effects of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were determined. Baseline levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were positively associated with smoking status; levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were higher in current versus never smokers. Treatment with 200 mg celecoxib twice daily for 6 +/- 1 days led to a reduction in urinary PGE-M levels in all groups but exhibited the greatest effect among subjects with high baseline PGE-M levels. Thus, high baseline PGE-M levels in smokers reflected increased COX-2 activity. In individuals with high baseline PGE-M levels, treatment with celecoxib led to a significant increase in levels of urinary LTE(4), an effect that was not found in individuals with low baseline PGE-M levels. In conclusion, increased levels of urinary PGE-M and LTE(4) were found in human smokers, a result that may reflect subclinical lung inflammation. In individuals with high baseline levels of PGE-M (elevated COX-2 activity), celecoxib administration shunted arachidonic acid into the proinflammatory 5-LO pathway. Because 5-LO activity and LTE(4) have been suggested to play a role in cardiovascular disease, these results may help to explain the link between use of COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular complications.

  2. Abciximab does not inhibit the increase of thrombin generation produced in platelet-rich plasma in vitro by sodium arachidonate or tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Altman, Raul; Scazziota, Alejandra; Santoro, Silvina; Gonzalez, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    Aspirin and platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa blockers are currently used for acute coronary events, and in percutaneous coronary intervention for preventing further coronary outcomes, because they inhibit platelet function. Aspirin also inhibits thrombin generation (TG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by sodium arachidonate (AA). The effect of the platelet membrane GP IIb-IIIa (integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3)) blocker abciximab on thrombin generation was studied in vitro using PRP. Thirty healthy volunteers taking no medication, and 28 volunteers who had taken aspirin (160 mg/day for 3-4 days), were included in the protocol. Control or in vivo aspirinated PRP, stimulated or not by AA or tissue factor (TF), was investigated for the inhibitory effect of abciximab pre-incubated for 3 minutes. AA and TF added in vitro activated non-aspirinated PRP: lag-time (LT) and time to peak (TTP) were significantly shortened. Peak TG (PTG) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETG) were increased by AA but not TF; thus, AA seems to be more efficient than TF for TG in this system. Abciximab added in vitro to non-activated, non-aspirinated PRP had no effect on LT, TTP, or ETP, but caused a decrease in PTG that was not statistically significant. Abciximab (3 or 4 microg/mL) added in vitro to AA or TF-activated, non-aspirinated PRP produced no effect on TG, although in aspirinated platelets both LT and time to peak were prolonged. AA as well as TF added in vitro to PRP or in vivo aspirinated PRP increased TG, although AA seems to be more efficient in our assay system. Abciximab, which affects non-aspirinated, nonactivated PRP weakly, has no effect on AA or TF in activated control PRP or in vivo aspirinated PRP.

  3. Increased ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid/arachidonic acid ratios and upregulation of signaling mediator in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kunio; Imataka, George; Kawasak, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-15

    The investigation of links between the ratio of omega-3/omega-6 PUFAs and neuronal signaling is a research priority in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examine the relationships between the plasma ratios of docosahexaenoid acid (DHA)/arachidonic acid (AA) and eicopentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA and biomarkers of AA-related signaling mediators such as ceruloplasmin, transferrin and superoxide dismutase, in the behavioral symptoms of 28 individuals with ASD (mean age 13.5±4.6years) and 21 age- and gender-matched normal healthy controls (mean age 13.9±5.7years). Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). We conducted controlling for dietary intake and assessed the dietary intake of nutrients. There were no significant differences in intake of nutrients such as omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, DHA, AA, iron and copper. Plasma EPA, DHA, and arachidic acid levels, and plasma DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios were significantly higher, while plasma AA and adrenic acid were significantly lower in the 28 individuals with ASD than in the 21 normal controls. The ABC scores were significantly higher in the ASD group compared to the control group. The plasma ceruloplasmin levels in the ASD group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group. Increased plasma DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios may be related to low plasma levels of ceruloplasmin which has neuroprotective properties. Reduced plasma ceruloplasmin levels may diminish the protective capacity against brain damage, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of behavioral symptoms in individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. L-NAME causes antinociception by stimulation of the arginine-NO-cGMP pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, I D; Ferreira, S H

    2000-01-01

    NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has been used extensively as a paradigmatic inhibitor of NO synthase and has been shown to cause antinociception in several experimental models. We describe here how L-NAME produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect when injected intraperitoneally in the mouse after acetic acid induced writhings, or intraplantarly in the rat paw pressure hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E2. In contrast another NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), had no significant effect per se but inhibited L-NAME systemic induced antinociception in mice and local induced antinociception in the rat paw hyperalgesia test. D-NAME had no antinociceptive effect upon carrageenin-induced hyperalgesia. Pretreatment of the paws with two inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, methylene blue (MB) and 1H-:[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-:[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) abolished the antinociceptive effect of L-NAME. L-Arginine and the cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, MY 5445 significantly enhanced the L-NAME antinociceptive effect. The central antinociceptive effect of L-NAME was blocked by co-administration of L-NMMA, ODQ and MB. The present series of experiments shows that L-NAME, but not L-NMMA, has an antinociceptive effect. It can be suggested that L-NAME causes the antinociceptive effect by stimulation of the arginine/ NO/ cGMP pathway, since the antinociceptive effect of L-NAME can be antagonized by L-NMMA and abolished by the guanylate cyclase inhibitors (MB and ODQ). In addition, the NO synthase substrate, L-arginine and the cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, MY5445 were seen to potentiate the effects of L-NAME. Thus, L-NAME used alone, has limitations as a specific inhibitor of the arginine-NO-cGMP pathway and may therefore be a poor pharmacological tool for use in characterising participation in pathophysiological processes. PMID:10877451

  5. Betulinic acid ameliorates endothelium-dependent relaxation in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats by reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jia-Yin; Qian, Ling-Bo; Zhu, Lie-Gang; Liang, Hao-Te; Tan, Yi-Nuo; Lu, Han-Ti; Lu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Hui-Ping; Xia, Qiang

    2011-10-09

    Zizyphi Spinosi semen (ZSS) is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbs with protective effects on the cardiovascular system. It is not clear whether betulinic acid (BA), the key active constituent of ZSS, has beneficial cardiovascular effects on N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings from L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with L-NAME (15 mg/kg/d, i.p.) for 4 weeks to induce hypertension. After treatment with L-NAME for 2 weeks, rats with mean blood pressure >120 mm Hg measured by tail-cuff method were considered hypertensive and then injected with BA (0.8, 4, 20 mg/kg/d, i.p.) for the last 2 weeks. The effect of BA on the tension of rat thoracic aortic rings was measured in an organ bath system. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in aortas were assayed. We found that BA (0.1-100 μM) evoked a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact normal rat aortic rings, which was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME (100 μM) or methylene blue (MB, 10 μM), but not by indomethacin (10 μM). Pretreatment with EC(50) (1.67 μM) concentration of BA enhanced the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation, which was also markedly reversed by both L-NAME and MB. The blood pressure in hypertensive rats increased to 135.22±5.38 mm Hg (P<0.01 vs. control group), which was markedly attenuated by high dose of BA. The ACh-induced vasorelaxation in hypertensive rat aortic rings was impaired, which was markedly improved by chronic treatment with BA (20 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks. The increase of ROS level and the decrease of NO level, SOD and eNOS activities in hypertensive rat aortas were all

  6. Different effect of l-NAME treatment on susceptibility to decompression sickness in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Buzzacott, Peter; Lambrechts, Kate; Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michael; Popov, Georgi; Distefano, Giovanni; Guerrero, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Vascular bubble formation results from supersaturation during inadequate decompression contributes to endothelial injuries, which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Risk factors for DCS include increased age, weight-fat mass, decreased maximal oxygen uptake, chronic diseases, dehydration, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Production of NO is often affected by diving and its expression-activity varies between the genders. Little is known about the influence of sex on the risk of DCS. To study this relationship we used an animal model of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to induce decreased NO production. Male and female rats with diverse ages and weights were divided into 2 groups: treated with l-NAME (in tap water; 0.05 mg·mL(-1) for 7 days) and a control group. To control the distribution of nitrogen among tissues, 2 different compression-decompression protocols were used. Results showed that l-NAME was significantly associated with increased DCS in female rats (p = 0.039) only. Weight was significant for both sexes (p = 0.01). The protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in the slower compartments was 2.6 times more likely to produce DCS than the protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in faster compartments. The outcome of this study had significantly different susceptibility to DCS after l-NAME treatment between the sexes, while l-NAME per se had no effect on the likelihood of DCS. The analysis also showed that for the appearance of DCS, the most significant factors were type of protocol and weight.

  7. Nasal administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME induces daytime somnolence.

    PubMed

    Sippel, J M; Giraud, G D; Holden, W E

    1999-09-15

    In preliminary studies, human subjects complained of drowsiness after aerosolization of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) into the nasal passages. We compared the effects of a nasal aerosol of L-NAME (0.5 M, 4 ml) to those of saline on sleep onset latency and exhaled nasal nitric oxide (NO). L-NAME decreased sleep onset latency and exhaled nasal NO. Vasoconstriction and local effects of L-NAME on NO synthesis are unlikely to explain this effect since oxymetazoline, a vasoconstrictor, decreased exhaled NO but had no effect on sleep onset latency. We conclude that aerosolization of L-NAME to the nasal passages induces daytime sleepiness.

  8. Dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in horses increases plasma conjugated linoleic acid and decreases plasma arachidonic acid but does not alter body fat.

    PubMed

    Headley, S; Coverdale, J A; Jenkins, T C; Klein, C M; Sharp, J L; Vernon, K L

    2012-12-01

    Studies using dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids (FA) in horses report inconsistent anti-inflammatory results but consistently report an increase in plasma arachidonic acid (C20:4), the major substrate of cyclooxygenase (COX) II inflammatory pathway. Conjugated linoleic acid has shown anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory and food animal species, but effects of CLA supplementation in horses have not been reported. Our objective was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on plasma CLA and C20:4 and body fat in healthy horses at maintenance. In a crossover study, 12 mature mares were blocked by breed, age, and BCS and separated into 2 treatment groups (n = 6/group). Groups were fed CLA and corn oil (CO; isocaloric control) for two 6-wk feeding periods, separated by a 4-wk period during which treatment was withheld. Corn oil or CLA supplement (55% mixed CLA isomers) was incorporated into diets at 0.01% BW/d. Mares were fed individually and restricted to dry lots to control forage intake. Rump fat thickness (RFT), BW, and BCS were measured before (d 0) and after (d 42) each feeding period. Blood was collected on d 0, 14, 28, and 42 of each 6-wk period for GLC analysis of plasma CLA isomers (cis-9, trans-11; trans-10, cis-12; and trans-9, trans-11) and C20:4. An ANOVA was conducted to compare the response of RFT, BW, and BCS of CLA-treated and control mares. A mixed methods analysis with repeated measures was used to detect differences in plasma FA concentrations. There were no differences in BW, RFT, or BCS between treatment groups. All CLA isomers present in the CLA supplement were greater in plasma of horses fed CLA compared with controls (P < 0.01). Additionally, plasma concentrations of C20:4 were decreased in horses fed CLA (P < 0.05). This decline in C20:4 may impact the COX II pathway and warrants further investigation. These results suggest that in an equine model, dietary CLA increases circulating

  9. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Reduces Bleeding and Thrombocytopenia after Amputation in Rats Treated with Heparin, Warfarin, L-NAME and L-Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Stupnisek, Mirjana; Kokot, Antonio; Drmic, Domagoj; Hrelec Patrlj, Masa; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Radic, Bozo; Suran, Jelena; Bojic, Davor; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Background BPC 157 is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide recently implicated with a role in hemostasis. While NO is largely implicated in hemostatic mechanisms, in tail-amputation-models under heparin- and warfarin-administration, both the NO-synthase (NOS)-blocker, L-NAME (prothrombotic) and the NOS-substrate L-arginine (antithrombotic), were little investigated. Objective. To investigate the effect of L-NAME and L-arginine on hemostatic parameters, and to reveal the effects of BPC 157 on the L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced hemostatic actions under different pathological condition: tail amputation without or with anticoagulants, heparin or warfarin. Methods Tail amputation, and/or i.v.-heparin (10 mg/kg), i.g.-warfarin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days) were used in rats. Treatment includes BPC 157, L-NAME, L-arginine, per se and their combination. Results After (tail) amputation, with or without i.v.-heparin or i.g.-warfarin, BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, i.p., i.v. (heparin), 10 μg/kg i.g. (warfarin)) always reduced bleeding time and/or haemorrhage and counteracted thrombocytopenia. As for L-NAME and/or L-arginine, we noted: L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.p.)–rats: more bleeding, less/no thrombocytopenia; L-NAME (5 mg/kg i.p.)-rats: less bleeding (amputation only), but present thrombocytopenia; L-NAME+L-arginine-rats also exhibited thrombocytopenia: L-NAME counteracted L-arginine-increased bleeding, L-arginine did not counteract L-NAME-thrombocytopenia. All animals receiving BPC 157 in addition (BPC 157μg+L-NAME; BPC 157μg+L-arginine, BPC 157μg+L-NAME+L-arginine), exhibited decreased haemorrhage and markedly counteracted thrombocytopenia. Conclusions L-NAME (thrombocytopenia), L-arginine (increased haemorrhage) counteraction and BPC 157 (decreased haemorrhage, counteracted thrombocytopenia) with rescue against two different anticoagulants, implicate a BPC 157 modulatory and balancing role with rescued NO-hemostatic mechanisms. PMID:25897838

  10. Orthostatic effects of midodrine versus L-NAME on cerebral blood flow and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Wecht, Jill M; Radulovic, Miroslav; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Zhang, Run-Lin; LaFountaine, Michael F; Bauman, William A

    2011-11-01

    To compare responses to head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with chronic tetraplegia after midodrine hydrochloride (10 mg) versus nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg/kg) administration. Prospective comparative drug trial. Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants (N=7) were studied during 3 laboratory visits: no drug, midodrine (administered orally 30 min before HUT), and L-NAME (infused over a 60-min period). Anti-hypotensive agents, midodrine, and L-NAME. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and markers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS, plasma renin and serum aldosterone) were measured in the supine position at baseline (BL) and during a 45° HUT maneuver. Data were compared between BL and the average of 3 assessments collected during HUT. Orthostatic MAP and CBF were increased with the midodrine and L-NAME groups compared with the no drug trial and the relationship between the change in MAP and CBF was significant (r=0.770; P<0.001). Both L-NAME and midodrine appeared to suppress the post-HUT RAAS response compared with no drug. Increasing orthostatic blood pressure with L-NAME or midodrine appears to increase CBF and suppress the RAAS during HUT in persons with tetraplegia, although more data are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses

  12. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Atsamo, Albert Donatien; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoît; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamanyi, Albert

    2013-01-31

    Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs' weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue's concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may

  13. Bromocriptine and quinpirole, but not 7-OH-DPAT or SKF 38393, potentiate the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, I Tayfun; Kayir, Hakan

    2003-04-01

    The effects of N(G)-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, SKF 38393, bromocriptine (BRM), quinpirole (QPR) and 7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), dopamine receptor agonists, and combinations of the dopamine agonists and L-NAME on ethanol-induced locomotor activity in adult male Swiss-Webster mice were investigated. The mice were given ethanol (0.5-2 g/kg), L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg), SKF 38393 (5-20 mg/kg), BRM (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), QPR (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg), 7-OH-DPAT (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), a combination of l-arginine (1 g/kg) and L-NAME (60 mg/kg), combinations of SKF 38393, BRM, QPR or 7-OH-DPAT with L-NAME (60 mg/kg) or ethanol (0.5 g/kg) and saline or vehicle by i.p. injection. Triple combinations (dopaminergic agonist, 60 mg/kg L-NAME and 0.5 g/kg ethanol) were also given. Locomotor activity was measured for 30 min immediately following ethanol injections. Ethanol (0.5 g/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity. L-NAME, BRM, QPR and 7-OH-DPAT blocked the ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-induced locomotor hyperactivity dose dependently and at doses that did not affect locomotor activity in naive mice when administered alone. The inhibitory effects of L-NAME (60 mg/kg) were not prevented by pretreatment with l-arginine. BRM and QPR, but not 7-OH-DPAT, significantly and dose-dependently potentiated the inhibitory effect of L-NAME. Our results suggest that L-NAME inhibits ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice by a mechanism not involving NO. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME may be related to the activation of presynaptic dopamine D(2) receptors rather than dopamine D(3) receptors.

  14. Impact of angiotensin and endothelin converting enzymes and related bradykinin on renal functions in L-NAME hypertensive rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Ali Zainal; Maulood, Ismail M.

    2017-09-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), one of the most important hormonal systems, controls the kidney functions by regulating fluid volume, and electrolyte balance. The current study included the effects of kinin-kallikrein system (KKS) and its interaction with both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) on some of kidney function test parameters. In the present experiment, rats were divided into six groups, the first group was infused with normal saline, the second group was L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treated rats, third group was bradykinin (BK), forth group was captopril (ACEi), fifth group was phosphoramidon (ECEi), sixth group was a combination of BK with phosphoramidon. L-NAME was intravenously infused for one hour to develop systematic hypertension in male rats. After one hour of infusion, the results showed that L-NAME significantly increased serum creatinine. While, it decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and K+ excretion rate. Moreover, BK increased packed cell volume PCV%, serum creatinine and K+ ion concentration. While, it reduced GFR, serum Ca+2 ion concentration, K+ and Na+ excretion rates. On the other hand, captopril infusion showed its effect by reduction in GFR, serum Ca+2 ion and electrolyte excretion rates. Phosphoramidon an ECEi dramatically reduced serum Ca+2 ion, but it increased pH, GFR and Ca+2 excretion rate. The results suggested that BK and Captopril each alone severely reduces GFR value. Interestingly, inhibition of ET-1 production via phosphoramidon could markedly elevate GFR values.

  15. Potential Cardiovascular and Renal Protective Effects of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10 in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Shamardl, Hanan A; El-Ashmony, Sahar M; Kamel, Hala F; Fatani, Sameer H

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the primary modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Adequate vitamin D (vit D) levels have been shown to reduce vascular smooth muscle contraction and to increase arterial compliance, which may be beneficial in hypertension. Further, coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) through its action to lower oxidative stress has been reported to have beneficial effects on hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the possible cardiac and renal protective effects of vit D and COQ10 both separately and in combination with an angiotensin II receptor blocker, valsartan (vals) in l-NAME hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in rats by l-NAME administration. Following induction of hypertension, the rats were assigned into the following 6 subgroups: an l-NAME alone group and treated groups receiving the following drugs intraperitoneally for 6 weeks; vals, vit D, COQ10 and combination of vals with either vit D or COQ10. A group of normotensive rats were used as negative controls. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lipids and serum, cardiac and renal parameters of oxidative stress were measured. Compared to the l-NAME only group, all treatments lowered systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine levels as well as TNF-α and malondialdehyde. Further, the agents increased serum, cardiac and renal total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the combination of agents had further effects on all the parameters compared to treatment with each single agent. The study suggests that the additive protective effects of vit D and COQ10 when used alone or concurrent with vals treatment in hypertensive rats may be due to their effects as antioxidants, anticytokines and blood pressure conservers. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME.

    PubMed

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-07

    To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs' post-surgery application and NO system involvement.

  17. Effect of aliskiren, telmisartan and torsemide on cardiac dysfunction in l-nitro arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induced hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Sawsan A.; Rashed, Laila A.; Bassam, Amira M.; Said, Eman S.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative study of cardio protective effect of aliskiren, telmisartan, and torsemide was carried out on l-nitro arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induced hypertension in rats. The three drugs were given daily for 8 weeks simultaneously with l-NAME, with a control group for each drug and l-NAME. The degree of protection was assessed by measurement of systolic blood pressure and heart rate of animals every two weeks. At the end of the experimental period blood sampling was carried out for estimation of the level of NO2−/NO3−. After which animals were sacrificed for heart dissection to detect collagen types I and III gene expression. Histopathological study was done to evaluate the extension of collagen deposits. The study revealed that the three drugs decreased blood pressure significantly compared to l-NAME. There was no significant difference between aliskiren and telmisartan in all measurements, but there was significant decrease in measurements of both aliskiren and telmisartan treated groups compared to torsemide starting from 4th week. There were insignificant changes in pulse rate values between the three l-NAME treated groups through the experiment. The three drugs significantly increased NO compared to l-NAME. Collagen I and III gene expression was significantly decreased by the three drugs but the highest percentage of inhibition was with telmisartan compared to l-NAME. Comparing the percentage inhibition of cardiac fibrosis, there was insignificant difference between telmisartan and torsemide treated groups while both were superior to aliskiren. In conclusion, further experimental studies are required to elucidate the potential cardioprotective mechanisms of aliskiren, telmisartan and torsemide, and assess their efficacy in treatment of heart failure. PMID:26644935

  18. Anti-CD3 and concanavalin A-induced human T cell proliferation is associated with an increased rate of arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling. Lack of involvement of group IV and group VI phospholipase A2 in remodeling and increased susceptibility of proliferating T cells to CoA-independent transacyclase inhibitor-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boilard, E; Surette, M E

    2001-05-18

    In this study arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling was investigated in resting and proliferating human T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes induced to proliferate with either the mitogen concanavalin A or with anti-CD3 (OKT3) in combination with interleukin 2 (OKT3/IL-2) showed a greatly accelerated rate of [3H]arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling compared with resting lymphocytes or with lymphocytes stimulated with OKT3 or IL-2 alone. The concanavalin A-stimulated cells showed a 2-fold increase in the specific activity of CoA-independent transacylase compared with unstimulated cells, indicating that this enzyme is inducible. Stimulation with OKT3 resulted in greatly increased quantities of the group VI calcium-independent phospholipase A2 but not of the quantity of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2. However, group IV phospholipase A2 became phosphorylated in OKT3-stimulated cells, as determined by decreased electrophoretic mobility. Incubation of cells with the group VI phospholipase A2 inhibitor, bromoenol lactone, or the dual group IV/group VI phospholipase A2 inhibitor, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, did not block arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling resting or proliferating T cells, suggesting that these phospholipases A2 were not involved in arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling. The incubation of nonproliferating human lymphocytes with inhibitors of CoA-independent transacylase had little impact on cell survival. In contrast, OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes were very sensitive to apoptosis induced by CoA-independent transacylase inhibitors. Altogether these results indicate that increased arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling is associated with T cell proliferation and that CoA-independent transacylase may be a novel therapeutic target for proliferative disorders.

  19. Detrimental effects of N(omega) nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)in experimental Escherichia coli sepsis in the newborn piglet.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Shin; Hwang, Jong Hee; Choi, Chang Won; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon; Oh, Chang Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide during neonatal sepsis is complex. We tested the hypothesis that nonselective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with N(omega) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is detrimental during the early phase of experimental sepsis in the newborn piglet. Newborn piglets were divided into four groups: 6 in the control group, 6 in the L-NAME control group, 12 in the sepsis group (SG), and 11 in the sepsis with L-NAME group (NS). Sepsis was induced by intravenous injection of 10(8) colony forming units of Escherichia coli. L-NAME 10 mg/kg was given intravenously 60 min before the induction of sepsis. The survival rate of piglets after 4 hr was 27% in NS, while it was 100% in other groups. Systemic hypotension, observed in both SG and NS, were more profound in NS. Leukopenia was observed in both SG and NS. Thrombocytopenia, prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, and increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes were observed only in NS. Decreased PaO2 /FiO2 ratio, arterial pH and base excess, and increased blood lactate levels observed in both SG and NS, but were more profound in NS. These findings suggest that nonselective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME is detrimental during the early phase of experimental neonatal sepsis. PMID:14555813

  20. Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations. PMID:22923949

  1. Arachidonic acid triggers [Ca2+]i increases in rat round spermatids by a likely GPR activation, ERK signalling and ER/acidic compartments Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Paillamanque, Joaquin; Sanchez-Tusie, Ana; Carmona, Emerson M.; Treviño, Claudia L.; Sandoval, Carolina; Nualart, Francisco; Osses, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a compound secreted by Sertoli cells (SC) in a FSH-dependent manner, is able to induce the release of Ca2+ from internal stores in round spermatids and pachytene spermatocytes. In this study, the possible site(s) of action of AA in round spermatids, the signalling pathways associated and the intracellular Ca2+ stores targeted by AA-induced signalling were pharmacologically characterized by measuring intracellular Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ probes. Our results suggest that AA acts by interacting with a fatty acid G protein coupled receptor, initiating a G protein signalling cascade that may involve PLA2 and ERK activation, which in turn opens intracellular ryanodine-sensitive channels as well as NAADP-sensitive channels in acidic intracellular Ca2+ stores. The results presented here also suggest that AMPK and PKA modulate this AA-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores in round spermatids. We propose that unsaturated free fatty acid lipid signalling in the seminiferous tubule is a novel regulatory component of rat spermatogenesis. PMID:28192519

  2. Arachidonic acid triggers [Ca2+]i increases in rat round spermatids by a likely GPR activation, ERK signalling and ER/acidic compartments Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Paillamanque, Joaquin; Sanchez-Tusie, Ana; Carmona, Emerson M; Treviño, Claudia L; Sandoval, Carolina; Nualart, Francisco; Osses, Nelson; Reyes, Juan G

    2017-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a compound secreted by Sertoli cells (SC) in a FSH-dependent manner, is able to induce the release of Ca2+ from internal stores in round spermatids and pachytene spermatocytes. In this study, the possible site(s) of action of AA in round spermatids, the signalling pathways associated and the intracellular Ca2+ stores targeted by AA-induced signalling were pharmacologically characterized by measuring intracellular Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ probes. Our results suggest that AA acts by interacting with a fatty acid G protein coupled receptor, initiating a G protein signalling cascade that may involve PLA2 and ERK activation, which in turn opens intracellular ryanodine-sensitive channels as well as NAADP-sensitive channels in acidic intracellular Ca2+ stores. The results presented here also suggest that AMPK and PKA modulate this AA-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores in round spermatids. We propose that unsaturated free fatty acid lipid signalling in the seminiferous tubule is a novel regulatory component of rat spermatogenesis.

  3. Different effects of dexamethasone and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME on caerulein-induced rat acute pancreatitis, depending on the severity.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Kato, Shinichi; Abe, Mitsumasa; Mitsufuji, Shoji; Takeuchi, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Effects of dexamethasone and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis were examined in rats. Acute pancreatitis was induced by caerulein (20 mug/kg, s.c.) given repeatedly 2 or 4 times every hour, and serum amylase levels, pancreas weight and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured 6 h after the first injection of caerulein. Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg) and L-NAME (30 mg/kg) were administered p.o. 30 min before the first injection of caerulein. Caerulein caused moderate or severe pancreatitis, depending on the times of injections, resulting in different degrees of increase in serum amylase levels and pancreas weight, and the marked elevation of MPO activity was observed only after injections of caerulein given 4 times per hour. Both dexamethasone and L-NAME suppressed the severity of pancreatits, yet the effect of L-NAME as compared with dexamethasone was more potent against mild pancreatitis but less potent against severe pancreatitis. These results suggest that caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis shows different responsiveness to L-NAME and dexamethasone, depending on the severity; the former is more effective against pancreatitis with less inflammation, while the latter is more effective against pancreatitis with severe inflammation. It is assumed that endogenous NO may be involved in oedema formation as the early event in the development of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Effects of a novel ACE inhibitor, 3-(3-thienyl)-l-alanyl-ornithyl-proline, on endothelial vasodilation and hepatotoxicity in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mahesh Kumar; Hussain, M Ejaz; Pasha, Santosh; Fahim, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread biological mediator involved in many physiological and pathological processes, eg, in the regulation of vascular tone and hypertension. Chronic inhibition of NO synthase by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) hydrochloride results in the development of hypertension accompanied by an increase in vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli. Recently, we developed a novel sulfur-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: 3-(3-thienyl)-l-alanyl-ornithyl-proline (TOP). Our previous studies indicated a superior nature of the molecule as an antihypertensive agent in spontaneously hypertensive rats (showing the involvement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) in comparison to captopril. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of TOP on NO pathway in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats, and captopril was included as the standard treatment group. Treatment with both TOP (20 mg/kg) and captopril (40 mg/kg) prevented the development of hypertension in l-NAME model, but TOP showed better restoration of NO and normal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme. In addition, in vitro vasorelaxation assay showed an improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both the cases. Further, the biochemical (malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) and the histopathological effects of TOP on rat liver tissues revealed a protective nature of TOP in comparison to captopril in the l-NAME model. In conclusion, TOP at 50% lesser dose than captopril was found to be better in the l-NAME model.

  5. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.

  6. Effects of NO Synthase Blocker L-NAME on Functional State of the Neuromotor System during Traumatic Disease of the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Yafarova, G G; Andrianov, V V; Yagudin, R Kh; Shaikhytdinov, I I; Gainutdinov, Kh L

    2017-01-01

    Functional state of the neuromotor system after administration of a nonspecific NO synthase blocker L-NAME was studied on the model of experimental contusion of the spinal cord. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of NO production in the damaged segment of the spinal cord were performed for estimation of the dynamics of intensity of NO production during traumatic disease of the spinal cord and selection of optimal period for L-NAME administration. The status of the neuromotor system was evaluated by stimulation electromyography. Treatment with L-NAME during the acute period of traumatic injury to the spinal cord sharply reduced the intensity of evoked motor responses and more pronounced increase in excitability of peripheral motor structures. The results suggest that NO system is a factor of regulation of the stress-induced and adaptive responses of the body at the early stage of spinal cord injury.

  7. Celecoxib aggravates cardiac apoptosis in L-NAME-induced pressure overload model in rats: Immunohistochemical determination of cardiac caspase-3, Mcl-1, Bax and Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Sarah M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Ibrahim, Abdelazim; El-Baz, Amani A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2017-06-25

    The mechanism of celecoxib cardiovascular adverse events was earlier investigated; yet in-depth investigations are needed to assess the involvement of its pro-apoptotic effect throughout this process. An in-vivo chronic rat model of pressure overload employing Nʷ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was tested at different time intervals to ensure the occurrence of persistent myocardial apoptosis along with pressure overload. Seven groups of male Wistar rats were assigned as (i) distilled water; (ii-iv) L-NAME (60 mg/kg) for 6, 12 or 16 weeks; (v-vii) L-NAME [16 weeks] + celecoxib (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg), from week 13 to week 16. Treatment with L-NAME for 6, 12 or 16 weeks increased systolic blood pressure, serum level of creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase. Further, it induced cardiac hypertrophy, detected in terms of greater heart weight index and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and produced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Moreover, administration of L-NAME increased cardiac immunostaining for activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio whereas; immunostaining for Mcl-1 was decreased. Administration of celecoxib (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) aggravated the L-NAME-induced toxicity. The work results shed the light on the putative pro-apoptotic effect of celecoxib at a risk state of pressure overload comparable to the clinical condition of essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Shen, Jie; Zhou, Guangxing; Shen, Linlin; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used for the treatment of preeclampsia. This study aimed to evaluate effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in pregnant rats treated with N(G)-nitro-.-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: non-pregnancy and three pregnant groups. From gestational day 2-12, normal pregnancy group (NOR) received sterile water through intravenous injection, LN was injected with L-NAME [25 mg/day] to induce preeclampsia, while LNM group was also treated with magnesium sulfate at 0.3 g/kg at gestational day 13. HRV, BPV and BRS were monitored, and endothelial functions were detected at gestational day 14. Rats with treatment of L-NAME showed significantly increased blood pressure and endothelin-1 concentration and decreased plasma NO concentration; concomitant treatment with magnesium sulfate suppressed blood pressure. Also, rats treated with L-NAME and magnesium sulfate underwent lower heart rate variability (lower absolute and normalized LF) and higher blood pressure variability (lower normalized HF and LF, higher normalized VLF) compared with non-pregnant or normal pregnant rats, whereas normalized LF of HRV in rats co-administered magnesium sulfate returned to normal level. Additionally, rats treated with L-NAME underwent decreased BRS-SP, BRS-NE, BRS LF and HF, and rats with concomitant magnesium sulfate partially reversed the decline (p>0.05) and had significantly lower BRS-SP, BRS-NE. Sympathetic and parasympathetic impairment exist in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME. Magnesium sulfate may ameliorate alterations in the autonomic nervous system noted in preeclampsia.

  9. Cyclophosphamide induced stomach and duodenal lesions as a NO-system disturbance in rats: L-NAME, L-arginine, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Luetic, Krešimir; Sucic, Mario; Vlainic, Josipa; Halle, Zeljka Belosic; Strinic, Dean; Vidovic, Tinka; Luetic, Franka; Marusic, Marinko; Gulic, Sasa; Pavelic, Tatjana Turudic; Kokot, Antonio; Seiwerth, Ranka Serventi; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-04-01

    We revealed a new point with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 days): we counteracted both rat stomach and duodenal ulcers and increased NO- and MDA-levels in these tissues. As a NO-system effect, BPC 157 therapy (10 µg/kg, 10 ng/kg, intraperitoneally once a day or in drinking water, till the sacrifice) attenuated the increased NO- and MDA-levels and nullified, in rats, severe cyclophosphamide-ulcers and even stronger stomach and duodenal lesions after cyclophosphamide + L-NAME (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day). L-arginine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day not effective alone) led L-NAME-values only to the control values (cyclophosphamide + L-NAME + L-arginine-rats). Briefly, rats were sacrificed at 24 h after last administration on days 1, 2, 3, or 7, and assessment included sum of longest lesions diameters (mm) in the stomach and duodenum, oxidative stress by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactivity as malondialdehyde equivalents (MDA), NO in stomach and duodenal tissue samples using the Griess reaction. All these parameters were highly exaggerated in rats who underwent cyclophosphamide treatment. We identified high MDA-tissue values, high NO-tissue values, ulcerogenic and beneficial potential in cyclophosphamide-L-NAME-L-arginine-BPC 157 relationships. This suggests that in cyclophosphamide damaged rats, NO excessive release generated by the inducible isozyme, damages the vascular wall and other tissue cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates, while failing endothelial production and resulting in further aggravation by L-NAME which was inhibited by L-arginine. Finally, BPC 157, due to its special relations with NO-system, may both lessen increased MDA- and NO-tissues values and counteract effects of both cyclophosphamide and L-NAME on stomach and duodenal lesions.

  10. Hypermagnesemia disturbances in rats, NO-related: pentadecapeptide BPC 157 abrogates, L-NAME and L-arginine worsen.

    PubMed

    Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Stambolija, Vasilije; Kolenc, Danijela; Katancic, Jadranka; Murselovic, Tamara; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Strbe, Sanja; Drmic, Domagoj; Barisic, Ivan; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, administered before a high-dose magnesium injection in rats, might be a useful peptide therapy against magnesium toxicity and the magnesium-induced effect on cell depolarization. Moreover, this might be an NO-system-related effect. Previously, BPC 157 counteracts paralysis, arrhythmias and hyperkalaemia, extreme muscle weakness; parasympathetic and neuromuscular blockade; injured muscle healing and interacts with the NOS-blocker and NOS-substrate effects. Assessment included magnesium sulfate (560 mg/kg intraperitoneally)-induced muscle weakness, muscle and brain lesions, hypermagnesemia, hyperkalaemia, increased serum enzyme values assessed in rats during and at the end of a 30-min period and medication (given intraperitoneally/kg at 15 min before magnesium) [BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), L-arginine (100 mg), alone and/or together]. In HEK293 cells, the increasing magnesium concentration from 1 to 5 mM could depolarize the cells at 1.75 ± 0.44 mV. L-NAME + magnesium-rats and L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited worsened severe muscle weakness and lesions, brain lesions, hypermagnesemia and serum enzymes values, with emerging hyperkalaemia. However, L-NAME + L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited all control values and normokalaemia. BPC 157 abrogated hypermagnesemia and counteracted all of the magnesium-induced disturbances (including those aggravated by L-NAME or L-arginine). Thus, cell depolarization due to increasing magnesium concentration was inhibited in the presence of BPC 157 (1 µM) in vitro. BPC 157 likely counteracts the initial event leading to hypermagnesemia and the life-threatening actions after a magnesium overdose. In contrast, a worsened clinical course, higher hypermagnesemia, and emerging hyperkalaemia might cause both L-NAME and L-arginine to affect the same events adversely. These events were also opposed by BPC 157.

  11. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  12. Soy protein hydrolysate ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Suh-Ching; Chen, Shu-Tzu; Chen, Jiun-Rong

    2008-12-01

    Pepsin-digested soy protein hydrolysate has been reported to be responsible for many of the physiological benefits associated with soy protein consumption. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soy protein hydrolysate with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential on the blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were fed a diet containing L-NAME (50 mg/kg body weight) with or without soy protein hydrolysate (1%, 3% or 5%) for 6 weeks. We found that ingestion of soy protein hydrolysate retarded the development of hypertension during the 6-week experimental period without affecting the amount of food intake. Although there was no difference in plasma ACE activity or tissue nitric oxide levels, ACE activity in the heart of rats consuming soy protein hydrolysate was significantly lower than that of the control group. Moreover, cardiac malonaldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations were also lower in the soy protein hydrolysate group. No difference in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 level was found in plasma or cardiovascular tissue. In the histopathological analysis, we also found that soy protein hydrolysate ameliorated inflammation and left ventricle hypertrophy in the heart. These findings suggest that soy protein hydrolysate might not only improve the balance between circulating nitric oxide and renin-angiotensin system but also show beneficial effects on cardiovascular tissue through its ACE inhibitory activity.

  13. Effects of midodrine and L-NAME on systemic and cerebral hemodynamics during cognitive activation in spinal cord injury and intact controls.

    PubMed

    Wecht, Jill M; Weir, Joseph P; Radulovic, Miroslav; Bauman, William A

    2016-02-01

    We previously showed that increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) following administration of midodrine hydrochloride (MH) and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) resulted in increased mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) during head-up tilt in hypotensive individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and question if this same association was evident during cognitive activation. Herein, we report MAP and MFV during two serial subtraction tasks (SSt) given before (predrug) and after (postdrug) administration of MH; (10 mg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg) or no drug (ND) in 15 subjects with SCI compared to nine able-bodied (AB) controls. Three-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to determine significant main and interaction effects for group (SCI, AB), visit (MH, L-NAME, ND), and time (predrug, postdrug) for MAP and MFV during the two SSt. The three-way interaction was significant for MAP (F = 4.262; P = 0.020); both MH (30 ± 26 mmHg; P < 0.05) and L-NAME (27 ± 22 mmHg; P < 0.01) significantly increased MAP in the SCI group, but not in the AB group. There was a significant visit by time interaction for MFV suggesting an increase from predrug to postdrug following L-NAME (6 ± 8 cm/sec; P < 0.05) and MH (4 ± 7 cm/sec; P < 0.05), regardless of study group, with little change following ND (3 ± 3 cm/sec). The relationship between change in MAP and MFV was significant in the SCI group following administration of MH (r(2) = 0.38; P < 0.05) and L-NAME (r(2) = 0.32; P < 0.05). These antihypotensive agents, at the doses tested, raised MAP, which was associated with an increase MFV during cognitive activation in hypotensive subjects with SCI. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 µM and 4.0 µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Decreased plasma arachidonic acid binding capacity in neonates.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, P D; Walenga, R W; Clark, D; Stuart, M J

    1987-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites have been implicated in neonatal pathologic states such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since free (nonprotein bound) AA is the substrate for synthesis of these compounds, a decreased capacity to bind AA in neonatal plasma could contribute to these disorders. AA binding was assayed by equilibrium dialysis in plasma samples from healthy adults and various infant groups. Plasma from these infant groups bound significantly less AA than adult plasma. Premature infants with RDS and premature infants receiving intralipid had the lowest capacity to bind AA. The increased availability of free AA may be important in neonatal pathophysiologic states involving arachidonate metabolites.

  16. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Turnover of the Dermal Skeleton: Studies on Zebrafish Scales

    PubMed Central

    de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R.; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation. PMID:24586706

  17. Arachidonic acid enhances turnover of the dermal skeleton: studies on zebrafish scales.

    PubMed

    de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation.

  18. Hypertension and impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, F; Miyake, Y; Hirakawa, A; Nakahira, T; Yamaoka, M; Shimamura, K; Yamamoto, K; Sunano, S

    2001-04-01

    Effects of chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on blood pressure and on endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta, carotid and iliac arteries were studied. The endothelium-dependent relaxation was compared in arteries from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically hypertensive rats (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHRSP). Chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with L-NAME caused an elevation of blood pressure. The elevated blood pressure at 15 weeks of age was significantly higher in these animals than that of untreated Wistar rats, but lower than that of SHRSP. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the arteries induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was almost abolished by chronic treatment with L-NAME. The remaining small relaxation in arteries from L-NAME-treated rats was completely inhibited by application of L-NAME (10(-4) M). In such preparations, higher concentrations of ACh induced a contraction, which was abolished by removal of the endothelium or by an application of indomethacin (10(-5) M). Endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was similar between preparations from untreated and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in preparations from SHRSP, when compared with that in those from WKY. However, the impairment was less prominent in preparations from SHRSP than in those from L-NAME-treated rats. These results suggest that the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in the arteries from L-NAME-treated rats is not due to the elevated blood pressure resulting from the chronic treatment, and that impairment of NO synthesis by the endothelium does not play a major role in the initiation of hypertension in SHRSP.

  19. Effect of low doses of L-NAME on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic depletion in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Abekawa, T; Ohmori, T; Honda, M; Ito, K; Koyama, T

    2001-01-01

    The toxic dose of methamphetamine (METH) (5 mg/kg, s.c., x4, 2 hr intervals) decreased contents of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatum, and decreased contents of serotonin (5-HT) in both striatum and nucleus accumbens. Administration of low doses of a non-selective endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., x1) intensified the METH-induced decreases in contents of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum. NO substrate, L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p., x4) reversed these effects of L-NAME on the METH-neurotoxicity. L-NAME did not change the METH-induced hyperthermia. These findings, which are contrary to our previous study with a high dose of L-NAME, suggest that the inhibition of endothelial or neuronal NOS-mediated NO production by low doses of L-NAME enhanced the METH-induced neurotoxicity. The finding that L-NAME can have opposite effects on the METH-neurotoxicity according to the dosing is important, however, additional experiments should be performed to clarify which type of NOS is related to these effects.

  20. Neuroprotective Role of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) against Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia with Crowding Stress (CHC) Induced Depression-Like Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Satya Narayan; Baitharu, Iswar; Sharma, Apurva; Gurjar, Anoop Kishor Singh; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-01-01

    Improper neuroimmune responses following chronic stress exposure have been reported to cause neuronal dysfunctions leading to memory impairment, anxiety and depression like behaviours. Though several factors affecting microglial activation and consequent alteration in neuro-inflammatory responses have been well studied, role of NO and its association with microglia in stress induced depression model is yet to be explored. In the present study, we validated combination of chronic hypobaric hypoxia and crowding (CHC) as a stress model for depression and investigated the role of chronic stress induced elevated nitric oxide (NO) level in microglia activation and its effect on neuro-inflammatory responses in brain. Further, we evaluated the ameliorative effect of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) to reverse the stress induced depressive mood state. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rat were taken and divided into control and CHC stress exposed group with and without treatment of L-NAME. Depression like behaviour and anhedonia in rats were assessed by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Sucrose Preference Test (SPT). Microglial activation was evaluated using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in the hippocampal region. Our result showed that exposure to CHC stress increased the number of active microglia with corresponding increase in inflammatory cytokines and altered behavioural responses. The inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME during CHC exposure decreased the number of active microglia in hippocampus as evident from decreased Iba-1 positive cells. Further, L-NAME administration decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampus and improved behaviour of rats. Our study demonstrate that stress induced elevation of NO plays pivotal role in altered microglial activation and consequent neurodegenerative processes leading to depression like behaviour in rat. PMID:27082990

  1. Neuroprotective Role of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) against Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia with Crowding Stress (CHC) Induced Depression-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Deep, Satya Narayan; Baitharu, Iswar; Sharma, Apurva; Gurjar, Anoop Kishor Singh; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-01-01

    Improper neuroimmune responses following chronic stress exposure have been reported to cause neuronal dysfunctions leading to memory impairment, anxiety and depression like behaviours. Though several factors affecting microglial activation and consequent alteration in neuro-inflammatory responses have been well studied, role of NO and its association with microglia in stress induced depression model is yet to be explored. In the present study, we validated combination of chronic hypobaric hypoxia and crowding (CHC) as a stress model for depression and investigated the role of chronic stress induced elevated nitric oxide (NO) level in microglia activation and its effect on neuro-inflammatory responses in brain. Further, we evaluated the ameliorative effect of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) to reverse the stress induced depressive mood state. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rat were taken and divided into control and CHC stress exposed group with and without treatment of L-NAME. Depression like behaviour and anhedonia in rats were assessed by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Sucrose Preference Test (SPT). Microglial activation was evaluated using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed in the hippocampal region. Our result showed that exposure to CHC stress increased the number of active microglia with corresponding increase in inflammatory cytokines and altered behavioural responses. The inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME during CHC exposure decreased the number of active microglia in hippocampus as evident from decreased Iba-1 positive cells. Further, L-NAME administration decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampus and improved behaviour of rats. Our study demonstrate that stress induced elevation of NO plays pivotal role in altered microglial activation and consequent neurodegenerative processes leading to depression like behaviour in rat.

  2. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid metabolic alterations in l-NAME hypertensive rats by sinapic acid--Role of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Raja, Boobalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sinapic acid, a bioactive phenolic acid on high blood pressure associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Sinapic acid was administered to rats orally at a dosage of 40 mg/kg everyday for a period of 4 weeks. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, organ weights (liver and kidney), lipid peroxidation products in tissues (liver and kidney), activities of hepatic marker enzymes and the levels of renal function markers in serum of l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment also significantly increased the level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of l-NAME rats. Tissue damage was assessed by histopathological examination. Alterations in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, level of plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids were corrected by sinapic acid treatment in l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in plasma and liver, whereas the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was significantly increased in the plasma of hypertensive rats. Docking result showed the interaction between sinapic acid and HMG-CoA reductase. Sinapic acid has shown best ligand binding energy of -5.5 kcal/M. Moreover, in chick embryo model, sinapic acid improved vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane. These results of the present study concludes that sinapic acid acts as a protective agent against hypertension associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT₁R Expression.

    PubMed

    Maneesai, Putcharawipa; Prasarttong, Patoomporn; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tangsucharit, Panot; Prachaney, Parichat; Pakdeechote, Poungrat

    2016-02-29

    This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT) extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day): captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  4. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    PubMed Central

    Maneesai, Putcharawipa; Prasarttong, Patoomporn; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tangsucharit, Panot; Prachaney, Parichat; Pakdeechote, Poungrat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT) extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day): captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS. PMID:26938552

  5. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  6. (-)-Epicatechin prevents alterations in the metabolism of superoxide anion and nitric oxide in the hearts of L-NAME-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Piotrkowski, Barbara; Calabró, Valeria; Galleano, Mónica; Fraga, César G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of (-)-epicatechin administration in the heart of a rat model with reduced NO production that follows a short-term treatment with L-NAME. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 4 d with L-NAME in the absence or presence of (-)-epicatechin in the diet. The redox status in cardiac tissue was improved by (-)-epicatechin administration. L-NAME treatment induced a decrease in NO synthase activity (-62%, p<0.05) and an increase in NADPH-dependent superoxide anion production (+300%, p<0.05) that were totally prevented by (-)-epicatechin administration. These effects of (-)-epicatechin were associated with a higher endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation at an activation site and a reduced expression of the regulatory subunit, p47(phox), suggesting the involvement of posttranslational mechanisms in (-)-epicatechin action. Thus, the (-)-epicatechin treatment would restore NO steady state levels in vivo through effects on both, its synthesis and degradation via the reaction with superoxide anion. The fact that (-)-epicatechin is commonly present in human diet makes this compound a reasonable explanation for the positive cardiovascular effects of a high consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  7. Effects of L-NAME, a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on AlCl3-induced toxicity in the rat forebrain cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marina D.; Jelenković, Ankica; Čolić, Miodrag; Stojanović, Ivana; Ninković, Milica

    2009-01-01

    The present experiments were done to determine the effectiveness of a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on oxidative stress parameters induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) intrahippocampal injections in Wistar rats. Animals were sacrificed 3 h and 30 d after treatments, heads were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and forebrain cortices were removed. Crude mitochondrial fraction preparations of forebrain cortices were used for the biochemical analyses: nitrite levels, superoxide production, malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced glutathione contents. AlCl3 injection resulted in increased nitrite concentrations, superoxide anion production, malondialdehyde concentrations and reduced glutathione contents in the forebrain cortex, suggesting that AlCl3 exposure promoted oxidative stress in this brain structure. The biochemical changes observed in neuronal tissues showed that aluminium acted as a pro-oxidant. However, the non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, exerted anti-oxidant actions in AlCl3-treated animals. These results revealed that NO-mediated neurotoxicity due to intrahippocampal AlCl3 injection spread temporally and spatially to the forebrain cortex, and suggested a potentially neuroprotective effect for L-NAME. PMID:19255519

  8. Effects of L-NAME, a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on AlCl3-induced toxicity in the rat forebrain cortex.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Ivana D; Jovanović, Marina D; Jelenković, Ankica; Colić, Miodrag; Stojanović, Ivana; Ninković, Milica

    2009-03-01

    The present experiments were done to determine the effectiveness of a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on oxidative stress parameters induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) intrahippocampal injections in Wistar rats. Animals were sacrificed 3 h and 30 d after treatments, heads were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and forebrain cortices were removed. Crude mitochondrial fraction preparations of forebrain cortices were used for the biochemical analyses: nitrite levels, superoxide production, malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced glutathione contents. AlCl(3) injection resulted in increased nitrite concentrations, superoxide anion production, malondialdehyde concentrations and reduced glutathione contents in the forebrain cortex, suggesting that AlCl(3) exposure promoted oxidative stress in this brain structure. The biochemical changes observed in neuronal tissues showed that aluminium acted as a pro-oxidant. However, the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, exerted anti-oxidant actions in AlCl(3)-treated animals. These results revealed that NO-mediated neurotoxicity due to intrahippocampal AlCl3 injection spread temporally and spatially to the forebrain cortex, and suggested a potentially neuroprotective effect for L-NAME.

  9. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, attenuates saccharin drinking in a two-choice test in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Czech, D A

    1999-08-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) [0 (veh)], 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to water-deprived, saccharin-preferring, rats in a 30-min two-bottle choice test of 0.1% sodium saccharin and tap water in a within subjects design. Saccharin intake was selectively attenuated in a dose-related manner with increasing dose of L-NAME, reaching statistical significance at 25 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME when compared to vehicle control condition (p < 0.01). In contrast, water intake was not appreciably affected. Total fluid intake was attenuated as well. Neither saccharin nor water intake in a second group of animals was significantly affected by the inactive isomer, D-NAME, suggesting a stereospecific action. These data suggest that a taste factor might contribute to the well-documented hypophagic action of NOS inhibitors in a number of animal species. The possibility that such effect might be mediated through a serotonergic mechanism is considered.

  10. Effects of lisinopril on NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B levels in the hippocampus of rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Recep; Kirbas, Aynur; Kirbas, Serkan; Kutluhan, Suleyman; Delibas, Namik

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is major risk factor leading to cerebrovascular pathologies. N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and renin-angiotensin system are involved in neuronal plasticity, as well as cognitive functions in the hippocampus. In this study, we examined the effects of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor, on the levels of hippocampal NMDAR subunits; NR2A and NR2B in L-NAME (N(ε)-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester)-induced hypertensive rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Compared with the control group, the MDA level was significantly increased after 8 weeks in the L-NAME-treated group. Rats treated with lisinopril and L-NAME plus lisinopril were found to have significantly decreased hippocampal MDA levels. Regarding the hippocampal concentrations of NR2A and NR2B, there were no statistically significant differences between groups. We demonstrated that lisinopril treatment has no direct regulatory effect on the levels of NR2A and NR2B in the rat hippocampus. Our results showed that Lisinopril could act as an antioxidant agent against hypertension-induced oxidative stress in rat hippocampus. The findings support that the use of lisinopril may offer a good alternative in the treatment of hypertension by reducing not only blood pressure but also prevent hypertensive complications in the brain.

  11. Dietary d-limonene alleviates insulin resistance and oxidative stress-induced liver injury in high-fat diet and L-NAME-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Victor Antony Santiago, Jesudoss; Jayachitra, Jayaraman; Shenbagam, Madhavan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2012-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common etiologies of chronic liver disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome associated with NAFLD is still under debate. AIM OF THE SCOPE: This study has investigated the hepatic biochemical and histological changes and also insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome associated with NAFLD. Young male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD 42.2% beef tallow) together with N ( ω )-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 80 mg/L in drinking water) for 8 weeks and subsequently with 2% d-limonene for the final 4 weeks. HFD-fed rats treated with L-NAME showed increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, hepatic marker enzymes, hepatic lipids, circulatory lipid peroxidation by-products, and hepatic phase I enzyme activities with decreased circulatory nonenzymic antioxidant concentrations and hepatic phase II enzyme activities. Dietary supplementation with d-limonene reversed the HFD and L-NAME-induced changes and restored pathological alteration of liver and pancreas. These data provide new insights into the therapeutic approach of d-limonene against the development of the metabolic syndrome associated with NAFLD.

  12. Esophagogastric anastomosis in rats: Improved healing by BPC 157 and L-arginine, aggravated by L-NAME

    PubMed Central

    Djakovic, Zeljko; Djakovic, Ivka; Cesarec, Vedran; Madzarac, Goran; Becejac, Tomislav; Zukanovic, Goran; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Pajtak, Alen; Knez, Nikica; Japjec, Mladen; Luetic, Kresimir; Stancic-Rokotov, Dinko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    AIM To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. METHODS Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function. Additionally, BPC 157 particularly interacts with the NO-system. In the 4 d after esophagogastric anastomosis creation, rats received medication (/kg intraperitoneally once daily: BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), or L-arginine (100 mg) alone and/or combined or BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng) in drinking water). For rats underwent esophagogastric anastomosis, daily assessment included progressive stomach damage (sum of the longest diameters, mm), esophagitis (scored 0-5), weak anastomosis (mL H2O before leak), low pressure in esophagus at anastomosis and in the pyloric sphincter (cm H2O), progressive weight loss (g) and mortality. Immediate effect assessed blood vessels disappearance (scored 0-5) at the stomach surface immediately after anastomosis creation. RESULTS BPC 157 (all regimens) fully counteracted the perilous disease course from the very beginning (i.e., with the BPC 157 bath, blood vessels remained present at the gastric surface after anastomosis creation) and eliminated mortality. Additionally, BPC 157 treatment in combination with L-NAME nullified any effect of L-NAME that otherwise intensified the regular course. Consistently, with worsening (with L-NAME administration) and amelioration (with L-arginine), either L-arginine amelioration prevails (attenuated esophageal and gastric lesions) or they counteract each other (L-NAME + L

  13. The influence of mono- and divalent cations on the cardiac metabolism of arachidonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, M.T.; Malik, K.U. )

    1989-06-01

    Our previous study indicated that, in the isolated rabbit heart, perfusion with Ca2+ free Krebs Henseleit buffer (KHB) results in increased conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, probably as the result of increased availability of substrate to cyclooxygenase. Since perfusion with Ca2+ free buffer is known to cause alterations in the cardiac content of various mono- and divalent cations, the present study was performed to determine: (a) The relationship between the conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and cardiac content of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+; and (b) Whether enhanced arachidonic acid conversion to prostaglandins during Ca2+ free perfusion is due to reduced incorporation of this fatty acid into tissue lipids. Perfusion of the rabbit heart with Ca2+ free buffer produced a significant reduction in the tissue content of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. However, the production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from exogenous arachidonic acid was linearly correlated with tissue Mg2+. These observations, together with our finding that perfusion with Ca2+ free KHB reduced the incorporation of (3H) arachidonic acid into tissue lipids, suggests that Ca2+ free perfusion may, by reducing the activity of arachidonyl CoA synthetase (a Mg2+ dependent enzyme), decrease the acylation of arachidonic acid into lipids, thus increasing the availability of arachidonic acid to cyclooxygenase.

  14. Arachidonic acid release from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells is regulated by I1-imidazoline receptors.

    PubMed

    Ernsberger, P

    1998-10-15

    Rat PC 12 pheochromocytoma cells lack alpha2-adrenergic receptors but express plasma membrane I1-imidazoline receptors. In response to the I1-agonist moxonidine, diglycerides are generated via phosphatidylcholine-selective phospholipase C, and prostaglandin E2 is released. This report characterizes I-receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid, the precursor to the prostaglandins. PC12 cells were incubated with [3H]arachidonic acid for 24 h and superfused with 0.01% bovine serum albumin in Krebs' physiological buffer at 1 ml/min. Calcium ionophore increased arachidonic acid release only marginally, implying that in PC12 cells arachidonic acid release is not driven by calcium. The I1-agonist moxonidine at concentrations between 10 nM and 1.0 microM rapidly elicited up to two-fold increases in [3H]arachidonic acid release. Guanabenz, a potent alpha2-agonist and I2-ligand, had no effect. The selective I1-antagonist efaroxan blocked the action of moxonidine. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor aristolochic acid had no effect, suggesting that arachidonic acid release may be through an indirect pathway, possibly involving diglycerides. Thus, I1-imidazoline receptors in PC12 cells are coupled to arachidonic acid release through an as yet unknown pathway.

  15. The effects of sildenafil citrate on urinary podocin and nephrin mRNA expression in an L-NAME model of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Baijnath, Sooraj; Murugesan, Saravanakumar; Mackraj, Irene; Gathiram, Prem; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC) on podocyturia in N (ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) model of pre-eclampsia (PE). One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) were divided into five groups like pregnant control (PC), early-onset PE (EOPE), late-onset PE(LOPE), early and late-onset PE with SC-treated groups [EOPE (SC); LOPE (SC)]. PE was induced in SDR by oral administration of L-NAME in drinking water for 4-8 days for EOPE and 8-14 day for LOPE. The blood pressure, urine volume and total urine protein were increased in EOPE and LOPE groups when compared to PC, and all the above parameters decreased in EOPE (SC) and LOPE (SC) groups when compared to EOPE and LOPE groups, respectively. The EOPE and LOPE groups showed an increase in urinary nephrin mRNA and podocin mRNA levels compared to PC group. Increases in serum and renal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) expression levels and decreases in renal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and serum placenta growth factor (PlGF) levels were observed in EOPE and LOPE groups when compared to PC group. In addition, decreases in serum and renal sFlt-1 expression levels and increases in renal VEGF expression and serum PlGF levels were observed in EOPE (SC) and LOPE (SC) groups when compared to EOPE and LOPE groups, respectively. The light microscopy showed that the renal tissue of L-NAME-treated rats had extensive glomerular damage, tubular damage and infiltration by mononuclear cells when compared to PC group. Therefore, SC ameliorated podocyturia through its effects on the antiangiogenic/angiogenic status in this animal model.

  16. L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as a potential countermeasure to post-suspension hypotension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayorh, M. A.; Socci, R. R.; Watts, S.; Wang, M.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of astronauts returning from spaceflight experience orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension may be due to overproduction of vasodilatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. To evaluate the role of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a countermeasure against the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), we assessed the cardiovascular responses and vascular reactivity to 7-day 30 degrees tail-suspension and a subsequent 6 hr post-suspension period in conscious rats. After a pre-suspension reading, direct MAP and heart rate (HR) were measured daily and every 2 hrs post-suspension. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.), or saline, were administered after the 7th day reading prior to release from suspension and at 2 and 4 hrs post-suspension. At 6 hrs post-suspension, vascular reactivity was assessed. While MAP did not change during the suspension period, it was reduced post-suspension. Heart rate was not significantly altered. L-NAME administration reversed the post-suspension reduction in MAP. In addition, the baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate was modified by L-NAME. Thus, the post-suspension reduction in MAP may be due to overproduction of NO and altered baroreflex activity.

  17. Antidiabetic and antihypertensive effect of Virgin Argan Oil in model of neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic and l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME) hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bellahcen, Said; Hakkou, Zineb; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-07-06

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of Virgin Argan Oil (VAO) obtained from the fruit of Argania spinosa in a model of type 2 diabetes and hypertensive rats. Neonatal diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) 2 days after birth. To induce NO-deficient hypertension, the adult diabetic animals were treated with l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME) (30 mg/kg/day) given orally for 21 days. Following treatment with VAO (21 days), the hyperglycemia decreased to 1.3 ± 0.07 g/l compared with 1.92 ± 0.09 g/l (p < 0.01) in the untreated diabetic-hypertensive rats. The simultaneous administration of VAO with l-NAME prevented the increase in blood pressure during the 3 weeks of treatment. Blood pressure remained constant at 131 ± 1 mm Hg after 21 days - vs 157 ± 0.64 mm Hg in untreated animals (p < 0.001). The treatment with VAO to diabetic-hypertensive rats caused a significant increase of hepatic glycogen levels (13.3 ± 1.8 vs 6.34 ± 0.75 mg/g tissue in untreated diabetic-hypertensive control group; p < 0.01). In conclusion, the overall findings indicate that VAO possesses antidiabetic and antihypertensive activity in n-stz/l-NAME rats. This effect may be related to its high content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Activation and regulation of arachidonic acid release in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W.

    1988-01-01

    Arachidonic acid release in rabbit neutrophils can be enhanced by the addition of chemotactic fMet-Leu-Phe, platelet-activating factor, PAF, or the calcium ionophore A23187. Over 80% of the release ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid comes from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The release is dose-dependent and increases with increasing concentration of the stimulus. The A23187-induced release increases with increasing time of the stimulation. ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid release, but not the rise in the concentration of intracellular calcium, is inhibited in pertussis toxin-treated neutrophils stimulated with PAF. The ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid released by A23187 is potentiated while that release by fMET-Leu-Phe or PAF is inhibited in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA, treated rabbit neutrophils. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine, H-7, has no effect on the potentiation by PMA of the A23187-induced release, it prevents the inhibition by PMA of the release produced by PAF or fMet-Leu-Phe. In addition, PMA increases arachidonic acid release in H-7-treated cells stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 increases the level of diacylglycerol in neutrophils stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. Furthermore, R59022 potentiates ({sup 3}H) arachidonic acid release produced by fMet-Leu-Phe. This potentiation is not inhibited by H-7, in fact, it is increased in H-7-treated neutrophils.

  19. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  20. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats.

    PubMed

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  1. Arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, H.; Sato, Y.; Kanoh, H.

    1985-07-01

    The authors attempted to characterize the general features of arachidonate metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes. The cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)arachidonate were stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), ionophore A23187, and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Common to the three substances, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine almost equally served as sources of arachidonate liberated by the action of phospholipase A2. The stimulation of phospholipase A2 action was observed in the order of A23187 greater than FBS greater than TPA. When stimulated by TPA or A23187, the radioactivity released into the extracellular medium was mostly found in prostaglandin (PG) E2. Formation of other PGs and hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (HETE) was extremely limited. In the case of stimulation by FBS, however, the released radioactivity was mainly associated with non-converted arachidonate. FBS also inhibited the TPA- and A23187-induced conversion of arachidonate to PGE2. Phospholipid degradation induced by the three stimulators was similarly dependent on extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The stimulation by FBS and A23187 was suppressed by calmodulin antagonists, though the effect of A23187 was much more sensitive to the antagonists when compared to that of FBS. The authors observed more than additive effects of the three stimulators when tested together.

  2. Renal tubular angiotensin converting enzyme is responsible for nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced salt sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Giani, Jorge F; Eriguchi, Masahiro; Bernstein, Ellen A; Katsumata, Makoto; Shen, Xiao Z; Li, Liang; McDonough, Alicia A; Fuchs, Sebastien; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A

    2017-04-01

    Renal parenchymal injury predisposes to salt-sensitive hypertension, but how this occurs is not known. Here we tested whether renal tubular angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), the main site of kidney ACE expression, is central to the development of salt sensitivity in this setting. Two mouse models were used: it-ACE mice in which ACE expression is selectively eliminated from renal tubular epithelial cells; and ACE 3/9 mice, a compound heterozygous mouse model that makes ACE only in renal tubular epithelium from the ACE 9 allele, and in liver hepatocytes from the ACE 3 allele. Salt sensitivity was induced using a post L-NAME salt challenge. While both wild-type and ACE 3/9 mice developed arterial hypertension following three weeks of high salt administration, it-ACE mice remained normotensive with low levels of renal angiotensin II. These mice displayed increased sodium excretion, lower sodium accumulation, and an exaggerated reduction in distal sodium transporters. Thus, in mice with renal injury induced by L-NAME pretreatment, renal tubular epithelial ACE, and not ACE expression by renal endothelium, lung, brain, or plasma, is essential for renal angiotensin II accumulation and salt-sensitive hypertension.

  3. Immediate Force Loss after Eccentric Contractions is Increased with L-NAME Administration, a Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    and CHRISTOPHER P. INGALLS, PhD Muscle Biology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA... major regulator of many biological processes in skeletal muscle.1 Skeletal muscle primarily produces nitric oxide (NO) by expression of nNOSμ (neuronal

  4. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  5. Arachidonate is a potent modulator of human heat shock gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Jurivich, D A; Sistonen, L; Sarge, K D; Morimoto, R I

    1994-01-01

    Cell and tissue injury activate the inflammatory response through the action(s) of arachidonic acid and its metabolites, leading to the expression of acute-phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, little is known how arachidonic acid regulates the inflammatory response. As inflammation is also associated with local increase in tissue temperatures, we examined whether arachidonic acid was directly involved in the heat shock response. Extracellular exposure to arachidonic acid induced heat shock gene transcription in a dose-dependent manner via acquisition of DNA-binding activity and phosphorylation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In addition, exposure of cells to low concentrations of arachidonic acid, which by themselves did not induce HSF1 DNA-binding activity, reduced the temperature threshold for HSF1 activation from elevated temperatures which are not physiologically relevant (> 42 degrees C) to temperatures which can be attained during the febrile response (39-40 degrees C). These results indicate that elevated heat shock gene expression is a direct consequence of an arachidonic acid-mediated cellular response. Images PMID:8134388

  6. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  7. Deficient nitric oxide responsible for reduced nerve blood flow in diabetic rats: effects of L-NAME, L-arginine, sodium nitroprusside and evening primrose oil.

    PubMed Central

    Omawari, N.; Dewhurst, M.; Vo, P.; Mahmood, S.; Stevens, E.; Tomlinson, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. This study examined the potential role of impaired nitric oxide production and response in the development of endoneurial ischaemia in experimental diabetes. Rats were anaesthetized (Na pentobarbitone 45 mg kg-1, diazepam 2 mg kg-1) for measurement of sciatic nerve laser Doppler flux and systemic arterial pressure. Drugs were administered into the sciatic endoneurium via a microinjector attached to a glass micropipette. 2. In two separate studies comparing diabetic rats (streptozotocin-induced; 8-10 wk duration) with controls, nerve Doppler flux in diabetic rats (Study 1, 116.6 +/- 40.4 and Study 2, 90.1 +/- 34.7 (s.d.) in arbitrary units) was about half that measured in controls (219.6 +/- 52.4 and 212.8 +/- 95.5 respectively; P < 0.005 for both). There were no significant differences between the two in systemic arterial pressure. 3. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by microinjection of 1 nmol L-NAME into the endoneurium halved flux in controls (to 126.3 +/- 41.3 in Study 1 and 102.1 +/- 38.9 in Study 2; both P < 0.001), with no significant effect in diabetic rats, indicating markedly diminished tonic nitric oxide production in the latter. D-NAME was without effect on nerve Doppler flux. 4. L-Arginine (100 nmol), injected after L-NAME, markedly increased flux in controls (by 65.8% (P < 0.03) and 97.8% (P < 0.01) in the two studies) and by proportionally similar amounts in diabetic rats [75.8% (P < 0.001) and 60.2% (P < 0.02)]. The nitro-donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 nmol) had similar effects to L-arginine in both groups (increases of 66.0% in controls and 77.5% in diabetics; both P < 0.002). 5. A second diabetic group, treated with evening primrose oil performed exactly like control rats in respect of responses to L-NAME, L-arginine and SNP. 6. These findings implicate deficient nitric oxide in nerve ischaemia of diabetes and suggest correction thereof as a mechanism of action of evening primrose oil. PMID:8733594

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) Blockade Attenuates Captopril- or Hydralazine-Induced Cardiovascular Protection in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats-Treated with L-NAME

    PubMed Central

    Benter, Ibrahim F.; Yousif, Mariam H. M.; Al-Saleh, Fatemah M.; Chappell, Raj Raghupathy Mark C.; Diz, Debra I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the contribution of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] to captopril-induced cardiovascular protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) chronically treated with the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME (SHR-L). L-NAME (80 mg/L) administration for three weeks increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 196 ± 6 mmHg to 229 ± 3 mmHg (p<0.05). Treatment of SHR-L with Ang-(1-7) antagonist, [D-Ala7]-Angiotensin-(1-7) (A779; 744 μg/kg/day ip) further elevated MAP to 253 ± 6 mmHg (p<0.05 vs. SHR-L or SHR). Moreover, A779 treatment attenuated the reduction in MAP and proteinuria by either captopril (300 mg/L in drinking water) or hydralazine (1.5 mg/kg/day ip). In isolated perfused hearts, the recovery of left ventricular function from global ischemia was enhanced by captopril or hydralazine treatment, and was exacerbated with A779. The Ang-(1-7) antagonist attenuated the beneficial effects of captopril and hydralazine on cardiac function. Recovery from global ischemia was also improved in isolated SHR-L hearts acutely perfused with captopril during both the perfusion and reperfusion periods. The acute administration of A779 reduced the beneficial actions of captopril to improve recovery following ischemia. We conclude that during periods of reduced nitric oxide availability, endogenous Ang-(1-7) plays a protective role to effectively buffer the increase in blood pressure and renal injury, as well as the recovery from cardiac ischemia. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the blood pressure lowering and tissue protective actions of captopril and hydralazine in a model of severe hypertension and end-organ damage. PMID:21326110

  9. Evaluation of anti-hypertensive activity of Ulmus wallichiana extract and fraction in SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Syed, Anees A; Lahiri, Shibani; Mohan, Divya; Valicherla, Guru R; Gupta, Anand P; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Kumar, Sudhir; Maurya, Rakesh; Hanif, Kashif; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-12-04

    Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Himalayan Elm), a traditional medicinal plant, used in fracture healing in folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. It is also used as diuretic. U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for hypertension (WHO). U. macrocarpa has antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. However, no detailed studies related to hypertension have been reported previously, so we have explored the antihypertensive activity of U. wallichiana. To investigate the pharmacological effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and butanolic fraction (BF) of U. wallichiana in hypertensive rats. SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertension models were used. Treatment was performed by oral administration of EE and BF of U. wallichiana (500mg/kg/day and 50mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Then blood pressure was measured by non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement technique. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) was also reported to support the NIBP data. Concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), nitrate/nitrite (NO), cGMP were estimated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ROS activity were also estimated. Blood pressure was significantly higher in SHR as compared to normotensive wistar group (170.59±0.83mmHg vs 121.54±1.24mmHg, respectively). SBP was increased in DOCA-salt induced group compared to their control (132.77±3.90mmHg vs 107.85±5.95mmHg, respectively) and L-NAME-induced group compared to their control (168.55±5.07mmHg vs 113.03±4.13mmHg, respectively). The treatment of extract and fraction of U. wallichiana significantly decreased the blood pressure in SHR+EE (151.26±1.85mmHg, p<0.001), SHR+BF (140.44±1.16mmHg, p<0.001); DOCA+EE (113.43±5.44mmHg, p<0.05), DOCA+BF (105.09±5.12mmHg, p<0.05) and L-NAME+EE (119.76±4.39mmHg, p<0.001), L-NAME+BF (117.50±7.27mmHg, p<0.001) compared to their respective diseased control groups. The plasma renin, Ang II and ACE activity were also significantly

  10. Effects of arachidonic acid on FFA4 receptor: Signaling, phosphorylation and internalization.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Comonfort, S; Takei, Y; Tsujimoto, G; Hirasawa, A; García-Sáinz, J A

    2017-02-01

    Arachidonic acid increased intracellular calcium, in cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged human FFA4 receptors, with an EC50 of ~40µM. This action was not blocked by cyclooxygenase or lipoxigenase inhibitors but it was inhibited by AH7614, a FFA4 antagonist. Arachidonic acid induced ERK activation accompanied by EGF receptor transactivation. However, EGF transactivation was not the major mechanism through which the fatty acid induced ERK phosphorylation, as evidenced by the inability of AG1478 to block it. Arachidonic acid increased FFA4 receptor phosphorylation that reached its maximum within 15min with an EC50 of ~30µM; inhibitors of protein kinase C partially diminish this effect and AH7614 blocked it. Arachidonic acid induced rapid and sustained Akt/PKB phosphorylation and FFA4 - β-arrestin interaction. Confocal microscopy evidenced that FFA4 receptor activation and phosphorylation were associated to internalization. In conclusion, arachidonic acid is a bona fide FFA4 receptor agonist.

  11. [Studies on arachidonic acid production by Mortierella].

    PubMed

    Bao, S; Zhu, F; Lin, W; Yao, R

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the incubation temperature, initial pH of the medium, carbon source and nitrogen source on the production of arachidonic acid by Mortierella sp. M10 were studied. Thought orthogonal experiments, the optimum culture medium was obtained (g/L): glucose, 100; yeast extract, 10; KNO3, 4.0; KH2PO4, 2.0; CaCl2.2H2O, 0.1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; FeCl3.6H2O, 0.015; ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.0075; CuSO4.5H2O, 0.0005. Under the optimum culture conditions, the dry cell weight and arachidonic acid was 33.51 g/L and 0.827 g/L, respectively. The flask culture process was analysed.

  12. Changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, T.; Walter, J.F.; Printz, M.P.

    1983-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in the skin of hairless mice exposed to UVA, PUVA, UVB, and UVC irradiation. The main products of arachidonic acid in the epidermis were hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), PGE2, and PGD2. Dermis displayed a lower lipoxygenase activity (expressed as HETE production) than the epidermis and showed no detectable cyclooxygenase activity, i.e., no prostaglandin production. The main changes observed in UV-induced inflammatory reactions were as follows. 1. A 5-fold increase in dermal HETE production in PUVA-treated animals and a 29% reduction in epidermal HETE formation after UVC treatment. 2. A marked decrease of PGD2 and a marked increase of PGE2 formation due to alterations of PGH2 metabolism in the UVB-treated group; however, cyclooxygenase activity was unchanged. These changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in the skin may be of pathophysiologic importance in UV-induced inflammatory reaction.

  13. Adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric S; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2007-08-01

    Arachidonic acid, a precursor to a series of inflammatory mediators, may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We examined the association between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica, a country in which the metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent. The 484 study participants each provided a fasting blood sample and an adipose tissue biopsy that was analyzed for fatty acid composition. Criteria for the metabolic syndrome were those established in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. The data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Subjects with greater adipose tissue arachidonic acid content had an increasing risk of the metabolic syndrome across quintiles: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.00; 1.51 (0.78-2.91); 2.40 (1.26-4.55); 3.50 (1.84-6.66); and 6.01 (3.11-11.61); test for trend, P<0.0001, after adjustment for age, gender and area of residence. Further adjustment for metabolic risk factors, including adipose fatty acids and body mass index, did not significantly modify the result. Adipose tissue arachidonic acid was also independently associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated fasting glucose, and high blood pressure. This study identifies arachidonic acid as an important independent marker of metabolic dysregulation. A better understanding of the role of this fatty acid in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is warranted.

  14. Effects of L-arginine and NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on ischemia/reperfusion injury of skeletal muscle, small and large intestines.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Hanna; Sosnowski, Przemyslaw; Biczysko, Maciej; Biczysko, Wieslawa; Majewski, Przemyslaw; Jablecka, Anna; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Smolarek, Iwona; Konwerska, Aneta; Ignys, Iwona; Micker, Maciej

    2011-02-28

    This study analyzed the effects of L-arginine and non-specific nitric oxide (NO) synthase blocker (L-NAME) on structural and metabolic changes in experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Histopathological evaluation of rat tissues after reperfusion was also performed. The animals were divided into four groups: [1] nonischemic control, [2] ischemia 4 hrs/repefusion 30, 60, 120 min, [3] ischemia/reperfusion after L-arginine administration, [4] ischemia/reperfusion, after L-arginine, and L-NAME. L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and L-NAME (75 micromol/rat/day) were administrated orally for 5 days before experiment. Concentrations of free radicals, CD-62P, CD-54 and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in tissues, and MDA and NO levels in sera were determined. Free radical levels significantly increased in reperfused skeletal muscle, small and large intestines. In large bowel, reperfusion increased MDA levels and evoked a rise of endotoxin level while NO levels decreased. Histological studies showed an increase in the number of lymphocytes in both intestines. Administration of L-arginine reduced leukocyte adherence associated with ischemia-repefusion injury, decreased the levels of free radicals and MDA in the examined tissues, and inhibited the release of endotoxins into blood. L-arginine-treated animals showed higher serum NO levels and reduced leukocyte bowel infiltration. Concomitant L-NAME administration reduced serum NO and tissue free radical [corrected] levels, but did not affect intestinal leukocyte infiltration. L-arginine could ameliorate intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and constitute a possible protective mechanism by decreasing neutrophil-endothelial interactions, stimulating free radical scavenging and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  15. The stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets by hydrodynamic stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopalan, Sridhar; Mcintire, Larry V.; Hall, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Kenneth K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stimulating human platelets by thrombin and by hydrodynamic stresses on the platelets' arachidonic acid metabolism were investigated using (1-C-14)-arachidonic acid label and a specially designed viscometer that ensured laminar shear flow with a nearly uniform shear rate throughout the flow region. It was found that platelets activated by thrombin formed principally thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid and 12-hydroxy 5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). On the other hand, platelets activated by shear, formed only 12-HETE (although arachidonic acid metabolism was stimulated); no cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected. Results indicate that platelets may greatly increase their 12-HETE production when activated by passage through a high-stress region of the circulation, such as an atherosclerotic stenosis.

  16. Effects of arachidonic acid on the lysosomal ion permeability and osmotic stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gu; Yi, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Jiang

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of arachidonic acid, a PLA2-produced lipid metabolite, on the lysosomal permeability, osmotic sensitivity and stability. Through the measurements of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase free activity, membrane potential, intralysosomal pH, and lysosomal latency loss in hypotonic sucrose medium, we established that arachidonic acid could increase the lysosomal permeability to both potassium ions and protons, and enhance the lysosomal osmotic sensitivity. As a result, the fatty-acid-promoted entry of potassium ions into the lysosomes via K+/H+ exchange, which could produce osmotic imbalance across their membranes and osmotically destabilize the lysosomes. In addition, the enhancement of lysosomal osmotic sensitivity caused the lysosomes to become more liable to destabilization in osmotic shock. The results suggest that arachidonic acid may play a role in the lysosomal destabilization.

  17. Altered arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet size in atopic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Audera, C.; Rocklin, R.; Vaillancourt, R.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Deykin, D.

    1988-03-01

    The release and metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in physiologically activated platelets obtained from 11 atopic patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma was compared to that of sex- and age-matched nonatopic controls. Prelabeled (/sup 3/H)AA platelets were stimulated with thrombin or collagen and the amount of free (/sup 3/H)AA and radiolabeled metabolites released were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained indicate that although the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)AA into platelet phospholipids and total release of /sup 3/H-radioactivity upon stimulation were comparable in the two groups, the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released from platelets as free AA was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. The reduction in free (/sup 3/H)AA was accompanied by an increase (P less than 0.01) in the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released as cyclooxygenase products in atopic platelets (compared to nonatopic cells) after stimulation with 10 and 25 micrograms/ml collagen. The amount of platelet lipoxygenase product released was comparable between the two groups. Although the blood platelet counts were similar, the mean platelet volume was statistically higher (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. These results indicate that arachidonic acid metabolism in atopic platelets is altered, the pathophysiological significance of which remains to be clarified.

  18. Cannabinoids influence lipid-arachidonic acid pathways in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smesny, Stefan; Rosburg, Timm; Baur, Kati; Rudolph, Nicole; Sauer, Heinrich

    2007-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests modulating effects of cannabinoids on time of onset, severity, and outcome of schizophrenia. Efforts to discover the underlying pathomechanism have led to the assumption of gene x environment interactions, including premorbid genetical vulnerability and worsening effects of continuing cannabis use. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the relationship between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intake and niacin sensitivity in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Intensity of niacin skin flushing, indicating disturbed prostaglandin-mediated processes, was used as peripheral marker of lipid-arachidonic acid pathways and investigated in cannabis-consuming and nonconsuming schizophrenia patients and in healthy controls. Methylnicotinate was applied in three concentrations onto the forearm skin. Flush response was assessed in 3-min intervals over 15 min using optical reflection spectroscopy. In controls, skin flushing was significantly decreased in cannabis-consuming as compared to nonconsuming individuals. When comparing the nonconsuming subgroups, patients showed significantly decreased flush response. The populations as a whole (patients and controls) showed an inverse association between skin flushing and sum scores of Symptom Check List 90-R. Results demonstrate an impact of long-term cannabis use on lipid-arachidonic acid pathways. Considering pre-existing vulnerability of lipid metabolism in schizophrenia, observed effects of cannabis use support the notion of a gene x environment interaction.

  19. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of arachidonic acid against oxidative stress on rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Liang, Cui-Ling; Li, Guang-Mei; Yu, Cai-Yi; Yin, Ming

    2006-11-07

    Arachidonic acid (AA), 5,8,11,14-eicosateraenoic acid is abundant, active and necessary in the human body. In the present study, we reported the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of arachidonic acid on hippocampal slices insulted by glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2)in vitro. Different types of models of brain injury in vitro were developed by 1mM glutamate, 10mM NaN(3) or 2mM H(2)O(2). After 30 min of preincubation with arachidonic acid or linoleic acid, hippocampal slices were subjected to glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2), then the tissue activities were evaluated by using the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride method. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, GSH-PX and catalase) in hippocampal slices were evaluated during the course of incubation. MK886 (5 microM; a noncompetitive inhibitor of proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]alpha), BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether; 100 microM; an antagonist of PPARgamma) and cycloheximide (CHX; 30 microM; an inhibitor of protein synthesis) were tested for their effects on the neuroprotection afforded by arachidonic acid. Population spikes were recorded in randomly selected hippocapal slices. Arachidonic acid (1-10 microM) dose dependently protected hippocampal slices from glutamate and H(2)O(2) injury (P<0.01), and arachidonic acid (10 microM) can significantly improve the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD in hippocampal slices after 1h incubation. In addition, 10 microM arachidonic acid significantly increased the activity of Mn-SOD and catalase, and decreased the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD to control value after 3h incubation. These secondary changes of SOD during incubation can be reversed by indomethacine (10 microM; a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or AA 861 (20 microM; a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor). Its neuroprotective effect was completely abolished by BADGE and CHX. These observations reveal that arachidonic acid can defense against oxidative stress by boosting the internal antioxidant system of hippocampal slices

  1. Arachidonic acid metabolites in pathogenic yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although most of what is known about the biology and function of arachidonic acid metabolites comes from the study of mammalian biology, these compounds can also be produced by lower eukaryotes, including yeasts and other fungi. It is also in this group of organisms that the least is known about the metabolic pathways leading to the production of these compounds as well as the functions of these compounds in the biology of fungi and yeasts. This review will deal with the discovery of oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more specifically the arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as 3-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin F2α and prostaglandin E2, in yeasts starting in the early 1990s. This review will also focus on what is known about the metabolic pathways and/or proteins involved in the production of these compounds in pathogenic yeasts. The possible roles of these compounds in the biology, including the pathology, of these organisms will be discussed. PMID:22873782

  2. Arachidonic acid metabolism in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, PEIYING; CARTWRIGHT, CARRIE A.; LI, JIN; WEN, SIJIN; PROKHOROVA, INA N.; SHUREIQI, IMAD; TRONCOSO, PATRICIA; NAVONE, NORA M.; NEWMAN, ROBERT A.; KIM, JERI

    2012-01-01

    The arachidonic acid pathway is important in the development and progression of numerous malignant diseases, including prostate cancer. To more fully evaluate the role of individual cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolites in prostate cancer, we measured mRNA and protein levels of COXs and LOXs and their arachidonate metabolites in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3 and DU145) prostate cancer cell lines, bone metastasis-derived MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cell lines and their corresponding xenograft models, as well as core biopsy specimens of primary prostate cancer and nonneoplastic prostate tissue taken ex vivo after prostatectomy. Relatively high levels of COX-2 mRNA and its product PGE2 were observed only in PC-3 cells and their xenografts. By contrast, levels of the exogenous 12-LOX product 12-HETE were consistently higher in MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 cells and their corresponding xenograft tissues than were those in LNCaP cells. More strikingly, the mean endogenous level of 12-HETE was significantly higher in the primary prostate cancers than in the nonneoplastic prostate tissue (0.094 vs. 0.010 ng/mg protein, respectively; p=0.019). Our results suggest that LOX metabolites such as 12-HETE are critical in prostate cancer progression and that the LOX pathway may be a target for treating and preventing prostate cancer. PMID:22895552

  3. Valproic acid prevents the deregulation of lipid metabolism and renal renin-angiotensin system in L-NAME induced nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, Thiyagarajan; Raja, Boobalan; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Dhanalakshmi, Thanikkodi

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and renoprotective potential of valproic acid against N(ω)-nitro-L arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) induced hypertension in male albino Wistar rats. In hypertensive rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), kidney weight, levels of oxidative stress markers in tissues were increased. Dyslipidemia was also observed in hypertensive rats. Moreover, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant network also deregulated in tissues. Valproic acid (VPA) supplementation daily for four weeks brought back all the above parameters to near normal level and showed no toxicity which was established using serum hepatic marker enzyme activities and renal function markers. Moreover the up regulated expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components were also attenuated by VPA treatment. All the above outcomes were confirmed by the histopathological examination. These results suggest that VPA has enough potential to attenuate hypertension, dyslipidemia and renal damage in nitric oxide deficiency induced hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  5. New uses of bioglycerin: production of arachidonic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose and M. alpina is currently used in industrial scale production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of co-product bioglycerin from the national biodiesel program, we would like ...

  6. Arachidonic acid and ion channels: an update

    PubMed Central

    Meves, H

    2008-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with four double bonds, has multiple actions on living cells. Many of these effects are mediated by an action of AA or its metabolites on ion channels. During the last 10 years, new types of ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) channels and non-SOCE channels have been studied. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the effects of AA on TRP and non-SOCE channels as well as classical ion channels. It aims to distinguish between effects of AA itself and effects of AA metabolites. Lipid mediators are of clinical interest because some of them (for example, leukotrienes) play a role in various diseases, others (such as prostaglandins) are targets for pharmacological therapeutic intervention. PMID:18552881

  7. Pathological regulation of arachidonic acid release in cystic fibrosis: the putative basic defect.

    PubMed Central

    Carlstedt-Duke, J; Brönnegård, M; Strandvik, B

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of arachidonic acid release from membrane phospholipids was investigated in lymphocytes from patients with cystic fibrosis as well as control patients. No effect of either dexamethasone or fetal calf serum was seen on arachidonic acid release from cystic fibrosis lymphocytes, in contrast to control lymphocytes. In the latter cells, arachidonic acid release was inhibited by dexamethasone, fetal calf serum, or both. There were no differences in glucocorticoid receptor in lymphocytes from the two groups with regard to Kd and number of binding sites per cell. Furthermore, dexamethasone inhibited the incorporation of thymidine into lymphocytes from either group, indicating a normal functional glucocorticoid receptor. The defective regulation of arachidonic acid, resulting in an increased turnover, can explain many of the findings in cystic fibrosis, and we hypothesize that it is the basic defect causing the disease. The defect occurs at a level after the glucocorticoid receptor, which is functionally normal, and involves either the glucocorticoid-dependent phospholipase-inhibitory protein lipomodulin (lipocortin) or phospholipase A2. PMID:3097647

  8. Cyclooxygenase pathway is involved in the vascular reactivity and inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the tail artery from L-NAME-treated rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Leonardo; Xavier, Fabiano E; Vassallo, Dalton V; Rossoni, Luciana V

    2003-12-19

    L-NAME (LN) induces hypertension by blocking nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It produces vascular hyperreactivity to phenylephrine (PHE) associated with a reduced vascular Na+, K+-ATPase activity. The aim of this work was to investigate whether products of the cyclooxygenase pathway are involved in alterations of vascular reactivity and Na+-pump activity in the tail artery from LN-induced hypertension rats. Four groups of rats were used: Control (CT, normotensive), LN (50 mg/kg/day, hypertensive), indomethacin (Indo-4 mg/kg/day, normotensive), and LN plus Indo (LN + Indo, partially prevented hypertension). All drugs were administered in drinking water during 7 days. In isolated rat tail vascular beds; the reactivity to PHE, acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the functional activity of the Na+, K+-ATPase (K+-induced relaxation) and the modulation of PHE-induced vasoconstriction by constitutively available NO were evaluated. LN increased vascular sensitivity (pD2) and reactivity (Emax) to PHE and Indo blocked the effect of LN on Emax without changing pD2. Emax and pD2 values for ACh were reduced by LN and partially reverted by Indo. SNP-induced vasodilatation was similar in all groups. LN reduced the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and Indo prevented LN effects. LN also abolished NO ability to modulate PHE-induced contractions. This effect was partially prevented by Indo suggesting that products from the cyclooxygenase pathway might reduce NO actions. Indo itself did not affect vascular reactivity to PHE, ACh or SNP or the Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Results suggested that products from cyclooxygenase pathway are involved in the genesis or maintenance of LN-induced hypertension, playing a role in the increased vascular reactivity, in the reduction of the endothelium-dependent relaxation and in the inhibition of the functional activity of the Na+, K+-ATPase.

  9. Hyperglycemia-induced teratogenesis is mediated by a functional deficiency of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, A S; Baker, L; Piddington, R; Marx, B; Herold, R; Egler, J

    1985-01-01

    Congenital malformations now represent the largest single cause of mortality in the infant of the diabetic mother. The mechanism by which diabetes exerts its teratogenic effects is not known. This study evaluated whether arachidonic acid might be involved, a possibility raised by the role of arachidonic acid in palatal elevation and fusion, processes analogous to neural tube folding and fusion. This hypothesis was tested in two animal models of diabetic embryopathy, the in vivo pregnant diabetic rat and the in vitro hyperglycemic mouse embryo culture. The subcutaneous injection of arachidonic acid (200-400 mg/kg per day) into pregnant diabetic rats during the period of organ differentiation (days 6-12) did not alter the maternal glucose concentration, the maternal weight gain, or the weight of the embryos. However, the incidence of neural tube fusion defects was reduced from 11% to 3.8% (P less than 0.005), the frequency of cleft palate was reduced from 11% to 4% (P less than 0.005), and the incidence of micrognathia was reduced from 7% to 0.8% (P less than 0.001). The addition of arachidonic acid to B10.A mouse embryos in culture also resulted in a reversal of hyperglycemia-induced teratogenesis. The teratogenic effect of D-glucose (8 mg/ml) in the medium resulted in normal neural tube fusion in only 32% of the embryos (P less than 0.006 when compared to controls). Arachidonic acid supplementation (1 or 10 micrograms/ml) produced a rate of neural tube fusion (67%) that was not significantly different from that observed in controls. The evidence presented indicates that arachidonic acid supplementation exerts a significant protective effect against the teratogenic action of hyperglycemia in both in vivo (rat) and in vitro (mouse) animal models. These data therefore suggest that the mechanism mediating the teratogenic effect of an increased glucose concentration involves a functional deficiency of arachidonic acid at a critical stage of organogenesis. Images PMID

  10. Arachidonic acid inhibits glycine transport in cultured glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Alcantara, R; Gomeza, J; Aragon, C; Gimenez, C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid on glycine uptake, exchange and efflux in C6 glioma cells were investigated. Arachidonic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity glycine uptake. This effect was not due to a simple detergent-like action on membranes, as the inhibition of glycine transport was most pronounced with cis-unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, whereas saturated and trans-unsaturated fatty acids had relatively little or no effect. Endogenous unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids may exert a similar inhibitory effect on the transport of glycine. The mechanism for this inhibitory effect has been examined in a plasma membrane vesicle preparation derived from C6 cells, which avoids metabolic or compartmentation interferences. The results suggest that part of the selective inhibition of glycine transport by arachidonic acid could be due to the effects of the arachidonic acid on the lipid domain surrounding the carrier. PMID:2121132

  11. Arachidonic acid activates release of calcium ions from reticulum via ryanodine receptor channels in C2C12 skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Muslikhov, E R; Sukhanova, I F; Avdonin, P V

    2014-05-01

    Arachidonic acid causes an increase in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in differentiated skeletal multinucleated myotubes C2C12 and does not induce calcium response in C2C12 myoblasts. The same reaction of myotubes to arachidonic acid is observed in Ca2+-free medium. This indicates that arachidonic acid induces release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. The blocker of ryanodine receptor channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum dantrolene (20 µM) inhibits this effect by 68.7 ± 6.3% (p < 0.001). The inhibitor of two-pore calcium channels of endolysosomal vesicles trans-NED19 (10 µM) decreases the response to arachidonic acid by 35.8 ± 5.4% (p < 0.05). The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (10 µM) has no effect. These data indicate the involvement of ryanodine receptor calcium channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum in [Ca2+]i elevation in skeletal myotubes caused by arachidonic acid and possible participation of two-pore calcium channels from endolysosomal vesicles in this process.

  12. Melamine binding with arachidonic acid binding sites of albumin is a potential mechanism for melamine-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rajpoot, Meenakshi; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Sharma, Anil

    2017-07-01

    Melamine adulteration of food is a public health concern. It has been seen that melamine causes disease in many organs. Melamine-induced kidney disease is a well-recognized clinicopathological entity. Inflammation is thought to be important in melamine-induced pathology. Melamine is expected to bind with albumin because it has a positive charge. Albumin binds arachidonic acid. So if binding of melamine with albumin takes place, it has the potential to displace arachidonic acid from the albumin bound state. This phenomenon may be the source of mediators of inflammation in the melamine exposure state. This aspect is investigated in the present study by docking and molecular dynamics simulation. It is observed that melamine binds with some known arachidonic acid binding sites of albumin. This can lead to formation of more free arachidonic acid. It is also observed that melamine does not bind with extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). Therefore, the signal transduction mediated process involving ERK2 is not a likely mechanism of melamine-induced inflammation. Therefore, we think that an increased free arachidonic acid level may contribute more to inflammation in the melamine exposure state. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Effects of carvedilol or amlodipine on target organ damage in L-NAME hypertensive rats: their relationship with blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Del Mauro, Julieta S; Prince, Paula D; Donato, Martín; Fernandez Machulsky, Nahuel; Morettón, Marcela A; González, Germán E; Bertera, Facundo M; Carranza, Andrea; Gorzalczany, Susana B; Chiappetta, Diego A; Berg, Gabriela; Morales, Celina; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Taira, Carlos A; Höcht, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of chronic oral treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine on blood pressure, blood pressure variability and target organ damage in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were treated with L-NAME administered in the drinking water for 8 weeks together with oral administration of carvedilol 30 mg/kg (n = 6), amlodipine 10 mg/kg (n = 6), or vehicle (n = 6). At the end of the treatment, echocardiographic evaluation, blood pressure, and short-term variability measurements were performed. Left ventricular and thoracic aortas were removed to assess activity of metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and expression levels of transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6. Histological samples were prepared from both tissues. Carvedilol and amlodipine induced a comparable reduction of systolic and mean arterial pressure and its short-term variability in L-NAME rats. The expression of transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 decreased in both organs after carvedilol or amlodipine treatment and the activity of metalloproteinase was reduced in aortic tissue. Treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine completely prevented left ventricular collagen deposition and morphometric alterations in aorta. Oral chronic treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine significantly attenuates blood pressure variability and reduces target organ damage and biomarkers of tissue fibrosis and inflammation in L-NAME hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of stress and the adaptogen cucurbitacin R diglycoside on arachidonic acid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Panosian, A G; Dadaian, M A; Gevorkian, G A

    1989-01-01

    Rat leukocytic lipoxygenase activity is decreased in stress. The production of 12-hydroxy-5z, 8z, 10E-heptadecatrienic acid (12-HHT) (the product of cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid-AA) is increased. Cucurbitacin R diglucoside (CRD), an adaptogen, raising working capacity and corticosteroid secretion, produces a similar effect on leukocytes. Preliminary injection of CRD to animals prevents changes caused by stress, which indicates a CRD adaptogenic effect on the body.

  15. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and the control of levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 by arachidonic acid in the bovine uterus

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, E. Linda R.; Derecka, Kamila; Marshall, Elaine; Chin, Evonne C.; Hodges, Louise; Wathes, D. Claire; Abayasekara, D. Robert E.; Flint, Anthony P. F.

    2007-01-01

    Arachidonic acid is a potential paracrine agent released by the uterine endometrial epithelium to induce PTGS2 [PG (prostaglandin)-endoperoxide synthase 2] in the stroma. In the present study, bovine endometrial stromal cells were used to determine whether PTGS2 is induced by arachidonic acid in stromal cells, and to investigate the potential role of PPARs (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors) in this effect. Arachidonic acid increased PTGS2 levels up to 7.5-fold within 6 h. The cells expressed PPARα and PPARδ (also known as PPARβ) (but not PPARγ). PTGS2 protein level was increased by PPAR agonists, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, synthetic PPAR ligands, PGA1 and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) with a time course resembling that of arachidonic acid. Use of agonists and antagonists indicated PPARα (but not PPARδ or PPARγ) was responsible for PTGS2 induction. PTGS2 induction by arachidonic acid did not require PG synthesis. PTGS2 levels were increased by the PKC (protein kinase C) activators 4β-PMA and PGF2α, and the effects of arachidonic acid, NSAIDs, synthetic PPAR ligands and 4β-PMA were blocked by PKC inhibitors. This is consistent with PPAR phosphorylation by PKC. Induction of PTGS2 protein by 4β-PMA in the absence of a PPAR ligand was decreased by the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) inhibitors MG132 and parthenolide, suggesting that PKC acted through NF-κB in addition to PPAR phosphorylation. Use of NF-κB inhibitors allowed the action of arachidonic acid as a PPAR agonist to be dissociated from an effect through PKC. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that arachidonic acid acts via PPARα to increase PTGS2 levels in bovine endometrial stromal cells. PMID:17516915

  16. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors and the control of levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 by arachidonic acid in the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Sheldrick, E Linda R; Derecka, Kamila; Marshall, Elaine; Chin, Evonne C; Hodges, Louise; Wathes, D Claire; Abayasekara, D Robert E; Flint, Anthony P F

    2007-08-15

    Arachidonic acid is a potential paracrine agent released by the uterine endometrial epithelium to induce PTGS2 [PG (prostaglandin)-endoperoxide synthase 2] in the stroma. In the present study, bovine endometrial stromal cells were used to determine whether PTGS2 is induced by arachidonic acid in stromal cells, and to investigate the potential role of PPARs (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors) in this effect. Arachidonic acid increased PTGS2 levels up to 7.5-fold within 6 h. The cells expressed PPARalpha and PPARdelta (also known as PPARbeta) (but not PPARgamma). PTGS2 protein level was increased by PPAR agonists, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, synthetic PPAR ligands, PGA1 and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) with a time course resembling that of arachidonic acid. Use of agonists and antagonists indicated PPARalpha (but not PPARdelta or PPARgamma) was responsible for PTGS2 induction. PTGS2 induction by arachidonic acid did not require PG synthesis. PTGS2 levels were increased by the PKC (protein kinase C) activators 4beta-PMA and PGF(2alpha), and the effects of arachidonic acid, NSAIDs, synthetic PPAR ligands and 4beta-PMA were blocked by PKC inhibitors. This is consistent with PPAR phosphorylation by PKC. Induction of PTGS2 protein by 4beta-PMA in the absence of a PPAR ligand was decreased by the NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) inhibitors MG132 and parthenolide, suggesting that PKC acted through NF-kappaB in addition to PPAR phosphorylation. Use of NF-kappaB inhibitors allowed the action of arachidonic acid as a PPAR agonist to be dissociated from an effect through PKC. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that arachidonic acid acts via PPARalpha to increase PTGS2 levels in bovine endometrial stromal cells.

  17. Arachidonic acid-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction through activation of Rho-kinase.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Ito, M; Kureishi, Y; Feng, J; Machida, H; Isaka, N; Amano, M; Kaibuchi, K; Hartshorne, D J; Nakano, T

    2001-02-01

    Arachidonic acid activates isolated Rho-kinase and contracts permeabilized smooth muscle fibres. Various assays were carried out to examine the mechanism of this activation. Native Rho-kinase was activated 5-6 times by arachidonic acid but an N-terminal, constitutively-active fragment of Rho-kinase, expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and including the catalytic subunit (GST-Rho-kinase-CAT), was not. GST-Rho-kinase-CAT was inhibited by a C-terminal fragment of Rho-kinase and arachidonic acid removed this inhibition. These results suggest that the C-terminal part of Rho-kinase, containing the RhoA binding site and the pleckstrin homology domain, acts as an autoinhibitor. It is suggested further that activation by arachidonic acid is due to its binding to the autoinhibitory region and subsequent release from the catalytic site. Arachidonic acid, at concentrations greater than 30 microM, increases force in alpha-toxin-permeabilized femoral artery but not in Triton X-100-skinned fibres. The content of Rho-kinase in the latter was lower than in alpha-toxin-treated or intact fibres. The arachidonic acid-induced contraction was not observed at a pCa above 8.0 and was inhibited by Y-27632 and wortmannin, inhibitors of Rho-kinase and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), respectively. The activation of Rho-kinase and subsequent phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit inhibits myosin phosphatase and increases myosin phosphorylation.

  18. Peroxidation of linoleic, arachidonic and oleic acid in relation to the induction of oxidative DNA damage and cytogenetic effects.

    PubMed

    de Kok, T M; ten Vaarwerk, F; Zwingman, I; van Maanen, J M; Kleinjans, J C

    1994-07-01

    In the present study, the possible role of the polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic and arachidonic acid in the chemical induction of carcinogenesis has been investigated. Analysis of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels in 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and isolated DNA has demonstrated that linoleic and arachidonic acid are capable of inducing this specific genotoxic damage. This effect appears to be related to the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, since it was not induced by monounsaturated oleic acid. Enzymatic peroxidation of linoleic and arachidonic acid resulted in a significant increase in oxidative DNA damage. Studies on the interference of radical scavengers with the induction of 8-oxodG in combination with electron spin resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that the superoxide anion was generated during peroxidation of these fatty acids and that singlet oxygen is most likely involved in the formation of oxidative DNA damage. The level of oxidative damage in dG and single-stranded DNA was higher as compared to that in native DNA after equimolar treatment. Exposure of human lymphocytes to linoleic or arachidonic acid did not result in a significant increase in levels of 8-oxodG. This may indicate that the rate of intracellular peroxidation is relatively low and/or that nuclear DNA in intact cells is effectively protected against genetic damage induced by reactive oxygen species. It is therefore concluded that relatively short periods of linoleic or arachidonic acid administration are not likely to impose a direct genotoxic risk. It can, however, not be excluded that chronic exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids induces oxidative DNA damage or is related to cancer risk by epigenetic mechanisms, as is also indicated by the observed cytotoxic effects of linoleic and arachidonic acid.

  19. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68.

    PubMed

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolism in glutathione-deficient macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Rouzer, C A; Scott, W A; Griffith, O W; Hamill, A L; Cohn, Z A

    1982-01-01

    Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages were treated with the glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine to deplete intracellular GSH. The arachidonic acid metabolites released by the GSH-depleted macrophages in response to a zymosan challenge were analyzed by HPLC. Buthionine sulfoximine treatment resulted in inhibition of both prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C synthesis that was directly related to the degree of GSH depletion. Macrophages in which GSH levels were reduced to 3% of normal exhibited reductions to 4% and 1%, respectively, in PGE2 and LTC formation. The total quantity of cyclooxygenase metabolites secreted by GSH-deficient macrophages was identical to that of control cells as a result of increased synthesis of prostacyclin and, to a lesser extent, 12-L-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid. Total lipoxygenase products were decreased, however; increased formation of hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids only partially compensated for the deficit in leukotriene C production. These findings extent our earlier observations on the inhibition of leukotriene C synthesis in GSH-depleted macrophages and confirm with intact cells the previously suggested role of GSH in prostaglandin E2 formation. PMID:6803245

  1. Arachidonic acid stimulates glucose uptake in cerebral cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, N; Martin, J L; Stella, N; Magistretti, P J

    1993-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) has recently been shown to influence various cellular functions in the central nervous system. Here we report that AA increases, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H]glucose ([3H]2DG) uptake in primary cultures of astrocytes prepared from the cerebral cortex of neonatal mice. This effect is mimicked by an unsaturated fatty acid such as linolenic acid, while palmitic and arachidic acids, two saturated fatty acids, are inactive. Pharmacological agents that increase the endogenous levels of AA by stimulating AA release (melittin) or by inhibiting its reacylation (thimerosal) also promote [3H]2DG uptake by astrocytes. We also report that norepinephrine (NE) stimulates the release of [3H]AA from membrane phospholipids, with an EC50 of 3 microM; this effect is accompanied, with a temporal delay of approximately 4 min, by the stimulation of [3H]2DG uptake, for which the EC50 of NE is 1 microM. Since the cerebral cortex, the brain region from which astrocytes used in this study were prepared, receives a massive noradrenergic innervation, originating from the locus coeruleus, the effects of NE reported here further stress the notion that certain neurotransmitters may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism in the cerebral cortex and point at astrocytes as the likely targets of such metabolic effects. PMID:8483920

  2. Actions of arachidonic acid on erythrocyte membrane Rb permeability.

    PubMed

    Dwight, J F; Hendry, B M

    1995-07-14

    The effects of non-esterified arachidonic acid (AA) on erythrocyte membrane ion permeability have been studied using 86Rb flux measurements. [14C]AA was used to quantify membrane incorporation of AA and to show AA removal by albumin washing. The actions of vitamin E and other antioxidants on the effects of AA were examined. Reversible membrane incorporation of 700-2000 nmol AA per ml cells was achieved without significant haemolysis or morphological change. AA incorporation caused a reversible mean increase in bumetanide-sensitive Rb influx of 34% (S.E.M. 4.5, n = 23). This action could be partially prevented by co-incubation with vitamin E, but not by Trolox or dithioerythritol. AA incorporation caused an irreversible mean increase in residual Rb permeability (bumetanide and ouabain insensitive) of 130% (S.E.M. 22, n = 20), associated with a rise in intracellular Na and a fall in intracellular K concentrations. This action was also partially prevented by co-incubation with vitamin E. The effects of AA incorporation on Na,K-ATPase function were difficult to quantify because of the concomitant rises in intracellular Na but the data are consistent with approximately 20% inhibition of activity. Modulation of membrane ion permeability by AA appears to be partially mediated by lipid peroxidation and may have pathophysiological significance.

  3. Mood-Stabilizers Target the Brain Arachidonic Acid Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, without a characteristic neuropathology or clear etiology. Drugs effective in BD target many key signaling pathways in animal and cell studies. However, their mode of action in the BD brain remains elusive. In the rat brain, some of the mood stabilizers effective in treating mania (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate) or depression (lamotrigine) in BD are reported to decrease transcription of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 and to reduce levels of AP-2 and NF-κB, transcription factors of the two enzymes. The anti-manic drugs also decrease arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in brain phospholipids when given chronically to rats. Thus, drugs effective in BD commonly target AA cascade kinetics as well as AA cascade enzymes and their transcription factors in the rat brain. These studies suggest that BD is associated with increased AA signaling in the brain. Developing therapeutic agents that suppress brain AA signaling could lead to additional treatments for BD. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid on AA cascade enzymes in relation to BD. PMID:20021459

  4. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Radogna, F.; Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.; Paolillo, M.; Paternoster, L.; Albertini, M.C.; Accorsi, A.; Gualandi, G.; Ghibelli, L.

    2009-07-15

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}-independent, but not Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca{sup 2+}-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

  5. Occurrence of oxidized metabolites of arachidonic acid esterified to phospholipids in murine lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Henson, P M; Murphy, R C

    1998-08-15

    Isolation and characterization of murine pulmonary phospholipids revealed the normal occurrence of 10 isobaric eicosanoids corresponding to the incorporation of one oxygen atom into the arachidonate esterified to glycerophospholipids. Lungs from mice were removed and lipids were extracted and then separated into free carboxylic acid and phospholipids. Phospholipids were hydrolyzed to yield the free carboxylic acids prior to analysis. Reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantitate six monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE) and four epoxyeicosatetraenoic (EET) acid regioisomers using d8-HETE as internal standard. HETEs esterified to phospholipids were found to increase following intratracheal administration of tBuOOH (36 mg/kg), but not the levels of esterified EETs. Chiral analysis of esterified 15-HETE revealed an R/S ratio of 0.96, suggesting operation of a free radical mechanism responsible for generation of this monohydroxy arachidonate phospholipid, and this enantiomeric ratio was 1.10 following treatment of the mouse lung with tBuOOH. These results are consistent with a free-radical-based mechanism of oxidation of pulmonary glycerophospholipids containing arachidonate.

  6. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-15

    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms.

  7. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-06-01

    The fate of exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of /sup 14/C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused /sup 14/C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of /sup 14/C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols.

  8. Angiotensin II or epinephrine hemodynamic and metabolic responses in the liver of L-NAME induced hypertension and spontaneous hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Debora Conte; Nagaoka, Marcia Regina; Borges, Durval Rosa; Kouyoumdjian, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study hepatic vasoconstriction and glucose release induced by angiotensin (Ang)II or Epi in rats with pharmacological hypertension and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). METHODS Isolated liver perfusion was performed following portal vein and vena cava cannulation; AngII or epinephrine (Epi) was injected in bolus and portal pressure monitored; glucose release was measured in perfusate aliquots. RESULTS The portal hypertensive response (PHR) and the glucose release induced by AngII of L-NAME were similar to normal rats (WIS). On the other hand, the PHR induced by Epi in L-NAME was higher whereas the glucose release was lower compared to WIS. Despite the similar glycogen content, glucose release induced by AngII was lower in SHR compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats although both PHR and glucose release induced by Epi in were similar. CONCLUSION AngII and Epi responses are altered in different ways in these hypertension models. Our results suggest that inhibition of NO production seems to be involved in the hepatic effects induced by Epi but not by AngII; the diminished glucose release induced by AngII in SHR is not related to glycogen content. PMID:28660012

  9. Damage-associated molecular pattern activated Toll-like receptor 4 signalling modulates blood pressure in L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sollinger, Daniel; Eißler, Ruth; Lorenz, Steffen; Strand, Susanne; Chmielewski, Stefan; Aoqui, Cristiane; Schmaderer, Christoph; Bluyssen, Hans; Zicha, Josef; Witzke, Oliver; Scherer, Elias; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Baumann, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    Recent publications have shed new light on the role of the adaptive and innate immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, there are limited data whether receptors of the innate immune system may influence blood pressure. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pattern recognition receptor, is a key component of the innate immune system, which is activated by exogenous and endogenous ligands. Hypertension is associated with end-organ damage and thus might lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are endogenous activators of TLR4 receptors. The present study aimed to elucidate whether TLR4 signalling is able to modulate vascular contractility in an experimental model of hypertension thus contributing to blood pressure regulation. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension was blunted in TLR4(-/-) when compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with l-NAME was associated with a release of DAMPs, leading to reactive oxygen species production of smooth muscle cells in a TLR4-dependent manner. As oxidative stress leads to an impaired function of the NO-sGC-cyclic GMP (cGMP) pathway, we were able to demonstrate that TLR4(-/-) was protected from sGC inactivation. Consequently, arterial contractility was reduced in TLR4(-/-). Cell damage-associated TLR4 signalling might act as a direct mediator of vascular contractility providing a molecular link between inflammation and hypertension.

  10. Role of Arachidonic Acid in Promoting Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Munkhbayar, Semchin; Jang, Sunhyae; Cho, A-Ri; Choi, Soon-Jin; Shin, Chang Yup; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in all mammalian cell membranes, and involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. The dermal papilla, composed of specialized fibroblasts located in the bulb of the hair follicle, contributes to the control of hair growth and the hair cycle. Objective This study investigated the effect of AA on hair growth by using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods The effect of AA on human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and hair shaft elongation was evaluated by MTT assay and hair follicle organ culture, respectively. The expression of various growth and survival factors in hDPCs were investigated by western blot or immunohistochemistry. The ability of AA to induce and prolong anagen phase in C57BL/6 mice was analyzed. Results AA was found to enhance the viability of hDPCs and promote the expression of several factors responsible for hair growth, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and FGF-10. Western blotting identified the role of AA in the phosphorylation of various transcription factors (ERK, CREB, and AKT) and increased expression of Bcl-2 in hDPCs. In addition, AA significantly promoted hair shaft elongation, with increased proliferation of matrix keratinocytes, during ex vivo hair follicle culture. It was also found to promote hair growth by induction and prolongation of anagen phase in telogen-stage C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion This study concludes that AA plays a role in promoting hair growth by increasing the expression of growth factors in hDPCs and enhancing follicle proliferation and survival. PMID:26848219

  11. Mechanism for release of arachidonic acid during guinea pig platelet aggregation: a role for the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids after the stimulation of guinea pig platelets with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor (PAF) was studied. RHC 80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, were used. Various in vitro assays for enzymes involved in arachidonic acid release and metabolism were conducted. Platelet aggregation and simultaneous release of ADP from platelets were monitored using a Chrono-log Lumiaggregometer. Platelets were labeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to facilitate sensitive determination of small changes in platelet phospholipids during platelet aggregation. In the present investigation it is shown that collagen, thrombin and PAF increased phospholipase C activity. It was also discovered that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for further stimulation (a positive feed-back) of phospholipase C activity, while diacylglycerol provided a negative feed-back control over receptor-stimulated phospholipase C activity and inhibited ADP release. The guinea pig platelet is an ideal model to study phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway for the release of arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids because it does not have any phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity. It was observed that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for collagen-induced guinea pig platelet aggregation. Indomethacin completely inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, was less effective against thrombin, and had no effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, RHC 80267 was a powerful inhibitor of aggregation and ADP release induced by all three of these potent aggregating agents.

  12. Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to males. Because treatment with a non-specific lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced contractions in females but not males, the present study identified which lipoxygenase isoform contributes to sex-specific pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. 15- and 5- but not 12-lipoxygenase protein expression was greater in females. Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from females and males was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis was greater in females compared to males under both basal and stimulated conditions. Vascular contractions to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were enhanced in females compared to males (maximal contraction; 44 ± 6% vs 25 ± 3%). The specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 (12 μmol/L) decreased arachidonic acid-induced contractions in females (maximal contraction; 93 ± 4% vs 57 ± 10%). If male pulmonary arteries were incubated with estrogen (1 μmol/L, 18 hrs), protein expression of 15-lipoxygenase, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production increased. Mechanisms to explain the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in women are not known. Results suggest the 15-lipoxygenase pathway is different between females and males and is regulated by estrogen. Understanding this novel sex-specific mechanism may provide insight into the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in females. PMID:21300669

  13. Mechanism of enhanced fibroblast arachidonic acid metabolism by mononuclear cell factor.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, P J; Needleman, P

    1984-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with an infiltration of mononuclear cells, fibroblast proliferation, and elevated levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2. Mononuclear cell conditioned factor (MNCF) medium (5%) stimulated a 100-fold increase in basal human dermal fibroblast PGE2 release over 48 h as compared with fibroblasts that were incubated with control medium (conditioned medium prepared without cells). The MNCF-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Fibroblasts pretreated with control medium released PGE2 only modestly in response to 1 nM bradykinin for 1 h (basal, 50 +/- 7 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 104 +/- 12 pg PGE2/micrograms protein), whereas cells that had been pretreated with MNCF showed a greatly facilitated bradykinin-induced release of PGE2. (basal, 297 +/- 59 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 866 +/- 85 pg PGE2/micrograms protein). The exaggerated agonist response is not specific for bradykinin because platelet-derived growth factor elicits a similar response. Exogenous arachidonic acid conversion to PGE2 was also facilitated (two- to threefold) by MNCF pretreatment as compared with control. Both the enhanced agonist-stimulated and exogenous arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 release from the MNCF pretreated cells were inhibited by actinomyin D or cycloheximide. A kinetic study of microsomal cyclooxygenase prepared from fibroblasts pretreated with MNCF showed a threefold increase in the maximum velocity (Vmax) but the same Michaelis constant (Km) as control-treated cells. This augmented arachidonic acid metabolism and subsequent enhanced PGE2 production may play an important role in macrophage-fibroblast interactions at sites of inflammation. PMID:6439745

  14. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment.

    PubMed

    Billi de Catabbi, Silvia C; Faletti, Alicia; Fuentes, Federico; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Cochón, Adriana C

    2005-04-15

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porphyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and omega-OH/omega-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2

  15. Antimitogenic effect of Larrea divaricata Cav.: participation in arachidonate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anesini, C; Genaro, A; Cremaschi, G; Sterin Borda, L; Borda, E

    1999-02-01

    Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Larrea divaricata Cav. exert antimitogenic effects on tumor cells (BW 5147 murine immature T-lymphoma) and normal, stimulated lymphocytes. The effective concentration was four times smaller in the case of tumor cells than in the case of normal, stimulated lymphocytes. Inhibitor studies of arachidonate pathway suggest that the proliferative effect of the extract is due to the activation of lipoxygenase metabolism, while the inhibitory action could be a direct effect.

  16. Arachidonic acid assimilation by thrombocytes from white carneau pigeons

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.J.; Blankenship, T.

    1986-03-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid was investigated using thrombocyte-enriched-plasma from RBWC and WC-II white carneau pigeons, which differ genetically in their susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Thrombocytes were incubated at 42 C with (/sup 14/C) arachidonate in Puck's solution. After a 1 hour labeling period the WC-II cells had taken up 69% and RBWC 77% of the (/sup 14/C)arachidonate from the medium. When 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid or 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid were added to incubation media the (/sup 14/C) uptake was reduced in each type cell, with WC-II exhibiting the greatest effect. Release of (/sup 14/C)molecules from cells labeled with (/sup 14/)Carachidonate was studied using calcium ionophore and indomethacin. Indomethacin inhibited (/sup 14/C) molecule release similarly in both RBWC and WC-II cells. Calcium ionophore was twice as effective in stimulating (/sup 14/C)molecule release from WC-II than RBWC cells. Therefore, the WE-II cells (from pigeons greater in susceptibility to atherosclerosis) are more sensitive to calcium ionophore than the REWC cells.

  17. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to hormonally regulated release of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, L L; Lin, A Y; Knopf, J L

    1992-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) binds to natural membrane vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, resulting in the selective release of arachidonic acid, thus implicating cPLA2 in the hormonally regulated production of eicosanoids. Here we report that the treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing cPLA2 with ATP or thrombin resulted in an increased release of arachidonic acid as compared with parental CHO cells, demonstrating the hormonal coupling of cPLA2. In contrast, CHO cells overexpressing a secreted form of mammalian PLA2 (sPLA2-II) failed to show any increased hormonal responsiveness. Interestingly, we have noted that the activation of cPLA2 with a wide variety of agents stimulates the phosphorylation of cPLA2 on serine residues. Pretreatment of cells with staurosporin blocked the ATP-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 and strongly inhibited the activation of the enzyme. Increased cPLA2 activity was also observed in lysates prepared from ATP-treated cells and was sensitive to phosphatase treatment. These results suggest that in addition to Ca2+, the phosphorylation of cPLA2 plays an important role in the agonist-induced activation of cPLA2. Images PMID:1631101

  18. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) attenuates abstinence-induced withdrawal from both cocaine and a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55212-2) in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Rodriguez, Tonatiu; Baron, David A; Raffa, Robert B

    2006-07-12

    We previously reported that planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) that have been exposed to cocaine for 1 h undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. We now report that planarians also display dose-related abstinence-induced withdrawal following exposure to the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2, but not its inactive enantiomer (WIN 55212-3). The withdrawal from WIN 55212-2 was manifested as a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the rate of planarian spontaneous locomotor activity over a 5-min observation period, using a recently designed metric (pLMV). We also report that withdrawal from cocaine (80 microM) or WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) was attenuated by the selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME (L-nitro-arginine methyl ester), which had no effect of its own on pLMV. These results suggest a common NO-dependent pathway of withdrawal from cocaine and WIN 55212-2 in Planaria.

  19. Expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin enhances production of arachidonic acid and lipids in Mortierella alpina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huidan; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu; Song, Xiaojin

    2017-08-30

    Arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, n-6), which belongs to the omega-6 series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and has a variety of biological activities, is commercially produced in Mortierella alpina. Dissolved oxygen or oxygen utilization efficiency is a critical factor for Mortierella alpina growth and arachidonic acid production in large-scale fermentation. Overexpression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene is thought to significantly increase the oxygen utilization efficiency of the cells. An optimized Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene was introduced into Mortierella alpina via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Compared with the parent strain, the VHb-expressing strain, termed VHb-20, grew faster under both limiting and non-limiting oxygen conditions and exhibited dramatic changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, VHb-20 produced 4- and 8-fold higher total lipid and ARA yields than those of the wild-type strain under a microaerobic environment. Furthermore, ARA production of VHb-20 was also 1.6-fold higher than that of the wild type under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that DO utilization was significantly increased by expressing the VHb gene in Mortierella alpina. The expression of VHb enhances ARA and lipid production under both lower and normal dissolved oxygen conditions. This study provides a novel strategy and an engineered strain for the cost-efficient production of ARA.

  20. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases arachidonic acid mediated inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mutay; Özcan, Filiz; Tuzcu, Hazal; Kıraç, Ebru; Elpek, Gulsum O

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on arachidonic acid (AA) mediated inflammation following liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Selective N-SMase inhibitor was administered via intraperitoneal injections. Liver IR injury was created by clamping blood vessels supplying the median and left lateral hepatic lobes for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion. Levels of AA in liver tissue were determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in liver tissue. Arachidonic acid levels, activity of PLA2, COX and PGE2 levels were significantly increased in postischemic liver tissue compared to nonischemic controls. N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased COX activity and PGE2 levels in postischemic liver. Future studies evaluating agents blocking N-SMase activity can facilitate the development of treatment strategies to alleviate inflammation in liver I/R injury. PMID:25550821

  1. Endocannabinoid system modulates relapse to methamphetamine seeking: possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade.

    PubMed

    Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Nakamichi, Masanori; Hiranita, Takato; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Shigenori; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2004-08-01

    We clarified the modulating action of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade, on the reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior, using the intravenous self-administration paradigm in rats. Following 12 days of self-administration of METH, the replacement of METH with saline resulted in a gradual decrease in lever press responses (extinction). Under extinction conditions, METH-priming or re-exposure to cues previously paired with METH infusion markedly increased the responses (reinstatement of drug-seeking). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, blocked this behavior. Although the cannabinoid agonist, Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), had no effects by itself, coadministration of the agonist and METH at small doses reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. THC attenuated the effects of the reinstatement-inducing dose of METH, but enhanced the effect of cues. Either given repeatedly during the extinction or singly, 24 h before the first METH-priming or cues challenge, THC suppressed the reinstatement. In another set of experiments, we found that diclofenac, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, also attenuated the reinstatement induced by exposure to cues or drug-priming. These results suggest that the endocannabinoid system, through possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade, serves as a modulator of the reinstating effects of METH-priming and cues. Extending the current view on the treatment of drug dependence, these results indicate that endocannabinoid-activating substances as well as cyclooxygenase inhibitors may be promising as antirelapse agents.

  2. Kinetics of uptake and distribution of arachidonic acid by rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, T.W.; Duncan, D.P.; Forman, H.J.

    1988-10-01

    The time course of uptake and distribution of /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid (/sup 3/H-AA) into rat alveolar macrophage phospholipid pools was examined. Macrophages incubated with exogenous /sup 3/H-AA in RPMI-1640 containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA), incorporated this radiolabel into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol (PI) with plateaus reached within 2 to 4 hours, which remained relatively constant for up to 18 hours. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-AA into phosphatidylethanolamine was small, but continued to increase for 14 hours. Analysis of phosphate content in phospholipid pools revealed that treatment with exogenous 5 nM arachidonic acid had no effect upon pool sizes, but there was a selective incorporation of /sup 3/H-AA into PI. Cells were incubated with /sup 3/H-AA in RPMI alone or medium containing either 0.2% lactalbumin, fetal calf serum at variable concentrations, 10% Nu Serum, or 0.1% BSA. Incubation of macrophages with /sup 3/H-AA in RPMI alone or containing 0.2% lactalbumin, resulted in approximately 70% of the radiolabel taken up by the cells being incorporated into triglyceride. The addition of BSA to RPMI-1640 medium was found to facilitate selective uptake of /sup 3/H-AA into phospholipids. Approximately 70% of incorporated /sup 3/H-AA was releasable through the action of exogenous phospholipase A2.

  3. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by Rous sarcoma virus

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, K.; Aderem, A.; Hanafusa, H. )

    1989-07-01

    Arachidonic acid (C{sub 20:4}) metabolites were released constitutively from wild-type Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} and its metabolites were released from unstimulated and uninfected CEF only in response to stimuli such as serum, phorbol ester, or the calcium ionophore A23187. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that the radioactivity released from ({sup 3}H)arachidonate-labeled transformed cells was contained in free arachidonate and in the cyclooxygenase products prostaglandin E{sub 2} and prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha; no lipoxygenase products were identified. The release of C{sub 20:4} and its metabolites from CEF infected with pp60{sup src} deletion mutants was correlated with serum-independent DNA synthesis and with the expression of the mRNA for 9E3, a gene expressed in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells which has homology with several mitogenic and inflammatory peptides. {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} release was not correlated with p36 phosphorylation, which argues against a role for this protein as a phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitor. CEF infected with other oncogenic viruses encoding a tyrosine kinase also released C{sub 20:4}, as did CEF infected with viruses that contained mos and ras; however, infection with a crk-containing virus did not result in stimulation of {sup 3}H-labeled C{sub 20:4} release, suggesting that utilization of this signaling pathway is specific for particular transformation stimuli.

  4. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by bovine alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to identify the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites produced by cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (AM), to investigate the effects of various stimuli on the production of those metabolites, and to study the effect of interferons and lipopolysaccharide on AA metabolism by AM. Initial studies were conducted to ascertain which AA metabolites are produced by bovine alveolar macrophages. Cultured macrophages were labeled with tritiated arachidonic acid and stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. The radiolabeled AA metabolites released were identified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The production of LTB{sub 4}, TXB{sub 2}, and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} by AM stimulated with A23187 or opsonized zymosan (OPZ) was measured using radioimmunoassay. Finally, the effects of recombinant bovine interferon alpha{sub 1}-1 (IFN-{alpha}{sub 1}-1), recombinant bovine interferon gamma (IFN-{gamma}), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 on the AA metabolism of bovine AM were investigated. These studies indicate that appropriately stimulated bovine AM are the source of a number of AA metabolites. Furthermore, the production of these metabolites may be dramatically altered by exposure of the AM to IFNs or LPS. Such exposure could occur in vivo during gram negative bacterial pneumonias following viral infections. Because AA metabolites are intimately involved in the inflammatory process, it is possible that AM may contribute to the development of pulmonary inflammation in certain situations.

  5. Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity alters cardiac cytochrome P450 expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zordoky, Beshay N.M.; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Aboutabl, Mona E.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-neoplastic antibiotic used to treat a variety of malignancies; however, its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolites and the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the effect of acute DOX toxicity on the expression of several CYP enzymes and their associated arachidonic acid metabolites in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute DOX toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of the drug. Our results showed that DOX treatment for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly, there was a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C11, CYP2J3, CYP4A, and sEH proteins after 24 h of DOX administration. In the heart microsomes, acute DOX toxicity significantly increased the formation of 20-HETE which is consistent with the induction of the major CYP omega-hydroxylases: CYP4A1, CYP4A3, CYP4F1, and CYP4F4. On the other hand, the formation of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) was significantly reduced, whereas the formation of their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids was significantly increased. The decrease in the cardioprotective EETs can be attributed to the increase of sEH activity parallel to the induction of the EPHX2 gene expression in the heart of DOX-treated rats. In conclusion, acute DOX toxicity alters the expression of several CYP and sEH enzymes with a consequent alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which this drug causes progressive cardiotoxicity.

  6. [The effect of glucoprotein component of musk on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Bai, J; Cheng, G; Zhu, X

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the effects of musk-1, a glucoprotein component isolated from the water extract of musk, on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes, which include phospholipase A2(PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and cyclooxygenase (COX), in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes, an in vitro incubation system with rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes or homogenate supernatant of the same cells was used. In comparison with control, musk-1 at final concentrations of 1-100 micrograms/ml can increase AA release from PMNL by 6.0%-21.6%, decrease LTB4 biosynthesis in homogenate supernatant of the cells by 9%-81%, but increase 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production by 18.2%-85.4%.

  7. Source of the arachidonic acid released on stimulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gil, M.; Siraganian, R.P.

    1986-05-15

    Triggering of rat basophilic leukemia cells for histamine secretion is accompanied by arachidonic acid release. The source of this arachidonic acid released after IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 stimulation was studied. The 48-hr culture of the cells with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid resulted in labeling of the phospholipids to constant specific activity. After IgE stimulation, 8.8% of the cellular (/sup 14/C)arachidonate was released; this was predominantly from phosphatidylinositol (PI)/phosphatidylserine (PS) (66.3%), less from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (25.9%), and minimally from phosphatidylcholine (PC). In contrast, after ionophore stimulation the cells released 16.4% of cellular (/sup 14/C)arachidonate, most of this was from PE (55.4%) followed by about equal amounts from PS/PI and PC (24% and 20%, respectively). Therefore, the source of the released arachidonic acid depends on the stimulus. In contrast, the results are different when the cells are cultured for only 2 hr with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid. The label in phospholipids was in PC (44%), PE (38%), and PI/PS (20%); the stimulation of the cells with IgE or ionophore resulted in the release of the (/sup 14/C)arachidonate from PC (81% and 96%, respectively). This suggests the presence of several pools of phospholipids that are labeled at different rates and have variable proximity and/or accessibility to the phospholipase(s) enzyme(s) activated during cell secretion.

  8. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA.

  9. Assessment of skin absorption and irritation potential of arachidonic acid and glyceryl arachidonate using in vitro diffusion cell techniques.

    PubMed

    Eppler, A R; Kraeling, M E K; Wickett, R R; Bronaugh, R L

    2007-11-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory mediators, and its glycerin ester, glyceryl arachidonate (GA), are reportedly used in cosmetic products. In vitro skin penetration of AA and GA and GA's ester hydrolysis was determined in flow-through diffusion cells. AA penetration with human and rat skin was 19.5% and 52.3% of the applied dose respectively, a substantial amount of which remained in the skin at 24h. Similar penetration results were obtained with GA in human skin. However, GA penetration through cultured skin (EpiDerm) was 51% of the applied dose, almost all of which appeared in the receptor fluid. At least 27.8% of GA penetrating skin was hydrolyzed to AA. In vitro methods were used to assess skin irritation in diffusion cells. Skin irritation of AA, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and Tween 80 was determined by changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, MTT, formation), and cytokine release (IL-1alpha). SLS irritation was much less pronounced in an emulsion versus an aqueous vehicle. No significant irritation was observed in vitro from AA in an emulsion. This work predicts that AA would penetrate human skin in vivo and that it could be formed in skin from topically applied GA.

  10. Treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME provides a survival advantage in a mouse model of Kras mutation-positive, non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, MengMeng; Counter, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the gene KRAS are commonly detected in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This disease is inherently difficult to treat, and combinations involving platinum-based drugs remain the therapeutic mainstay. In terms of novel, pharmacologically actionable targets, nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have been implicated in the etiology of KRAS-driven cancers, including lung cancer, and small molecular weight NOS inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of other diseases. Thus, we evaluated the anti-neoplastic activity of the oral NOS inhibitor L-NAME in a randomized preclinical trial using a genetically engineered mouse model of Kras and p53 mutation-positive NSCLC. We report here that L-NAME decreased lung tumor growth in vivo, as assessed by sequential radiological imaging, and provided a survival advantage, perhaps the most difficult clinical parameter to improve upon. Moreover, L-NAME enhanced the therapeutic benefit afforded by carboplatin chemotherapy, provided it was administered as maintenance therapy after carboplatin. Collectively, these results support the clinical evaluation of L-NAME for the treatment of KRAS mutation-positive NSCLC. PMID:27285753

  11. The effect of intraoperative colonic lavage with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on anastomotic healing in the presence of left-sided colonic obstruction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Y; Calis, A; Berber, E; Mercan, S

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intraoperative colonic lavage with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the healing of colonic anastomosis in the presence of a left-sided obstruction in the rat was investigated. Left-sided colonic obstruction was created in 144 Wistar rats. The obstruction site was excised 24h later and anastomosis was performed after either no irrigation or colonic lavage with either saline, povidone iodine (PI), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), L-NAME, or glutamine, in 24 animals each. Animals were killed on days 3 and 6, and a 4-cm colonic segment with the anastomosis at the center was excised. Bursting pressure (BP) and hydroxyproline (HP) content were measured. In the saline, PI, and SCFA groups, BP was higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively) and HP concentration was similar compared with controls. Both the BP and HP concentrations were higher in the glutamine group compared with controls (P < 0.001). BP was lower (P < 0.05) and HP concentration was similar in the L-NAME group compared with the control group. Colonocyte nutrition and tissue perfusion are the mainstays of anastomotic healing. Intraoperative colonic lavage with L-NAME suppresses colonic anastomotic healing in the presence of a left-sided obstruction.

  12. Further evidence for a role of arachidonic acid in glucocorticoid teratogenic action in the palate.

    PubMed

    Piddington, R; Herold, R; Goldman, A S

    1983-12-01

    Arachidonic acid produces a significant reversal of the production of cleft palate by cortisone in the offspring of sensitive strains of mice in vivo. Arachidonic acid in nanogram per milliliter concentrations also produces a significant reversal of the cortisol inhibition of the programmed cell death of the medial edge epithelium of palatal shelves in vitro. This corrective action of arachidonic acid in vitro is significantly blocked by indomethacin at a nanogram per milliliter concentration which selectively inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and/or thromboxanes at the level of cyclooxygenase. These results support the hypothesis that the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and subsequent prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production by glucocorticoids is involved in the teratogenic action of glucocorticoids and demonstrate that one site of this action is the inhibition of epithelial loss.

  13. Absorption and lymphatic transport of exogenous and endogenous arachidonic and linoleic acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, A.; Landin, B.; Jensen, E.; Akesson, B.

    1987-06-01

    (/sup 3/H)Arachidonic (20:4) and (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid (18:2) were fed to thoracic duct-cannulated rats in test meals of either tracers alone, cream, Intralipid, pure arachidonic acid, or pure linoleic acid. Less (/sup 3/H)20:4 than (/sup 14/C)18:2 was recovered in chyle during the first 5 h. After cream feeding, the proportion of radioactivity found in phospholipids was high and increased during the first 3 h. After the meal 61 +/- 6% of the /sup 3/H and 57 +/- 10% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylcholine, and 11 +/- 3% of the /sup 3/H and 3.0 +/- 4% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylethanolamine. Changing the fat vehicle to Intralipid or pure 18:2 decreased the proportion of label in the phospholipds and increased the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C being influenced more than that of /sup 3/H. After feeding the tracers in 200 ..mu..l of pure 20:4, >90% of both isotopes was in triacylglycerol. During fasting, triacylglycerol transported 56% (0.7 ..mu..mol/h), phosphatidylethanolamine transported 10% (0.1 ..mu..mol/h) of the 20:4 mass. After cream or Intralipid feeding, the output of 20:4-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased 2.1- to 2.8-fold, whereas the transport of 20:4 with triacylglycerol remained constant. Phospholipids thus became the predominant transport form for 20:4. After feeding 200 ..mu..l of 20:4, the intestine produced, however, 20:4-rich triacylglycerols that transported 80% of the chyle 20:4.

  14. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  15. Altered Arachidonate Distribution in Macrophages from Caveolin-1 Null Mice Leading to Reduced Eicosanoid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Alma M.; Pérez-Chacón, Gema; Meana, Clara; Balgoma, David; Pol, Albert; del Pozo, Miguel A.; Balboa, María A.; Balsinde, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of caveolin-1 deficiency on the mechanisms that regulate free arachidonic acid (AA) availability. The results presented here demonstrate that macrophages from caveolin-1-deficient mice exhibit elevated fatty acid incorporation and remodeling and a constitutively increased CoA-independent transacylase activity. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses reveal stable alterations in the profile of AA distribution among phospholipids, manifested by reduced levels of AA in choline glycerophospholipids but elevated levels in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol. Furthermore, macrophages from caveolin-1 null mice show decreased AA mobilization and prostaglandin E2 and LTB4 production upon cell stimulation. Collectively, these results provide insight into the role of caveolin-1 in AA homeostasis and suggest an important role for this protein in the eicosanoid biosynthetic response. PMID:21852231

  16. Expression of NO-synthase in cells of foreign-body and BCG-induced granulomata in mice: influence of L-NAME on the evolution of the lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Kreuger, M R; Tames, D R; Mariano, M

    1998-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of macrophages in an inflammatory milieu has been related to the production of a large number of cytokins and intermediary metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen among them, nitric oxide (NO). Considering that granulomatous inflammation is predominantly composed of macrophages and epithelioid cells, we decided to investigate the participation of NO in this peculiar type of inflammation. Two models were used: glass cover slip implantation into the subcutaneous tissue of mice and, the inoculation of live bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the footpad of the animals. Using a histochemical method for the detection of NO synthase and of the concentration of citrulin metabolized by cells obtained from cover slips implanted on different time intervals or BCG-activated peritoneal cells, it was possible to demonstrate that epithelioid cells do not produce NO. Cells from granuloma induced by BCG inoculation express NO synthase, with different degrees of reactivity with a higher intensity in the cytoplasm of cells located in the edge of the lesions. The expression of NO synthase in the cytoplasm of these cells decreases with the age of the lesions. It could also be demonstrated that in mice treated with l-name, an inhibitor of NO metabolism, the lesions induced by BCG lost the granulomatous architecture, were necrotic, and had a significant increase in the bacillary load of the lesion. These data allow us to conclude that NO production by macrophages is a determining factor in the organization of the granulomatous lesion and that it also controls the bacterial load in BCG-induced lesions in mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9824487

  17. DNA damage and mutations induced by arachidonic acid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Punnajit; Sadre-Bazzaz, Kianoush; Shurter, Jesse; Sarasin, Alain; Termini, John

    2003-12-30

    Endogenous cellular oxidation of omega6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has long been recognized as a contributing factor in the development of various cancers. The accrual of DNA damage as a result of reaction with free radical and electrophilic aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation is believed to be involved; however, the genotoxic and mutation-inducing potential of specific membrane PUFAs remains poorly defined. In the present study we have examined the ability of peroxidizing arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4omega6) to induce DNA strand breaks, base modifications, and mutations. The time-dependent induction of single-strand breaks and oxidative base modifications by AA in genomic DNA was quantified using denaturing glyoxal gel electrophoresis. Mutation spectra were determined in XP-G fibroblasts and a repair-proficient line corrected for this defect by c-DNA complementation (XP-G(+)). Mutation frequencies were elevated from approximately 5- to 30-fold over the background following reaction of DNA with AA for various times. The XPG gene product was found to be involved in the suppression of mutations after extended reaction of DNA with AA. Arachidonic acid-induced base substitutions were consistent with the presence of both oxidized and aldehyde base adducts in DNA. The frequency of multiple-base substitutions induced by AA was significantly reduced upon correction for the XPG defect (14% vs 2%, P = 0.0015). Evidence is also presented which suggests that the induced frequency of multiple mutations is lesion dependent. These results are compared to published data for mutations stimulated by alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes identified as products of lipid peroxidation.

  18. [Action of adaptogens: cucurbitacin R diglucoside as a stimulator of arachidonic acid metabolism in the rat adrenal gland].

    PubMed

    Panosian, A G; Dadaian, M A; Gevorkian, G A

    1989-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that cucurbitacin R diglucoside (CRD), an adaptogen increasing the rat working capacity and stimulating corticosteroid secretion, stimulates the release of arachidonic acid (AA) in the rat adrenal cortex in vivo (the administration of CRD during 14 days) as well as in vitro (the incubation of isolated rat adrenocortical cells with CRD in the presence of eicosatetraenoic acid, the AA metabolism inhibitor) experiments. The incubation of isolated rat adrenocortical cell with CRD in the presence of AA increases the biosynthesis of 5-HETE, the precursor of which 5-HPETE is known to be a modulator of ACTH-induced corticosteroid secretion.

  19. Arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Thompson, J.E.; Sheppard, D.

    1988-05-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites have previously been demonstrated to mediate the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in guinea pigs and dogs after exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were treated with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), U-60,257 (piriprost, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), or BW775c (a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and exposed to air or 3 ppm TDI. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine aerosol was examined 2 h after exposure. In control animals, the provocative concentration of acetylcholine which caused a 200% increase in pulmonary resistance over baseline (PC200) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) after exposure to TDI (8.6 +/- 2.0 mg/ml, geometric mean + geometric SE, n = 10) than after exposure to air (23.9 + 2.5 mg/ml, n = 14). The airway responsiveness to acetylcholine in animals treated with indomethacin or piriprost and exposed to TDI was not different from that of control animals exposed to TDI. Treatment with BW755c enhanced the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in animals exposed to TDI without altering the PC200 of animals exposed to air. The PC200 of animals treated with BW755c and exposed to TDI (2.3 + 0.8 mg/ml, n = 8) was significantly lower than the PC200 of control animals exposed to TDI (p less than 0.025). These results suggest that products of arachidonic acid metabolism are not responsible for TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. BW755c, however, appears to potentiate the TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine by an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate toluene diisocyanate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T; Thompson, J E; Sheppard, D

    1988-05-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites have previously been demonstrated to mediate the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in guinea pigs and dogs after exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were treated with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), U-60,257 (piriprost, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), or BW775c (a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and exposed to air or 3 ppm TDI. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine aerosol was examined 2 h after exposure. In control animals, the provocative concentration of acetylcholine which caused a 200% increase in pulmonary resistance over baseline (PC200) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) after exposure to TDI (8.6 +/- 2.0 mg/ml, geometric mean + geometric SE, n = 10) than after exposure to air (23.9 + 2.5 mg/ml, n = 14). The airway responsiveness to acetylcholine in animals treated with indomethacin or piriprost and exposed to TDI was not different from that of control animals exposed to TDI. Treatment with BW755c enhanced the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in animals exposed to TDI without altering the PC200 of animals exposed to air. The PC200 of animals treated with BW755c and exposed to TDI (2.3 + 0.8 mg/ml, n = 8) was significantly lower than the PC200 of control animals exposed to TDI (p less than 0.025). These results suggest that products of arachidonic acid metabolism are not responsible for TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. BW755c, however, appears to potentiate the TDI-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine by an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  1. [Elicitor activity of chitosan and arachidonic acid: their similarity and distinction].

    PubMed

    Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Chalenko, G I; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2012-01-01

    Two elicitors-chitosan and arachidonic acid-induced the same defense responses in potatoes, stimulating the processes of wound reparation and inducing the formation of phytoalexins, inhibitors of proteinase, and active forms of oxygen. However, chitosan induced the defense potential of plant tissues at concentrations higher than those of arachidonic acid. The protective action of chitosan was defined by two parameters, i.e., the ability to induce the immune responses in plant tissues and to exhibit a toxic effect on the pathogen development, causing late blight and seedling blight, whereas the elicitor effect of arachidonic acid depended on its ability to induce the defense potential of plant tissues only.

  2. Astrocyte arachidonate and palmitate uptake and metabolism is differentially modulated by dibutyryl-cAMP treatment.

    PubMed

    Seeger, D R; Murphy, C C; Murphy, E J

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes play a vital role in brain lipid metabolism; however the impact of the phenotypic shift in astrocytes to a reactive state on arachidonic acid metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we determined the impact of dibutyryl-cAMP (dBcAMP) treatment on radiolabeled arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C]20:4n-6) and palmitic acid ([1-(14)C]16:0) uptake and metabolism in primary cultured murine cortical astrocytes. In dBcAMP treated astrocytes, total [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake was increased 1.9-fold compared to control, while total [1-(14)C]16:0 uptake was unaffected. Gene expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsl), acyl-CoA hydrolase (Acot7), fatty acid binding protein(s) (Fabp) and alpha-synuclein (Snca) were determined using qRT-PCR. dBcAMP treatment increased expression of Acsl3 (4.8-fold) and Acsl4 (1.3-fold), which preferentially use [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 and are highly expressed in astrocytes, consistent with the increase in [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake. However, expression of Fabp5 and Fabp7 were significantly reduced by 25% and 45%, respectively. Acot7 (20%) was also reduced, suggesting dBcAMP treatment favors acyl-CoA formation. dBcAMP treatment enhanced [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 (2.2-fold) and [1-(14)C]16:0 (1.6-fold) esterification into total phospholipids, but the greater esterification of [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 is consistent with the observed uptake through increased Acsl, but not Fabp expression. Although total [1-(14)C]16:0 uptake was not affected, there was a dramatic decrease in [1-(14)C]16:0 in the free fatty acid pool as esterification into the phospholipid pool was increased, which is consistent with the increase in Acsl3 and Acsl4 expression. In summary, our data demonstrates that dBcAMP treatment increases [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 uptake in astrocytes and this increase appears to be due to increased expression of Acsl3 and Acsl4 coupled with a reduction in Acot7 expression.

  3. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Kevin B.; Ryan, Alan S.; Forsyth, Stewart; Gautier, Sheila; Salem, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is an n-6 polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acid formed by the biosynthesis from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). This review considers the essential role that ARA plays in infant development. ARA is always present in human milk at a relatively fixed level and is accumulated in tissues throughout the body where it serves several important functions. Without the provision of preformed ARA in human milk or infant formula the growing infant cannot maintain ARA levels from synthetic pathways alone that are sufficient to meet metabolic demand. During late infancy and early childhood the amount of dietary ARA provided by solid foods is low. ARA serves as a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes, collectively known as eicosanoids which are important for immunity and immune response. There is strong evidence based on animal and human studies that ARA is critical for infant growth, brain development, and health. These studies also demonstrate the importance of balancing the amounts of ARA and DHA as too much DHA may suppress the benefits provided by ARA. Both ARA and DHA have been added to infant formulas and follow-on formulas for more than two decades. The amounts and ratios of ARA and DHA needed in infant formula are discussed based on an in depth review of the available scientific evidence. PMID:27077882

  4. Synaptic plasticity preserved with arachidonic acid diet in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Susumu; Nakazawa, Hiroe; Tokimasa, Takayuki; Akimoto, Kengo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda-Ono, Yoshiko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Okaichi, Hiroshige; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2003-08-01

    We examined whether synaptic plasticity was preserved in aged rats administered an arachidonic acid (AA) containing diet. Young male Fischer-344 rats (2 mo of age), and two groups of aged rats of the same strain (2 y of age) who consumed either a control diet or an AA ethyl ester-containing diet for at least 3 mo were used. In the Morris water maze task, aged rats on the AA diet had tendency to show better performance than aged rats on the control diet. Long-term potentiation induced by tetanic stimulation was recorded from a 300 microm thick hippocampal slice with a 36 multi-electrode-array positioned at the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The degree of potentiation after 1 h in aged rats on the AA diet was comparable as that of young controls. Phospholipid analysis revealed that AA and docosahexaenoic acid were the major fatty acids in the hippocampus in aged rats. There was a correlation between the behavioral measure and the changes in excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and between the physiologic measure and the total amount of AA in hippocampus.

  5. Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolism in bovine corneal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Masferrer, J.; Schwartzman, M.L.; Abraham, N.G.; Dunn, M.W.; McGiff, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    The presence of the cytochrom P450 system and its involvement in the metabolism of AA was studied in the corneal epithelium. This tissue contains cytochrome P450 as assessed directly by measurement of the carbon monoxide reduced spectrum (specific activity of 161 pmol/10 mg protein) and indirectly by measuring the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) - a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme (11-39 pmol 3-OH benzopyrene/mg protein/10 min). When corneal epithelial microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid, 30-50% of the total radioactivity was converted to two peaks, I and II. Further separation using high performance liquid chromatography has shown that each peak contains two metabolites, A,B and C,D. Metabolite formation was dependent on the addition of NADPH (1 mM) and inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A (100 ..mu..M) suggesting a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. Compound C (5-10 ..mu..M) inhibited the activity of corneal epithelial Na-K-ATPase by 30-60%, being 100-fold more potent than ouabain. Compound D (10-100 ng) induced a dose dependent relaxation of the rat caudal artery. Compound D also inhibited corneal Na-K-ATPase activity but less potently than compound C. These compounds may be important to transport processes of ocular epithelia and participate in the control of the ocular circulation and aqueous humor dynamics.

  6. Ancestral genetic complexity of arachidonic acid metabolism in Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Zou, Qiuqiong; Yu, Ting; Song, Cuikai; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Ren, Zhenghua; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-01

    Eicosanoids play an important role in inducing complex and crucial physiological processes in animals. Eicosanoid biosynthesis in animals is widely reported; however, eicosanoid production in invertebrate tissue is remarkably different to vertebrates and in certain respects remains elusive. We, for the first time, compared the orthologs involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in 14 species of invertebrates and 3 species of vertebrates. Based on parsimony, a complex AA-metabolic system may have existed in the common ancestor of the Metazoa, and then expanded and diversified through invertebrate lineages. A primary vertebrate-like AA-metabolic system via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways was further identified in the basal chordate, amphioxus. The expression profiling of AA-metabolic enzymes and lipidomic analysis of eicosanoid production in the tissues of amphioxus supported our supposition. Thus, we proposed that the ancestral complexity of AA-metabolic network diversified with the different lineages of invertebrates, adapting with the diversity of body plans and ecological opportunity, and arriving at the vertebrate-like pattern in the basal chordate, amphioxus.

  7. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA.

  8. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Kevin B; Ryan, Alan S; Forsyth, Stewart; Gautier, Sheila; Salem, Norman

    2016-04-12

    Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is an n-6 polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acid formed by the biosynthesis from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). This review considers the essential role that ARA plays in infant development. ARA is always present in human milk at a relatively fixed level and is accumulated in tissues throughout the body where it serves several important functions. Without the provision of preformed ARA in human milk or infant formula the growing infant cannot maintain ARA levels from synthetic pathways alone that are sufficient to meet metabolic demand. During late infancy and early childhood the amount of dietary ARA provided by solid foods is low. ARA serves as a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes, collectively known as eicosanoids which are important for immunity and immune response. There is strong evidence based on animal and human studies that ARA is critical for infant growth, brain development, and health. These studies also demonstrate the importance of balancing the amounts of ARA and DHA as too much DHA may suppress the benefits provided by ARA. Both ARA and DHA have been added to infant formulas and follow-on formulas for more than two decades. The amounts and ratios of ARA and DHA needed in infant formula are discussed based on an in depth review of the available scientific evidence.

  9. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases with reference to their selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Shozo . E-mail: yamamosh@kyoto-wu.ac.jp; Katsukawa, Michiko; Nakano, Ayumi; Hiraki, Emi; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige; Ueda, Natsuo

    2005-12-09

    Lipoxygenase is a dioxygenase recognizing a 1-cis,4-cis-pentadiene of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The enzyme oxygenates various carbon atoms of arachidonic acid as a substrate and produces 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid with a conjugated diene chromophore. The enzyme is referred to as 5-, 8-, 12- or 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. Earlier we found two isoforms of 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte- and platelet-type enzymes, which were distinguished by substrate specificity, catalytic activity, primary structure, gene intron size, and antigenicity. Recently, the epidermis-type enzyme was found as the third isoform. Attempts have been made to find isozyme-specific inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase, and earlier we found hinokitol, a tropolone, as a potent inhibitor selective for the platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase. More recently, we tested various catechins of tea leaves and found that (-)-geotechnical gallate was a potent and selective inhibitor of human platelet 12-lipoxygenase with an IC{sub 5} of 0.14 {mu}M. The compound was much less active with 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte-type, 15-, 8-, and 5-lipoxygenases, and cyclo oxygenases-1 and -2.

  10. In vitro release of arachidonic acid metabolites, glutathione peroxidase, and oxygen-free radicals from platelets of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, V.; Prat, J.; Rosellò, J.; Ballester, E.; Ramis, I.; Mullol, J.; Gelpí, E.; Vives-Corrons, J. L.; Picado, C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--An abnormal platelet release of oxygen-free radicals has been described in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced asthma, a finding which might suggest the existence of an intrinsic, specific platelet abnormality of arachidonic acid metabolism in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate platelet arachidonic acid metabolism in asthmatic patients with or without intolerance to aspirin. METHODS--Thirty subjects distributed into three groups were studied: group 1, 10 healthy subjects; group 2, 10 asthmatic patients with aspirin tolerance; and group 3, 10 aspirin-intolerant asthmatics. Platelets were isolated from blood, preincubated with 3H-arachidonic acid for 30 minutes and then incubated for 10 minutes with platelet activating factor (PAF) and aspirin. Cyclo-oxygenase (thromboxane, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and HHT) and lipoxygenase (12-HETE) arachidonic acid metabolites were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Release of oxygen free radicals after incubation with PAF and aspirin was measured by chemiluminescence. Platelet levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also measured using spectrophotometry. RESULTS--Platelets from aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients produced higher quantities of arachidonic acid metabolites than the control group at baseline conditions. This increase was significant only for lipoxygenase products. No differences were found amongst the three groups in the response of arachidonic acid metabolism to PAF and aspirin. Incubation with aspirin but not with PAF caused an increase in oxygen-free radical production in aspirin-intolerant patients whereas in aspirin-tolerant patients PAF, rather than aspirin, was the more potent stimulus for oxygen-free radical production. No differences in GSH-Px levels were found amongst the three groups. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that the platelet lipoxygenase pathway is activated in aspirin-intolerant patients and that the production of oxygen-free radicals may

  11. Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and Ca/sup 2 +/-independent pathways for release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.W.; Wysolmerski, R.B.

    1987-09-25

    The pathways for degradation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) were investigated in sonicated suspensions prepared from confluent cultures of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The time courses of formation of /sup 3/H-labeled and /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites of phosphatidyl-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)Ins-PI) and 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C) arachidonoyl-PI were determined at 37/sup 0/C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 2 mM EDTA with or without a 2 mM excess of Ca/sup 2 +/. The rates of formation of lysophosphatidyl-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)Ins-lyso-PI) and 1-lyso-2-(/sup 14/C) arachidonoyl-PI were similar in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, and the absolute amounts of the two radiolabeled lyso-PI products formed were nearly identical. This indicated that lyso-PI was formed by phospholipase A1, and phospholipase A2 was not measurable. In the presence of EDTA, (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid release from 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl-PI paralleled release of glycerophospho-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)GPI) from (/sup 3/H)Ins-PI. Formation of (/sup 3/H)GPI was inhibited by treatment with the specific sulfhydryl reagent, 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, and this was accompanied by an increase in (/sup 3/H)Ins-lyso-PI. In the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/, (/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid release from 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl-PI was increased 2-fold and was associated with Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent phospholipase C activity. Under these conditions, (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate production exceeded formation of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid-labeled phospholipase C products, diacylglycerol plus monoacylglycerol, by an amount that was equal to the amount of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid formed in excess of (/sup 3/H)GPI. Low concentrations of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (15-125 microM) inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid release, and the decrease in (/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid formed was matched by an equivalent increase in /sup 14/C label

  12. The rabbit pulmonary cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolic pathway: characterization and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, D C; Plitman, J D; Kobayashi, J; Miller, R F; Snapper, J R; Falck, J R; Szarek, J L; Philpot, R M; Capdevila, J H

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung. Images PMID:7738183

  13. In vitro release of arachidonic acid and in vivo responses to respirable fractions of cotton dust

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.A.; Edwards, J.H.; Al-Zubaidy, T.S.; Brown, R.C.; Poole, A.; Nicholls, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It was considered that the fall in lung function seen after exposure to cotton dust may be attributable in part to the activity of arachidonic acid metabolites, such as leucotrienes as well as to the more established release of histamine by cotton dust. However, we found that cotton and barley dusts elicited poor release of arachidonic acid from an established macrophage like cell line compared with that observed with other organic dusts. In the experimental animal, pulmonary cellular responses to both cotton and barley dust were similar to those evoked by moldy hay and pigeon dropping dusts, although after multiple doses a more severe response was seen to cotton and barley. Since both moldy hay and pigeon droppings elicit a greater arachidonic acid release than cotton or barley, a role for arachidonic acid in inducing the cellular response is less likely than other factors. There are limitations to our conclusions using this system, i.e., the arachidonic acid may be released in a nonmetabolized form, although it is noted that the two dusts with the greatest arachidonic acid release produce their clinical responses in humans largely by hypersensitivity mechanisms.

  14. Is the brain arachidonic acid cascade a common target of drugs used to manage bipolar disorder?

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    Although lithium has been used therapeutically to treat patients with bipolar disorder for over 50 years, its mechanism of action, as well as that of other drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, is not agreed upon. In the present paper, I review studies in unanaesthetized rats using a neuropharmacological approach, combined with kinetic, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, demonstrating that chronic administration of three commonly used mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine), at therapeutically relevant doses, selectively target the brain arachidonic acid cascade. Upon chronic administration, lithium and carbamazepine decrease the binding activity of activator protein-2 and, in turn, the transcription, translation and activity of its arachidonic acid-selective calcium-dependent phospholipase A(2) gene product, whereas chronic valproic acid non-competitively inhibits long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. The net overlapping effects of the three mood stabilizers are decreased turnover of arachidonic acid, but not of docosahexaenoic acid, in rat brain phospholipids, as well as decreased brain cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E(2). As an extension of this theory, drugs that are thought to induce switching to mania, especially when administered during bipolar depression (fluoxetine and imipramine), up-regulate enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade and turnover of arachidonic acid in rat brain phospholipids. Future basic and clinical studies on the arachidonic acid hypothesis of bipolar disorder are warranted.

  15. Dietary arachidonic acid as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative diseases: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mélanie H; Pelleieux, Sandra; Vitale, Nicolas; Olivier, Jean Luc

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease and associated diseases constitute a major public health concern worldwide. Nutrition-based, preventive strategies could possibly be effective in delaying the occurrence of these diseases and lower their prevalence. Arachidonic acid is the second major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and several studies support its involvement in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to examine how dietary arachidonic acid contributes to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms and therefore to its prevention. First, we explore the sources of neuronal arachidonic acid that could potentially originate from either the conversion of linoleic acid, or from dietary sources and transfer across the blood-brain-barrier. In a second part, a brief overview of the role of the two main agents of Alzheimer's disease, tau protein and Aβ peptide is given, followed by the examination of the relationship between arachidonic acid and the disease. Third, the putative mechanisms by which arachidonic acid could influence Alzheimer's disease occurrence and evolution are presented. The conclusion is devoted to what remains to be determined before integrating arachidonic acid in the design of preventive strategies against Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: involvement of novel arachidonic acid metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, G D; Capdevila, J; Chacos, N; Manna, S; Falck, J R

    1983-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cells were incubated in the presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and one of three inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism:indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase system; nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an antioxidant that inhibits lipoxygenase; and icosatetraynoic acid, an acetylenic analogue of arachidonic acid that blocks all known pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Indomethacin was ineffective in blocking luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was only marginally capable of inhibiting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Icosatetraynoic acid at 10 microM completely inhibited stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Addition of several epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites to cells in vitro resulted in secretion of luteinizing hormone equal to or greater than that induced by 10 nM luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. The half-maximal effective dose for these compounds was approximately 50 nM. The 5,6-epoxyicosatrienoic acid was the most potent of the compounds tested. These studies suggest that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone release is closely coupled with the production of oxidized arachidonic acid metabolites. Moreover, one or more of the epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites might be a component of the cascade of reactions initiated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone that ultimately results in secretion of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6344087

  17. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  18. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Johan A; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violet low) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.

  19. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  20. Monochloramine potently inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism in rat platelets.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yohko; Ikeda, Mai; Sakuma, Satoru

    2006-05-26

    In the present study, the effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), glutamine-chloramine (Glu-Cl) and taurine-chloramine (Tau-Cl) on the formation of 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolite, 12-HETE, and cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites, TXB(2), and 12-HHT, from exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in rat platelets were examined. Rat platelets (4x10(8)/ml) were preincubated with drugs for 5min at 37 degrees C prior to the incubation with AA (40microM) for 2min at 37 degrees C. HOCl (50-250microM) showed an inhibition on the formation of LOX metabolite (12-HETE, 5-67% inhibition) and COX metabolites (TXB(2), 33-73% inhibition; 12-HHT, 27-74% inhibition). Although Tau-Cl and Glu-Cl up to 100microM were without effect on the formation of 12-HETE, TXB(2) and 12-HTT, NH(2)Cl showed a strong inhibition on the formation of all three metabolites (10-100microM NH(2)Cl, 12-HETE, 21-92% inhibition; TXB(2), 58-94% inhibition; 12-HHT, 36-92% inhibition). Methionine reversed a reduction of formation of LOX and COX metabolites induced by NH(2)Cl, and taurine restoring that induced by both NH(2)Cl and HOCl. These results suggest that NH(2)Cl is a more potent inhibitor of COX and LOX pathways in platelets than HOCl, and taurine and methionine can be modulators of NH(2)Cl-induced alterations in the COX and LOX pathways in vivo.

  1. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ganggang; Guan, Zhengbing; Liu, Feixian G; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great significance. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v) n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days) - 25°C (4 days) - 20°C (4 days), which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great influence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-05-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with (/sup 14/C)-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA.

  3. Niacin Sensitivity and the Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Messamore, Erik; Hoffman, William F.; Yao, Jeffrey K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with a blunted flush response to niacin. Since niacin-induced skin flushing is mediated by vasodilators derived from arachidonic acid (AA), we tested whether the blunted flush response to niacin is a marker of AA deficiency. Methods Eight concentrations of methylnicotinate were applied to the forearms of 20 adults with schizophrenia and 20 controls. Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow responses was used to derive values for niacin sensitivity (defined as the concentration eliciting half-maximal response, i.e., EC50 value) and efficacy (defined as the maximal evoked blood flow response). RBC membrane fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results Niacin sensitivity and efficacy were reduced in schizophrenia. In the control group, there was significant correlation between AA levels and niacin sensitivity as well as a trend toward correlation between AA levels and niacin efficacy. In contrast, neither sensitivity nor efficacy of niacin correlated with AA levels in schizophrenia. An expected correlation between the levels of AA and its elongation product (adrenic acid) was absent in schizophrenia. Adrenic acid levels correlated with niacin efficacy in schizophrenia. Conclusions The schizophrenia-associated niacin response abnormality involves both diminished sensitivity and reduced efficacy. The lack of expected correlation between levels of AA and adrenic acid suggests homeostatic imbalance within the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pathway in schizophrenia. Though AA levels were unrelated to measures of niacin response in schizophrenia, the correlation between adrenic acid and niacin efficacy in schizophrenia suggests relevance of the n-6 PUFA pathway to the blunted niacin response. PMID:20417059

  4. Kinetic investigation of human 5-lipoxygenase with arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Monica; Kumar, Ramakrishnan B; Balagunaseelan, Navisraj; Hamberg, Mats; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Rådmark, Olof; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2016-08-01

    Human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is responsible for the formation of leukotriene (LT)A4, a pivotal intermediate in the biosynthesis of the leukotrienes, a family of proinflammatory lipid mediators. 5-LOX has thus gained attention as a potential drug target. However, details of the kinetic mechanism of 5-LOX are still obscure. In this Letter, we investigated the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 5-LOX with its physiological substrate, arachidonic acid (AA). The observed KIE is 20±4 on kcat and 17±2 on kcat/KM at 25°C indicating a non-classical reaction mechanism. The observed rates show slight temperature dependence at ambient temperatures ranging from 4 to 35°C. Also, we observed low Arrhenius prefactor ratio (AH/AD=0.21) and a small change in activation energy (Ea(D)-Ea(H)=3.6J/mol) which suggests that 5-LOX catalysis involves tunneling as a mechanism of H-transfer. The measured KIE for 5-LOX involves a change in regioselectivity in response to deuteration at position C7, resulting in H-abstraction form C10 and formation of 8-HETE. The viscosity experiments influence the (H)kcat, but not (D)kcat. However the overall kcat/KM is not affected for labeled or unlabeled AA, suggesting that either the product release or conformational rearrangement might be involved in dictating kinetics of 5-LOX at saturating conditions. Investigation of available crystal structures suggests the role of active site residues (F421, Q363 and L368) in regulating the donor-acceptor distances, thus affecting H-transfer as well as regiospecificity. In summary, our study shows that that the H-abstraction is the rate limiting step for 5-LOX and that the observed KIE of 5-LOX is masked by a change in regioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation downregulates arachidonate but upregulates docosahexaenoate metabolizing enzymes in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rao, Jagadeesh S; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Igarashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation increases expression of arachidonic acid (AA 20:4n-6)-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in rat brain, while decreasing expression of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3)-selective calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA. Assuming that these enzyme changes represented brain homeostatic responses to deprivation, we hypothesized that dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation would produce changes in the opposite directions. Methods Brain expression of PUFA-metabolizing enzymes and their transcription factors was quantified in male rats fed an n-6 PUFA adequate or deficient diet for 15 weeks post-weaning. Results The deficient compared with adequate diet increased brain mRNA, protein and activity of iPLA2 VIA and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), but decreased cPLA2 IVA and COX-2 expression. The brain protein level of the iPLA2 transcription factor SREBP-1 was elevated, while protein levels were decreased for AP-2α and NF-κB p65, cPLA2 and COX-2 transcription factors, respectively. Conclusions With dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation, rat brain PUFA metabolizing enzymes and some of their transcription factors change in a way that would homeostatically dampen reductions in brain n-6 PUFA concentrations and metabolism, while n-3 PUFA metabolizing enzyme expression is increased. The changes correspond to reported in vitro enzyme selectivities for AA compared with DHA. (198 words) PMID:21070866

  6. Pharmacological manipulation of arachidonic acid-epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Stier, Charles T; Chander, Praveen N; Manthati, Vijay L; Falck, John R; Carroll, Mairéad A

    2014-01-01

    Kidney damage is markedly accelerated by high-salt (HS) intake in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid which possess vasodepressor, natriuretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined whether up-regulation (clofibrate) or inhibition [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH)] of epoxygenase would alter systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or renal pathology in SHRSP on HS intake (1% NaCl drinking solution). Three weeks of treatment with clofibrate induced renal cortical protein expression of CYP2C23 and increased urinary excretion of EETs compared with vehicle-treated SHRSP. SBP and urinary protein excretion (UPE) were significantly lowered with clofibrate treatment. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 3 weeks, demonstrated focal lesions of vascular fibrinoid degeneration, which were markedly attenuated with clofibrate treatment. In contrast, 2 weeks of treatment with the selective epoxygenase inhibitor, MS-PPOH, increased UPE without significantly altering neither urinary EET levels nor SBP. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 11 days, demonstrated occasional mild damage whereas kidneys from MS-PPOH-treated rats exhibited widespread malignant nephrosclerosis. These results suggest that pharmacological manipulation of epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage and that interventions to increase EET levels may provide therapeutic strategies for treating salt-sensitive hypertension and renal damage.

  7. Pharmacological manipulation of arachidonic acid-epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Stier, Charles T.; Chander, Praveen N.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Falck, John R.; Carroll, Mairéad A.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney damage is markedly accelerated by high-salt (HS) intake in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid which possess vasodepressor, natriuretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined whether up-regulation (clofibrate) or inhibition [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH)] of epoxygenase would alter systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or renal pathology in SHRSP on HS intake (1% NaCl drinking solution). Three weeks of treatment with clofibrate induced renal cortical protein expression of CYP2C23 and increased urinary excretion of EETs compared with vehicle-treated SHRSP. SBP and urinary protein excretion (UPE) were significantly lowered with clofibrate treatment. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 3 weeks, demonstrated focal lesions of vascular fibrinoid degeneration, which were markedly attenuated with clofibrate treatment. In contrast, 2 weeks of treatment with the selective epoxygenase inhibitor, MS-PPOH, increased UPE without significantly altering neither urinary EET levels nor SBP. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 11 days, demonstrated occasional mild damage whereas kidneys from MS-PPOH-treated rats exhibited widespread malignant nephrosclerosis. These results suggest that pharmacological manipulation of epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage and that interventions to increase EET levels may provide therapeutic strategies for treating salt-sensitive hypertension and renal damage. PMID:25177296

  8. The effect of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) on colonocyte arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M D; Sexe, R; Peterson, B; Kaminski, D L; Li, A P; Longo, W E

    1996-02-01

    In previous studies we found that luminal perfusion of the isolated left colon of the rabbit with the hapten, trinitrobenzene, resulted in the production of an acute inflammatory process associated with alterations in eicosanoid metabolism. As the colitis was attenuated by cyclooxygenase inhibitors it is possible that the inflammation was mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites. In the present study it was intended to evaluate the effect of trinitrobenzene on eicosanoid metabolism in transformed human colonic cells by exposing Caco-2++ cells to various doses of trinitrobenzene. Cell injury was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase levels and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity was evaluated by measuring prostanoid and leukotriene production. In separate experiments resting and trinitrobenzene stimulated cells were treated with indomethacin and dexamethasone. Trinitrobenzene produced increased prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha++ and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. Leukotriene B4 was significantly increased compared to control values at the highest TNB concentration administered. Indomethacin inhibited the lactate dehydrogenase and prostanoid changes, suggesting that the inflammatory changes produced were mediated by the prostanoids. Dexamethasone administered for 1 hr prior to trinitrobenzene decreased the 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha but did not alter trinitrobenzene produced changes in lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to dexamethasone for 24 hr decreased the trinitrobenzene produced lactate dehydrogenase and eicosanoid changes. The results suggest that trinitrobenzene produces an acute injury to Caco-2 cells that may be mediated by the cyclooxygenase enzymes.

  9. Fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in plasma and lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic chicks.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Amalik, F; Linares, A; García-Peregrín, E

    2000-07-01

    The value of fish oil for prevention and/or treatment of human atherosclerosis has not been fully established. This study shows that replacement of saturated fat in young chick diet with menhaden oil produced a significant reversion of the hypercholesterolemia previously induced by coconut oil feeding. Fish oil also produced a clear decrease of plasma triacylglycerol levels. Coconut oil increased the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, while menhaden oil increased those of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3. Percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased by fish oil addition to the diet. Total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein contents of high and low density lipoproteins increased by coconut oil feeding. When coconut oil was replaced by menhaden oil, total cholesterol was significantly reduced in high, low and very low density lipoproteins. All chemical components of VLDL were decreased by menhaden oil feeding. Our results show a strong hypocholesterolemic effect of menhaden oil when this fat was supplemented to hypercholesterolemic chicks. The clear decrease found in arachidonic acid content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.

  10. Transfer of arachidonate from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol in guinea pig alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Nijssen, J.G.; Oosting, R.S.; Nkamp, F.Pv.; van den Bosch, H.

    1986-10-01

    Guinea pig alveolar macrophages were labeled by incubation with either arachidonate or linoleate. Arachidonate labeled phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and triglycerides (TG) equally well, with each lipid containing about 30% of total cellular radioactivity. In comparison to arachidonate, linoleate was recovered significantly less in PE (7%) and more in TG (47%). To investigate whether redistributions of acyl chains among lipid classes took place, the macrophages were incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC or 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC. After harvesting, the cells incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC contained 86% of the recovered cellular radioactivity in PC, with only small amounts of label being transferred to PE and TG (3 and 6%, respectively). More extensive redistributions were observed with arachidonate-labeled PC. In this case, only 60% of cellular radioactivity was still associated with PC, while 22 and 12%, respectively, had been transferred to PE and TG. Arachidonate transfer from PC to PE was unaffected by an excess of free arachidonate which inhibited this transfer to TG for over 90%, indicating that different mechanisms or arachidonoyl CoA pools were involved in the transfer of arachidonate from PC to PE and TG. Cells prelabeled with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC released /sup 14/C-label into the medium upon further incubation. This release was slightly stimulated by zymosan and threefold higher in the presence of the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Labeling of macrophages with intact phospholipid molecules appears to be a suitable method for studying acyl chain redistribution and release reactions.

  11. Systemic use of selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W or non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME differently affects systemic nitric oxide formation after oral Porphyromonas gingivalis inoculation in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ana; Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Crossley, David A; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Jerin, Ales; Erzen, Damijan; Zdovc, Irena; Hitti, Tina; Skaleric, Uros

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are reported to protect against the local tissue damage in gingivitis and periodontal disease by reducing nitroxidative stress during inflammation, but their systemic effects are not well investigated. NOS inhibitors systemic effects were investigated in a murine chronic oral inoculation model using live Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.3 ml; 10(9)cfu/ml) or sterile broth (0.3 ml). Organ nitric oxide (NO) and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were determined in mice treated with non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME (50mg/kg/24h i.p.) or selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W (10mg/kg/6h i.p.) for the last 5 days of the experiment. Differences between groups were evaluated by nonparametric Wilcoxon's rank-sum one-sided two-sample test and the results compared to those obtained from sham-treated (sterile broth) sham-inoculated animals (water for injection i.p./6h). Repeated ingestion of P. gingivalis resulted in generalized production of NO in organs and NOx in plasma, the levels of both typically being reduced in P. gingivalis-inoculated-1400W-treated mice, whilst the use of l-NAME was largerly ineffective, even promoting NO/NOx formation. Application of either inhibitor to sham-inoculated animals enhanced NO/NOx formation, due only in part to the repeated i.p. injections. The systemic use of 1400W or l-NAME differently affects systemic nitric oxide formation in mice orally challenged with P. gingivalis, but the sequelae of such an intervention should be evaluated further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Antifungal Targets against a Candida Biofilm Based on an Enzyme in the Arachidonic Acid Cascade—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinning; Wang, Decai; Yu, Cuixiang; Li, Tao; Liu, Jianqiao; Sun, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Candida is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen, especially in biofilm associated infections. The formation of a Candida biofilm can decrease Candida sensitivity to antifungal drugs and cause drug resistance. Although many effective antifungal drugs are available, their applications are limited due to their high toxicity and cost. Seeking new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilm-associated infection is an urgent need. Many research efforts are underway, and some progress has been made in this field. It has been shown that the arachidonic acid cascade plays an important role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity. Notably, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can promote the formation of a Candida biofilm. Recently, the inhibition of PGE2 has received much attention. Studies have shown that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin, combined with fluconazole can significantly reduce Candida adhesion and biofilm development and increase fluconazole susceptibility; the MIC of fluconazole can be decrease from 64 to 2 μg/ml when used in combination with ibuprofen. In addition, in vivo studies have also confirmed the antifungal activities of these inhibitors. In this article, we mainly review the relationship between PGE2 and Candida biofilm, summarize the antifungal activities of COX inhibitors and analyze the possible antifungal activity of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (MPGES-1) inhibitors; additionally, other factors that influence PGE2 production are also discussed. Hopefully this review can disclose potential antifungal targets based on the arachidonic acid cascade and provide a prevailing strategy to alleviate Candida albicans biofilm formation. PMID:27999568

  13. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  14. Feedback Control of the Arachidonate Cascade in Osteoblastic Cells by 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Hidetaka; Kawahito, Yutaka; Tsubouchi, Yasunori; Kohno, Masataka; Wada, Makoto; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kadoya, Masatoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Hojo, Tatsuya; Matsuyama, Masahide; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and an anti-diabetic thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (TRO) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands, which regulate immuno-inflammatory reactions as well as adipocyte differentiation. We previously reported that 15d-PGJ2 can suppress interleukin (IL)-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1 also stimulates PGE2 synthesis in osteoblasts by regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in various diseases such as RA and osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the feedback mechanism of the arachidonate cascade in mouse osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, which differentiate into mature osteoblasts. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 led to a significant increase in IL-1α-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in a dose dependent manner. The effect of 15d-PGJ2 was stronger than that of TRO. However, it did not affect the expression of COX-1. In addition, cell viability of MC3T3-E1 cells was not changed in the condition we established. This means that 15d-PGJ2 exerts a positive feedback regulation of the arachidonate cascade of PGE2 in osteoblastic cells. These results may provide important information about the pathogenesis and treatment of bone resorption in a variety of diseases such as RA and osteoporosis. PMID:18231633

  15. Mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism during rat heart adaptation to high altitude: effect of sildenafil, L-NAME, and L-arginine treatments.

    PubMed

    Zaobornyj, Tamara; Valdez, Laura B; Iglesias, Darío E; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Boveris, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    Rats submitted to high altitude (Cerro de Pasco, Perú, 4,340 m, Po(2) = 12.2 kPa) for up to 84 days showed a physiological adaptive response with decreased body weight gain (15%), increased right ventricle weight (100%), and increased hematocrit (40%) compared with sea level animals. These classical parameters of adaptation to high altitude were accompanied by an increase in heart mitochondrial enzymes: complexes I-III activity by 34% and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) activity and expression by >75%. The hyperbolic increase for mtNOS activity during adaptation to high altitude was similar to the observed pattern for hematocrit. Hematocrit and mtNOS activity mean values correlated linearly (r(2) = 0.75, P increased such response by 40%, whereas l-arginine treatment (106 mg*kg(-1)*day(-1)) had no effect. Nitric oxide (NO) production by mtNOS accounts for approximately 49% of total cellular NO production in sea level rats and for approximately 54% in rats exposed to high altitude for 84 days. It is concluded that mtNOS is a substantial source of cardiac NO, a factor in the adaptive response to sustained heart hypoxia that is susceptible to be modified by pharmacological treatments.

  16. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L.

  17. Impact of Arachidonic Acid and the Leukotriene Signaling Pathway on Vasculogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Han; Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Becker, Sven; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into various kinds of cells, such as endothelial and hematopoietic cells. In addition, some evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes (LTs), which include the 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) family, can regulate endothelial cell differentiation. In the present study, the eicosanoid precursor arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated vasculogenesis of ES cells by increasing the number of fetal liver kinase-1+ vascular progenitor cells as well as vascular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion protein-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin. The stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the LT signaling pathway, 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP), was blunted upon treatment with the FLAP inhibitors AM643 and REV5901. Vasculogenesis was significantly restored upon exogenous addition of LTs. Downstream of FLAP, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) blocker U75302, the BLT2 receptor blocker LY255283 as well as the cysteinyl LT blocker BAY-u9773 inhibited vasculogenesis of ES cells. AA treatment of differentiating ES cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was not affected upon either FLAP or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Prevention of ROS generation by either the free radical scavengers vitamin E and N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870 downregulated vasculogenesis of ES cells and blunted the provasculogenic effect of AA. In summary, our data demonstrate that proinflammatory AA stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells via the LT pathway by mechanisms involving ROS generation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Metabolomics analysis of fungal biofilm development and of arachidonic acid-based quorum sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, Adam; Junka, Adam; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Wojtowicz, Wojciech; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Młynarz, Piotr

    2017-04-03

    The infections caused by filamentous fungi are becoming worldwide problem of healthcare systems due to increasing drug-resistance of this microorganism and increasing number of immunocompromised nosocomial patients. These infections are related with Aspergillus ability to form sessile communities referred to as the biofilms. The small compounds known as quorum sensing (QS) molecules allow this microorganism to coordinate all processes taking place during biofilm formation and maturation. In the study presented, the HRMAS (1) H NMR metabolomic approach was applied to define composition of extra and intracellular metabolites produced by biofilmic and planktonic (aka free-swimming) cultures of this microorganism and to evaluate impact of quorum sensing molecule, arachidonic acid (AA) on biofilm formation. The Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to confirm Aspergillus ability to form biofilm in vitro, while multivariate and univariate data analysis was applied to analyze data obtained. The Aspergillus strain was able to form strong biofilm structures in vitro. The statistical analysis revealed significant changes of metabolite production depending on Aspergillus culture type (biofilm vs. plankton), time and presence of QS molecules. The data obtained, if developed, might be used in future NMR diagnostics as markers of Aspergillus biofilm-related infections and lead to shorten time between pathogen identification and introduction of treatment.

  19. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Reproduction in Daphnia magna and Mitigates Changes in Sex Ratios Induced by Pyriproxyfen

    PubMed Central

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Baldwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of only two unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans, and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. We hypothesized that as a key fatty acid, AA may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with AA indicate that it alters female/male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted P. subcapitata diet. Next, we tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (C. vulgaris) with AA enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. AA enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 and 4.0μM by 30–40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that AA is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, our data indicates that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of AA needed for reproduction. Diet switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some but not all of AA’s effects when compared to a C. vulgaris only diet, suggesting that some AA provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, AA supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in AA may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist, pyriproxyfen. PMID:25393616

  20. Efficacy of dietary arachidonic acid provided as triglyceride or phospholipid as substrates for brain arachidonic acid accretion in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Boehm, Günther; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2002-03-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a long-chain polyunsaturate (LCP) present in human breast milk as both triglyceride (TG) and as phospholipid (PL). There has been little attention to the metabolic consequences of lipid form of AA in infant formulas. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of dietary TG and PL as carriers of AA for accretion in the brain and associated organs of term baboon neonates consuming a formula with LCP composition typical of human milk. TG and phosphatidylcholine (PC) with [U-(13)C]-AA in the sn-2 position and with unlabeled 16:0 in the remaining positions (TG-AA* or PL-AA*, respectively) were used as tracers to study the tissue AA* incorporation. Baboon neonates received a single oral dose of either TG-AA* (n = 3) or PL-AA* (n = 4) at 18-19 d of life. Tissues were obtained 10 d later (28-29 d of life) and isotopic enrichment was measured. In the brain, 4.5% of the PL-AA* dose and 2.1% of the TG-AA* dose were recovered as brain AA*, respectively, indicating that PL was about 2.1-fold more effective than TG as a substrate for brain AA accretion. Preferential incorporation of PL-derived AA* over TG source of AA* was also observed in the liver, lung, plasma, and erythrocytes. Because of the quantitative predominance of TG-AA in formula, total brain AA accretion, expressed as absolute weight, was 5.0-fold greater from TG-AA than from PL-AA. We estimate that about half of postnatal brain AA accretion is derived from dietary preformed AA in term baboon neonates consuming a formula with lipid composition similar to that of human milk.

  1. Redirection of arachidonic acid metabolism by ICI D1542: effects on thrombus formation in the coronary artery of the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, S. J.; Moors, J. A.; Snow, H. M.; Wayne, M.; Jessup, R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of simultaneous redirection of arachidonic acid metabolism, by inhibition of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase and blockade of the platelet thromboxane A2 receptor (TP-receptor), was examined on the rate of thrombus formation in a stenosed coronary artery with damaged endothelium in an anaesthetized dog. 2. Redirection of arachidonic acid metabolism was achieved by intravenous doses of ICI D1542, a selective and potent inhibitor of TXA2 synthase and the TP-receptor. 3. Redirection of arachidonic acid metabolism was demonstrated in whole blood, stimulated ex vivo by collagen. The ED50 for inhibition of TXB2 production was 7.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v.; there were corresponding increases in the production of the eicosanoids prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. 4. Thrombus formation was inhibited by D1542 (ED50 0.55 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), but could be restarted by an intravenous infusion of adrenaline (0.2-38 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.). In the presence of the maximum effective dose of D1542 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) a 190 fold increase in the infusion rate of adrenaline was required to restore thrombus formation. 5. In the presence of D1542, removal of endoperoxide metabolites by inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase with aspirin (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused thrombus formation to restart, indicating the ability of the endoperoxide metabolites to inhibit thrombus formation in vivo. 6. These results indicate that, in the stenosed and damaged coronary artery of the dog, redirection of arachidonic acid metabolism by D1542 is more effective at preventing thrombus formation than inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase by aspirin. PMID:8485629

  2. Maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment of offspring from healthy and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Del Bigio, Marc R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid status and development. This study tested if maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment in rat offspring. Dams were randomized into 6 groups using a 3x2 design: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either control or an arachidonic acid (0.5% of fat) diet throughout reproduction. Offspring were tested on post-natal days 3 and 5 for righting response, days 7 and 9 for negative geotaxis, day 14 for wire hanging endurance, days 18 and 24 for rota rod endurance, and day 28 for Morris water maze performance. Only the poorly controlled group had impaired day 7 geotaxis and day 18 rota rod performance (p<0.02), but this improved with maternal arachidonic acid supplementation (p<0.0006). Arachidonic acid improved the wire hanging endurance (p=0.0003) and water maze latency (p=0.0021), suggesting enhanced neurodevelopment in all offspring.

  3. Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida prevents vascular dysfunction through PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanisms in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Li, Jian; Li, Zhike; Sang, Ying; Niu, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianying; Ding, Hong; Yin, Shanye

    2016-05-18

    Despite major scientific advances in its prevention, treatment and care, hypertension remains a serious condition that might lead to long-term complications such as heart disease and stroke. The great majority of forms of hypertension eventually result from an increased vasomotor tone activity that is regulated by endothelial NOS (eNOS) in vascular endothelium. Here, we examined the effect of fucoidan on eNOS activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also examined the effects of functional components of Undaria pinnatifida fucoidan on blood pressure and vascular function in eNOS inhibition-induced hypertensive rats in vivo. Our results suggest that fucoidan increased nitric oxide production by activating eNOS and Akt phosphorylation, which could be impaired by Akt or eNOS inhibitors. In the hypertensive rat model, treatment of fucoidan resulted in potent and persistent reduction of high blood pressure (BP) even after drug withdrawal. Our results showed that the mechanisms might involve protection against vascular structure damage, enhanced endothelium-independent vascular function and inhibition of abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which are mediated by the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. Moreover, fucoidan treatment reduced the vascular inflammation and oxidative stress control caused by iNOS expression. Together, these results support a putative role of fucoidan in hypertension prevention and treatment.

  4. The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to correlate the clinical finding that patients receiving parenteral nutrition with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion do not develop essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) with an experimental murine model, thus showing that arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are likely to be the essential fatty acids. Background Conventional belief is that linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) are the essential fatty acids (EFAs). We have shown that a fish oil-based lipid emulsion containing AA (omega-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega-3) and insignificant quantities of LA and ALA is efficacious in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The prospect of using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion as monotherapy has raised concerns of EFAD development, hindering its adoption into clinical practice. Design Data from patients in our institution who received PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion was reviewed for clinical and biochemical evidence of EFAD, defined as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio (Mead acid/AA >0.2). We also investigated the minimum amount of fish oil required to prevent EFAD in a murine model and determined whether DHA and AA alone can prevent EFAD. Results No patients receiving PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion in our institution have developed biochemical or clinical evidence of EFAD such as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio, growth retardation or dermatitis. This observation parallels our previously published animal studies, which demonstrated prevention of EFAD when thirteen percent of total calories were from fish oil. Moreover, current work in our laboratory shows that AA and DHA provision alone is sufficient to prevent biochemical and physiologic evidence of EFAD in a murine model. Conclusions When dosed appropriately, fish oil-based lipid emulsions contain sufficient EFAs to

  5. Dormant 5-lipoxygenase in inflammatory macrophages is triggered by exogenous arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Sorgi, Carlos A; Zarini, Simona; Martin, Sarah A; Sanchez, Raphael L; Scandiuzzi, Rodrigo F; Gijón, Miguel A; Guijas, Carlos; Flamand, Nicolas; Murphy, Robert C; Faccioli, Lucia H

    2017-09-08

    The differentiation of resident tissue macrophages from embryonic precursors and that of inflammatory macrophages from bone marrow cells leads to macrophage heterogeneity. Further plasticity is displayed through their ability to be polarized as subtypes M1 and M2 in a cell culture microenvironment. However, the detailed regulation of eicosanoid production and its involvement in macrophage biology remains unclear. Using a lipidomics approach, we demonstrated that eicosanoid production profiles between bone marrow-derived (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages differed drastically. In polarized BMDMs, M1 and M2 phenotypes were distinguished by thromboxane B2, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2 production, in addition to lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity. Although Alox5 expression and the presence of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) protein in BMDMs was observed, the absence of leukotrienes production reflected an impairment in 5-LO activity, which could be triggered by addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA). The BMDM 5-LO regulatory mechanism was not responsive to PGE2/cAMP pathway modulation; however, treatment to reduce glutathione peroxidase activity increased 5-LO metabolite production after AA stimulation. Understanding the relationship between the eicosanoids pathway and macrophage biology may offer novel strategies for macrophage-associated disease therapy.

  6. Development of a defined medium for arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using a visualization method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Ji, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hongman; Fu, Ninghua; Yan, Liexiang; Deng, Zhongtao; Huang, He

    2012-11-01

    Defined medium for arachidonic acid (ARA) production by Mortierella alpina was optimized for its metabolomics study. For this purpose, a visualization method (VM) was applied for the first time. Experiments were designed according to the uniform design with four factors (concentrations of glucose, NaNO(3), KH(2)PO(4) and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O) for each at nine levels. Dry cell weight (DCW), ARA yield in DCW [percent (w/w)] and ARA content in total fatty acids [percent (w/w)] were considered as the three objectives. Optimization of single-objective function and multi-objective function of two objectives and three objectives was attempted. Optimal DCW, ARA yield and ARA content were predicted to occur in a medium that contained (grams per litre): glucose 35, NaNO(3) 1, KH(2)PO(4) 7.5 and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 2.6. Upon verification, the average tested DCW (12.95 g/l), ARA yield (18.89 %) and ARA content (42.36 %) were fairly close to the predicted values (12.88 g/l, 9.68 % and 35.57 %, respectively). Moreover, DCW, ARA yield and ARA content from the optimum medium increased by 35.68, 47.23 and 30.90 % compared with control, respectively, indicating that VM had succeeded in exploiting the biomass growth and ARA production by M. alpina.

  7. Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass in albino rats--a subchronic study.

    PubMed

    Nisha, A; Muthukumar, S P; Venkateswaran, G

    2009-04-01

    Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass was carried out in Wistar rats by acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies. A preliminary acute toxicity study revealed that the biomass was safe at acute doses and that the LD50 exceeded 5000mg/kg BW, the highest dose used in the study. In subchronic study, rats were fed diet containing 0, 2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000mg/kg, M. alpina biomass for a period of 13 weeks. Results indicated that biomass fortification had a positive influence on growth with no overt toxic effects on the survival, food consumption and body weight gain throughout the treatment interlude. The statistically significant changes in relative organ weights, serum biochemical and hematological indices in M. alpina fed groups' viz., higher relative weights of spleen, liver, brain and ovary in females, reduced hemoglobin concentration in males, elevated WBC counts at highest dose, reduction in serum triglycerides and increased alkaline phosphatase activity were not concomitant with pertinent histopathological changes and hence toxicologically inconsequential. No microscopic or macroscopic lesions attributable to the treatment were manifested in the experimental groups. The results of the present study strongly advocate the safety of M. alpina biomass in rats at levels used in the study.

  8. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO.

  9. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 Is the Key Enzyme for Incorporating Arachidonic Acid into Glycerophospholipids during Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Koeberle, Andreas; Harayama, Takeshi; Yanagida, Keisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Cellular membranes contain glycerophospholipids, which have important structural and functional roles in cells. Glycerophospholipids are first formed in the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands’ cycle). Recently, lysophospholipid acyltransferases functioning in Lands’ cycle were identified and characterized. Several enzymes involved in glycerophospholipid biosynthesis have been reported to have important roles in adipocytes. However, the role of Lands’ cycle in adipogenesis has not yet been reported. Using C3H10T1/2, a cell line capable of differentiating to adipocyte-like cells in vitro, changes of lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities were investigated. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT) and lysophosphatidylserine acyltransferase (LPSAT) activities were enhanced, especially with 18:2-CoA and 20:4-CoA as donors. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of LPCAT3, which possesses LPCAT, LPEAT and LPSAT activities with high specificity for 18:2- and 20:4-CoA, was upregulated during adipogenesis. Analysis of acyl-chain compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) showed a change in their profiles between preadipocytes and adipocytes, including an increase in the percentage of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids. These changes are consistent with the activities of LPCAT3. Therefore, it is possible that enhanced phospholipid remodeling by LPCAT3 may be associated with adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23208369

  10. Arachidonic acid randomizes endothelial cell motion and regulates adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Ninna Struck; Hansen, Anker Jon; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are essential for the evolution, organization, and repair of living organisms. An example of a combination of these processes is the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which is mediated by a directed migration and adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs). Angiogenesis is an essential part of wound healing and a prerequisite of cancerous tumor growth. We investigated the effect of the amphiphilic compound arachidonic acid (AA) on EC adhesion and migration by combining live cell imaging with biophysical analysis methods. AA significantly influenced both EC adhesion and migration, in either a stimulating or inhibiting fashion depending on AA concentration. The temporal evolution of cell adhesion area was well described by a two-phase model. In the first phase, the spreading dynamics were independent of AA concentration. In the latter phase, the spreading dynamics increased at low AA concentrations and decreased at high AA concentrations. AA also affected EC migration; though the instantaneous speed of individual cells remained independent of AA concentration, the individual cells lost their sense of direction upon addition of AA, thus giving rise to an overall decrease in the collective motion of a confluent EC monolayer into vacant space. Addition of AA also caused ECs to become more elongated, this possibly being related to incorporation of AA in the EC membrane thus mediating a change in the viscosity of the membrane. Hence, AA is a promising non-receptor specific regulator of wound healing and angiogenesis.

  11. Cytosolic calcium microdomains by arachidonic acid and nitric oxide in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Cristiana; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Munaron, Luca

    2007-03-01

    Intracellular calcium signals activated by growth factors in endothelial cells during angiogenesis regulate cytosolic and nuclear events involved in survival, proliferation and motility. Among the intracellular messengers released after proangiogenic stimulation (bFGF, VEGF), arachidonic acid (AA), nitric oxide (NO) and their metabolites play a key role and their effects are strictly related to calcium homeostasis. Recently, we showed that AA and NO are able to stimulate the opening of store-independent calcium-permeable channels in the plasmamembrane of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Here, we studied the intracellular spatiotemporal dynamics of AA- and NO-induced calcium increases following store-independent calcium entry from extracellular medium. Using confocal calcium imaging, we show that calcium entry is preferentially restricted to peripheral cytosolic microdomains and does not necessarily invade the nuclear region. These results support the existence of local mitogen-activated calcium signals. Several factors could account for this spatial restriction, including the geometry of the cells and the clusterization of calcium channels and other signalling molecules. Intracellular calcium fingerprints could contribute to the specificity of endothelial cell responses to angiogenic factors.

  12. Arachidonic acid impairs hypothalamic leptin signaling and hepatic energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Licai; Yu, Yinghua; Zhang, Qingsheng; Szabo, Alexander; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-09-05

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with the development of leptin resistance and obesity. We aim to examine the central effect of n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (ARA) on leptin sensitivity and leptin-regulated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of ARA (25 nmol/day) for 2.5 days reversed the effect of central leptin on hypothalamic JAK2, pSTAT3, pAkt, and pFOXO1 protein levels, which was concomitant with a pro-inflammatory response in the hypothalamus. ARA also attenuated the effect of central leptin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by reversing the mRNA expression of the genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6Pase, PEPCK), glucose transportation (GLUT2), lipogenesis (FAS, SCD1), and cholesterol synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase). These results indicate that an increased exposure to central n-6 PUFA induces central cellular leptin resistance with concomitant defective JAK2-STAT3 and PI3K-Akt signaling.

  13. Identification and localization of an arachidonic acid-sensitive potassium channel in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Bernd H A; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Harvey, Margaret C; Duzhyy, Dmytro E

    2004-07-14

    Receptor cells of the auditory and vestibular end organs of vertebrates acquire various types of potassium channels during development. Their expression and kinetics can differ along the tonotopic axis as well as in different cell types of the sensory epithelium. These variations can play a crucial role in modulating sensory transduction and cochlear tuning. Whole-cell tight-seal recordings of isolated hair cells revealed the presence of an arachidonic acid-sensitive A-type channel in the short (outer) hair cells of the chicken cochlea. This polyunsaturated fatty acid blocked the A-current, thereby increasing the amplitude and duration of the voltage response in these cells. We identified the gene encoding this channel as belonging to a member of the Shal subfamily, Kv4.2. Expression of the recombinant channel shows half-activation and inactivation potentials shifted to more positive values relative to native channels, suggesting that the native channel is coexpressed with an accessory subunit. RT-PCR revealed that transcription begins early in development, whereas in situ hybridization showed mRNA expression limited to the intermediate and short hair cells located in specific regions of the adult cochlea. Additional localization, using immunofluorescent staining, revealed clustering in apical-lateral regions of the receptor cell as well as in the cochlear ganglion. These experiments provide evidence that in addition to membrane proteins modulating excitation in these receptor cells, fatty acids contribute to the coding of auditory stimuli via these channels.

  14. Oral gold compound auranofin triggers arachidonate release and cyclooxygenase metabolism in the alveolar macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Peters-Golden, M.; Shelly, C.

    1988-12-01

    We examined the effect of in vitro incubation with the oral gold compound auranofin (AF) on arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism by rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). AF stimulated dose- and time-dependent release of /sup 14/C-AA from prelabeled AMs, which reached 4.7 +/- 0.3% (mean +/- SEM) of incorporated radioactivity at 10 micrograms/ml for 90 min, as compared to 0.5 +/- 0.1% release following control incubation for 90 min (p less than 0.001). Similar dose- and time-dependent synthesis of thromboxane (Tx) A2 (measured as TxB2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay of medium from unlabeled cultures, reaching 18-fold and 9-fold, respectively, of the control values at 10 micrograms/ml AF for 90 min (p less than 0.001 for both). AF-induced TxB2 and PGE2 synthesis was inhibited by indomethacin as well as by pretreatment with methylprednisolone. No increase in the synthesis of immunoreactive leukotrienes (LT) B4 or C4 was noted at any dose or time of AF. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of /sup 14/C-eicosanoids synthesized by prelabeled AMs confirmed that AF induced the release of free AA and its metabolism to cyclooxygenase, but not 5-lipoxygenase, metabolites. The ability of AF to trigger macrophage AA metabolism may be relevant to the exacerbation of certain inflammatory processes which sometimes accompany gold therapy.

  15. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by curcumin and related beta-diketone derivatives: effects on cytosolic phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jungil; Bose, Mousumi; Ju, Jihyeung; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sang, Shengmin; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism is involved in the inflammatory and carcinogenic processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, and related beta-diketone derivatives on the release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites in the murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also examined their effects on the catalytic activities and protein levels of related enzymes: cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenases (COX) as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). At 10 micro M, dibenzoylmethane (DBM), trimethoxydibenzoylmethane (TDM), tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and curcumin effectively inhibited the release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW cells and A23187-stimulated HT-29 cells. Inhibition of phosphorylation of cPLA(2), the activation process of this enzyme, rather than direct inhibition of cPLA(2) activity appears to be involved in the effect of curcumin. All the curcuminoids (10 micro M) potently inhibited the formation of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in LPS-stimulated RAW cells. Curcumin (20 micro M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression; this effect, rather than the catalytic inhibition of COX, may contribute to the decreased PGE(2) formation. Without LPS-stimulation, however, curcumin increased the COX-2 level in the macrophage cells. Studies with isolated ovine COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes showed that the curcuminoids had significantly higher inhibitory effects on the peroxidase activity of COX-1 than that of COX-2. Curcumin and THC potently inhibited the activity of human recombinant 5-LOX, showing estimated IC(50) values of 0.7 and 3 micro M, respectively. The results suggest that curcumin affects arachidonic acid metabolism by blocking the phosphorylation of cPLA(2), decreasing the expression of COX-2 and inhibiting the catalytic activities of 5-LOX. These activities may contribute to the anti

  16. Effect of chronic NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on blood pressure and renal function in conscious uninephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Reverte, M; Flores, O; Gallego, B; Lestón, A; López-Novoa, J M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied during 30 days the effect of a low dose of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 mg.kg-1.day-1 in drinking water) in the presence of D- or L-arginine (1 mg.kg-1.day-1 in drinking water) in comparison with D- or L-arginine alone on blood pressure and renal function in conscious uninephrectomized female spontaneously hypertensive rats. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in the NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester + D-arginine group (307 +/- 6 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa), n = 14, p < 0.05) in comparison with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester + L-arginine (281 +/- 6 mmHg, n = 14), L-arginine (262 +/- 5 mmHg, n = 13), and D-arginine (258 +/- 7 mmHg, n = 12) groups. There were no changes in diuresis, proteinuria, or sodium and potassium excretion between differently treated animals during this study. These results suggest that in uninephrectomized female spontaneously hypertensive rats, after 1 month blockade of NO synthesis with a low dose of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, vasculature is under tonic control by NO and it is not correlated with renal dysfunction.

  17. Differential age- and disease-related effects on the expression of genes related to the arachidonic acid signaling pathway in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Capitao, Cristina; Dean, Brian; Thomas, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-30

    We have previously identified differential effects of age on global brain gene expression profiles in subjects with schizophrenia compared to normal controls. Here, we have focused on age-related effects of genes associated with the arachidonic acid-related inflammation pathway. Linear correlation analysis of published microarray expression data reveal strong age- and cell-type- specific-effects on the expression of genes related to the arachidonic acid signaling pathway, which differed in control subjects compared to those with schizophrenia. Using real-time qPCR analysis, we validated age and disease effects of arachidonic acid-related genes in a large cohort of subjects with schizophrenia and matched controls (n=76 subjects in total). We found that levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1; aka COX-1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide receptor 3 (PTGER3) mRNA are increased, and levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2; aka COX-2) mRNA are decreased, in older subjects with schizophrenia (> 40years of age) compared to matched normal controls or younger subjects with schizophrenia (< 40years of age). These findings contribute to the accumulating evidence suggesting that inflammatory processes in the CNS contribute to pathophysiology of schizophrenia and further suggest that age may be an important factor in the potential use of anti-inflammatory therapies.

  18. Metabolic engineering of Mortierella alpina for arachidonic acid production with glycerol as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2015-12-23

    Although some microorganisms can convert glycerol into valuable products such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, the yields are relative low due primarily to an inefficient assimilation of glycerol. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which preferentially uses glucose over glycerol as the carbon source for fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we metabolically engineered M. alpina to increase the utilization of glycerol. Glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase control the first two steps of glycerol decomposition. GK overexpression increased the total fatty acid content by 35%, whereas G3PD1, G3PD2 and G3PD3 had no significant effect. Overexpression of malic enzyme (ME1) but not glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase or isocitrate dehydrogenase significantly increased fatty acid content when glycerol was used as carbon source. Simultaneous overexpression of GK and ME1 enabled M. alpina to accumulate fatty acids efficiently, with a 44% increase in fatty acid content (% of dry weight), a 57% increase in glycerol to fatty acid yield (g/g glycerol) and an 81% increase in fatty acid production (g/L culture). A repeated batch process was applied to relieve the inhibitory effect of raw glycerol on arachidonic acid synthesis, and under these conditions, the yield reached 52.2 ± 1.9 mg/g. This study suggested that GK is a rate-limiting step in glycerol assimilation in M. alpina. Another restricting factor for fatty acid accumulation was the supply of cytosolic NADPH. We reported a bioengineering strategy by improving the upstream assimilation and NADPH supply, for oleaginous fungi to efficiently accumulate fatty acid with glycerol as carbon source.

  19. Anti-inflammatory signaling actions of electrophilic nitro-arachidonic acid in vascular cells and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Trostchansky, Andrés; Rubbo, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Nitrated derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (nitro-fatty acids) are being formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes and tissue, triggering signaling cascades via covalent and reversible post-translational modifications of nucleophilic amino acids in transcriptional regulatory proteins. Arachidonic acid (AA) represents a precursor of potent signaling molecules, i.e., prostaglandins and thromboxanes through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative pathways. Arachidonic acid can be nitrated by reactive nitrogen species leading to the formation of nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA). A critical issue is the influence of NO2-AA on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, modulating inflammatory processes through redirection of AA metabolism and signaling. In this prospective article, we describe the key chemical and biochemical actions of NO2-AA in vascular and astrocytes. This includes the ability of NO2-AA to mediate unique redox signaling anti-inflammatory actions along with its therapeutic potential.

  20. Fatty acid remodeling by LPCAT3 enriches arachidonate in phospholipid membranes and regulates triglyceride transport

    PubMed Central

    Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Harayama, Takeshi; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Morimoto, Ryo; Hamano, Fumie; Tokuoka, Suzumi M; Eto, Miki; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Yanobu-Takanashi, Rieko; Mukumoto, Yoshiko; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Okamura, Tadashi; Kita, Yoshihiro; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in phospholipids affect the physical properties of membranes, but it is unclear which biological processes are influenced by their regulation. For example, the functions of membrane arachidonate that are independent of a precursor role for eicosanoid synthesis remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the lack of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) leads to drastic reductions in membrane arachidonate levels, and that LPCAT3-deficient mice are neonatally lethal due to an extensive triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation and dysfunction in enterocytes. We found that high levels of PUFAs in membranes enable TGs to locally cluster in high density, and that this clustering promotes efficient TG transfer. We propose a model of local arachidonate enrichment by LPCAT3 to generate a distinct pool of TG in membranes, which is required for normal directionality of TG transfer and lipoprotein assembly in the liver and enterocytes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06328.001 PMID:25898003

  1. Effect of progesterone on the release of arachidonic acid from human endometrial cells stimulated by histamine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.; Liggins, G.C.; Aimer, G.P.; Watkins, E.J.

    1986-02-01

    Progesterone at concentrations of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M inhibits release of (/sup 3/H)-arachidonic acid from stimulated, perfused, endometrial cells. The effect is independent of the mechanism of stimulation. Cortisol (10(-5)M but not 10(-7)M) has a similar effect in this system but estradiol (10(-7)M) is without effect. There was a positive correlation (p less than 0.05) between the magnitude of inhibition by progesterone and the day of cycle. The inhibitory action of progesterone on the release of arachidonic acid was greater in endometrial cells than in decidual cells and was apparent after fifteen minutes. The activities of commercial and endometrial cell-free preparations of phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C were unaffected by the presence of progesterone. We conclude that progesterone modulates release of (/sup 3/H)-arachidonic acid from endometrial cells by a rapid, indirect action on phospholipase activity.

  2. The effect of fluid mechanical stress on cellular arachidonic acid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Rhee, B. G.; Eskin, S. G.; Hall, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of sublytic levels of mechanical perturations of cells on cell metabolism were investigated by analyzing the products of arachidonic acid (used as a marker metabolite) in blood platelets, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and cultured umbilical-vein endothelial cells after the suspensions of these cells were subjected to a shear stress in a modified viscometer. It is shown that the sublytic levels of mechanical stress stimulated the arachidonic acid metabolism in all these cell types. Possible biological implications of this stress-metabolism coupling are discussed.

  3. [Antiaggregation activity of arachidonic acid conjugates with neurotropic peptides proglyprol and semax].

    PubMed

    Bezuglov, V V; Gretskaia, N M; Vasil'eva, T M; Petrukhina, G N; Andreeva, L A; Miasoedov, N F; Makarov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The influence two original derivatives of a therapeutically important peptide, bearing arachidonic acid residue with semax and proglyprol, upon platelet aggregation have been studied in vitro. It is established that both derivatives, in contrast to the parent peptide, possess moderate anti-aggregant properties and produce a dose-dependent decrease in the interplatelet interaction induced by ADP, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid within the concentration range of 0.018 - 1.8 mM. This activity was more pronounced for arachidonoylsemax in comparison with arachidonoylproglyprol.

  4. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on Twitch Tension of the Rat Phrenic Nerve- Diaphragm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    arachidonic acid-induced re- KANDASAMY , S . Bt. AND HUNT, W. A.; Arachidonic at-id and prostaglandins duction of twitch tension, both tended to attenuate the...samy and Hunt, 1990). It has also been reported to modulate t la.Teognbt ouin10mtws18m ’~ 2 1mto clean. The organ bath s l tion (61) ml I was 1.8• mM...Act (U.S.) and the 10% of the corresponding mean. Received for publication March 27, 1992. Results S A preliminary account of this research wan

  5. The effect of fluid mechanical stress on cellular arachidonic acid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Rhee, B. G.; Eskin, S. G.; Hall, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of sublytic levels of mechanical perturations of cells on cell metabolism were investigated by analyzing the products of arachidonic acid (used as a marker metabolite) in blood platelets, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and cultured umbilical-vein endothelial cells after the suspensions of these cells were subjected to a shear stress in a modified viscometer. It is shown that the sublytic levels of mechanical stress stimulated the arachidonic acid metabolism in all these cell types. Possible biological implications of this stress-metabolism coupling are discussed.

  6. Growth Hormone Enhances Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in a Growth Hormone Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Oberbauer, A. M.; German, J. B.; Murray, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    In a transgenic growth hormone (GH) mouse model, highly elevated GH increases overall growth and decreases adipose depots while low or moderate circulating GH enhances adipose deposition with differential effects on body growth. Using this model, the effects of low, moderate, and high chronic GH on fatty acid composition were determined for adipose and hepatic tissue and the metabolites of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid) were characterized to identify metabolic targets of action of elevated GH. The products of Δ-9 desaturase in hepatic, but not adipose, tissue were reduced in response to elevated GH. Proportional to the level of circulating GH, the products of Δ-5 and Δ-6 were increased in both adipose and hepatic tissue for the omega-6 lipids (e.g., 20:4n-6), while only the hepatic tissues showed an increase for omega-3 lipids (e.g., 22:6n-3). The eicosanoids, PGE2 and 12-HETE, were elevated with high GH but circulating thromboxane was not. Hepatic PTGS1 and 2 (COX1 and COX 2), SOD1, and FADS2 (Δ-6 desaturase) mRNAs were increased with elevated GH while FAS mRNA was reduced; SCD1 (ste-aroyl-coenzyme A desaturase) and SCD2 mRNA did not significantly differ. The present study showed that GH influences the net flux through various aspects of lipid metabolism and especially the desaturase metabolic processes. The combination of altered metabolism and tissue specificity suggest that the regulation of membrane composition and its effects on signaling pathways, including the production and actions of eicosanoids, can be mediated by the GH regulatory axis. PMID:21442273

  7. Lipid Body Organelles within the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: A Role for Intracellular Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; Roque, Natália R.; Teixeira, Lívia; Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Almeida, Mariana R.; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Martins, Jefferson S.; Pinho, Roberto R.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; D’Avila, Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of cytosolic lipidic inclusions termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets (LDs). In mammalian cells, such as macrophages, these lipid-rich organelles are formed in response to host-pathogen interaction during infectious diseases and are sites for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). Less clear are the functions of LBs in pathogenic lower eukaryotes. In this study, we demonstrated that LBs, visualized by light microscopy with different probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are produced in trypomastigote forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas’ disease, after both host interaction and exogenous AA stimulation. Quantitative TEM revealed that LBs from amastigotes, the intracellular forms of the parasite, growing in vivo have increased size and electron-density compared to LBs from amastigotes living in vitro. AA-stimulated trypomastigotes released high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and showed PGE2 synthase expression. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated increased unsaturated lipid content and AA incorporation in stimulated parasites. Moreover, both Raman and MALDI mass spectroscopy revealed increased AA content in LBs purified from AA-stimulated parasites compared to LBs from unstimulated group. By using a specific technique for eicosanoid detection, we immunolocalized PGE2 within LBs from AA-stimulated trypomastigotes. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LBs from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi are not just lipid storage inclusions but dynamic organelles, able to respond to host interaction and inflammatory events and involved in the AA metabolism. Acting as sources of PGE2, a potent immunomodulatory lipid mediator that inhibits many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, newly-formed parasite LBs may be implicated with the pathogen survival in its host. PMID:27490663

  8. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  9. Impact of arachidonic acid enrichment of live rotifer prey on bacterial communities in rotifer and larval fish cultures.

    PubMed

    Seychelles, Laurent H; Doiron, Kim; Audet, Céline; Tremblay, Réjean; Pernet, Fabrice; Lemarchand, Karine

    2013-03-01

    Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), commonly used at first feeding in commercial fish hatcheries, carry a large bacteria load. Because they are relatively poor in essential fatty acids, it is common practice to enrich them with fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA). This study aims to determine whether prey enrichment with AA may act as a prebiotic and modify the microbial community composition either in AA-enriched rotifer cultures or in larval-rearing water using winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) as a larval fish model. AA enrichment modified the bacterial community composition in both the rotifer culture tanks and the larval-rearing tanks. We observed an increase in the number of cultivable bacteria on TCBS (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) agar, used as a proxy for the abundance of Vibrio sp. The results suggest that AA may also play an indirect role in larval health.

  10. 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor activation inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine1B-like receptor function via arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Berg, K A; Maayani, S; Clarke, W P

    1996-10-01

    We previously reported that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1B-like (CHO/5-HT1B) receptor-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation is inhibited by activation of transfected human 5-HT2C receptors but not 5-HT2A receptors. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism involved in the regulation of receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase as a means to further elucidate differences between the signal transduction cascades of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes. Activation of 5-HT2C receptors with 5-HT or (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane increased release of arachidonic acid via a phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-dependent mechanism. Incubation with (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (1 microM) abolished 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5 nM)-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, which was blocked by the PLA2 inhibitor mepacrine (100 microM) and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (2 microM). Furthermore, purinergic receptor-mediated PLA2 activation as well as direct activation of PLA2 with melittin reduced CHO/5-HT1B responsiveness. These data indicate that activation of the PLA2/arachidonic acid signaling cascade mediates 5-HT2C receptor regulation of the CHO/5-HT1B receptor pathway. Consistent with our previous report and in contrast to activation of 5-HT2C or purinergic receptors, activation of 5-HT2A receptors had no effect on CHO/5-HT1B receptor function, although 5-HT2A receptor-mediated activation of PLA2 was measured. Interestingly, purinergic receptor-mediated inhibition of CHO/5-HT1B receptor function was blocked when 5-HT2A receptors were activated simultaneously. These data suggest that the lack of 5-HT2A mediated regulation of CHO/5-HT1B receptors may be due to activation of a third pathway (in addition to PLC and PLA2 pathways), which results in the inhibition of the production or the actions of a cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic

  11. Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Regulates Escherichia coli Penetration of the Blood-Brain Barrier▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longkun; Maruvada, Ravi; Sapirstein, Adam; Malik, Kafait U.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 meningitis occurs following penetration of the blood-brain barrier, but the underlying mechanisms involved in E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that host cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) contributes to E. coli invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. cPLA2α selectively liberates arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. Here, we provide the first direct evidence that host 5-lipoxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs), contribute to E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC and penetration into the brain, and their contributions involve protein kinase C alpha (PKCα). These findings demonstrate that arachidonic acid metabolism regulates E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, and studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms involved with metabolic products of arachidonic acid for their contribution to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:20696828

  12. Amyloid Plaque-Associated Oxidative Degradation of Uniformly Radiolabeled Arachidonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Furman, Ran; Murray, Ian V J; Schall, Hayley E; Liu, Qiwei; Ghiwot, Yonatan; Axelsen, Paul H

    2016-03-16

    Oxidative stress is a frequently observed feature of Alzheimer's disease, but its pathological significance is not understood. To explore the relationship between oxidative stress and amyloid plaques, uniformly radiolabeled arachidonate was introduced into transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease via intracerebroventricular injection. Uniform labeling with carbon-14 is used here for the first time, and made possible meaningful quantification of arachidonate oxidative degradation products. The injected arachidonate entered a fatty acid pool that was subject to oxidative degradation in both transgenic and wild-type animals. However, the extent of its degradation was markedly greater in the hippocampus of transgenic animals where amyloid plaques were abundant. In human Alzheimer's brain, plaque-associated proteins were post-translationally modified by hydroxynonenal, a well-known oxidative degradation product of arachidonate. These results suggest that several recurring themes in Alzheimer's pathogenesis, amyloid β proteins, transition metal ions, oxidative stress, and apolipoprotein isoforms, may be involved in a common mechanism that has the potential to explain both neuronal loss and fibril formation in this disease.

  13. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, C.A.; de Alaniz, M.J.; Brenner, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of (1-14C)eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells.

  14. Identification of an Arachidonic Acid-Producing Bacterium and Description of Kineococcus arachidonicus sp. nov.

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.

    2001-05-15

    The identification of bacterial with the ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids as been limited almost exclusively to gram-negative, psychrophilic, marine microorganisms. Here we describe a new gram-type-positive bactgerium, strain SRS30216T, that produces the polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, and is neither psychrophilic nor a marine isolate.

  15. Effects of dynamic exercise on plasma arachidonic acid epoxides and diols in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Rose M; Newman, John W; Pedersen, Theresa L; Ramos, Marisa I; Stebbins, Charles L

    2011-12-01

    Metabolites of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway may contribute to vasodilation of the vasculature. However, it is not known whether exercise affects their circulating concentrations. The authors determined effects of exercise intensity and duration on plasma concentrations of epoxy and dihydroxy metabolites of arachidonic acid. Their goal was to delineate the threshold workload, optimal workload, and duration required to produce increases in plasma concentrations of these vasoactive substances. Healthy volunteers (N = 14) performed maximal exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer during Visit 1. On separate days, subjects cycled for 20 min at 30%, 60%, and 80% of their maximal exercise intensity. The last day consisted of 40 min of exercise at 60% of maximal exercise intensity. Venous blood was obtained before, during, and after exercise for analysis. Compared with rest, increases were observed during the 80% workload at 20 min postexercise -14,15-DHET (0.77 ± 0.21 vs. 0.93 ± 0.27 nM) - and at 2 min postexercise: 11,12-DHET (0.64 ± 0.22 vs. 0.71 ± 0.24 nM; p < .05). Also compared with rest, 40-min values during the 60% workload were 14,15-DHET 0.79 ± 0.22 vs. 0.91 ± 0.31 nM and at 2 min post 14,15 EET 0.12 ± 0.06 vs. 0.21 ± 0.16 nM (p < .05). Results suggest the CYP metabolites (i.e., DHETs) are released during short-term high-intensity and long-term moderate-intensity exercise.

  16. Multiple biological effects of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pacherník, Jirí; Hampl, Ales; Soucek, Karel; Kovaríková, Martina; Andrysík, Zdenek; Hofmanová, Jirina; Kozubík, Alois

    2002-02-01

    Various compounds that inhibit processing of arachidonic acid (AA) are being intensively tested for their antitumour activity. However, the mechanisms responsible for such activity remain rather elusive. To approach this issue, we examined the effects of several structurally different inhibitors of AA metabolism in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Several parameters were determined in HaCaT cells exposed to increasing concentrations of the inhibitors for 24 and/or 48 h. These included (1) oxidoreductase activity, total protein mass and cell cycle distribution to assess cell proliferation, (2) degradation of PARP protein to assess apoptosis, and (3) cell morphology, distribution of F-actin and expression of cytokeratins and E-cadherin to evaluate changes in differentiation status. While eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), esculetin and MK-886 reduced proliferation of HaCaT cells, the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and piroxicam had no such effects. Esculetin and NDGA arrested cells in S phase, and ETYA and MK-886 delayed cell progression through G(1) phase. Higher concentrations of NDGA, MK886 and/or ETYA caused cleavage of PARP. No changes in the expression of cytokeratins and E-cadherin were observed upon treatment with any of the inhibitors. However, esculetin induced redistribution of F-actin accompanied by increased cell adhesion and size. Our findings indicate that, in addition to their ability to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis, lipoxygenase inhibitors and/or ETYA may also elicit other important physiological responses in HaCaT keratinocytes.

  17. Reciprocal Regulation of TREK-1 Channels by Arachidonic Acid and CRH in Mouse Corticotropes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andy K.; Smart, James L.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is generated in the anterior pituitary gland upon stimulation by the ACTH secretagogue, CRH. Using the patch clamp technique, we examined the action of AA on the excitability of single pituitary corticotropes obtained from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the proopiomelanocortin promoter. CRH evoked depolarization, but AA caused hyperpolarization. Under voltage clamp condition, AA caused a rapid inhibition of the delayed rectifier K+ current and then increased a background K+ current. Inhibition of AA metabolism did not prevent the activation of the K+ current by AA, suggesting a direct action of AA. The sensitivity of the AA-activated K+ current to fluoxetine, chlorpromazine, extracellular acidification, diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotics, and the membrane permeable cAMP analog [8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP] suggest that the current is mediated via TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK)-1 channels. Activation of the CRH receptors that are coupled to the adenylate cyclase pathway suppressed the activation of TREK-1 current by AA and reversed the AA-mediated hyperpolarization. Intracellular acidification (pH 7.0) increased the basal amplitude of TREK-1 current and resulted in hyperpolarizaton. CRH suppressed the basal TREK-1 current in cells with intracellular acidification and caused depolarization. Our finding indicates that TREK-1 channels are important in setting the resting potential in corticotropes. The opposing actions of CRH and AA on the excitability of corticotropes raise the possibility that AA may act as a negative feedback regulator to reduce the stimulatory action of CRH and thus prevent excessive ACTH release during chronic stress. PMID:21343252

  18. Stimulus-specific induction of phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, R.W.; Manzi, R.M.; Clark, M.A.; Hoffstein, S.T.

    1987-04-01

    Phospholipid remodeling resulting in arachidonic acid (AA) release and metabolism in human neutrophils stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 has been extensively studied, while data obtained using physiologically relevant stimuli is limited. Opsonized zymosan and immune complexes induced stimulus-specific alterations in lipid metabolism that were different from those induced by A23187. (/sup 3/H)AA release correlated with activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) but not with cellular activation as indicated by superoxide generation. The latter correlated more with calcium-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activation and elevation of cellular diacylglycerol (DAG) levels. When cells that had been allowed to incorporate (/sup 3/H)AA were stimulated with A23187, large amounts of labeled AA was released, most of which was metabolized to 5-HETE and leukotriene B4. Stimulation with immune complexes also resulted in the release of (/sup 3/H)AA but this released radiolabeled AA was not metabolized. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan induced no detectable release of (/sup 3/H)AA. Analysis of (/sup 3/H)AA-labeled lipids in resting cells indicated that the greatest amount of label was incorporated into the phosphatidylinositol (PI) pool, followed closely by phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine, while little (/sup 3/H)AA was detected in the phosphatidylethanolamine pool. During stimulation with A23187, a significant decrease in labeled PI occurred and labeled free fatty acid in the pellet increased. With immune complexes, only a small decrease was seen in labeled PI while the free fatty acid in the pellets was unchanged. In contrast, opsonized zymosan decreased labeled PI, and increased labeled DAG. Phospholipase activity in homogenates from human neutrophils was also assayed. A23187 and immune complexes, but not zymosan, significantly enhanced PLA2 activity in the cell homogenates. On the other hand, PLC activity was enhanced by zymosan and immune complexes

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) balance in developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Jill Shaddy, D; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-06-01

    The DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development (DIAMOND) trial represents one of only a few studies of the long-term dose-response effects of LCPUFA-supplemented formula feeding during infancy. The trial contrasted the effects of four formulations: 0.00% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.00% arachidonic acid (ARA), 0.32% DHA/0.64% ARA, 0.64% DHA/0.64% ARA, and 0.96% DHA/0.64% ARA against a control condition (0.00% DHA/0.00% ARA). The results of this trial have been published elsewhere, and show improved cognitive outcomes for infants fed supplemented formulas, but a common finding among many of the outcomes show a reduction of benefit for the highest DHA dose (i.e., 0.96%DHA/0.64% ARA, that is, a DHA: ARA ratio 1.5:1.0). The current paper gathers and summarizes the evidence for the reduction of benefit at this dose, and in an attempt to account for this reduced benefit, presents for the first time data from infants' red blood cell (RBC) assays taken at 4 and 12 months of age. Those assays indicate that blood DHA levels generally rose with increased DHA supplementation, although those levels tended to plateau as the DHA-supplemented level exceeded 0.64%. Perhaps more importantly, ARA levels showed a strong inverted-U function in response to increased DHA supplementation; indeed, infants assigned to the formula with the highest dose of DHA (and highest DHA/ARA ratio) showed a reduction in blood ARA relative to more intermediate DHA doses. This finding raises the possibility that reduced ARA may be responsible for the reduction in benefit on cognitive outcomes seen at this dose. The findings implicate the DHA/ARA balance as an important variable in the contribution of LCPUFAs to cognitive and behavioral development in infancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of CYP1A and cyp2-mediated arachidonic acid epoxygenation and suppression of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by imidazole derivatives including the aromatase inhibitor vorozole.

    PubMed

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Papachristou, Fotini; Labitzke, Erin; Rifkind, Arleen B

    2006-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes metabolize the membrane lipid arachidonic acid to stable biologically active epoxides [eicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). These products have cardiovascular activity, primarily acting as vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, respectively. EET formation can be increased by the prototype CYP1A or CYP2 inducers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or phenobarbital (PB), respectively. We report here that imidazole derivative drugs: the anthelminthics, albendazole and thiabendazole; the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole; the thromboxane synthase inhibitor, benzylimidazole; and the aromatase (CYP19) inhibitor vorozole (R76713, racemate; and R83842, (+) enantiomer) increased hepatic microsomal EET formation in a chick embryo model. Albendazole increased EETs by transcriptional induction of CYP1A5 and the others by combined induction of CYP1A5 and CYP2H, the avian orthologs of mammalian CYP1A2 and CYP2B, respectively. All inducers increased formation of the four EET regioisomers, but TCDD and albendazole had preference for 5,6-EET and PB and omeprazole for 14,15-EET. Vorozole, benzylimidazole, and TCDD also suppressed 20-HETE formation. Vorozole was a remarkably effective and potent inducer of multiple hepatic P450s at a dose range which overlapped its inhibition of ovarian aromatase. Increased CYP1A activity in mouse Hepa 1-6 and human HepG2 cells by vorozole and other imidazole derivatives demonstrated applicability of the findings to mammalian cells. The findings suggest that changes in P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism may be a new source of side effects for drugs that induce CYP1A or CYP2. They demonstrate further that in vivo induction of multiple hepatic P450s produces additive increases in arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity and can occur concurrently with inhibition of ovarian aromatase activity.

  1. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W; Wines, Pamela G; Cryan, Ellen V; Demarest, Keith T

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca(2+)-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca(2+)-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  2. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuting . E-mail: ytang@prdus.jnj.com; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.; Wines, Pamela G.; Cryan, Ellen V.; Demarest, Keith T.

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  3. Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation in platelet-activating factor-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Suganuma, A.; Sato, M.; Tohmatsu, T.; Nozawa, Y. )

    1989-08-15

    Upon stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids. The mechanism for AA liberation, a key step in the synthesis of biologically active eicosanoids, was investigated. PAF was found to elicit an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free Ca2+ as monitored by fluorescent indicator fura 2. When (3H) AA-labeled neutrophils were exposed to PAF, the enhanced release of AA was observed with a concomitant decrease of radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine fractions. The inhibitors of phospholipase A2, mepacrine and 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, effectively suppressed the liberation of (3H)AA from phospholipids, indicating that liberation of AA is mainly catalyzed by the action of phospholipase A2. The extracellular Ca2+ is not required for AA release. However, intracellular Ca2+ antagonists, TMB-8 and high dose of quin 2/AM drastically reduced the liberation of AA induced by PAF, indicating that Ca2+ is an essential factor for phospholipase A2 activation. PAF raised the fluorescence of fura 2 at concentrations as low as 8 pM which reached a maximal level about 8 nM, whereas more than nM order concentrations of PAF was required for the detectable release of (3H)AA. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin resulted in complete abolition of AA liberation in response to PAF. However, the fura 2 response to PAF was not effectively inhibited by toxin treatment. In human neutrophil homogenate and membrane preparations, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated AA release and potentiated the action of PAF. Guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) inhibited the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate).

  4. Absorption and metabolism of orally fed arachidonic and linoleic acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, A.; Melin, T. )

    1988-11-01

    ({sup 3}H)arachidonic (({sup 3}H)20:4) and ({sup 14}C)linoleic acid ({sup 14}C)18:2 were fed to rats in Intralipid or cream. Later (30-240 min) the stomach, small intestine, plasma, and liver were analyzed for radioactivity in different lipid classes. ({sup 3}H)20:4 and ({sup 14}C)18:2 were emptied from the stomach and absorbed by the intestine at similar rates. The ({sup 3}H)20:4:({sup 14}C)18:2 ratio of the lipids in the small intestinal wall increased, however, with time. This was due to a higher retention of ({sup 3}H)20:4 than ({sup 14}C)18:2 in intestinal phospholipids. In contrast, more of the ({sup 14}C)18:2 was in triacylglycerol of the small intestine and plasma. The highest {sup 3}H:{sup 14}C ratios were found in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The {sup 3}H:{sup 14}C ratio of intestinal phosphatidylcholine varied with the type of fat vehicle used, being highest in the Intralipid experiments. After feeding Intralipid (30-60 min), significantly more of the plasma ({sup 3}H)20:4 than plasma ({sup 14}C)18:2 was in diacylglycerol, the {sup 3}H:{sup 14}C ratio of which was much higher than that of plasma free fatty acids. ({sup 3}H)20:4 and ({sup 14}C)18:2 of chyle triacylglycerol are thus metabolized differently.

  5. Chemical nature and immunotoxicological properties of arachidonic acid degradation products formed by exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.C.; Friedman, M.; Hanley, N.; Siegler, E.; Quay, J.; Becker, S.; Devlin, R.; Koren, H.S. )

    1993-06-01

    Ozone (O3) exposure in vivo has been reported to degrade arachidonic acid (AA) in the lungs of rodents. The O3-degraded AA products may play a role in the responses to this toxicant. To study the chemical nature and biological activity of O3-exposed AA, we exposed AA in a cell-free, aqueous environment to air, 0.1 ppm O3, or 1.0 ppm O3 for 30-120 min. AA exposed to air was not degraded. All O3 exposures degraded > 98% of the AA to more polar products, which were predominantly aldehydic substances (as determined by reactivity with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and subsequent separation by HPLC) and hydrogen peroxide. The type and amount of aldehydic substances formed depended on the O3 concentration and exposure duration. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B, S6 subclone) exposed in vitro to either 0.1 ppm or 1.0 ppm O3 for 1 hr produced AA-derived aldehydic substances, some of which eluted with similar retention times as the aldehydic substances derived from O3 degradation of AA in the cell-free system. In vitro, O3-degraded AA induced an increase in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) polarization, decreased human peripheral blood T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens, and decreased human peripheral blood natural killer cell lysis of K562 target cells. The aldehydic substances, but not hydrogen peroxide, appeared to be the principal active agents responsible for the observed effects. O3-degraded AA may play a role in the PMN influx into lungs and in decreased T-lymphocyte mitogenesis and natural killer cell activity observed in humans and rodents exposed to O3.

  6. Arachidonic acid incorporation and turnover is decreased in sympathetically denervated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Casey B; McHowat, Jane; Rosenberger, Thad A; Rapoport, Stanley I; Murphy, Eric J

    2005-06-01

    Heart sympathetic denervation can accompany Parkinson's disease, but the effect of this denervation on cardiac lipid-mediated signaling is unknown. To address this issue, rats were sympathetically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 mg/kg ip) and infused with 170 muCi/kg of either [1-(14)C]palmitic acid ([1-(14)C]16:0) or [1-(14)C]arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C]20:4 n-6), and kinetic parameters were assessed using a steady-state radiotracer model. Heart norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were decreased 82 and 85%, respectively, in denervated rats, and this correlated with a 34% reduction in weight gain in treated rats. Fatty acid tracer uptake was not significantly different between groups for either tracer, although the dilution coefficient lambda was increased in [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, which indicates that less 20:4 n-6 was recycled in denervated rats. In [1-(14)C]16:0-infused rats, incorporation rate and turnover values of 16:0 in stable lipid compartments were unchanged, which is indicative of preservation of beta-oxidation. In [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, there were dramatic reductions in incorporation rate (60-84%) and turnover value (56-85%) in denervated rats that were dependent upon the lipid compartment. In addition, phospholipase A(2) activity was reduced 40% in treated rats, which is consistent with the reduction observed in 20:4 n-6 turnover. These results demonstrate marked reductions in 20:4 n-6 incorporation rate and turnover in sympathetic denervated rats and thereby suggest an effect on lipid-mediated signal transduction mediated by a reduction in phospholipase A(2) activity.

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces cardiovascular events: relationship with the EPA/arachidonic acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Haruo; Saito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of fish oil and high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (hp-EPA-E) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. Fish oil contains saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that have pharmacological effects opposite to those of ω3 fatty acids (ω3). Moreover, ω3, such as EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not necessarily have the same metabolic and biological actions. This has obscured the clinical efficacy of ω3. Recently, the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) of hp-EPA-E established the clinical efficacy of EPA for CVD, and higher levels of blood EPA, not DHA, were found to be associated with a lower incidence of major coronary events. A significant reduction in the risk of coronary events was observed when the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) (EPA/AA) was > 0.75. Furthermore, the ratio of prostaglandin (PG) I3 and PGI2 to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) ([PGI2 + PGI3]/TXA2) was determined to have a linear relationship with the EPA/AA ratio as follows: (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 =λ + π* (EPA/AA). Like PGI2, PGI3 not only inhibits platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, but also is assumed to reduce cardiac ischemic injury and arteriosclerosis and promote angiogenesis. Thus, the effects of EPA in reducing the risk of CVD could be mediated by biological action of PGI3 in addition to hypotriglyceridemic action of EPA. Compared with DHA, EPA administration increases the EPA/AA ratio and the (PGI2 + PGI3)/TXA2 balance to a state that inhibits the onset and/or progression of CVD.

  8. Chemical nature and immunotoxicological properties of arachidonic acid degradation products formed by exposure to ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, M C; Friedman, M; Hanley, N; Siegler, E; Quay, J; Becker, S; Devlin, R; Koren, H S

    1993-01-01

    Ozone (O3) exposure in vivo has been reported to degrade arachidonic acid (AA) in the lungs of rodents. The O3-degraded AA products may play a role in the responses to this toxicant. To study the chemical nature and biological activity of O3-exposed AA, we exposed AA in a cell-free, aqueous environment to air, 0.1 ppm O3, or 1.0 ppm O3 for 30-120 min. AA exposed to air was not degraded. All O3 exposures degraded > 98% of the AA to more polar products, which were predominantly aldehydic substances (as determined by reactivity with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and subsequent separation by HPLC) and hydrogen peroxide. The type and amount of aldehydic substances formed depended on the O3 concentration and exposure duration. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B, S6 subclone) exposed in vitro to either 0.1 ppm or 1.0 ppm O3 for 1 hr produced AA-derived aldehydic substances, some of which eluted with similar retention times as the aldehydic substances derived from O3 degradation of AA in the cell-free system. In vitro, O3-degraded AA induced an increase in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) polarization, decreased human peripheral blood T-lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens, and decreased human peripheral blood natural killer cell lysis of K562 target cells. The aldehydic substances, but not hydrogen peroxide, appeared to be the principal active agents responsible for the observed effects. O3-degraded AA may play a role in the PMN influx into lungs and in decreased T-lymphocyte mitogenesis and natural killer cell activity observed in humans and rodents exposed to O3. PMID:8354202

  9. Lipid Profiling Reveals Arachidonate Deficiency in RAW264.7 Cells: Structural and Functional Implications†

    PubMed Central

    Rouzer, Carol A.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Byrne, Mark O.; Milne, Stephen B.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Brown, H. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids containing arachidonic acid (20:4) serve as the precursors for an array of biologically active lipid mediators, most of which are produced by macrophages. We have applied mass spectrometry-based lipid profiling technology to evaluate the glycerophospholipid structure and composition of two macrophage populations, resident peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells, with regard to their potential for 20:4-based lipid mediator biosynthesis. Fatty acid analysis indicated that RAW264.7 cells were deficient in 20:4 (10 ± 1 mole percent) as compared to peritoneal macrophages (26 ± 1 mole percent). Mass spectrometry of total glycerophospholipids demonstrated a marked difference in the distribution of lipid species, including reduced levels of 20:4-containing lipids, in RAW264.7 cells as compared to peritoneal macrophages. Enrichment of RAW264.7 cells with 20:4 increased the fatty acid to 20 ± 1 mole percent. However, the distribution of the incorporated 20:4 remained different from that of peritoneal macrophages. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor followed by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma mobilized similar quantities of 20:4 and produced similar amounts of prostaglandins as peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS alone. LPS treatment resulted in detectable changes in specific 20:4-containing glycerophospholipids in peritoneal cells, but not in RAW264.7 cells. 20:4-enriched RAW264.7 cells lost 88% of the incorporated fatty acid during the LPS incubation without additional prostaglandin synthesis. These results illustrate that large differences in glycerophospholipid composition may exist, even in closely related cell populations, and demonstrate the importance of interpreting the potential for lipid-mediator biosynthesis in the context of overall glycerophospholipid composition. PMID:17144673

  10. Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection in cocaine users: role of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Ding, Hong; Agudelo, Marisela; Raymond, Andrea D; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is known to be increased in HIV infected patients and illicit drug users are linked with severity of viral replication, disease progression, and impaired immune functions. Studies have shown that cocaine accelerates HIV infection and disease progression mediated by immune cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are the first line of antigen presentation and defense against immune dysfunction. However, the role of cocaine use in HIV associated acceleration of AA secretion and its metabolites on immature dendritic cells (IDC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of AA metabolites cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 synthetase (PGE2), thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPG), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), 14-3-3 ζ/δ and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) mediated induction of IDC immune dysfunctions in cocaine using HIV positive patients. The plasma levels of AA, PGE2, 15d-PGJ2, 14-3-3 ζ/δ and IDC intracellular COX-2 and 5-LOX expression were assessed in cocaine users, HIV positive patients, HIV positive cocaine users and normal subjects. Results showed that plasma concentration levels of AA, PGE2 and COX-2, TBXA2R and 5-LOX in IDCs of HIV positive cocaine users were significantly higher whereas 15d-PGJ2 and 14-3-3 ζ/δ were significantly reduced compared to either HIV positive subjects or cocaine users alone. This report demonstrates that AA metabolites are capable of mediating the accelerative effects of cocaine on HIV infection and disease progression.

  11. /sup 3/H arachidonic acid incorporation and metabolism in purified human basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.A.; Peters, S.P.; Lichtenstein, L.M.; MacGlashan, D.W. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A central feature of the allergic response is the generation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites by basophils and mast cells. In addition, AA metabolism may play a role in regulating the anti-IgE mediated degranulation of human basophils. To study this biochemistry, purified human basophils (>80%) were labeled with /sup 3/H-AA (0.3 ..mu..M, 25 ..mu..Ci/ml, 2 hours at 37/sup 0/C) and subsequently challenged with anti-IgE. Basophils were found to incorporate 45 +/- 3% of the exogenous AA which distributed into phospholipids (PL) (77.1 +/- 3.5%) and neutral lipids (19.7 +/- 3.3%) with only 5.3 +/- 2.7% remaining as the free acid (n = 7). Phosphatidylcholine (23.9 +/- 1.7%), phosphatidylinositol (22.0 +/- 1.4%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (14.5 +/- 2.7%) accounted for the majority of the AA with the remaining PL containing <3%. Anti-IgE (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) challenge led to the release of histamine (23.8 +/- 4.7%) and /sup 3/H-AA (8.1 +/- 1.7%) (n = 5). HPLC analysis revealed unmetabolized /sup 3/H-AA, /sup 3/H-LTC/sub 4/, /sup 3/H-HETE and an unidentified peak which migrated in the prostaglandin region of the elution profile. The same metabolites were released when the basophils were challenged with antigen. The calcium ionophore A23187 (1..mu..g/ml) also caused the release of histamine (37.4 +/- 4.1%) and /sup 3/H-AA (17.0 +/- 2.9%), while the phorbol ester, TPA caused HR (19.7 +/- 5.8%) but no increase in /sup 3/H AA turnover. Because of limited cell numbers this is the first time the authors have been able to study AA metabolism in human basophils.

  12. Regulation of Rat Intrapulmonary Arterial Tone by Arachidonic Acid and Prostaglandin E2 during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Han, Yeshan; Ma, Genshan; Tang, Chengchun; Gu, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    Aims Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites, prostaglandins (PG) are known to be involved in regulation of vascular homeostasis including vascular tone and vessel wall tension, but their potential role in Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of AA and PGE2 on the hypoxic response in isolated rat intrapulmonary arteries (IPAs). Methods and Results We carried out the investigation on IPAs by vessel tension measurement. Isotetrandrine (20 µM) significantly inhibited phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Both indomethacin (100 µM) and NS398 attenuated KPSS-induced vessel contraction and phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of HPV, implying that COX-2 plays a primary role in the hypoxic response of rat IPAs. PGE2 alone caused a significant vasoconstriction in isolated rat IPAs. This constriction is mediated by EP4. Blockage of EP4 by L-161982 (1 µM) significantly inhibited phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of hypoxic vasoconstriction. However, AH6809 (3 µM), an antagonist of EP1, EP2, EP3 and DP1 receptors, exerted no effect on KPSS or hypoxia induced vessel contraction. Increase of cellular cAMP by forskolin could significantly reduce KPSS-induced vessel contraction and abolish phase I, phase II b and phase II c of HPV. Conclusion Our results demonstrated a vasoconstrictive effect of PGE2 on rat IPAs and this effect is via activation of EP4. Furthermore, our results suggest that intracellular cAMP plays dual roles in regulation of vascular tone, depending on the spatial distribution of cAMP and its coupling with EP receptor and Ca2+ channels. PMID:24013220

  13. High expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and proinflammatory markers in human ischemic heart tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, Lisa U.; Lundqvist, Annika; Asp, Julia; Synnergren, Jane; Johansson, Cecilia Thalen; Palmqvist, Lars; Jeppsson, Anders; Hulten, Lillemor Mattsson

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 in the ischemic heart. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of human muscle cells in hypoxia showed a 22-fold upregulation of ALOX15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed increased levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggesting a link between ischemia and inflammation in ischemic heart biopsies. -- Abstract: A common feature of the ischemic heart and atherosclerotic plaques is the presence of hypoxia (insufficient levels of oxygen in the tissue). Hypoxia has pronounced effects on almost every aspect of cell physiology, and the nuclear transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) regulates adaptive responses to low concentrations of oxygen in mammalian cells. In our recent work, we observed that hypoxia increases the proinflammatory enzyme arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15B) in human carotid plaques. ALOX15 has recently been shown to be present in the human myocardium, but the effect of ischemia on its expression has not been investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that ischemia of the heart leads to increased expression of ALOX15, and found an almost 2-fold increase in HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression and a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 mRNA expression in the ischemic heart biopsies from patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery compared with non ischemic heart tissue. To investigate the effect of low oxygen concentration on ALOX15 we incubated human vascular muscle cells in hypoxia and showed that expression of ALOX15 increased 22-fold compared with cells incubated in normoxic conditions. We also observed increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue compared with non-ischemic controls. In summary, we demonstrate increased ALOX15 in human ischemic heart biopsies. Furthermore we demonstrate that hypoxia increases ALOX15 in human muscle cells. Our results yield

  14. Ginger phenylpropanoids inhibit IL-1beta and prostanoid secretion and disrupt arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling by targeting phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Nievergelt, Andreas; Marazzi, Janine; Schoop, Roland; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Gertsch, Jürg

    2011-10-15

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) is employed in Asian traditional medicine to treat mild forms of rheumatoid arthritis and fever. We have profiled ginger constituents for robust effects on proinflammatory signaling and cytokine expression in a validated assay using human whole blood. Independent of the stimulus used (LPS, PMA, anti-CD28 Ab, anti-CD3 Ab, and thapsigargin), ginger constituents potently and specifically inhibited IL-1β expression in monocytes/macrophages. Both the calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2))-triggered maturation and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2))-dependent secretion of IL-1β from isolated human monocytes were inhibited. In a fluorescence-coupled PLA(2) assay, most major ginger phenylpropanoids directly inhibited i/cPLA(2) from U937 macrophages, but not hog pancreas secretory phospholipase A(2). The effects of the ginger constituents were additive and the potency comparable to the mechanism-based inhibitor bromoenol lactone for iPLA(2) and methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate for cPLA(2), with 10-gingerol/-shogaol being most effective. Furthermore, a ginger extract (2 μg/ml) and 10-shogaol (2 μM) potently inhibited the release of PGE(2) and thromboxane B2 (>50%) and partially also leukotriene B(4) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Intriguingly, the total cellular arachidonic acid was increased 2- to 3-fold in U937 cells under all experimental conditions. Our data show that the concurrent inhibition of iPLA(2) and prostanoid production causes an accumulation of free intracellular arachidonic acid by disrupting the phospholipid deacylation-reacylation cycle. The inhibition of i/cPLA(2), the resulting attenuation of IL-1β secretion, and the simultaneous inhibition of prostanoid production by common ginger phenylpropanoids uncover a new anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of dietary ginger that may be exploited therapeutically.

  15. Stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells by hormones and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Feyen, J.H.; van der Wilt, G.; Moonen, P.; Di Bon, A.; Nijweide, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2 D3), thrombin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) on the biosynthesis and release of arachidonic acid metabolites were studied in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells isolated from 18-day-old chick embryo calvaria. Cells were labelled with (/sup 14/C)-arachidonic acid for 30 h. The radioactive eicosanoids were extracted from the cell culture media after a further 30 h stimulation period and analysed on a PRP-1 column by HPLC. The radioactive products were characterized by co-elution of (/sup 3/H) standard prostanoids. Osteoblasts showed a basal release of the prostanoids 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2 and PGB2, the latter being the most abundant one. Indomethacin (10(-5) M) effectively inhibited the basal release, but not that of an as yet unidentified compound. The release of prostanoids was stimulated by PTH (2 U/ml), thrombin (0.4 NIH/ml), EGF (50 ng/ml) and PMA (25 ng/ml), the latter being by far the most potent one. 1,25-(OH)2D3 was found to slightly inhibit the prostanoid release. These results indicate: (1) primary cultures of osteoblasts synthesize several prostaglandins, thromboxane B2 and one unidentified product. (2) the action on bone of PTH and the various drugs tested may be, at least partly, mediated by an increased prostaglandin production by osteoblasts. Clearly this does not apply to 1,25-(OH)2D3.

  16. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation decreases asymmetric dimethyl arginine and arachidonate accumulation in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Laura; Lodovici, Maura; Visioli, Francesco; Sartiani, Laura; Cioni, Laura; Alfarano, Chiara; Banchelli, Grazia; Pirisino, Renato; Cecchi, Enrica; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Mugelli, Alessandro

    2005-09-01

    Plasma accumulation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is considered as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and a strong predictor for coronary heart diseases. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) increasing plasma levels have been positively associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality with a mechanism( s) yet unclear. We hypothesised that ADMA reduction might be a part of EPA and DHA beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To verify this hypothesis we measured ADMA plasma levels in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) supplemented for 8 weeks with EPA and DHA. 16-month-old SHR were supplemented with EPA and DHA (EPA-DHA) or with olive oil (1 g/kg/day; OLIVE). At the end of the treatments, the plasma of each animal was analysed for 1) the total fatty acid composition, by gas-cromatography, 2) ADMA levels, by high pressure liquid chromatography, 3) nitrite and homocysteine concentration by chemiluminescence and by polarisation immunoassay respectively. Moreover, the activity of dimethyl arginine dimethyl amino hydrolase, the main enzyme involved in ADMA metabolism, was measured spectrophotometrically in the kidney from each rat. Animals supplemented with EPA and DHA showed: 1) lower ADMA and arachidonate plasma levels (587.4 +/- 113.7 nM and 0.49 +/- 0.11 mM respectively) than the values found in OLIVE rats (1365 +/- 399 nM and 1.07 +/- 0.07 mM respectively) 2) higher nitrite content (0.73 +/- 0.05 microM) than OLIVE (0.23 +/- 0.08 microM). EPA and DHA supplementation reduced ADMA accumulation in SHR in parallel with a decrease of arachidonate availability. This finding suggests that the control of the inflammatory ground of endothelium might play an important role in EPA and DHA effect on this novel and highly predictive cardiovascular risk factor.

  17. Structure-activity relationship studies of 1-substituted 3-dodecanoylindole-2-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2-mediated arachidonic acid release in intact platelets.

    PubMed

    Griessbach, Klaus; Klimt, Monika; Schulze Elfringhoff, Alwine; Lehr, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    A series of 3-dodecanoylindole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives with varied carboxylic acid substituents at the indole 1-position were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid release in human platelets mediated by the cytosolic phospholipase A(2). Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that increasing the polarity of these substituents by the introduction of additional polar groups in the proximity of the carboxylic acid moiety reduced activity. Conformational restriction of the indole-1-carboxylic acid substituents in distinct positions as well as extending the length of these residues led to compounds which did not substantially differ in their potencies.

  18. The influence of dietary nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of [3H] arachidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Leite, L H; Moreira-Vaz, E; Rosa, G; Pereira, A C; Monteiro, C R; Medeiros, F J; Chagas, V L

    2000-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: a) the incorporation of labeled [3H] arachidonic acid on the intestinal mucosa, the liver and plasma, after 1,3 and 5 hours of administration, b) preferential incorporation by different tissues, c) and the effects on experimental rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis, after four weeks of a dietary supplementation with nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 209 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and TAA group). The TAA group was given 300 mg of thioacetamide/L, in their drinking water for four months. After this period, a sample of 6 rats were taken from each group and examined, to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes of the experimental model, and 36 rats were taken to determine the incorporation of radioactivity by the groups. The rest of the animals were divided into four subgroups. Each group, receiving a supplementary diet with only long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or nucleotides or neither, for 4 weeks. After four months of thioacetamide, the incorporation of the [3H] arachidonic acid showed: a) an increased within 3 h in the intestinal mucosa, b) a decreased in the liver after 3 to 5 h c) and a drastic decrease in the plasma after 3 to 5 h. With a dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides combined, there was a decrease of accumulate [3H] arachidonic acid in the intestine and a increase in the liver and plasma. The simultaneous supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides was beneficial in the reversal of abnormalities of the lipid metabolism, in this experimental model of liver cirrhosis.

  19. Arachidonic acid stimulates extracellular Ca(2+) entry in rat pancreatic beta cells via activation of the noncapacitative arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+) (ARC) channels.

    PubMed

    Yeung-Yam-Wah, Valerie; Lee, Andy K; Tse, Frederick W; Tse, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is generated in the pancreatic islets during glucose stimulation. We investigated whether AA activated extracellular Ca(2+) entry in rat pancreatic beta cells via a pathway that was independent of the activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The AA triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise did not involve activation of GPR40 receptors or AA metabolism. When cells were voltage clamped at -70mV, the AA-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release was accompanied by extracellular Ca(2+) entry. AA accelerated the rate of Mn(2+) quench of indo-1 fluorescence (near the Ca(2+)-independent wavelength of indo-1), reflecting the activation of a Ca(2+)-permeable pathway. The AA-mediated acceleration of Mn(2+) quench was inhibited by La(3+) but not by 2-APB (a blocker of capacitative Ca(2+) entry), suggesting the involvement of arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+) (ARC) channels. Consistent with this, intracellular application of the charged membrane-impermeant analog of AA, arachidonyl-coenzyme A (ACoA) triggered extracellular Ca(2+) entry, as well as the activation of a La(3+)-sensitive small inward current (1.7pA/pF) at -70mV. Our results indicate that the activation of ARC channels by intracellular AA triggers extracellular Ca(2+) entry. This action may contribute to the effects of AA on Ca(2+) signals and insulin secretion in rat beta cells. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa carries a secretable arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Russell E.; Hong, Song; Gronert, Karsten; Serhan, Charles N.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, lipoxygenases play key roles in inflammation by initiating the transformation of arachidonic acid into potent bioactive lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and lipoxins. In general, most bacteria are believed to lack lipoxygenases and their polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. It is therefore of interest that an ORF (PA1169) with high homology to eukaryotic lipoxygenases was discovered by analysis of the whole-genome sequence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using TLC and liquid chromatography-UV-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS-MS), we demonstrate that PA1169 encodes a bacterial lipoxygenase (LoxA) that converts arachidonic acid into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). Although mammalian lipoxygenases are cytoplasmic enzymes, P. aeruginosa LoxA activity is secreted. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which a pathogen-secreted lipoxygenase may modulate host defense and inflammation via alteration of the biosynthesis of local chemical mediators. PMID:14766977

  1. Estrogens protect against hydrogen peroxide and arachidonic acid induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Subbiah, M T

    1996-01-19

    The ability of estrogens to protect against DNA damage induced by either hydrogen peroxide or arachidonic acid alone or in combination with Cu2+ was investigated. DNA strand breaks were determined by conversion of double stranded supercoiled OX-174 RFI DNA to double stranded open circular DNA and linear single stranded DNA. Estradiol-17 beta significantly decreased the formation of single and double strand breaks in DNA induced by H2O2 alone or with Cu2+. Equilin (an equine estrogen) was more effective than estradiol-17 beta at the doses tested. Arachidonic acid in the presence of Cu2+ caused the formation of high levels of linear DNA which was protected by estrogen with equilen being more effective. These studies suggest that estrogens through this protective effect on DNA damage might contribute to cardioprotection.

  2. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  3. Differential stimulation of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Cullinan, C.A.; Berkenkopf, J.W.; Weichman, B.M.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA) induced the production of radical oxygen species (ROS) from rat peritoneal neutrophils as assessed by CL. ROS generation occurred in a time- (maximum at 13.5 min) and dose- (concentration range of 1.7-498 nM) related fashion. However, 166 nM PMA did not induce either cyclooxygenase (CO) or lipoxygenase (LPO) product formation by 20 min post-stimulation. Conversely, A23187, at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 ..mu..M, stimulated both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, but had little or no effect upon ROS production. When suboptimal concentrations of PMA (5.5 nM) and A23187 (0.1-1 ..mu..M) were coincubated with the neutrophils, a synergistic ROS response was elicited. However, arachidonic acid metabolism in the presence of PMA was unchanged relative to A12187 alone. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited both PMA-induced CL (IC/sub 50/ = 0.9 ..mu..M) and A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism (IC/sub 50/ = 1.7 ..mu..M and 6.0 ..mu..M for LPO and CO, respectively). The mixed LPO-CO inhibitor, BW755C, behaved in a qualitatively similar manner to NDGA, whereas the CO inhibitors, indomethacin, piroxicam and naproxen had no inhibitory effect on ROS generation at concentrations as high as 100 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NDGA and BW755C may inhibit CL and arachidonic acid metabolism by distinct mechanisms in rat neutrophils.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Arachidonic Acid Complexes with COX-1 and COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Furse, Kristina E.; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Lybrand, Terry P.

    2008-01-01

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis, the generation of prostaglandin H2. As a result, these enzymes are pharmacologically important targets for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and newer COX-2 selective inhibitors. The cyclooxygenases are functional homodimers, and each subunit contains both a cyclooxygenase and a peroxidase active site. These enzymes are quite interesting mechanistically, as the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 requires two oxygenation and two cyclization reactions, resulting in the formation of five new chiral centers with nearly absolute regio- and stereochemical fidelity. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the equilibrium behavior of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms with bound arachidonate. These simulations were compared with reference simulations of arachidonate in solution to explore the effect of enzyme on substrate conformation and positioning in the active site. The simulations suggest that the substrate has greater conformational freedom in the COX-2 active site, consistent with the larger COX-2 active site volume observed in X-ray crystal structures. The simulations reveal different conformational behavior for arachidonate in each subunit over the course of extended equilibrium MD simulations. The simulations also provide detailed information for several protein channels that might be important for oxygen and water transport to or from active sites, or for intermediate trafficking between the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase active sites. The detailed comparisons for COX-1 versus COX-2 active site structural fluctuations may also provide useful information for design of new isozyme-selective inhibitors. PMID:16519514

  5. Regulation of an ATP-conductive large-conductance anion channel and swelling-induced ATP release by arachidonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amal K; Okada, Yasunobu; Sabirov, Ravshan Z

    2002-01-01

    Mouse mammary C127 cells responded to hypotonic stimulation with activation of the volume-dependent ATP-conductive large conductance (VDACL) anion channel and massive release of ATP. Arachidonic acid downregulated both VDACL currents and swelling-induced ATP release in the physiological concentration range with Kd of 4– 6 μm. The former effect observed in the whole-cell or excised patch mode was more prominent than the latter effect observed in intact cells. The arachidonate effects were direct and not mediated by downstream metabolic products, as evidenced by their insensitivity to inhibitors of arachidonate-metabolizing oxygenases, and by the observation that they were mimicked by cis-unsaturated fatty acids, which are not substrates for oxygenases. A membrane-impermeable analogue, arachidonyl coenzyme A was effective only from the cytosolic side of membrane patches suggesting that the binding site is localized intracellularly. Non-charged arachidonate analogues as well as trans-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids had no effect on VDACL currents and ATP release, indicating the importance of arachidonate's negative charge and specific hydrocarbon chain conformation in the inhibitory effect. VDACL anion channels were inhibited by arachidonic acid in two different ways: channel shutdown (Kd of 4– 5 μm) and reduced unitary conductance (Kd of 13–14 μm) without affecting voltage dependence of open probability. ATP4--conducting inward currents measured in the presence of 100 mm ATP in the bath were reversibly inhibited by arachidonic acid. Thus, we conclude that swelling-induced ATP release and its putative pathway, the VDACL anion channel, are under a negative control by intracellular arachidonic acid signalling in mammary C127 cells. PMID:12154180

  6. Conformational responses of an arachidonate- and U46619-binding haemoprotein in relation to platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, L K; Jamaluddin, M P

    1987-02-23

    Antibodies were raised, in rabbits, against an arachidonate- and U46619-binding protein purified from calf platelets. Spectral measurements and immunodiffusion experiments were employed to follow conformational responses of the protein in relation to platelet activation. Upon treatment with the platelet agonists, arachidonate and PGH2, as well as the common haem ligands, imidazole and CN-, the purified protein had its Soret band red-shifted, with hypochromicity, but the protein saturated with the agonists, not with the haem ligands, showed altered antigenic properties in immunodiffusion experiments. In an analogous manner activation of gel-filtered calf platelets with high concentrations of ADP and A23187, as well as by cold, had Soret bands of extracts of sonicated platelets red-shifted, with hypochromicity; concomitantly, antigenically different conformations of the protein appeared in Triton X-100 extracts of the activated platelets. A protein immunologically related to the platelet protein was detected in Triton X-100 extracts of calf neutrophils. It is suggested that conformational changes of the protein induced by arachidonate or prostaglandin endoperoxides or H2O2 formed in different compartments during platelet activation by different stimuli may be a biochemical mechanism of stimulus-response coupling and that similar mechanisms might operate in other cell types.

  7. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  8. Inhibition of arachidonic acid release as the mechanism by which glucocorticoids inhibit endotoxin-induced diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    1 Dexamethasone blocked endotoxin-induced diarrhoea in mice, but not that induced by arachidonic acid or prostaglandin E2. 2 Indomethacin blocked endotoxin and arachidonic acid-induced diarrhoea, but not that induced by prostaglandin E2. 3 Codeine blocked all three forms of diarrhoea. 4 The above data, when considered in relation to literature reports that endotoxin induces prostaglandin synthesis, suggest that dexamethasone blocks diarrhoea by preventing the release of arachidonic acid, the substrate for prostaglandin biosynthesis. 5 The activities of indomethacin and dexamethasone in castor oil diarrhoea support the above conclusion and their inactivity in 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhoea confirms the absence of 'codeine-like' direct effects on the gut. 6 Other glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone) were also able to block endotoxin diarrhoea, but oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone did not. 7 The inhibitory action of dexamethasone on endotoxin diarrhoea could not be blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, nor by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, progesterone. Thus, involvement of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene activation could not be demonstrated. PMID:7237001

  9. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Udey, M C; Parker, C W

    1982-02-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism (or metabolites) in the modulation of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in resting and concanavalin A-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated using previously characterized inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Nordihydroguairetic acid (a nonselective antioxidant), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities), indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors), and 1-benzylimidazole, Ro-22-3581 and Ro-22-3582 (thromboxane synthetase inhibitors) proved to be potent inhibitors of amino acid transport activity in normal resting and lectin-activated lymphocytes at concentrations known to decrease thromboxane A2 production. The rank order of effectiveness of these various inhibitors compared favorably with their relative potencies as inhibitors of thromboxane B2 synthesis under the same conditions, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Inhibitory effects noted were not due to overt cytotoxicity and seemed to involve changes primarily in the Vmax and not the Km of the transport process. Drug-induced alterations in the magnitude of concanavalin A binding were not observed. These results suggest that the activity of amino acid transport systems can be influenced by certain arachidonic acid metabolites, probably thromboxanes, in both stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes. In addition, these findings may provide a partial explanation for the observation that inhibitors of thromboxane formation prevent lymphocyte mitogenesis.

  10. Elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids predicts depression development following interferon-alpha treatment: relationship with interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Lotrich, Francis E; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that an elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acid is associated with depression, and controlled intervention studies have found that decreasing this ratio through administration of omega-3 fatty acids can alleviate depressive symptoms. Additionally, arachidonic acid and omega-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on inflammatory signaling. Exogenous administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) can trigger a depressive episode in a subset of vulnerable people, though associated risk factors remain poorly understood. Using a within-subject prospective design of 138 subjects, we examined whether baseline long-chain omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid - DHA; eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid - AA; di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid - DGLA) fatty acid status was associated with depression vulnerability in hepatitis C patients treated with IFN-α. Based on the literature, we had specific a priori interest in the AA/EPA+DHA ratio. Lower baseline DHA predicted depression incidence (p=0.04), as did elevated DGLA (p=0.02) and an elevated AA/EPA+DHA ratio (p=0.007). The AA/EPA+DHA ratio predicted depression even when controlling for other critical variables such as sleep quality and race. A higher AA/EPA+DHA ratio was positively associated with both increasing Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scores over time (F=4.0; p<0.05) as well as interleukin-6 levels (F=107.4; p<0.05) but not C-reactive protein. Importantly, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid status was not associated with sustained viral response to IFN-α treatment. These prospective data support the role of fatty acid status in depression vulnerability and indicate a potential role for omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of inflammation-induced depression.

  11. Arachidonic acid inhibits K channels in basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb.

    PubMed

    Gu, Rui-Min; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2002-09-01

    We have used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) on the basolateral K channels in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) of rat kidney. An inwardly rectifying 50-pS K channel was identified in cell-attached and inside-out patches in the basolateral membrane of the mTAL. The channel open probability (P(o)) was 0.51 at the spontaneous cell membrane potential and decreased to 0.25 by 30 mV hyperpolarization. The addition of 5 microM AA decreased channel activity, identified as NP(o), from 0.58 to 0.08 in cell-attached patches. The effect of AA on the 50-pS K channel was specific because 10 microM cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid had no significant effect on channel activity. To determine whether the effect of AA was mediated by AA per se or by its metabolites, we examined the effect of AA on channel activity in the presence of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, or N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS), an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase increased channel activity from 0.54 to 0.9. However, indomethacin did not abolish the inhibitory effect of AA on the 50-pS K channel. In contrast, inhibition of cytochrome P-450 metabolism not only increased channel activity from 0.49 to 0.83 but also completely abolished the effect of AA. Moreover, addition of DDMS can reverse the inhibitory effect of AA on channel activity. The notion that the effect of AA was mediated by cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolites of AA is also supported by the observation that addition of 100 nM of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a main metabolite of AA in the mTAL, can mimic the effect of AA. We conclude that AA inhibits the 50-pS K channel in the basolateral membrane of the mTAL and that the effect of AA is mainly mediated by cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolites of AA.

  12. Arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin F(2alpha) formation induced by anandamide and capsaicin in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Someya, Akiyoshi; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2002-08-23

    Anandamide, an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors, activates various signal transduction pathways. Anandamide also activates vanilloid VR(1) receptor, which was a nonselective cation channel with high Ca(2+) permeability and had sensitivity to capsaicin, a pungent principle in hot pepper. The effects of anandamide and capsaicin on arachidonic acid metabolism in neuronal cells have not been well established. We examined the effects of anandamide and capsaicin on arachidonic acid release in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Both agents stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid release in a concentration-dependent manner from the prelabeled PC12 cells even in the absence of extracellular CaCl(2). The effect of anandamide was neither mimicked by an agonist nor inhibited by an antagonist for cannabinoid receptors. The effects of anandamide and capsaicin were inhibited by phospholipase A(2) inhibitors, but not by an antagonist for vanilloid VR(1) receptor. In PC12 cells preincubated with anandamide or capsaicin, [3H]arachidonic acid release was marked and both agents were no more effective. Co-addition of anandamide or capsaicin synergistically enhanced [3H]arachidonic acid release by mastoparan in the absence of CaCl(2). Anandamide stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) formation. These findings suggest that anandamide and capsaicin stimulated arachidonic acid metabolism in cannabinoid receptors- and vanilloid VR(1) receptor-independent manner in PC12 cells. The possible mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  14. Association between inhibition of arachidonic acid release and prevention of calcium loading during ATP depletion in cultured rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R. L.; Miller, J. C.; Hagler, H. K.; Chien, K. R.; Willerson, J. T.; Buja, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of irreversible myocardial ischemic injury is associated with progressive degradation of membrane phospholipids, accumulation of arachidonate and other free fatty acids, and electrolyte derangements, including calcium accumulation. To study the relationship between arachidonate release and calcium loading during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion in cardiac myocytes, the effects of two purported phospholipase inhibitors, mepacrine and U26,384, were evaluated. Cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated for 90 minutes with 5 to 10 microM U26,384 (a steroidal diamine) or 10 to 50 microM mepacrine (an alkyl acridine) and then treated for 3 hours with 30 microM of the metabolic inhibitor, iodoacetic acid (IAA), with or without an additional dose of drug. IAA treatment resulted in a marked reduction in ATP level and a several-fold increase in free fatty acid radioactivity released from myocytes prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid (3H-AA). U26,384 produced substantial inhibition of the increased 3H-AA release, and was effective when given as a single pretreatment dose before IAA exposure or as continuous treatment before and during IAA exposure (for example, with 5 microM U26,384, the percentage of 3H-AA release versus IAA alone was 8% +/- 2% [SEM] [N = 15] for pretreatment only and 13% +/- 4% [N = 10] for continuous treatment). Mepacrine also resulted in significant reduction in 3H-AA release, but was more effective when given as continuous treatment (for example, with 50 microM mepacrine, the percentage of 3H-AA release versus IAA alone was 43% +/- 9% [N = 6] for pretreatment only and 22% +/- 7% [N = 9] for continuous treatment). More detailed analysis showed that U26,384 and mepacrine blocked the IAA-induced redistribution of 3H-AA into free fatty acids from other lipid species. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections revealed marked electrolyte derangements in myocytes exposed to IAA, including a 24

  15. Effects of arachidonic acid intake on inflammatory reactions in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yukiko; Ji, Xu; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Aoki, Satoko; Furuya, Mami; Tazura, Yoshiyuki; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Harauma, Akiko; Moriguchi, Toru; Nagata, Tomoko; Iwai, Naoharu; Ohara, Naoki

    2015-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of oral arachidonic acid (AA) in rats with or without dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease. Male Wistar rats were administered AA at 0, 5, 35 or 240 mg/kg daily by gavage for 8 weeks. Inflammatory bowel disease was induced by replacing drinking water with 3 % DSS solution during the last 7 d of the AA dosing period. These animals passed loose stools, diarrhoea and red-stained faeces. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the colonic tissue were significantly increased in the animals given AA at 240 mg/kg compared with the animals given AA at 0 mg/kg. Thromboxane B2 concentration in the medium of cultured colonic mucosae isolated from these groups was found to be dose-dependently increased by AA, and the increase was significant at 35 and 240 mg/kg. Leukotriene B4 concentration was also significantly increased and saturated at 5 mg/kg. In addition, AA at 240 mg/kg promoted DSS-induced colonic mucosal oedema with macrophage infiltration. In contrast, administration of AA for 8 weeks, even at 240 mg/kg, showed no effects on the normal rats. These results suggest that in rats with bowel disease AA metabolism is affected by oral AA, even at 5 mg/kg per d, and that excessive AA may aggravate inflammation, whereas AA shows no effects in rats without inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Arachidonic acid and cancer risk: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An n-6 essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) is converted into prostaglandin E2, which is involved in tumour extension. However, it is unclear whether dietary ARA intake leads to cancer in humans. We thus systematically evaluated available observational studies on the relationship between ARA exposure and the risk of colorectal, skin, breast, prostate, lung, and stomach cancers. Methods We searched the PubMed database for articles published up to May 17, 2010. 126 potentially relevant articles from the initial search and 49,670 bibliographies were scrutinised to identify eligible publications by using predefined inclusion criteria. A comprehensive literature search yielded 52 eligible articles, and their reporting quality and methodological quality was assessed. Information on the strength of the association between ARA exposure and cancer risk, the dose-response relationship, and methodological limitations was collected and evaluated with respect to consistency and study design. Results For colorectal, skin, breast, and prostate cancer, 17, 3, 18, and 16 studies, respectively, were identified. We could not obtain eligible reports for lung and stomach cancer. Studies used cohort (n = 4), nested case-control (n = 12), case-control (n = 26), and cross-sectional (n = 12) designs. The number of subjects (n = 15 - 88,795), ARA exposure assessment method (dietary intake or biomarker), cancer diagnosis and patient recruitment procedure (histological diagnosis, cancer registries, or self-reported information) varied among studies. The relationship between ARA exposure and colorectal cancer was inconsistent based on ARA exposure assessment methodology (dietary intake or biomarker). Conversely, there was no strong positive association or dose-response relationship for breast or prostate cancer. There were limited numbers of studies on skin cancer to draw any conclusions from the results. Conclusions The available epidemiologic evidence is

  17. Evening primrose oil treatment corrects reduced conduction velocity but not depletion of arachidonic acid in nerve from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, R; Peterson, R G; Kincaid, J C; Eichberg, J

    1998-09-01

    The effects of evening primrose oil (EPO) treatment, a source of gamma-linolenic acid, on the proportions of arachidonoyl-containing molecular species (ACMS) in sciatic nerve phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were determined in conjunction with alterations in nerve conduction velocity. Normal and diabetic rats were either untreated or fed a dietary supplement containing isocalorically equivalent amounts of either EPO or corn oil for the duration of the experiment. After 8 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, nerve conduction velocity was reduced 16% and this deficit was prevented by either EPO or corn oil treatment. Neither EPO nor corn oil supplementation significantly increased the depressed proportions of ACMS. The level of the linoleoyl-containing molecular species, 16:0/18:2, was elevated in the phospholipids from untreated diabetic rats and was further increased by EPO treatment. These results are consistent with decreased activity of the delta6 desaturase that is required for arachidonic acid synthesis in vivo, but suggests that an accompanying deficit in the subsequent delta5 desaturase-catalyzed reaction may be rate-limiting. These findings indicate that maintenance of normal ACMS levels is not required for prevention of diminished nerve conduction velocity and suggest that other factors influenced by an altered polyunsaturated fatty acid pattern, such as metabolites of linoleic acid or gamma-linolenic acid other than arachidonic acid, the energy state of the nerve or the degree of membrane fluidity may contribute to impaired nerve conduction velocity in diabetic neuropathy.

  18. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway.

  19. Effects of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on lipid profiles and morphology in the skeletal muscles of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Otani, Hiroki; Shido, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) is a major component of the cell membrane, whereas ARA-derived eicosanoids are formed when cells are damaged. Aging is associated with an accretion of oxidative stress in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic administration (13 weeks) of ARA (240 mg/kg/day) on fatty acid composition, antioxidative status, and morphology of slow (soleus muscles) and fast (extensor digitorum longus muscles; EDL)-twitch muscles in aged rats (21 months old). The level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the EDL of ARA-administered rats than in that of control rats. ARA administration decreased the muscle cell volumes and increased the number of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive cells in the EDL. The relative content of MHC2X was increased whereas the relative content of MHC2B was decreased in the EDL of ARA-administered rats. These results suggest that ARA deposition in the fast-twitch muscle of aged rats reduced cell volume with an increase in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad–time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  1. The ω6-fatty acid, arachidonic acid, regulates the conversion of white to brite adipocyte through a prostaglandin/calcium mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Didier F.; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Le Faouder, Pauline; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Giroud, Maude; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Djedaini, Mansour; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tauc, Michel; Herzig, Stephan; Langin, Dominique; Ailhaud, Gérard; Duranton, Christophe; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brite adipocytes are inducible energy-dissipating cells expressing UCP1 which appear within white adipose tissue of healthy adult individuals. Recruitment of these cells represents a potential strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases. Methods/Results Using human Multipotent Adipose-Derived Stem cells, able to convert into brite adipocytes, we show that arachidonic acid strongly inhibits brite adipocyte formation via a cyclooxygenase pathway leading to secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α. Both prostaglandins induce an oscillatory Ca++ signaling coupled to ERK pathway and trigger a decrease in UCP1 expression and in oxygen consumption without altering mitochondriogenesis. In mice fed a standard diet supplemented with ω6 arachidonic acid, PGF2α and PGE2 amounts are increased in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and associated with a decrease in the recruitment of brite adipocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary excess of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in Western diets, may also favor obesity by preventing the “browning” process to take place. PMID:25506549

  2. Diffusion of intracerebrally injected (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the mouse brain. Effects of ischemia and electroconvulsive shock

    SciTech Connect

    Pediconi, M.F.; Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Bazan, N.G.

    1982-12-01

    (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol and (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid were injected into the region of the frontal horn of the left ventricle of mice and were distributed rapidly throughout the brain. After 10 sec, most of the radioactive fatty acid was found in the hemisphere near the injection site; after 10 min, it was recovered in similar proportions in the cerebellum and brain stem. (2-/sup 3/H)Glycerol showed a heterogeneous distribution, with most of the label remaining in the left hemisphere even after 10 min. On a fresh weight basis, cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem were found to contain similar amounts of labeled glycerol. However, the amount of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonate in cerebrum was only 50% of that recovered from cerebellum or brain stem. Brain ischemia or a single electroconvulsive shock reduced the spread of the label, producing an accumulation of radioactivity in the injected hemisphere, except for an increase in (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol in the brain stem during ischemia. Despite the significant decrease in available precursor in the cerebellum and brain stem after electroshock, the amount of label incorporated into lipids was not altered in these areas and only slightly diminished in the cerebrum.

  3. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry-associated Regulatory factor (SARAF) Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Arachidonate-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) Channels.

    PubMed

    Albarran, Letizia; Lopez, Jose J; Woodard, Geoffrey E; Salido, Gines M; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-03-25

    The store-operated Ca(2+)entry-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) has recently been identified as a STIM1 regulatory protein that facilitates slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of store-operated Ca(2+)entry (SOCE). Both the store-operated channels and the store-independent arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)(ARC) channels are regulated by STIM1. In the present study, we show that, in addition to its location in the endoplasmic reticulum, SARAF is constitutively expressed in the plasma membrane, where it can interact with plasma membrane (PM)-resident ARC forming subunits in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using siRNA-based and overexpression approaches we report that SARAF negatively regulates store-independent Ca(2+)entry via the ARC channels. Arachidonic acid (AA) increases the association of PM-resident SARAF with Orai1. Finally, our results indicate that SARAF modulates the ability of AA to promote cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. In addition to revealing new insight into the biology of ARC channels in neuroblastoma cells, these findings provide evidence for an unprecedented location of SARAF in the plasma membrane.

  4. Fatty acid transfer in the food web of a coastal Mediterranean lagoon: Evidence for high arachidonic acid retention in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Bec, Alexandre; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Bourdier, Gilles; Desvilettes, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The transfer of fatty acids (FAs) in the food web of a Mediterranean lagoon was studied using FA compositional patterns across several trophic levels. The structure of the food web was inferred from C and N stable isotopes values and an isotope mixing model was used in order to estimate the relative contribution of the different potential food sources to the biomass of consumers. Bidimensional plots of FA composition of food web components against their δ 15N values indicated a general trend of increasing proportions of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with increasing trophic levels while the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased. Using the relative contributions of food sources to consumers and their FA compositions, a model was built in order to estimate the PUFA composition of consumer mixed diets which was compared to consumer PUFA profiles. The latter allowed the identification of the PUFAs which were mostly enriched/retained in consumer lipids. There was a surprisingly high retention of arachidonic acid (ARA), a trend which challenges the idea of low ARA needs in marine fish and suggests the important physiological role of this essential FA for fish in estuarine environments.

  5. SIRT1 prevents pulmonary thrombus formation induced by arachidonic acid via downregulation of PAF receptor expression in platelets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Hak; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Oh, Sae Ock; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-12-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, is critically involved in cellular response to stress and modulates cardiovascular risk factors. However, its role in thrombus formation is largely unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effect of SIRT1 on pulmonary thrombus formation, and then identified its role in the modulation of platelet aggregation. In isolated human platelets, cell aggregation was increased by various platelet activators, such as platelet activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA), ADP, and thrombin. AA- and PAF-mediated platelet aggregations were suppressed by WEB2086, a PAF receptor (PAFR) antagonist. Pulmonary thrombus formation induced by PAF or AA was also attenuated by WEB2086, suggesting that PAFR plays a key role in AA-induced platelet aggregation. In platelets isolated from SIRT1-TG mice as well as in platelets treated with resveratrol or reSIRT1, PAFR expression was decreased, whereas this expressional downregulation by SIRT1 activators was inhibited in platelets treated with MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) or NH4Cl (a lysosome inhibitor). Furthermore, platelet aggregation induced by AA was markedly attenuated by resveratrol and reSIRT1. Likewise, the increased pulmonary thrombus formation in mice treated with AA was also attenuated by SIRT1 activators. In line with these results, pulmonary thrombus formation was markedly attenuated in SIRT1-TG mice. Taken together, this study showed that SIRT1 downregulates PAFR expression on platelets via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, and that this downregulation inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro and pulmonary thrombus formation in vivo.

  6. Somatic mutations in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway genes enhance oral cancer post-treatment disease-free survival.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nidhan K; Das, Subrata; Maitra, Arindam; Sarin, Rajiv; Majumder, Partha P

    2014-12-17

    The arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) pathway promotes tumour progression. Chemical inhibitors of AAM pathway prolong post-treatment survival of cancer patients. Here we test whether non-synonymous somatic mutations in genes of this pathway, acting as natural inhibitors, increase post-treatment survival. We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing, which we map to genes of AAM pathway. Patients (n = 53) who survived ≥ 12 months after surgery without recurrence have significantly (P = 0.007) higher proportion (26% versus 3%) of mutations than those who did not (n = 31). Patients with mutations have a significantly (P = 0.003) longer median disease-free survival (24 months) than those without (13 months). Compared with the presence of a mutation, absence of any mutation increases the hazard ratio for death (11.3) significantly (P = 0.018). The inferences are strengthened when we pool our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. In patients with AAM pathway mutations, some downstream pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt pathway, are downregulated.

  7. The effect of antibiotic exposure on eicosanoid generation from arachidonic acid and gene expression in a primitive chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Pan, Minming; Zou, Qiuqiong; Chen, Chengyong; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (Chl) is an effective antimicrobial agent widely used in veterinary medicine and commonly used in fish. Its use is restricted in the clinic because of adverse effects on the immune system and oxidative stress in mammals. However, the effects of Chl treatment on invertebrates remain unclear. Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is an ideal model to study the origin and evolution of the vertebrate immune system as it has a primary vertebrate-like arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic system. Here, we combined transcriptomic and lipidomic approaches to investigate the immune system and observe the oxygenated metabolites of AA to address the antibiotic effects on amphioxus. Tissue necrosis of the gill slits occurred in the Chl-treated amphioxus, but fewer epithelial cells were lost when treated with both Chl and ampicillin (Amp). The immune related pathways were dysregulated in both of the antibiotic treatment groups. The Chl alone treatment resulted in immunosuppression with down-regulation of the innate immune genes. In contrast, the Chl + Amp treatment resulted in immunostimulation to some extent, as shown by KEGG clustering. Furthermore, Chl induced a 3-fold reduction in the level of the eicosanoids, while the Chl + Amp treatment resulted in 1.7-fold increase of eicosanoid level. Thus in amphioxus, Amp might relieve the effects of the Chl-induced immune suppression and increase the level of eicosanoids from AA. Finally, the oxygenated metabolites from AA might be crucial to evaluate the effects of Chl treatment in animals. PMID:26288743

  8. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  9. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Cassina, Adriana; Rios, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Boggia, José; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.

  10. Knocking out the dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) does not change the baseline brain arachidonic acid signal in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Basselin, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopamine transporter (DAT) homozygous knockout (DAT−/−) mice have a 10-fold higher extracellular DA concentration in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens than do wildtype (DAT+/+) mice, but show reduced presynaptic DA synthesis and fewer postsynaptic D2 receptors. One aspect of neurotransmission involves DA binding to postsynaptic D2-like receptors coupled to cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing second messenger arachidonic acid (AA) from synaptic membrane phospholipid. We hypothesized that tonic overactivation of D2-like receptors in DAT−/− mice due to elevated DA would not increase brain AA signaling, because of compensatory downregulation of postsynaptic signaling mechanisms. Methods [1-14C]AA was infused intravenously for 3 min in unanesthetized DAT+/+, heterozygous (DAT+/−) and DAT−/− mice. AA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, markers of AA metabolism and signaling, were imaged in 83 brain regions using quantitative autoradiography brain cPLA2-IV activity also was measured. Results Neither k* nor Jin for AA in any brain region, or in brain cPLA2-IV activity, differed significantly between DAT−/−, DAT+/− and DAT+/+ mice. Conclusions These results differ from reported increases in k* and Jin for AA, and brain cPLA2 expression, in serotonin reuptake transporter (5-HTT) knockout mice, and suggest that postsynaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms involving AA are downregulated despite elevated DA in DAT−/− mice. PMID:22376027

  11. Chronic Valproate Treatment Blocks D2-like Receptor-Mediated Brain Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Basselin, Mireille; Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Hyperdopaminergic signaling and an upregulated brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade may contribute to bipolar disorder (BD). Lithium and carbamazepine, FDA-approved for the treatment of BD, attenuate brain dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) receptor signaling involving AA when given chronically to awake rats. We hypothesized that valproate (VPA), with mood-stabilizing properties, would also reduce the D2-like-mediated signaling via AA. Methods An acute dose of quinpirole (1 mg/kg) or saline was administered to unanesthetized rats that had been treated for 30 days with a therapeutically relevant dose of VPA (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Regional brain AA incorporation coefficients, k*, and incorporation rates, Jin, markers of AA signaling and metabolism, were measured by quantitative autoradiography after intravenous [1-14C]AA infusion. Whole brain concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and thromboxane (TX)B2 also were measured. Results Quinpirole compared to saline significantly increased k* in 40 of 83 brain regions, and increased brain concentrations of PGE2 in chronic vehicle-treated rats. VPA treatment by itself reduced concentrations of plasma unesterified AA and whole brain PGE2 and TXB2, and blocked the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and PGE2. Conclusion These results further support our hypothesis that similar to lithium and carbamazepine, VPA downregulates brain dopaminergic D2-like receptor-signaling involving AA. PMID:21839100

  12. Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phospholipase A2 and Arachidonic Acid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mejia, Rene O.; Mucke, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) play a critical role in the brain and regulate many of the processes altered in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Technical advances are allowing for the dissection of complex lipid pathways in normal and diseased states. Arachidonic acid (AA) and specific isoforms of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) appear to play critical mediator roles in amyloid-β (Aβ) - induced pathogenesis, leading to learning, memory, and behavioral impairments in mouse models of AD. These findings and ongoing research into lipid biology in AD and related disorders promise to reveal new pharmacological targets that may lead to better treatments for these devastating conditions. PMID:20553961

  14. Arachidonic Acid and Other Fatty Acids Directly Activate Potassium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, Richard W.; Walsh, John V.; Singer, Joshua J.

    1989-06-01

    Arachidonic acid, as well as fatty acids that are not substrates for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, activated a specific type of potassium channel in freshly dissociated smooth muscle cells. Activation occurred in excised membrane patches in the absence of calcium and all nucleotides. Therefore signal transduction pathways that require such soluble factors, including the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 pathway, do not mediate the response. Thus, fatty acids directly activate potassium channels and so may constitute a class of signal molecules that regulate ion channels.

  15. COX-2-dependent and -independent biosynthesis of dihydroxy-arachidonic acids in activated human leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Noemi; Boeglin, William E.; Suzuki, Takashi; Schneider, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Biosynthesis of 5,15-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5,15-diHETE) in leukocytes involves consecutive oxygenation of arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and 15-LOX in either order. Here, we analyzed the contribution of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 to the biosynthesis of 5,15-diHETE and 5,11-diHETE in isolated human leukocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide and calcium ionophore A23187. Transformation of arachidonic acid was initiated by 5-LOX providing 5S-HETE as a substrate for COX-2 forming 5S,15S-diHETE, 5S,15R-diHETE, and 5S,11R-diHETE as shown by LC/MS and chiral phase HPLC analyses. The levels of 5,15-diHETE were 0.45 ± 0.2 ng/106 cells (mean ± SEM, n = 6), reaching about half the level of LTB4 (1.3 ± 0.5 ng/106 cells, n = 6). The COX-2 specific inhibitor NS-398 reduced the levels of 5,15-diHETE to below 0.02 ng/106 cells in four of six samples. Similar reduction was achieved by MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-LOX activating protein but the above differences were not statistically significant. Aspirin treatment of the activated cells allowed formation of 5,15-diHETE (0.1 ± 0.05 ng/106 cells, n = 6) but, as expected, abolished formation of 5,11-diHETE. The mixture of activated cells also produced 5S,12S-diHETE with the unusual 6E,8Z,10E double bond configuration, implicating biosynthesis by 5-LOX and 12-LOX activity rather than by hydrolysis of the leukotriene A4-epoxide. Exogenous octadeuterated 5S-HETE and 15S-HETE were converted to 5,15-diHETE, implicating that multiple oxygenation pathways of arachidonic acid occur in activated leukocytes. The contribution of COX-2 to the biosynthesis of dihydroxylated derivatives of arachidonic acid provides evidence for functional coupling with 5-LOX in activated human leukocytes. PMID:22068350

  16. Selective uptake of (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid into the dense tubular system of human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Laposata, M.; Krueger, C.M.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    We have used quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography to characterize the subcellular distribution of arachidonoyl phospholipids following brief (5 minutes) exposure of unstimulated human platelets to (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid. Labeled arachidonate was taken up rapidly and incorporated into phospholipids. Phospholipid radioactivity was preserved and spatially fixed during tissue processing for electron microscopy. Analysis of autoradiographs showed that following a brief exposure to 750 nmol/L (/sup 3/H)arachidonate, there is selective labeling of an internal membrane compartment composed of the dense tubular system and the open canalicular system. The plasma membrane, platelet granules, and nonmembranous cytoplasm were not labeled. Since the open canalicular system is continuous with the plasma membrane and since phospholipids in continuous membranes are freely diffusible, our observations indicate that (/sup 3/H)arachidonate was incorporated into phospholipids within the dense tubular system and not the open canalicular system. Thus, the dense tubular system, known to contain cyclooxygenase activity, incorporates arachidonate selectively following brief exposure to this fatty acid, presumably to concentrate it in proximity to enzymes for icosanoid synthesis.

  17. Oleanolic Acid Prevents Increase in Blood Pressure and Nephrotoxicity in Nitric Oxide Dependent Type of Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, Sagar S.; Bhutada, Mukesh S.; Patil, Sachin P.; Sharma, Kinjal S.; Patil, Savita D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, we have reported antihypertensive activity of oleanolic acid (OA) in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension with restoration of nitric oxide (NO) level. However, the involvement of NO-releasing action of OA was unclear. Objective: To explore antihypertensive activity of OA in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats wherein NO is completely blocked, which would allow exploring the possibility of involvement of NO-releasing action of OA. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats were investigated as normal control, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + enalapril (15 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + l-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), and L-NAME + OA (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Serum nitrate/nitrite (NOx) level, urine electrolytes concentration, cardiac mass index, and serum creatinine level were determined followed by organ histopathology. Results: OA and enalapril delayed the rise in blood pleasure following L-NAME administration. Decreased serum NOx level was not significantly increased with any of the treatment. OA produced a small, though nonsignificant, increase in the NOx level. L-NAME administration did not affect cardiac mass index. There was an increase in serum creatinine upon L-NAME administration which was prevented by OA. Decreased urine volume, urine sodium and potassium were reversed by OA. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of OA in L-NAME hypertension is due to diuresis and nephroprotection. However, OA has nonsignificantly affected the NO levels. PMID:26692754

  18. Efficient arachidonic acid-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina through a repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ai-Hui; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Wu, Wen-Jia; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He

    2014-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina is a long fermentation period needed process due to the low growth rate of the filamentous fungus used. This causes the low productivity of ARA-rich oil and hinders its industrial mass scale production. In the present study, different fed-batch strategies were conducted to shorten the fermentation period. The result showed that compared with the batch culture, the fermentation period was shortened from 7days to 5days with the productivity of ARA-rich oil increased from 0.9g/(L·d) to 1.3g/(L·d) by using the fed-batch fermentation strategy. Furthermore, repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was adopted to achieve the purpose of continuous production. By using this strategy, the fermentation period was shortened from 40days to 26days in a four cycle repeated fed-batch fermentation. This strategy proved to be convenient and economical for ARA-rich oil commercial production process.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of single-cell oils that are highly enriched with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Boswell, K; Koskelo, E K; Carl, L; Glaza, S; Hensen, D J; Williams, K D; Kyle, D J

    1996-07-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important in human brain and retina development, and there is growing evidence showing the importance of these fatty acids in infant nutrition. Triglyceride oils, highly enriched in ARA (ARASCO) and DHA (DHASCO), were evaluated using very high dose acute (20 g/kg) and 4-wk subchronic gavage feedings in weanling Sprague-Dawley rats. The combination of these oils, Formulaid, was also tested in the 4-wk subchronic study, ARASCO, DHASCO and Formulaid were found to have a no-observable-adverse-effect level of more than 2.5 g/ kg/day, 1.25 g/kg/day and 3.75 g/kg/day, respectively. This represents a 50-fold safety margin over the intended use of Formulaid in infant formula. Survival, clinical signs, body weight gain, food consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations failed to show any significant differences in animals administered ARASCO, DHASCO or Formulaid compared with that in control animals administered equal amounts of high oleic sunflower oil. The bioavailability of ARASCO, DHASCO and Formulaid was verified by increases in DHA and ARA levels in heart and liver tissues in these animals. Because these oils are enriched in only a single bioactive fatty acid, and they have been shown to be safe, they may offer a new source of these fatty acids in speciality foods such as infant formula.

  20. Protective effects of arachidonic acid against palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity in HIT-T15 cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Sik; Kim, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ki Young; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2012-05-01

    Saturated fatty acids have been considered major contributing factors in type 2 diabetes, whereas unsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects for preventing the development of diabetes. However, the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic β cells have not been reported. Here, we examined the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on palmitic acid (PA)-mediated lipotoxicity in clonal HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells. AA prevented the PA-induced lipotoxicity as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), a non-metabolizable AA, had little effect on PA-induced lipotoxicity. In parallel with its protective effects against PA-induced lipotoxicity, AA restored impaired insulin expression and secretion induced by PA. AA but not ETYA increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) in the presence of PA compared with PA alone, and xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitor, reversed AA-induced protection from PA. Taken together, our results suggest that AA protects against PA-induced lipotoxicity in clonal HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells, and the protective effects may be associated with TG accumulation, possibly through sequestration of lipotoxic PA into TG.

  1. Arachidonic acid has protective effects on oxygen-glucose deprived astrocytes mediated through enhancement of potassium channel TREK-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Zhang, Guangru; Song, Chunli; Wang, Xuexi; Qian, Weina; Wang, Zhuanling; Liu, Yanan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Shuning

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain diseases. The newly discovered potassium channel "TREK-1" is a promising target for therapies against neurodegeneration. Arachidonic acid (AA) is an n-6 PUFA, as well as a potent TREK-1 activator. We previously showed that TREK-1 is expressed at high levels in astrocytes. However, the effect of AA on astrocytes in ischemia remains unknown. Here, we assessed the effects of 3-30μM AA on astrocyte apoptosis, glutamate uptake, and expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and TREK-1 under different conditions. Under normal conditions, 3-30μM AA showed no effect on astrocytic apoptosis or TREK-1 expression, whereas glutamate uptake decreased significantly and its change paralleled the decreased expression of GLT-1. When astrocytes were subjected to 4h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), 10μM AA markedly alleviated OGD-induced cell death, recovering from 63.50±1.90% to 82.96±4.63% of the control value. AA also rescued the decreased glutamate uptake and increased mRNA, as well as protein levels of GLT-1 and TREK-1. Our results provide new evidence of a protective effect of AA on astrocytes under OGD conditions, suggesting that a low concentration of AA may protect against brain ischemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic Carbamazepine Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2-like Receptor-Initiated Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2016-01-01

    Observations that dopaminergic antagonists are beneficial in bipolar disorder and that dopaminergic agonists can produce mania suggest that bipolar disorder involves excessive dopaminergic transmission. Thus, mood stabilizers used to treat the disease might act in part by downregulating dopaminergic transmission. In agreement, we reported that dopamine D2-like receptor mediated signaling involving arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) was downregulated in rats chronically treated with lithium. To see whether chronic carbamazepine, another mood stabilizer, did this as well, we injected i.p. saline or the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg), into unanesthetized rats that had been pretreated for 30 days with i.p. carbamazepine (25 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, and used quantitative autoradiography to measure regional brain incorporation coefficients (k*) for AA, markers of signaling. We also measured brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an AA metabolite. In vehicle-treated rats, quinpirole compared with saline significantly increased k* for AA in 35 of 82 brain regions examined, as well as brain PGE2 concentration. Affected regions belong to dopaminergic circuits and have high D2-like receptor densities. Chronic carbamazepine pretreatment prevented the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and in PGE2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that effective mood stabilizers generally downregulate brain AA signaling via D2-like receptors, and that this signaling is upregulated in bipolar disorder. PMID:18302021

  3. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.; Sajiki, J.; Kondo, S.; Ozawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tamura, Y.; Kumagai, A.

    1982-11-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of (/sup 1 -14/C)arachidonic acid and ((U)-/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced (/sup 14/C)thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of (/sup 14/C)TXB3 from (/sup 14/C)EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous (/sup 14/C)EPA to (/sup 14/C)TXB3 was lower than that of (/sup 14/C)AA to (/sup 14/C)TXB2. The release of (/sup 14/C)AA from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets.

  4. The effect of etretinate on the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in psoriatic skin.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, E; Barr, R M; Brain, S D; Greaves, M W; Olins, L A; Mallet, A I

    1984-01-01

    Eight psoriatic patients were treated with etretinate (50 mg daily) for 6 weeks. Skin chamber exudates from involved and uninvolved skin were assayed for arachidonic acid, 12-HETE, PGE2 and for neutrophil chemokinetic activity co-chromatographing with leukotriene B4, before and at weekly intervals during therapy. Pre-treatment concentrations of arachidonic acid, 12-HETE and leukotriene B4-like chemokinetic activity but not of PGE2 were elevated in involved skin when compared to uninvolved skin. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and 12-HETE declined during therapy but changes in PGE2 were minimal. LTB4-like activity was detectable in involved skin both before and after etretinate treatment. Clinically, scaling and infiltration improved but erythema was still evident. PMID:6091710

  5. Diverse ways of perturbing the human arachidonic acid metabolic network to control inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hu; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2015-08-18

    Inflammation and other common disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are often the result of several molecular abnormalities and are not likely to be resolved by a traditional single-target drug discovery approach. Though inflammation is a normal bodily reaction, uncontrolled and misdirected inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or celecoxib are commonly used to relieve aches and pains, but often these drugs have undesirable and sometimes even fatal side effects. To facilitate safer and more effective anti-inflammatory drug discovery, a balanced treatment strategy should be developed at the biological network level. In this Account, we focus on our recent progress in modeling the inflammation-related arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network and subsequent multiple drug design. We first constructed a mathematical model of inflammation based on experimental data and then applied the model to simulate the effects of commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs. Our results indicated that the model correctly reproduced the established bleeding and cardiovascular side effects. Multitarget optimal intervention (MTOI), a Monte Carlo simulated annealing based computational scheme, was then developed to identify key targets and optimal solutions for controlling inflammation. A number of optimal multitarget strategies were discovered that were both effective and safe and had minimal associated side effects. Experimental studies were performed to evaluate these multitarget control solutions further using different combinations of inhibitors to perturb the network. Consequently, simultaneous control of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, as well as 5-lipoxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthase were found to be among the best solutions. A single compound that can bind multiple targets presents advantages including low

  6. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism in gliomas.

    PubMed

    De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Acosta, Gisela; Pebet, Matias; Chaunavel, Alain; Marin, Benoît; Labrousse, François; Denizot, Yves

    2010-07-01

    Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system derived from glial cells. They show cellular heterogeneity and lack specific diagnostic markers. Although a possible role for the eicosanoid cascade has been suggested in glioma tumorigenesis, the relationship between enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism, with histological tumor type has not yet been determined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure and compare transcript levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways between oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Arachidonic acid metabolism-related enzymes and receptor transcripts (i) were underexpressed in classical oligodendrogliomas compared to astrocytomas and/or glioblastomas, (ii) differed between astrocytomas and glioblastomas and (iii) had an intermediate expression in mixed oligoastrocytomas. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated both in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways differed significantly in gliomas according to the histological type. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids in tissues of the firefly, Photinus pyralis (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Nor Aliza, A R; Bedick, J C; Rana, R L; Tunaz, H; Hoback, W W; Stanley, D W

    2001-02-01

    We report on the presence of high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in the tissue lipids of adult fireflies, Photinus pyralis. Arachidonic acid typically occurs in very small proportions in phospholipids (PLs) of terrestrial insects, ranging from no more than traces to less than 1% of PL fatty acids, while 20:5n-3 is often missing entirely from insect lipids. Contrarily, 20:4n-6 made up approximately 21% of the PL fatty acids prepared from whole males and females, and from heads and thoraces prepared from males. Proportions of 20:4n-6 associated with PLs varied among tissues, including approximately 8% for male gut epithelia, 13% for testes, and approximately 25% for light organs and body fat from males. Substantial proportions of 20:5n-3 were also associated with PLs prepared from male firefly tissues, including 5% for body fat and 8% for light organs. Because 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 are precursors for biosynthesis of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids, we considered the possibility that firefly tissues might produce eicosanoids at exceptionally high rates. Preliminary experiments indicated otherwise. Hence, fireflies are peculiar among terrestrial insects with respect to maintaining high proportions of PL 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3.

  8. Food Polyphenol Apigenin Inhibits the Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Branch of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade.

    PubMed

    Steuck, Maryvonne; Hellhake, Stefan; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2016-11-30

    The product of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA), 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is a potent vasoconstrictor. Utilizing microsomes as well as individual CYP4 isoforms we demonstrate here that flavonoids can block 20-HETE formation. Apigenin inhibits CYP4F2 with an IC50 value of 4.6 μM and 20-HETE formation in human liver and kidney microsomes at 2.4-9.8 μM. Interestingly, the structurally similar naringenin shows no relevant effect on the formation of 20-HETE. Based on these in vitro data, it is impossible to evaluate if a relevant blockade of 20-HETE formation can result in humans from intake of polyphenols with the diet. However, the potency of apigenin is comparable to those of P450 inhibitors such as ketoconazole. Moreover, an IC50 value in the micromolar range is also described for the inhibition of CYP-mediated drug metabolism leading to food-drug interactions. The modulation of the arachidonic acid cascade by food polyphenols therefore warrants further investigation.

  9. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, Margaret E.; DeMari, Joseph A.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Blank, Bryant S.; Valentine, Helen; McDonough, Sean P.; Banavara, Dattatreya; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided by ARASCO® and all diets had DHA from DHASCO® (Martek Biosciences Corp., Columbia, MD). The experimental diets a1 and a2 provided ARA from Refined Arachidonic acid-rich Oil (RAO; Cargill, Inc., Wuhan, China) and SUNTGA40S (Nissui, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Formula intake and growth were similar across all diets, and ARA was bioequivalent across treatments in the brain, retina, heart, liver and day 21 RBC. DHA levels in the brain, retina and heart were unaffected by diet. Liver sections, clinical chemistry, and hematological parameters were normal. We conclude that RAO and SUNTGA40S, when added to formula to supply ~0.64% ARA are safe and nutritionally bioequivalent to ARASCO in domestic piglets. PMID:21722692

  10. Influence of phenolic constituents from Yucca schidigera bark on arachidonate metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wenzig, Eva M; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Kunert, Olaf; Bauer, Rudolf

    2008-10-08

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (Agavaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a variety of diseases including arthritis and rheumatism. Phenolic constituents isolated from yucca bark, such as resveratrol, trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene, and the yuccaols, have been shown to possess various activities in vitro, such as antioxidant, radical scavenging, iNOS expression inhibitory, and platelet aggregation inhibitory effects. In the present study, the influence of a phenolic-rich fraction from yucca bark and of its main phenolic constituents on key enzymes of arachidonate metabolism was investigated. The fraction and the pure phenolics were shown to inhibit COX-1, COX-2, and LTB 4 formation by 5-LOX in vitro to different extents. The degree of COX-1 inhibition was found to be strongly dependent on the substitution pattern of ring B of the stilbenic moiety. The same trend was observed for the COX-2 inhibitory potential, which was, however, in general much lower for the yuccaols as compared with resveratrol. Resveratrol was also the only compound possessing an LTB 4 formation inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity on key enzymes of arachidonate metabolism observed in this study might contribute to the explanation of the anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects observed for Y. schidigera and its phenolic constituents.

  11. Physiological inhibitory effect of ocs in arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

    2002-09-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18; 1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS. like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  12. Somatostatin receptor-mediated arachidonic acid mobilization: evidence for partial agonism of synthetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, Forbes; Fan, Tai-Ping D; Humphrey, Patrick P A

    2001-01-01

    Somatostatin and the stable octapeptide analogues, octreotide and angiopeptin, were examined for their ability to stimulate the release of tritium from [3H]-arachidonic acid pre-loaded CHO-K1 cells expressing human recombinant sst2, sst3 or sst5 receptors. Somatostatin stimulated tritium release (pEC50) through the sst2 (7.8±0.1) and sst5 (7.3±0.2), but not the sst3 receptor. Octreotide behaved as a full (sst2 receptor) or partial agonist (sst5 receptor), whereas angiopeptin behaved as a weak partial agonist at both receptor types. Maximum responses to somatostatin through both receptor types were significantly reduced by pertussis toxin, whereas pEC50 estimates were unaffected. Inhibition of MEK1 or Src, but not PKA, PI 3-kinases or tyrosine kinases, by reportedly selective inhibitors reduced sst2-mediated responses by somatostatin, but not angiopeptin. A selective inhibitor of PKC (Ro-31-8220) reduced both somatostatin and angiopeptin responses. These data provide further evidence for partial agonist activity of synthetic peptides of somatostatin. Furthermore, the somatostatin receptor signalling mechanisms which mediate arachidonic acid mobilization appear to be multiple and complex. PMID:11159729

  13. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments. PMID:26301244

  14. Arachidonic acid stimulates DNA synthesis in brown preadipocytes through the activation of protein kinase C and MAPK.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bibian; Martinez-de-Mena, Raquel; Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2012-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that stimulates the proliferation of many cellular types. We studied the mitogenic potential of AA in rat brown preadipocytes in culture and the signaling pathways involved. AA is a potent mitogen which induces 4-fold DNA synthesis in brown preadipocytes. The AA mitogenic effect increases by NE addition. AA also increases the mitogenic action of different growth factor combinations. Other unsaturated and saturated fatty acids do not stimulate DNA synthesis to the same extent as AA. We analyzed the role of PKC and MEK/MAPK signaling pathways. PKC inhibition by bisindolilmaleimide I (BIS) abolishes AA and phorbol ester stimulation of DNA synthesis and reduces the mitogenic activity of different growth factors in brown preadipocytes. Brown preadipocytes in culture express PKC α, δ, ε and ζ isoforms. Pretreatment with high doses of the phorbol ester PDBu, induces downregulation of PKCs ε and δ and reproduces the effect of BIS indicating that AA-dependent induction of DNA synthesis requires PKC activity. AA also activates MEK/MAPK pathway and the inhibition of MEK activity inhibits AA stimulation of DNA synthesis and brown adipocyte proliferation. Inhibition of PKC δ by rottlerin abolishes AA-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis and MAPK activation, whereas PKC ε inhibition does not produce any effect. In conclusion, our results identify AA as a potent mitogen for brown adipocytes and demonstrate the involvement of the PDBu-sensitive PKC δ isoform and MEK/MAPK pathway in AA-induced proliferation of brown adipocytes. Increased proliferative activity might increase the thermogenic capacity of brown fat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate arachidonic acid release, StAR induction and steroidogenesis acting on a hormone-dependent arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Cano, Florencia; Poderoso, Cecilia; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Castilla, Rocío; Maloberti, Paula; Castillo, Fernanda; Neuman, Isabel; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2006-06-01

    The activation of the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis, that is the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, is dependent on PKA-mediated events triggered by hormones like ACTH and LH. Two of such events are the protein tyrosine dephosphorylation mediated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and the release of arachidonic acid (AA) mediated by two enzymes, ACS4 (acyl-CoA synthetase 4) and Acot2 (mitochondrial thioesterase). ACTH and LH regulate the activity of PTPs and Acot2 and promote the induction of ACS4. Here we analyzed the involvement of PTPs on the expression of ACS4. We found that two PTP inhibitors, acting through different mechanisms, are both able to abrogate the hormonal effect on ACS4 induction. PTP inhibitors also reduce the effect of cAMP on steroidogenesis and on the level of StAR protein, which facilitates the access of cholesterol into the mitochondria. Moreover, our results indicate that exogenous AA is able to overcome the inhibition produced by PTP inhibitors on StAR protein level and steroidogenesis. Then, here we describe a link between PTP activity and AA release, since ACS4 induction is under the control of PTP activity, being a key event for AA release, StAR induction and steroidogenesis.

  16. Adenoviral expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in rabbit aortic endothelium: role in arachidonic acid-induced relaxation.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nitin T; Holmes, Blythe B; Cui, Lijie; Viita, Helena; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Campbell, William B

    2007-02-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit aorta is mediated by either nitric oxide (NO) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathways. 15-LO-1 metabolites of AA, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) cause concentration-dependent relaxation. We tested the hypothesis that in the 15-LO pathway of AA metabolism, 15-LO-1 is sufficient and is the rate-limiting step in inducing relaxations in rabbit aorta. Aorta and rabbit aortic endothelial cells were treated with adenoviruses containing human 15-LO-1 cDNA (Ad-15-LO-1) or beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta-Gal). Ad-15-LO-1-transduction increased the expression of a 75-kDa protein corresponding to 15-LO-1, detected by immunoblotting with an anti-human15-LO-1 antibody, and increased the production of HEETA and THETA from [(14)C]AA. Immunohistochemical studies on Ad-15-LO-1-transduced rabbit aorta showed the presence of 15-LO-1 in endothelial cells. Ad-15-LO-1-treated aortic rings showed enhanced relaxation to AA (max 31.7 +/- 3.2%) compared with Ad-beta-Gal-treated (max 12.7 +/- 3.2%) or control nontreated rings (max 13.1 +/- 1.6%) (P < 0.01). The relaxations in Ad-15-LO-1-treated aorta were blocked by the 15-LO inhibitor cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-a-cyanocinnamate. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 in the rabbit aortic endothelium is sufficient to increase the production of the vasodilatory HEETA and THETA and enhance the relaxations to AA. This confirms the role of HEETA and THETA as endothelium-derived relaxing factors.

  17. Upregulated expression of brain enzymatic markers of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal models, the metabolic syndrome elicits a cerebral response characterized by altered phospholipid and unesterified fatty acid concentrations and increases in pro-apoptotic inflammatory mediators that may cause synaptic loss and cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that these changes are associated with phospholipase (PLA2) enzymes that regulate arachidonic (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-6) acid metabolism, major polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain. Male Wistar rats were fed a control or high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Brains were assayed for markers of AA metabolism (calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2 IVA and cyclooxygenases), DHA metabolism (calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA and lipoxygenases), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synaptic integrity (drebrin and synaptophysin). Lipid concentrations were measured in brains subjected to high-energy microwave fixation. Results The high-sucrose compared with control diet induced insulin resistance, and increased phosphorylated-cPLA2 protein, cPLA2 and iPLA2 activity and 12-lipoxygenase mRNA, but decreased BDNF mRNA and protein, and drebrin mRNA. The concentration of several n-6 fatty acids in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and lysophosphatidylcholine was increased, as was unesterified AA concentration. Eicosanoid concentrations (prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4) did not change. Conclusion These findings show upregulated brain AA and DHA metabolism and reduced BDNF and drebrin, but no changes in eicosanoids, in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. These changes might contribute to altered synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment in rats and humans with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23110484

  18. IMAGING SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION VIA ARACHIDONIC ACID IN THE HUMAN BRAIN DURING VISUAL STIMULATION, BY MEANS OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Der, Margaret; Liow, Jeih-San; Bhattacharjee, Abesh K.; Ma, Kaizong; Herscovitch, Peter; Channing, Michael; Eckelman, William C.; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Richard E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), an important second messenger, is released from membrane phospholipid following receptor mediated activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). This signaling process can be imaged in brain as a regional brain AA incorporation coefficient K*. Hypothesis K* will be increased in brain visual areas of subjects submitted to visual stimulation. Subjects and methods Regional values of K* were measured with positron emission tomography (PET), following the intravenous injection of [1-11C]AA, in 16 healthy volunteers subjected to visual stimulation at flash frequencies 2.9 Hz (8 subjects) or 7.8 Hz (8 subjects), compared with the dark (0 Hz) condition. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with intravenous [15O]water under comparable conditions. Results During flash stimulation at 2.9 Hz or 7.8 Hz vs. 0 Hz, K* was increased significantly by 2.3–8.9% in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19, and in additional frontal, parietal and temporal cortical regions. rCBF was increased significantly by 3.1% – 22%, often in comparable regions. Increments at 7.8 Hz often exceeded those at 2.9 Hz for both K* and rCBF. Decrements in both parameters also were produced, particularly in frontal brain regions. Conclusions AA plays a role in signaling processes provoked by visual stimulation, since visual stimulation at flash frequencies of 2.9 and 7.8 Hz compared to 0 Hz modifies both K* for AA and rCBF in visual and related areas of the human brain. The two-stimulus condition paradigm of this study might be used with PET to image effects of other functional activations and of drugs on brain signaling via AA. PMID:17196833

  19. The Cytotoxic Enterotoxin of Aeromonas hydrophila Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Activates Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, A. K.; Xu, X.-J.; Ribardo, D.; Gonzalez, M.; Kuhl, K.; Peterson, J. W.; Houston, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    An aerolysin-related cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) of Aeromonas hydrophila possesses multiple biological activities, which include its ability to lyse red blood cells, destroy tissue culture cell lines, evoke a fluid secretory response in ligated intestinal loop models, and induce lethality in mice. The role of Act in the virulence of the organism has been demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Act to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with Act-induced tissue injury and Act's capacity to activate in macrophages arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism that leads to production of eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]). Our data indicated that Act stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and upregulated the expression of genes encoding interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Act also activated transcription of the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase. Act evoked the production of PGE2 coupled to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway. AA is a substrate for PGE2, and Act produced AA from phospholipids by inducing group V secretory phospholipase A2. We also demonstrated that Act increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in macrophages. cAMP, along with PGE2, could potentiate fluid secretion in animal models because of infiltration and activation of macrophages resulting from Act-induced tissue injury. After Act treatment of RAW cells, we detected an increased translocation of NF-κB and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) to the nucleus using gel shift assays. Act also upregulated production of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in macrophages, suggesting a protective role for Bcl-2 against cell death induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and Bcl-2 appeared correlated with the activation of NF-κB and CREB. This is the first report of the detailed mechanisms of action of Act from A

  20. CO-EXPOSURE OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS TO OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER: EFFECTS ON ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Co-exposure of human airway epithelial cells to ozone and particulate matter: effects on arachidonic acid metabolism.

    D. Stamm1, L. Dailey2, M.C. Madden2
    1 University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, School of Medicine
    2 U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, USA...

  1. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  2. CO-EXPOSURE OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS TO OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER: EFFECTS ON ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Co-exposure of human airway epithelial cells to ozone and particulate matter: effects on arachidonic acid metabolism.

    D. Stamm1, L. Dailey2, M.C. Madden2
    1 University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, School of Medicine
    2 U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, USA...

  3. Reduced ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid is associated with early onset of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Daiju; Takashima, Akira; Bando, Mika; Hara, Tomoya; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tobiume, Takeshi; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Akaike, Masashi; Sata, Masataka

    2015-10-29

    The hospitalization rate for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for people aged ≤50 has remained stable over the past decade. Increased serum levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in older patients; however, it is currently unknown whether reduced serum levels of n-3 PUFAs is also a risk factor for ACS in patients aged ≤50 years. We retrospectively reviewed 102 (male/ female 73/29) Japanese ACS patients whose serum levels of EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA/AA were evaluated on admission. The EPA/AA ratio was the lowest in patients aged ≤50 compared to patients aged 51-74 and ≥75. Pearson correlation analysis showed that early ACS onset was associated with low EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios, and multiple regression analysis determined that decreased ratios of EPA/AA and DHA/AA, and male sex, current smoker status, increased body mass index and triglyceride levels, independently correlated with early ACS onset. Conversely, low-density and high-density lipoproteins, glycated hemoglobin, and hypertension did not correlate with early ACS onset. Subgroup analyses of male patients revealed that decreased ratios of EPA/AA and DHA/AA independently correlated with early ACS onset. Decreased EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios may be risk factors for early onset of ACS, suggesting that reduced EPA/AA and DHA/AA may represent targets for preventing ACS in Japanese young people.

  4. Ethanol Promotes Chemically Induced Oral Cancer in Mice through Activation of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yizhu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xinyan; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for oral cancer in humans. However, previous animal studies on the promoting effect of ethanol on oral carcinogenesis were inconclusive. It is necessary to develop an animal model with which the molecular mechanism of ethanol-related oral carcinogenesis may be elucidated in order to develop effective prevention strategies. In this study, mice were first treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 100μg/ml in drinking water) for 8 weeks, and then given water or ethanol (8%) as the sole drink for another 16 weeks. During the experiment, 8% ethanol was well tolerated by mice. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increased from 20% (8/41) to 43% (17/40; p<0.05). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) was increased in dysplasia and SCC of 4NQO-treated tongues, and further enhanced by ethanol. Using this mouse model, we further demonstrated that fewer cancers were induced in Alox5−/− mice, as were cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the tongue, as compared with Alox5+/+ mice. Interestingly, Cox-2 expression was induced by ethanol in knockout mice, while 5-Lox and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) expression and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis were dramatically reduced. Moreover, ethanol enhanced expression and nuclear localization of 5-Lox and stimulated LTB4 biosynthesis in human tongue SCC cells (SCC-15 and SCC-4) in vitro. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated that ethanol promoted 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis, at least in part, through further activation of the 5-Lox pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:21881027

  5. Modulation of arachidonic acid release and membrane fluidity by albumin in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beck, R; Bertolino, S; Abbot, S E; Aaronson, P I; Smirnov, S V

    1998-11-02

    Albumin is the major plasma protein circulating in blood. Albumin potently decreases capillary permeability, although the mechanisms are not understood completely. Albumin also effectively binds arachidonic acid (AA), which increases capillary permeability. To investigate the interactions of BSA and AA with the cell membrane, the effect of these substances on [3H]AA release and membrane fluidity was studied in vascular myocytes and endothelial cells. BSA (0.2 and 1 mg . mL-1) stimulated a significant release of [3H]AA from both intact rat aorta and cultured smooth muscle cells. This effect was not mimicked by gamma-globulin or myoglobin (both 1 mg . mL-1) in intact tissue. BSA, but not gamma-globulin and myoglobin, decreased the membrane fluidity (assessed as changes in the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3, 5-hexatriene) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximum concentration between 0.007 and 0.4 mg . mL-1 in both freshly isolated and cultured rat aortic myocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. AA (1 to 200 micromol/L) caused the opposite effect, increasing membrane fluidity and antagonizing the effect of BSA. BSA modified at its arginine residues, which are thought to be important in AA binding, did not stimulate [3H]AA release and was significantly less potent than native BSA in altering the membrane fluidity. The effect of BSA can be explained by a high-affinity binding of AA to the protein and extraction of AA from the cell membrane. The interaction between BSA and AA could play a role in the regulation of vascular permeability.

  6. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P < 0.05) and an increase in the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) were observed in the intervention group at the end of the consumption period. In addition, pomegranate juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (P < 0.05). The status of blood lipids and the values for blood pressure were not changed during the study. The results obtained indicate a positive impact of the consumption of pomegranate juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish.

  8. Production of arachidonic acid metabolites by macrophages exposed in vitro to asbestos, carbonyl iron particles, or calcium ionophore.

    PubMed

    Kouzan, S; Brody, A R; Nettesheim, P; Eling, T

    1985-04-01

    Consequent to asbestos deposition, alveolar macrophages (AM) accumulate at alveolar duct bifurcations where they phagocytize fibers. Because phagocytosis can stimulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, the possibility that secretion of these powerful mediators of inflammation might be induced by chrysotile asbestos was investigated in vitro. Rat AM were treated in vitro with chrysotile asbestos, and the cyclooxygenase products--prostaglandins, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT)--and lipoxygenase products--leukotrienes (LT), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE)--secreted in the medium were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Composition of the AA metabolites released was compared with that from those stimulated by the calcium ionophore A 23187 (20 microM) and by another particulate phagocytic stimulus, i.e., carbonyl iron beads. Calcium ionophore stimulation induced a marked release of various AA metabolites in the medium from both the cyclooxygenase pathway (HHT, TXB2, and PGE2, in decreasing quantities, respectively) and the lipoxygenase pathway (LTB4, 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and LTC4). The major product was LTB4. Treatment of the macrophages with asbestos fibers induced the release of a similar array of AA metabolites, although there were smaller amounts of LTC4 and 12-HETE, but increased quantities of PGF2 alpha. A time course study showed a steady increase in metabolite production for 1 h, followed by a plateau. In addition, the amount of metabolites released was dependent on asbestos concentrations. Phagocytosis of iron beads induced the secretion of the same metabolites as asbestos stimulation, but in larger quantities, probably reflecting the lack of cytotoxicity of the particle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Significance of Brain Tissue Oxygenation and the Arachidonic Acid Cascade in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The significance of the hypoxia component of stroke injury is highlighted by hypermetabolic brain tissue enriched with arachidonic acid (AA), a 22:6n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In an ischemic stroke environment in which cerebral blood flow is arrested, oxygen-starved brain tissue initiates the rapid cleavage of AA from the membrane phospholipid bilayer. Once free, AA undergoes both enzyme-independent and enzyme-mediated oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of number of biologically active metabolites which themselves contribute to pathological stroke outcomes. This review is intended to examine two divergent roles of molecular dioxygen in brain tissue as (1) a substrate for life-sustaining homeostatic metabolism of glucose and (2) a substrate for pathogenic metabolism of AA under conditions of stroke. Recent developments in research concerning supplemental oxygen therapy as an intervention to correct the hypoxic component of stroke injury are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1889–1903. PMID:20673202

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid: collaboration and not antagonism is the key to biological understanding.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, D F; Jenkins, K; Bennett, C N; Christie, W W

    2002-01-01

    Much of the literature on omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids suggests that desirable effects of omega-3 fatty acids are in part related to depletion of arachidonic acid (AA). However, in rats and humans, we have found that low doses of EPA actually elevate membrane AA phospholipid concentrations. In patients with schizophrenia, treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced clinical improvement, but that improvement was greater at a dose of 2 g/day than at 4 g/day. The improvement was not significantly correlated with changes in either EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) but was highly significantly positively correlated with rises in red cell membrane AA. We suggest that elevation of concentrations of both AA and EPA in cell membranes may be important for health.

  11. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Moreno, Emmanuel Irineo; Guzman-de la Garza, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Garza, Nancy Esthela

    2012-01-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD). This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise. PMID:22997489

  12. Effect of oxidized arachidonic acid and hexanal on the mouse taste perception of bitterness and umami.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Tashima, Ikukazu; Iwanaga, Daigo; Ushio, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    The oxidization of fatty acids generates many volatile compounds forming an aroma, but little is known whether mammals use gustatory sense to detect the oxidized products as a taste or only use olfactory sense to detect as an aroma. We examined in this study the effect of aqueous extracts of the compounds from autoxidized arachidonic acid (AA) ethyl ester or hexanal which is the predominant component generated from oxidized AA by the anosmic mouse licking performance to a tastant. The addition of the water extract from oxidized AA or hexanal to a quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) solution decreased the anosmic mice licking frequency at several concentrations of QHCl. Hexanal also reduced the licking frequency of anosmic mice conditioned to avoid MSG at several concentrations of monosodium glutamate (MSG). These results suggest that hexanal would affect mouse taste perception to QHCl and MSG via the gustatory sensation.

  13. Neutrophil chemotaxis and arachidonic acid metabolism are not linked: evidence from metal ion probe studies

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Turner, R.A.; Smith, D.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-met-leu-phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid release. In contrast to previous reports, no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis was demonstrated, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  14. Significant utilization of dietary arachidonic acid is for brain adrenic acid in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Lawrence, Peter; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Boehm, G; Nathanielsz, P W; Brenna, J T

    2002-05-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) utilization in-vivo for carbon recycling into de-novo lipogenesis and conversion to n-6 long chain polyunsaturates was investigated in baboon neonates using [U-(13)C]20:4n-6. Neonates consuming a formula typical of human milk received a single oral dose of [(13)C]arachidonic acid in sn-2 position of either triglyceride or phosphatidylcholine at 18-19 days of postnatal life. Neonate brain, retina, liver, and plasma were obtained 10 days later (28-29 days of life). Low isotopic enrichment (0.27-1.0%Total label) was detected in dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) in all tissues, but label incorporation into saturates or monounsaturates was not detected. In neonate brain and retina, 16% and 11% of total label was recovered in 22:4n-6, respectively. The relative contribution of dietary fatty acids to postnatal brain 22:4n-6 accretion can be estimated for dietary 20:4n-6 and preformed 22:4n-6 as 17% and 8%, respectively, corresponding to efficiencies of 0.48% and 0.54% of dietary levels, respectively. These results demonstrate in term baboon neonates that in vivo 1) 20:4n-6 was retroconverted to 20:3n-6, 2) 20:4n-6 did not contribute significantly to de novo lipogenesis of saturates and monounsaturates, and 3) the preformed 20:4n-6 contribution to brain 22:4n-6 accumulation was quantitatively a significant metabolic fate for dietary 20:4n-6.

  15. The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Diau, Guan-Yeu; Hsieh, Andrea T; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter A; Wijendran, Vasuki; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B) and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-); term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+); preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-); preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+). At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1) DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2) DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3) supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA. PMID:15975147

  16. Characterization of arachidonic acid metabolism by rat cytochrome P450 enzymes: the involvement of CYP1As.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes mediate arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation to several biologically active metabolites. Our aims in this study were to characterize AA metabolism by different recombinant rat P450 enzymes and to identify new targets for modulating P450-AA metabolism in vivo. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous measurements of AA and 15 of its P450 metabolites. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 were found to metabolize AA with high catalytic activity, and CYP2A1, CYP2C13, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A1 had lower activity. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 produced ω-1→4 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) as 88.7 and 62.7%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. CYP2C11 produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) as 61.3%, and CYP2C6 produced midchain HETEs and EETs as 48.3 and 29.4%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. The formation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 major metabolites followed an atypical kinetic profile of substrate inhibition. CYP1As inhibition by α-naphthoflavone or anti-CYP1As antibodies significantly reduced ω-1→4 HETE formation in the lungs and liver, whereas CYP1As induction by 3-methylcholanthrene resulted in a significant increase in ω-1→4 HETEs formation in the heart, lungs, kidney, and livers by 370, 646, 532, and 848%, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that CYP1As and CYP2Cs are major players in the metabolism of AA. The significant contribution of CYP1As to AA metabolism and their strong inducibility suggest their possible use as targets for the prevention and treatment of several diseases.

  17. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied.

  18. Effects of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation on Acute Anabolic Signaling and Chronic Functional Performance and Body Composition Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Eduardo O.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Sharp, Matthew H.; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Fox, Carlton D.; Lopez, Hector L.; Shields, Kevin A.; Rauch, Jacob T.; Healy, James C.; Thompson, Richard M.; Ormes, Jacob A.; Joy, Jordan M.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. In addition, we performed a secondary study looking at molecular responses of ARA supplementation following an acute exercise bout in rodents. Methods Thirty strength-trained males (age: 20.4 ± 2.1 yrs) were randomly divided into two groups: ARA or placebo (i.e. CTL). Then, both groups underwent an 8-week, 3-day per week, non-periodized training protocol. Quadriceps muscle thickness, whole-body composition scan (DEXA), muscle strength, and power were assessed at baseline and post-test. In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (~250 g, ~8 weeks old) were pre-fed with either ARA or water (CTL) for 8 days and were fed the final dose of ARA prior to being acutely strength trained via electrical stimulation on unilateral plantar flexions. A mixed muscle sample was removed from the exercised and non-exercised leg 3 hours post-exercise. Results Lean body mass (2.9%, p<0.0005), upper-body strength (8.7%, p<0.0001), and peak power (12.7%, p<0.0001) increased only in the ARA group. For the animal trial, GSK-β (Ser9) phosphorylation (p<0.001) independent of exercise and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (p-AMPK less in ARA, p = 0.041) were different in ARA-fed versus CTL rats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ARA supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males. However, chronic studies at the molecular level are required to further elucidate how ARA combined with strength training affect muscle adaptation. PMID:27182886

  19. Lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid: a preferred donor of arachidonic acid for macrophage-synthesis of eicosanoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, F.; Roddick, V.; Connor, J.; Waite, M.

    1986-05-01

    In order to dissect mechanisms of arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism, two cell populations were investigated, resident (AM) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-activated (BCG-AM) rabbit alveolar macrophages. After purified AM were labeled overnight with (/sup 3/H)20:4, radioactivity was localized primarily within lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid (L(bis)PA) (13.1%), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (22.8%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (26.7%), with lesser amounts recovered in phosphatidyl-serine (PS) plus phosphatidylinositol (PI) (9.2%). By contrast, analysis of the phospholipid classes from prelabeled BCG-AM revealed that the mass of L(bis)PA as well as its (/sup 3/H)20:4 content was profoundly decreased while other BCG-AM phospholipids remained unchanged. When (/sup 3/H)20:4-labeled AM were stimulated with 1 ..mu..M 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a loss of (/sup 3/H)20:4 was observed from L(bis)PA, PE, PC, and PS/PI with a corresponding increase in eicosanoid synthesis. BCG-AM exposed to either TPA or 3.8 ..mu..M Ca/sup +2/ ionophore A23187 liberated (/sup 3/H)20:4 solely from Pe and PC. BCG-AM, which exhibited depressed eicosanoid formation, consistently failed to deacylate (/sup 3/H)20:4 from L(bis)PA or PI. Their evidence suggests that the diminution of eicosanoid synthesis by BCG-AM may be due to the reduction of 20:4 contained within specific phospholipid pools, namely L(bis)PA.

  20. Lithium and the Other Mood Stabilizers Effective in Bipolar Disorder Target the Rat Brain Arachidonic Acid Cascade

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This Review evaluates the arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) cascade hypothesis for the actions of lithium and other FDA-approved mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (BD). The hypothesis is based on evidence in unanesthetized rats that chronically administered lithium, carbamazepine, valproate, or lamotrigine each downregulated brain AA metabolism, and it is consistent with reported upregulated AA cascade markers in post-mortem BD brain. In the rats, each mood stabilizer reduced AA turnover in brain phospholipids, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and prostaglandin E2 concentration. Lithium and carbamazepine also reduced expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA, which releases AA from membrane phospholipids, whereas valproate uncompetitively inhibited in vitro acyl-CoA synthetase-4, which recycles AA into phospholipid. Topiramate and gabapentin, proven ineffective in BD, changed rat brain AA metabolism minimally. On the other hand, the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and clozapine, which show efficacy in BD, decreased rat brain AA metabolism by reducing plasma AA availability. Each of the four approved mood stabilizers also dampened brain AA signaling during glutamatergic NMDA and dopaminergic D2 receptor activation, while lithium enhanced the signal during cholinergic muscarinic receptor activation. In BD patients, such signaling effects might normalize the neurotransmission imbalance proposed to cause disease symptoms. Additionally, the antidepressants fluoxetine and imipramine, which tend to switch BD depression to mania, each increased AA turnover and cPLA2 IVA expression in rat brain, suggesting that brain AA metabolism is higher in BD mania than depression. The AA hypothesis for mood stabilizer action is consistent with reports that low-dose aspirin reduced morbidity in patients taking lithium, and that high n-3 and/or low n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diets, which in rats reduce brain AA metabolism, were effective in BD and migraine patients. PMID

  1. Arachidonic acid metabolites alter G protein-mediated signal transduction in heart. Effects on muscarinic K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-stimulated, inwardly rectifying K+ current (IK [ACh]) was examined in single bullfrog atrial cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. IK[ACh] was activated either by bath addition of 1 microM ACh or via activation of the G protein, Gk, with guanosine-gamma-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S). Arachidonic acid (AA) modulated IK[ACh] under both conditions. AA decreased mAChR-stimulated IK[ACh] and increased the rate of decay from the peak current (desensitization). In addition, AA affected GTP gamma S-activated IK[ACh] by modulation of Gk. The effects of AA and its metabolites on Gk were assessed by examining their effects on both the basal rate of Gk activation by GTP gamma S, and the mAChR-mediated increase in activation rate produced by nanomolar ACh. AA increased the basal rate of GTP gamma S-mediated IK[ACh] activation, but reduced the ACh-induced augmentation of this rate. All of the effects of AA on GTP gamma S-mediated IK[ACh] activation were produced by metabolites. A lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), decreased the basal and ACh-enhanced rate of IK[ACh] activation in both the presence and absence of exogenous AA. In contrast, indomethacin (INDO), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, increased the basal rate of IK[ACh] activation by GTP gamma S in both the presence and absence of exogenous AA, and reversed the effects of AA on the ACh-augmented basal rate. AA metabolites produced via lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways thus have opposing effects on the signal transduction pathway from mAChR to IK[ACh]. We directly tested a lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, LTC4, on GTP gamma S-mediated IK[ACh] activation and found that it not only overcame the inhibitory effects of NDGA, but also increased both the basal and ACh-augmented rate of IK[ACh] activation. From these data, we propose that AA metabolites modulate the function of Gk by altering its kinetic properties. PMID:2124257

  2. Effects of some iridoids from plant origin on arachidonic acid metabolism in cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Bermejo Benito, P; Díaz Lanza, A M; Silván Sen, A M; De Santos Galindez, J; Fernandez Matellano, L; Sanz Gómez, A; Abad Martínez, M J

    2000-05-01

    Seven iridoid glycosides isolated from different extracts of Scrophularia scorodonia L., namely bartsioside, aucubin, harpagide, harpagoside, 8-acetylharpagide, scorodioside and scropolioside B, had been evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in cellular systems generating COX and LOX metabolites. Structure-activity relationships obtained from in vitro screening results were discussed. Most compounds assayed did not exhibit any significant effect on PGE2- and LTC4-release from calcium ionophore-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the LTC4-assay, only aucubin showed a significant effect, with an IC50 value of 72 microM. Harpagoside and harpagide also inhibited release of LTC4, but neither effect reached statistical significance. The release of PGE2 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with calcium ionophore was inhibited by harpagoside and 8-acetylharpagide, but this effect is not statistically significant. However, most iridoids assayed showed a significant effect on TXB2-release from calcium ionophorestimulated human platelets, with inhibition percentages slightly lower than the reference drug ibuprofen. Only harpagide, scorodioside and scropolioside B had no significant effect on TXB2-release. Our results indicate that selective inhibition of the TX-synthase enzyme may be the primary target of action of most of these iridoids, and one of the mechanisms through which they exert their anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. Low Na intake suppresses expression of CYP2C23 and arachidonic acid-induced inhibition of ENaC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Tong; Babilonia, Elisa; Wang, Zhijian; Jin, Yan; Kemp, Rowena; Nasjletti, Alberto; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2006-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that arachidonic acid (AA) inhibits epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase-dependent pathway (34). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low Na intake suppresses the expression of CYP2C23, which is mainly responsible for converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) in the kidney (11) and attenuates the AA-induced inhibition of ENaC. Immunostaining showed that CYP2C23 is expressed in the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-positive and aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-positive tubules. This suggests that CYP2C23 is expressed in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and collecting duct (CD). Na restriction significantly suppressed the expression of CYP2C23 in the TAL and CD. Western blot also demonstrated that the expression of CYP2C23 in renal cortex and outer medulla diminished in rats on Na-deficient diet (Na-D) but increased in those on high-Na diet (4%). Moreover, the content of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) decreased in the isolated cortical CD from rats on Na-D compared with those on a normal-Na diet (0.5%). Patch-clamp study showed that application of 15 microM AA inhibited the activity of ENaC by 77% in the CCD of rats on a Na-D for 3 days. However, the inhibitory effect of AA on ENaC was significantly attenuated in rats on Na-D for 14 days. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP epoxygenase with MS-PPOH increased the ENaC activity in the CCD of rats on a control Na diet. We also used microperfusion technique to examine the effect of MS-PPOH on Na transport in the distal nephron. Application of MS-PPOH significantly increased Na absorption in the distal nephron of control rats but had no significant effect on Na absorption in rats on Na-D for 14 days. We conclude that low Na intake downregulates the activity and expression of CYP2C23 and attenuates the inhibitory effect of AA on Na transport.

  4. Systemic elevations of free radical oxidation products of arachidonic acid are associated with angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Mehdi H; Zhang, Renliang; Medina, Hector; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Brennan, Danielle M; Ellis, Stephen G; Topol, Eric J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2006-12-01

    Oxidant stress is widely believed to participate in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. However, progress in defining appropriate systemic antioxidant targeted therapies has been hindered by uncertainty in defining clinically relevant systemic oxidant stress measures. In a case control study, 50 subjects with CAD (>50% stenosis in one or more major coronary vessels) and 54 without CAD (<30% stenosis in all major coronary vessels) were tested. Plasma was isolated and stored under conditions designed to prevent artificial lipid peroxidation. Systemic levels of multiple (n=9) specific fatty acid oxidation products including individual hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and F(2)-isoprostanes were simultaneously measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line tandem mass spectrometry, along with traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Of the markers monitored, only 9-HETE and F(2)-isoprostanes, both products of free radical-mediated arachidonic acid oxidation, were significantly elevated in patients with angiographically defined CAD (9-HETE, 8.7 +/- 4 vs 6.8 +/- 4 micromol/mol arachidonate, P = 0.011; and F(2)-isoprostanes, 9.4 +/- 5 vs 6.2 +/- 3 micromol/mol arachidonate, P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses with simultaneous adjustment for Framingham risk score and C-reactive protein, 9-HETE (4th quartile OR = 4.8, 95% CI=1.3 to 17.1; P = 0.016) and F(2)-isoprostanes (4th quartile OR=9.7, 95% CI=2.56 to 36.9; P < 0.001) remained strong and independent predictors of CAD risk. Systemic levels of 9-HETE and F(2)-isoprostanes are independently associated with angiographic evidence of CAD and appear superior to other specific oxidation products of arachidonic and linoleic acids as predictors of the presence of angiographically evident coronary artery disease.

  5. Arachidonic acid potentiates currents through Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors by interacting with a CaMKII pathway.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, T; Matsuoka, T; Nomura, T; Enikolopov, G; Sumikawa, K

    1999-04-06

    The present study investigated the effect of arachidonic acid on the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, presumably heteromeric receptors formed of GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3, expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Arachidonic acid (10 microM) potentiated currents through receptors expressing GluR1 and 3 (GluR1,3) to 170% of basal level during initial 20 min following application, being still evident at 60-min washing-out of the drug, while it never or little enhanced currents through receptors expressing GluR1 and 2 (GluR1,2) or GluR1, 2, and 3 (GluR1,2,3) (110% 30 min after treatment). The effect of arachidonic acid on GluR1,3 currents was not observed in Ca2+-free extracellular solution, and the potentiation was blocked by either KN-93, a selective Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor, or NP217, an active CaMKII inhibitor peptide, when co-expressed with the receptors. In contrast, the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, the selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), H-89, the selective inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCI and GF109203X, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase inhibitor, PD98059, or the inactive CaMKII inhibitors, KN-92 and NP218, had no effect on the currents. In the assay of intracellular calcium mobilizations, Ca2+ influx in response to receptor activation was greatest with receptors formed in oocytes expressing GluR1,3. The results of the present study indicate that arachidonic acid induces a long-lasting potentiation of GluR1,3 currents, possibly as a result of the interaction with a CaMKII pathway. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Absorption and metabolism of ( sup 3 H)arachidonic and ( sup 14 C)linoleic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelte, L.; Melin, T.; Nilsson, A.; Strandvik, B. )

    1990-07-01

    ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (20:4) and ({sup 14}C)linoleic acid (18:2) were fed in a triolein emulsion to essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats and to age-matched controls. Tissues were analyzed for radioactivity of different lipid classes after 1, 2, and 4 h. As in earlier studies, control rats retained more ({sup 3}H)20:4 than ({sup 14}C)18:2 in all organs except adipose tissue. In EFAD rats, recovery of ({sup 14}C)18:2 was increased in small intestine, liver, heart, and kidneys. In comparison to controls, EFAD rats retained much more ({sup 14}C)18:2 in phospholipids of these organs. The increase in the incorporation of both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C into phosphatidylethanolamine was particularly pronounced. Another striking feature was the drastic increase in the retention after 4 h of {sup 14}C in cardiolipin, which is specifically located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, incorporation of both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C into phosphatidylinositol was decreased or unchanged in EFAD rats. Although fecal fat excretion was increased there was no evidence for a malabsorption or an increased retention in intestinal triacyglycerol of the radioactive fatty acids in EFAD rats. The proportion of ({sup 14}C)18:2 that had been converted to ({sup 14}C)20:4 was generally low but increased significantly with time in the liver and intestine of EFAD rats.

  7. Exogenous arachidonic acid mediates permeability of human brain microvessel endothelial cells through prostaglandin E2 activation of EP3 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Siddhartha; Nguyen, Hieu H; On, Ngoc; Mitchell, Ryan W; Aukema, Harold M; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2015-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier, formed by microvessel endothelial cells, is the restrictive barrier between the brain parenchyma and the circulating blood. Arachidonic acid (ARA; 5,8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a conditionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acid [20:4(n-6)] and is a major constituent of brain lipids. The current study examined the transport processes for ARA in confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Addition of radioactive ARA to the apical compartment of HBMEC cultured on Transwell(®) inserts resulted in rapid incorporation of radioactivity into the basolateral medium. Knock down of fatty acid transport proteins did not alter ARA passage into the basolateral medium as a result of the rapid generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), an eicosanoid known to facilitate opening of the blood-brain barrier. Permeability following ARA or PGE2 exposure was confirmed by an increased movement of fluorescein-labeled dextran from apical to basolateral medium. ARA-mediated permeability was attenuated by specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. EP3 and EP4 receptor antagonists attenuated the ARA-mediated permeability of HBMEC. The results indicate that ARA increases permeability of HBMEC monolayers likely via increased production of PGE2 which acts upon EP3 and EP4 receptors to mediate permeability. These observations may explain the rapid influx of ARA into the brain previously observed upon plasma infusion with ARA. The blood-brain barrier, formed by microvessel endothelial cells, is a restrictive barrier between the brain parenchyma and the circulating blood. Radiolabeled arachidonic acid (ARA) movement across, and monolayer permeability in the presence of ARA, was examined in confluent monolayers of primary human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) cultured on Transwell(®) plates. Incubation of HBMECs with ARA resulted in a rapid increase in HBMEC monolayer permeability. The mechanism was mediated, in part

  8. Unraveling the Genetic Basis of Aspirin Hypersensitivity in Asthma Beyond Arachidonate Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se-Min; Park, Jong Sook; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-01-01

    Although aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) has attracted a great deal of attention because of its association with severe asthma, it remains widely under-diagnosed in the asthmatic population. Oral aspirin challenge is the best method of diagnosing AERD, but this is a time-consuming procedure with serious complications in some cases. Thus, development of non-invasive methods for easy diagnosis is necessary to prevent unexpected complications of aspirin use in susceptible patients. For the past decade, many studies have attempted to elucidate the genetic variants responsible for risk of AERD. Several approaches have been applied in these genetic studies. To date, a limited number of biologically plausible candidate genes in the arachidonate and immune and inflammatory pathways have been studied. Recently, a genome-wide association study was performed. In this review, the results of these studies are summarized, and their limitations discussed. In addition to the genetic variants, changes in methylation patterns on CpG sites have recently been identified in a target tissue of aspirin hypersensitivity. Finally, perspectives on application of new genomic technologies are introduced; these will aid our understanding of the genetic pathogenesis of aspirin hypersensitivity in asthma. PMID:24003382

  9. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Sasaki, Junko; Kubo, Takuya; Matsuda, Shinji; Nakasaki, Yasuko; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tanaka, Fumiharu; Udagawa, Osamu; Kono, Nozomu; Itoh, Toshiki; Ogiso, Hideo; Taguchi, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Sasaki, Takehiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference–based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1−/− mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1−/− mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1−/− mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. PMID:23097495

  10. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid elevate femur calcium and reduce zinc content in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Weiler, Hope A

    2006-10-01

    Specific dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and long chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) elevate femur calcium content and enhance calcium balance. Mother's milk is associated with enhanced calcium balance and contains LCPUFAs; arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of AA and DHA on calcium metabolism and other bone minerals during infancy is unknown. Thus, piglets received one of four formulas (15 d): control or with AA:DHA (0.5:0.1 g, 1.0:0.2 g, or 2.0:0.4 g/100 g of fat). Calcium absorption, femur mineral composition, and urinary mineral excretion. Main effects identified using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis conducted using Duncan's multiple range test. Significant effects of diet were observed in femur calcium and zinc content, but not calcium absorption, urinary mineral excretion, femur ash weight, femur phosphorus, or femur magnesium content. The piglets receiving AA:DHA as 1.0:0.2 g/100 g of fat had 1.9% higher mg calcium/g of ash, but 8.6% lower mug zinc/g of ash compared with control. Thus, AA:DHA in a ratio of 5:1 does not affect mineral accretion, but AA plus DHA, in amounts similar to the upper limit of human milk, might be detrimental to bone mineralization over time due to lower zinc.

  11. Altered macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism induced by endotoxin tolerance: characterization and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Altered macrophage arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism may play a role in endotoxic shock and the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance induced by repeated injections of endotoxin. Studies were initiated to characterize both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase metabolite formation by endotoxin tolerant and non-tolerant macrophages in response to 4 different stimuli, i.e., endotoxin, glucan, zymosan, and the calcium ionophore A23187. In contrast to previous reports of decreased prostaglandin synthesis by tolerant macrophages, A23187-stimulated immunoreactive (i) leukotriene (LT) C/sub 4/D/sub 4/ and prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 2/ production by tolerant cells was greater than that by non-tolerant controls (p <0.001). However, A23187-stimulated i6-keto PGF/sub 1a/ levels were lower in tolerant macrophages compared to controls (P < 0.05). iL TC/sub 4/D/sub 4/ production was not significantly stimulated by endotoxin or glucan, but was stimulated by zymosan in non-tolerant cells. Synthesis of iLTB/sub 4/ by control macrophages was stimulated by endotoxin (p <0.01). The effect of tolerance on factors that affect AA release was investigated by measuring /sup 14/C-AA incorporation and release and phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity

  12. Production of human milk fat analogue containing docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    PubMed

    Turan, Dilek; Sahin Yeşilçubuk, Neşe; Akoh, Casimir C

    2012-05-02

    Human milk fat (HMF) analogue containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) at sn-1,3 positions and palmitic acid (PA) at sn-2 position was produced. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce palmitic acid-enriched hazelnut oil (EHO). EHO was then used to produce the final structured lipid (SL) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. Reaction variables for 3 h reactions were temperature, substrate mole ratio, and ARASCO/DHASCO (A:D) ratio. After statistical analysis of DHA, ARA, total PA, and PA content at sn-2 position, a large-scale production was performed at 60 °C, 3:2 A:D ratio, and 1:0.1 substrate mole ratio. For the SL, those results were determined as 57.3 ± 0.4%, 2.7 ± 0.0%, 2.4 ± 0.1%, and 66.1 ± 2.2%, respectively. Tocopherol contents were 84, 19, 85, and 23 μg/g oil for α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol. Melting range of SL was narrower than that of EHO. Oxidative stability index (OSI) value of SL (0.80 h) was similar to that of EHO (0.88 h). This SL can be used in infant formulas to provide the benefits of ARA and DHA.

  13. Regional biosynthesis of prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from arachidonic acid in the rat stomach tissue.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Choue, R W; Cho, Y; Ziboh, V A

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine regional differences in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in the rat stomach tissue (fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum) from radioactive arachidonic acid (AA). The radioactive metabolites were validated by RP-HPLC using non-radioactive AA as substrate. PGE(2) was the major prostanoid in the tissue(.) The relative ratio of PGE(2):PGF(2)alpha:PGD(2) in the whole stomach was 1:0.5:0.1. Regionally, the fundus biosynthesized the largest amount of all three cyclo-oxygenase products. Among the lipoxygenase metabolites, 15S-HETE was the predominant product, while 12S-HETE was found to be the lowest. The relative ratio of 15S-HETE:5S-HETE:12S-HETE in the whole stomach was 1:0.6:0.4. Interestingly, the generation of lipoxygenase products was the highest in the pyloric antrum when compared to fundus or corpus. Thus, the regional differences in the biosyntheses of gastric PGs and monohydroxy fatty acids may be relevant to our understanding of corresponding differences in mucosal resistance or susceptibility to gastric disease.

  14. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    SciTech Connect

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  15. On the cellular metabolism of the click chemistry probe 19-alkyne arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Philippe Pierre; Poirier, Samuel J; Boudreau, Luc H; Doiron, Jérémie A; Barnett, David A; Boilard, Eric; Surette, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Alkyne and azide analogs of natural compounds that can be coupled to sensitive tags by click chemistry are powerful tools to study biological processes. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a FA precursor to biologically active compounds. 19-Alkyne-AA (AA-alk) is a sensitive clickable AA analog; however, its use as a surrogate to study AA metabolism requires further evaluation. In this study, AA-alk metabolism was compared with that of AA in human cells. Jurkat cell uptake of AA was 2-fold greater than that of AA-alk, but significantly more AA-Alk was elongated to 22:4. AA and AA-alk incorporation into and remodeling between phospholipid (PL) classes was identical indicating equivalent CoA-independent AA-PL remodeling. Platelets stimulated in the pre-sence of AA-alk synthesized significantly less 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) and cyclooxygenase products than in the presence of AA. Ionophore-stimulated neutrophils produced significantly more 5-LOX products in the presence of AA-alk than AA. Neutrophils stimulated with only exogenous AA-alk produced significantly less 5-LOX products compared with AA, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-alk was 12-fold less potent at stimulating neutrophil migration than LTB4, collectively indicative of weaker leukotriene B4 receptor 1 agonist activity of LTB4-alk. Overall, these results suggest that the use of AA-alk as a surrogate for the study of AA metabolism should be carried out with caution.

  16. Arachidonic acid accumulates in the stromal macrophages during thymus involution in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gruia, Alexandra T; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Mic, Ani A; Ordodi, Valentin L; Paunescu, Virgil; Mic, Felix A

    2011-07-01

    Diabetes is a debilitating disease with chronic evolution that affects many tissues and organs over its course. Thymus is an organ that is affected early after the onset of diabetes, gradually involuting until it loses most of its thymocyte populations. We show evidence of accumulating free fatty acids with generation of eicosanoids in the diabetic thymus and we present a possible mechanism for the involution of the organ during the disease. Young rats were injected with streptozotocin and their thymuses examined for cell death by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction. Accumulation of lipids in the diabetic thymus was investigated by histology and electron microscopy. The identity and quantitation of accumulating lipids was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography. The expression and dynamics of the enzymes were monitored via immunohistochemistry. Diabetes causes thymus involution by elevating the thymocyte apoptosis. Exposure of thymocytes to elevated concentration of glucose causes apoptosis. After the onset of diabetes, there is a gradual accumulation of free fatty acids in the stromal macrophages including arachidonic acid, the substrate for eicosanoids. The eicosanoids do not cause thymocyte apoptosis but administration of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor reduces the staining for ED1, a macrophage marker whose intensity correlates with phagocytic activity. Diabetes causes thymus involution that is accompanied by accumulation of free fatty acids in the thymic macrophages. Excess glucose is able to induce thymocyte apoptosis but eicosanoids are involved in the chemoattraction of macrophage to remove the dead thymocytes.

  17. Imaging brain signal transduction and metabolism via arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2012-02-10

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M(1,3,5), serotonergic 5-HT(2A/2C), dopaminergic D(2)-like (D(2), D(3), D(4)) or glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation. PMID:27671749

  19. Arachidonic Acid: An Evolutionarily Conserved Signaling Molecule Modulates Plant Stress Signaling Networks[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Tatyana; Walley, Justin W.; Chehab, E. Wassim; Xiao, Yanmei; Kaspi, Roy; Pye, Matthew F.; Mohamed, Maged E.; Lazarus, Colin M.; Bostock, Richard M.; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives. Eicosapolyenoic acids are released into plants upon infection by oomycete pathogens, suggesting they may elicit plant defenses. We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (designated EP) producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid (AA), aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. We also examined their effect on biotic stress resistance by challenging EP plants with fungal, oomycete, and bacterial pathogens and an insect pest. EP plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all biotic challenges, except they were more susceptible to bacteria than the wild type. Levels of jasmonic acid (JA) were elevated and levels of salicylic acid (SA) were reduced in EP plants. Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks. Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. Moreover, AA treatment elicited heightened expression of general stress-responsive genes. Importantly, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves treated with AA exhibited reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection, confirming AA signaling in other plants. These studies support the role of AA, an ancient metazoan signaling molecule, in eliciting plant stress and defense signaling networks. PMID:20935246

  20. Effects of atorvastatin on ADP-, arachidonic acid-, collagen-, and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Liu, Demin; Liu, Bin; Hu, Haijuan; Cui, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Objective Atorvastatin reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. However, the effects of atorvastatin on platelet aggregation are unknown. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 126 healthy volunteers. Prepared isolated platelet suspensions were adjusted with saline to three different concentrations of 100 × 10(9), 300 × 10(9), and 600 × 10(9) platelets/L. Platelet samples were incubated with atorvastatin (10(-7 )mol/L, 10(-6 )mol/L or 10(-5 )mol/L), and stimulated with ADP (10 µmol/L), arachidonic acid (0.5 mmol/L), collagen (2 µg/mL), and epinephrine (1 mg/mL). The maximal amplitude of aggregation and the curve slope were measured by electric impedance aggregometry. Results Atorvastatin inhibited platelet aggregation at moderate (300 × 10(9)/L) and high (600 × 10(9)/L) concentrations. However, an inhibitory effect of atorvastatin at low concentrations (100 × 10(9)/L) was not observed. Conclusions The study shows that atorvastatin inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro, and this inhibitory effect is related to platelet concentrations.

  1. Monoglyceride lipase as a drug target: At the crossroads of arachidonic acid metabolism and endocannabinoid signaling.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Gernot F; Zimmermann, Robert; Schicho, Rudolf; Taschler, Ulrike

    2017-07-01

    Monoglyerides (MGs) are short-lived, intermediary lipids deriving from the degradation of phospho- and neutral lipids, and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), also designated as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), is the major enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of MGs into glycerol and fatty acids. This distinct function enables MGL to regulate a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes since both MGs and fatty acids can act as signaling lipids or precursors thereof. The most prominent MG species acting as signaling lipid is 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) which is the most abundant endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors in the body. Importantly, recent observations demonstrate that 2-AG represents a quantitatively important source for arachidonic acid, the precursor of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators. Accordingly, MGL-mediated 2-AG degradation affects lipid signaling by cannabinoid receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms. Recent genetic and pharmacological studies gave important insights into MGL's role in (patho-)physiological processes, and the enzyme is now considered as a promising drug target for a number of disorders including cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes the basics of MG (2-AG) metabolism and provides an overview on the therapeutic potential of MGL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylinositol at the outer edge of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hiraide, Takanori; Ikegami, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Morita, Yoshifumi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Waki, Michihiko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Shinriki, Satoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shibasaki, Yasushi; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer cells show specific alterations in phospholipid metabolism that contribute to tumour progression in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Questions still remain as to what lipids characterize the outer edge of cancer tissues and whether those cancer outer edge-specific lipid compositions emerge autonomously in cancer cells. Cancer tissue-originated spheroids (CTOSs) that are composed of pure primary cancer cells have been developed. In this study, we aimed to seek out the cancer cell-autonomous acquisition of cancer outer edge-characterizing lipids in colorectal cancer by analysing phospholipids in CTOSs derived from colorectal cancer patients with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). A signal at m/z 885.5 in negative ion mode was detected specifically at the surface regions. The signal was identified as an arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI(18:0/20:4), by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed that the amount of PI(18:0/20:4) in the surface region of CTOSs was two-fold higher than that in the medial region. Finally, PI(18:0/20:4) was enriched at the cancer cells/stromal interface in colorectal cancer patients. These data imply a possible importance of AA-containing PI for colorectal cancer progression, and suggest cells expressing AA-containing PI as potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27435310

  3. Relative incorporation of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids into human platelet phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1985-11-01

    The incorporation of arachidonic acid (AA) as compared to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) into human platelet phospholipids was tested by incubating washed platelets with a known mixture of (3H)AA and (14C)EPA. Following incubation, the platelet lipids were extracted, the individual phospholipids--phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)- were separated by thin layer chromatography, and their corresponding (3H)/(14C) ratios were determined. Based on a (3H)/(14C) ratio of unity for the substrate mixture, the PC, PS, PI and PE exhibited ratios of 0.55, 0.93, 1.12 and 0.74, respectively, which were significantly different from 1.00 in all instances except in the case of PS. These results indicate that PC and PE selectively incorporated EPA, while PI showed preference toward AA. These selectivities may account partly for the differing AA/EPA mass ratios that have been observed among the individual phospholipids of human subjects consuming fish oils.

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of conformationally constrained aci-reductone mimics of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Hopper, A T; Witiak, D T; Ziemniak, J

    1998-02-12

    An efficient and convergent synthesis has been developed for the production of 3,4-dihydroxy-5-[4-(2-((2Z)-hexenyl)phenyl)-3-(1Z)-but enyl]-2 (5H)-furanone (12d). This hydrophobic antioxidant is a stable conformationally constrained mimic of arachidonic acid (AA) (1) and its respective aci-reductone analogue (2). Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling of 5-(3-butynyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (7) with 2-((2Z)-hexenyl)iodobenzene (8d) followed by Lindlar catalyzed hydrogenation produces 12d. Butynyl intermediate 7 is prepared from 2-(benzyloxy)-5-deoxyascorbic acid (15) by iodination (I2, PPh3, Imd), iodo substitution with lithium acetylide ethylenediamine complex (LiAEDA, HMPA, -5 degrees C), and benzyl group cleavage (Ac2O, Pyr, BCl3). The utility of this synthetic method was demonstrated by the synthesis of analogues 10e-k. Biological testing revealed that certain of these antioxidants inhibit both cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) with comparable efficacy as reported for aspirin and zileuton, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these aci-reductones, measured as a function of their inhibitory effect on CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation of hepatic microsomes, exceeds that produced by alpha-tocopherol. Synthetic routes and initial structure-activity relationships (SAR) for these novel mixed functioning antioxidants are presented.

  5. Effect of heavy metal ions on neutrophil arachidonic acid metabolism and chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Turner, S.R.; Johnson, J.A.; Turner, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup +3/, Zn/sup +2/, Cr/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, and Cu/sup +2/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored both qualitatively by thin-layer chromatography of /sup 3/H-AA metabolities and quantitatively by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-Met-Leu-Phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid production. In contrast to previous reports, the data obtained using Au/sup +3/ and Cu/sup +2/ demonstrates no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  6. Qishen granules inhibit myocardial inflammation injury through regulating arachidonic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Qiyan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Na; Lu, Linghui; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Qishen granules (QSG), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been prescribed widely in the treatment of coronary heart diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that QSG had anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects in mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the mechanisms by which QSG attenuate inflammation and prevent post-AMI heart failure (HF) are still unclear. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of QSG by in vitro and in vivo experiments. A novel inflammatory injury model of H9C2 cells was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-conditioned media (CM). An animal model of AMI was conducted by ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in mice. We found that QSG inhibited release of cytokines from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and protected H9C2 cardiac cells against CM-induced injury. In vivo results showed that QSG administration could improve cardiac functions and alter pathological changes in model of AMI. QSG regulated multiple key molecules, including phospholipases A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs), in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. Interestingly, QSG also targeted TNF-α-NF-κB and IL-6-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways. Taken together, QSG achieve synergistic effects in mitigating post-AMI HF by regulating multiple targets in inflammatory pathways. This study provides insights into anti-inflammatory therapeutics in managing HF after AMI. PMID:27833128

  7. Epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid inhibit vasopressin response in toad bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; Petty, E.; Oates, J.A.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN )

    1987-09-01

    In addition to cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, the kidney can also metabolize arachidonic acid by a NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 enzyme to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); furthermore, 5,6-EET has been shown to alter electrolyte transport across isolated renal tubules. The authors examined the effects of three ({sup 14}C-labeled)-EETs (5,6-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) on osmotic water flow across toad urinary bladder. All three EETs reversibly inhibited vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water flow with 5,6- and 11,12-EET being the most potent. The effects appeared to be independent of prostaglandins EETs inhibited the water flow response to forskolin but not the response to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or 8-BrcAMP, consistent with an effect on cAMP generation. To determine whether these effects were due to the EETs or to products of their metabolism, they examined the effects of their vicinal diol hydrolysis products, the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Nonenzymatic conversion of labeled 5,6-EET to its vicinal diol occurred rapidly in the buffer, whereas 11,12-EET was hydrolyzed in a saturable manner only when incubated in the presence of bladder tissue. The dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids formed inhibited water flow in a manner paralleling that of the EETs. The data support the hypothesis that EETs and their physiologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolites inhibit vasopressin-stimulated water flow predominantly via inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  8. Arachidonic acid with taurine enhances pulmonary absorption of macromolecules without any serious histopathological damages.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Minami, Takanori; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-05-01

    Therapeutic peptides and protein are being used in several indications; however, their poor permeability still remains to be solved. This study focused on the pulmonary route of macromolecules. First, the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) as an absorption enhancer on drug serum concentration, after intratracheal administration, were investigated in rats. Second, the safety of AA was assessed in rats in an acute toxicity study for 7days. AA enhanced the exposure of both interferon-α (IFN-α) and fluorescein isothiocyanate 4000 (FD-4). In addition, the histopathological analysis indicated that AA caused alveolitis and bronchitis in rats. In combination with Taurine (Tau), these lung injuries were prevented through the histopathological analysis. The combined use of Tau with AA did not show any changes in the pharmacokinetics of FD-4. From these results, we suggest the combined use of AA with Tau as a novel formulation on the pulmonary route of macromolecule drugs. This formulation could improve the bioavailability of macromolecule drugs without any serious local damage to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in myeloperoxidase deficient mice during acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kubala, Lukas; Schmelzer, Kara R.; Klinke, Anna; Kolarova, Hana; Baldus, Stephan; Hammock, Bruce D.; Eiserich, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a common feature of many life-threatening pathologies, including septic shock. One hallmark of acute inflammation is the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids forming bioactive products, which regulate inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant phagocyte-derived hemoprotein released during phagocyte activation. Here, we investigated the role of MPO in modulating biologically active arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA) metabolites during acute inflammation. Wild-type and MPO-knockout (KO) mice were exposed to intraperitoneally injected endotoxin for 24 h, and plasma LA and AA oxidation products were comprehensively analyzed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Compared to wild-type mice, MPO-KO mice had significantly lower plasma levels of LA epoxides and corresponding LA- and AA-derived fatty acid diols. AA and LA hydroxy intermediates (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids) were also significantly lower in MPO-KO mice. Conversely, MPO-deficient mice had significantly higher plasma levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes with well-known pro-inflammatory properties. In vitro experiments revealed significantly lower amounts of AA and LA epoxides, LA- and AA-derived fatty acid diols, and AA and LA hydroxy intermediates in stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils isolated from MPO-KO mice. Our results demonstrate that MPO modulates the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators during acute inflammation. In this way, may control acute inflammatory diseases. PMID:20156554

  10. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-09-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation.

  11. Predominant role of vasoconstrictors over dilatators derived from arachidonic acid in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Han, Yeshan; Yan, Gaoliang; Wang, Qingjie; Ma, Gengshan; Tang, Chengchun; Gu, Yuchun; Li, Li; Zhao, Jianzhong

    2013-10-01

    Prostanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA) have been shown to play a permissive role in the regulation of vascular tone and wall tension. Conventionally, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and prostacyclin have been considered as dilatators, whereas thromboxane (TX) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) were considered as vasoconstrictors. However, the role of these prostanoids in the mediation of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is not yet clearly understood. In the present study, the role of prostanoids in the acute hypoxic response in rat isolated intrapulmonary arteries (IPAs) was investigated. Exogenous AA directly caused vasoconstriction, but exerted a significant inhibition on hypoxic vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction by AA was mediated by the endothelium. AA metabolites from lipoxygenase (LOX) had no effect on vascular tone or hypoxic vasoconstriction. Consistent results from the blockage of cytochrome P450 (CYP) or CYP epoxide hydrolase showed that HETE contributed to endothelium‑independent hypoxic vasoconstriction. EET via epoxygenase exerted no effect on 80 mM KPSS‑induced vessel contraction or hypoxic vasoconstriction. In addition, prostacyclin also failed to inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, blockage of thromboxane A2/prostanoid (TP) receptors almost eliminated hypoxic vasoconstriction, suggesting the primary role of TP receptors in the regulation of the hypoxic response in rat IPAs. In conclusion, the current data indicate the predominant role of vasoconstrictors instead of dilatators in mediating HPV. These data also highlight a pivotal role for voltage‑independent Ca2+ entry in pulmonary hypoxic response and suggest that modulation of these channels by prostanoids underlies their regulatory mechanisms.

  12. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  13. Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1: the functions of cyclooxygenase active site residues in the binding, positioning, and oxygenation of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Thuresson, E D; Lakkides, K M; Rieke, C J; Sun, Y; Wingerd, B A; Micielli, R; Mulichak, A M; Malkowski, M G; Garavito, R M; Smith, W L

    2001-03-30

    Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases (PGHSs) catalyze the committed step in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane, the conversion of arachidonic acid, two molecules of O(2), and two electrons to prostaglandin endoperoxide H(2) (PGH(2)). Formation of PGH(2) involves an initial oxygenation of arachidonate to yield PGG(2) catalyzed by the cyclooxygenase activity of the enzyme and then a reduction of the 15-hydroperoxyl group of PGG(2) to form PGH(2) catalyzed by the peroxidase activity. The cyclooxygenase active site is a hydrophobic channel that protrudes from the membrane binding domain into the core of the globular domain of PGHS. In the crystal structure of Co(3+)-heme ovine PGHS-1 complexed with arachidonic acid, 19 cyclooxygenase active site residues are predicted to make a total of 50 contacts with the substrate (Malkowski, M. G, Ginell, S., Smith, W. L., and Garavito, R. M. (2000) Science 289, 1933-1937); two of these are hydrophilic, and 48 involve hydrophobic interactions. We performed mutational analyses to determine the roles of 14 of these residues and 4 other closely neighboring residues in arachidonate binding and oxygenation. Mutants were analyzed for peroxidase and cyclooxygenase activity, and the products formed by various mutants were characterized. Overall, the results indicate that cyclooxygenase active site residues of PGHS-1 fall into five functional categories as follows: (a) residues directly involved in hydrogen abstraction from C-13 of arachidonate (Tyr-385); (b) residues essential for positioning C-13 of arachidonate for hydrogen abstraction (Gly-533 and Tyr-348); (c) residues critical for high affinity arachidonate binding (Arg-120); (d) residues critical for positioning arachidonate in a conformation so that when hydrogen abstraction does occur the molecule is optimally arranged to yield PGG(2) versus monohydroperoxy acid products (Val-349, Trp-387, and Leu-534); and (e) all other active site residues, which individually

  14. The biosynthesis of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), a putative endocannabinoid and endovanilloid, via conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Benton, Valery M.; Chen, Jay Shih-Chieh; Huang, Susan M.; Minassi, Alberto; Bisogno, Tiziana; Masuda, Kim; Tan, Bo; Roskoski, Robert; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Summary N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endogenous ligand that activates the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. Two potential biosynthetic pathways for NADA have been proposed, though no conclusive evidence exists for either. The first is the direct conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine; the other is via metabolism of a putative N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (NA-tyrosine). In the present study we investigated these biosynthetic mechanisms and report that NADA synthesis requires TH in dopaminergic terminals, however, NA-tyrosine, which we identify here as an endogenous lipid, is not an intermediate. We show that NADA biosynthesis primarily occurs through an enzyme-mediated conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine. While this conjugation likely involves a complex of enzymes, our data suggest a direct involvement of fatty acid amide hydrolase in NADA biosynthesis as either a rate-limiting enzyme that liberates arachidonic acid from AEA, as a conjugation enzyme, or both. PMID:19570666

  15. The biosynthesis of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA), a putative endocannabinoid and endovanilloid, via conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bradshaw, Heather B; Benton, Valery M; Chen, Jay Shih-Chieh; Huang, Susan M; Minassi, Alberto; Bisogno, Tiziana; Masuda, Kim; Tan, Bo; Roskoski, Robert; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Walker, J Michael

    2009-10-01

    N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endogenous ligand that activates the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. Two potential biosynthetic pathways for NADA have been proposed, though no conclusive evidence exists for either. The first is the direct conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine and the other is via metabolism of a putative N-arachidonoyl tyrosine (NA-tyrosine). In the present study we investigated these biosynthetic mechanisms and report that NADA synthesis requires TH in dopaminergic terminals; however, NA-tyrosine, which we identify here as an endogenous lipid, is not an intermediate. We show that NADA biosynthesis primarily occurs through an enzyme-mediated conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine. While this conjugation likely involves a complex of enzymes, our data suggest a direct involvement of fatty acid amide hydrolase in NADA biosynthesis either as a rate-limiting enzyme that liberates arachidonic acid from AEA, or as a conjugation enzyme, or both.

  16. Nrf2 is crucial for the down-regulation of Cyp7a1 induced by arachidonic acid in Hepg2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Xing-He; Hao, Li-Hong; Wang, He; Zhang, Xiu-Ying; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Qi, Yue; Li, Guang-Liang; Sun, Xiao-Qi

    2017-03-07

    In former research, cyp7a1 expression was decreased but Nrf2 transcription and hepatic arachidonic acid (AA) concentration were increased in high-fat diet fed mice. This study aims to investigate the influence of AA in CYP7A1 expression and the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 in the process. HepG2 cells were administered with different concentrations of AA. Nrf2 and CYP7A1 expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Nrf2 silenced and over-expressed cell models were constructed by Nrf2 siRNA and eukaryotic expression vector transient transfections and were used to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 following AA administration. The results showed that Nrf2 was increased dose-dependently but CYP7A1 was decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with increasing concentrations of AA. The expression of CYP7A1 was increased by Nrf2 silence and was decreased by Nrf2 over-expression in HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of AA. In conclusion, Nrf2 plays a significant role in the down-regulation of CYP7A1 induced by AA in HepG2 cells.

  17. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant α-synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Faergeman, Nils J.; Feddersen, Søren; Cole, Nelson B.; Pribill, Ingrid; Berger, Johannes; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Murphy, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Because α-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of α-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-14C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored after the addition of exogenous wt mouse or human α-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of α-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools was markedly reduced. The dilution coefficient lambda, which indicates 20:4n-6 recycling between the acyl-CoA pool and brain phospholipids, was increased 3.3-fold, indicating more 20:4n-6 was entering the 20:4n-6-CoA pool from the plasma relative to that being recycled from the phospholipids. This is consistent with the reduction in Acsl activity observed in the Snca-/- mice. Using titration microcalorimetry, we determined that α-synuclein bound free 20:4n-6 (Kd of 3.7 μM), but did not bind 20:4n-6-CoA. These data suggest α-synuclein is involved in substrate presentation to Acsl rather than product removal. In summary, our data demonstrate that α-synuclein has a major role in brain 20:4n-6 metabolism through its modulation of endoplasmic reticulum localized acyl-CoA synthetase activity, although mutants forms of α-synuclein fail to restore this activity. PMID:16734431

  18. Secretion of leukotriene C and other arachidonic acid metabolites by macrophages challenged with immunoglobulin E immune complexes

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages release the slow-reacting substance leukotriene C (LTC) on exposure to particulate IgE immune complexes. Because these cells lose their responsiveness to an IgE stimulus after 4 h in culture, maximum release of 20:4 metabolites is observed before this time. However, a similar diminution in 20:4 metabolism was not observed with a zymosan stimulus. Freshly explanted cells are deficient in intracellular glutathione (GSH) (12.4 +/- 0.4 pmol/micrograms cell protein), but GSH increases to a steady state value of 30-35 pmol/micrograms of cell protein between 3 and 9 h of culture. Because GSH is required for the synthesis of LTC and prostaglandin (PG)E2, cultures challenged immediately after explanation have a diminished capacity to synthesize these 20:4 metabolites and release prostacyclin as the major product. By 4-5 h in culture, macrophages form significant amounts of LTC and PGE2. Under optimum conditions of maximum responsiveness to an IgE stimulus and GSH content (after 4 h of culture), macrophages challenged with latex beads coated with IgE immune complexes synthesize 1.0 +/- 0.3 pmol of LTC/microgram cell protein (60 +/- 18 pmol/10(6) cells) in addition to prostacyclin (8.2 +/- 0.8 pmol/micrograms cell protein) and PGE2 (4.7 +/- 1.5 pmol/micrograms cell protein). These amounts are quantitatively similar to the arachidonic acid metabolites produced by macrophages challenged with IgG immune complex-coated latex beads or zymosan. These data demonstrate that macrophages produce large quantities of LTC and other 20:4 metabolites in response to particle-bound IgE and antigen, provided that the appropriate in vitro conditions are met. The macrophage might, therefore, be a major source of slow-reacting substance and other 20:4 metabolites generated during IgE-mediated reactions in vivo. PMID:6759607

  19. Metabolism of uniformly labeled (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid and (13)C-arachidonic acid in young and old men.

    PubMed

    Léveillé, Pauline; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Windust, Anthony; Lawrence, Peter; Cunnane, Stephen C; Brenna, J Thomas; Plourde, Mélanie

    2017-08-01

    Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 ((13)C) fatty acids.Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participant consumed a single oral dose of 35 mg (13)C-EPA and its metabolism was followed in the course of 14 d in the plasma and 28 d in the breath. After the washout period of ≥28 d, the same participants consumed a single oral dose of 50 mg (13)C-AA and its metabolism was followed for 28 d in plasma and breath.Results: There was a time × age interaction for (13)C-EPA (Ptime × age = 0.008), and the shape of the postprandial curves was different between young and old men. The (13)C-EPA plasma half-life was ∼2 d for both young and old men (P = 0.485). The percentage dose recovered of (13)C-EPA per hour as (13)CO2 and the cumulative β-oxidation of (13)C-EPA did not differ between young and old men. At 7 d, however, old men had a >2.2-fold higher plasma (13)C-DHA concentration synthesized from (13)C-EPA compared with young men (Page = 0.03). (13)C-AA metabolism was not different between young and old men. The (13)C-AA plasma half-life was ∼4.4 d in both young and old participants (P = 0.589).Conclusions: The metabolism of (13)C-AA was not modified by age, whereas (13)C-EPA metabolism was slightly but significantly different in old compared with young men. The higher plasma (13)C-DHA seen in old men may be a result of slower plasma DHA clearance with age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02957188. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Inducible Expression of a Resistance-Nodulation-Division-Type Efflux Pump in Staphylococcus aureus Provides Resistance to Linoleic and Arachidonic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Alnaseri, Heba; Arsic, Benjamin; Schneider, James E. T.; Kaiser, Julienne C.; Scinocca, Zachariah C.; Heinrichs, David E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Staphylococcus aureus is exposed to antimicrobial fatty acids on the skin, in nasal secretions, and in abscesses, a specific mechanism of inducible resistance to this important facet of innate immunity has not been identified. Here, we have sequenced the genome of S. aureus USA300 variants selected for their ability to grow at an elevated concentration of linoleic acid. The fatty acid-resistant clone FAR7 had a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an H121Y substitution in an uncharacterized transcriptional regulator belonging to the AcrR family, which was divergently transcribed from a gene encoding a member of the resistance-nodulation-division superfamily of multidrug efflux pumps. We named these genes farR and farE, for regulator and effector of fatty acid resistance, respectively. Several lines of evidence indicated that FarE promotes efflux of antimicrobial fatty acids and is regulated by FarR. First, expression of farE was strongly induced by arachidonic and linoleic acids in an farR-dependent manner. Second, an H121Y substitution in FarR resulted in increased expression of farE and was alone sufficient to promote increased resistance of S. aureus to linoleic acid. Third, inactivation of farE resulted in a significant reduction in the inducible resistance of S. aureus to the bactericidal activity of 100 μM linoleic acid, increased accumulation of [14C]linoleic acid by growing cells, and severely impaired growth in the presence of nonbactericidal concentrations of linoleic acid. Cumulatively, these findings represent the first description of a specific mechanism of inducible resistance to antimicrobial fatty acids in a Gram-positive pathogen. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus colonizes approximately 25% of humans and is a leading cause of human infectious morbidity and mortality. To persist on human hosts, S. aureus must have intrinsic defense mechanisms to cope with antimicrobial fatty acids, which comprise an important component of

  1. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, suppresses prostaglandin biosynthesis by inhibition of arachidonic acid release in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, A; Pergola, C; Koeberle, A; Hoffmann, M; Dehm, F; Bramanti, P; Cuzzocrea, S; Werz, O; Sautebin, L

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Zileuton is the only 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor marketed as a treatment for asthma, and is often utilized as a selective tool to evaluate the role of 5-LOX and leukotrienes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zileuton on prostaglandin (PG) production in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Peritoneal macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (LPS/IFNγ), J774 macrophages and human whole blood stimulated with LPS were used as in vitro models and rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy as an in vivo model. KEY RESULTS Zileuton suppressed PG biosynthesis by interference with arachidonic acid (AA) release in macrophages. We found that zileuton significantly reduced PGE2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (PGF1α) levels in activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and in J774 macrophages. This effect was not related to 5-LOX inhibition, because it was also observed in macrophages from 5-LOX knockout mice. Notably, zileuton inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated human whole blood and suppressed PGE2 and 6-keto PGF1α pleural levels in rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Interestingly, zileuton failed to inhibit the activity of microsomal PGE2 synthase1 and of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and did not affect COX-2 expression. However, zileuton significantly decreased AA release in macrophages accompanied by inhibition of phospholipase A2 translocation to cellular membranes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION Zileuton inhibited PG production by interfering at the level of AA release. Its mechanism of action, as well as its use as a pharmacological tool, in experimental models of inflammation should be reassessed. PMID:20880396

  2. Formula feeding potentiates docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid biosynthesis in term and preterm baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Wijendran, Vasuki; Diau, Guan Yeu; Chao, Angela Chueh; Hsieh, Andrea T; Turpeinen, Anu; Lawrence, Peter; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Infant formulas supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are now available in the United States; however, little is known about the factors that affect biosynthesis. Baboon neonates were assigned to one of four treatments: term, breast-fed; term, formula-fed; preterm (155 of 182 days gestation), formula-fed; and preterm, formula+DHA/ARA-fed. Standard formula had no DHA/ARA; supplemented formula had 0.61%wt DHA (0.3% of calories) and 1.21%wt ARA (0.6% of calories), and baboon breast milk contained 0.68 +/- 0.22%wt DHA and 0.62 +/- 0.12%wt ARA. At 14 days adjusted age, neonates received a combined oral dose of [U-13C]alpha-linolenic acid (LNA*) and [U-13C]linoleic acid (LA*), and tissues were analyzed 14 days after dose. Brain accretion of linolenic acid-derived DHA was approximately 3-fold greater for the formula groups than for the breast-fed group, and dietary DHA partially attenuated excess DHA synthesis among preterms. A similar, significant pattern was found in other organs. Brain linoleic acid-derived ARA accretion was significantly greater in the unsupplemented term group but not in the preterm groups compared with the breast-fed group. These data show that formula potentiates the biosynthesis/accretion of DHA/ARA in term and preterm neonates compared with breast-fed neonates and that the inclusion of DHA/ARA in preterm formula partially restores DHA/ARA biosynthesis to lower, breast-fed levels. Current formula DHA concentrations are inadequate to normalize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis to that of breast-fed levels.

  3. Repurposing Resveratrol and Fluconazole To Modulate Human Cytochrome P450-Mediated Arachidonic Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2016-04-04

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to several biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Repurposing clinically-approved drugs could provide safe and readily available means to control EETs and HETEs levels in humans. Our aim was to determine how to significantly and selectively modulate P450-AA metabolism in humans by clinically-approved drugs. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the formation of 15 AA metabolites by human recombinant P450 enzymes, as well as human liver and kidney microsomes. CYP2C19 showed the highest EET-forming activity, while CYP1B1 and CYP2C8 showed the highest midchain HETE-forming activities. CYP1A1 and CYP4 showed the highest subterminal- and 20-HETE-forming activity, respectively. Resveratrol and fluconazole produced the most selective and significant modulation of hepatic P450-AA metabolism, comparable to investigational agents. Monte Carlo simulations showed that 90% of human population would experience a decrease by 6-22%, 16-39%, and 16-35% in 16-, 18-, and 20-HETE formation, respectively, after 2.5 g daily of resveratrol, and by 22-31% and 14-23% in 8,9- and 14,15-EET formation after 50 mg of fluconazole. In conclusion, clinically-approved drugs can provide selective and effective means to modulate P450-AA metabolism, comparable to investigational drugs. Resveratrol and fluconazole are good candidates to be repurposed as new P450-based treatments.

  4. Effect of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism on RAW 264.7 macrophage proliferation.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Diana; Moreno, Juan José

    2006-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) derived from arachidonic acid (AA) are potent mediators of inflammation and cell proliferation. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) appears beneficial to both inflammatory processes and cell proliferation. However, there is no clear mechanism explaining these effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on the AA incorporation in phospholipid membranes, on AA release and metabolism, and consequently, on PG synthesis. Our results showed not only that [(3)H]AA and [(14)C]EPA were similar incorporated into RAW 264.7 macrophage membranes, but also that the redistribution pattern between phospholipids was alike. [(3)H]AA or [(14)C]EPA release was induced by fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a similar fashion with AA metabolizing 3-fold more than EPA. In this way, we observed that AA could be metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) whereas EPA was metabolized by COX-2 and 5-LOX pathways. Moreover, both fatty acids were able to induce COX-2 expression. When we incubated [(3)H]AA labeled cells with exogenous EPA, we observed that EPA did not modify FBS-induced [(3)H]AA release but that the presence of EPA decreased [(3)H]AA metabolism and therefore PGE(2) synthesis. Moreover, we studied the effect of AA and EPA metabolites on macrophage proliferation. Our results showed that PGE(3) stimulated cell growth with a potency similar to that of PGE(2), whereas LTB(5) was less effective than LTB(4). These data suggest that the effects of EPA on cell growth might be attributable, at least in part, to the marked decrease of eicosanoid release.

  5. Reduced macrophage selenoprotein expression alters oxidized lipid metabolite biosynthesis from arachidonic and linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattmiller, Sarah A; Carlson, Bradley A; Gandy, Jeff C; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2014-06-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation is an underlying etiology for multiple diseases and macrophages orchestrate inflammation largely through the production of oxidized fatty acids known as oxylipids. Previous studies showed that selenium (Se) status altered the expression of oxylipids and magnitude of inflammatory responses. Although selenoproteins are thought to mediate many of the biological effects of Se, the direct effect of selenoproteins on the production of oxylipids is unknown. Therefore, the role of decreased selenoprotein activity in modulating the production of biologically active oxylipids from macrophages was investigated. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were collected from wild-type and myeloid-cell-specific selenoprotein knockout mice to analyze oxylipid production by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as oxylipid biosynthetic enzyme and inflammatory marker gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Decreased selenoprotein activity resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase expression and decreased oxylipids with known anti-inflammatory properties such as arachidonic acid-derived lipoxin A₄ (LXA₄) and linoleic acid-derived 9-​oxo-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxoODE). Treating RAW 264.7 macrophages with LXA₄ or 9-oxoODE diminished oxidant-induced macrophage inflammatory response as indicated by decreased production of TNFα. The results show for the first time that selenoproteins are important for the balanced biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory oxylipids during inflammation. A better understanding of the Se-dependent control mechanisms governing oxylipid biosynthesis may uncover nutritional intervention strategies to counteract the harmful effects of uncontrolled inflammation due to oxylipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are biosynthesized from their 18-carbon precursors in human infants.

    PubMed Central

    Salem, N; Wegher, B; Mena, P; Uauy, R

    1996-01-01

    It is becoming clear that an adequate level of long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids in the nervous system is required for optimal function and development; however, the ability of infants to biosynthesize long-chain fatty acids is unknown. This study explores the capacity of human infants to convert 18-carbon essential fatty acids to their elongated and desaturated forms, in vivo. A newly developed gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry method employing 2H-labeled essential fatty acids allowed assessment of this in vivo conversion with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Our results demonstrate that human infants have the capacity to convert dietary essential fatty acids administered enterally as 2H-labeled ethyl esters to their longer-chain derivatives, transport them to plasma, and incorporate them into membrane lipids. The in vivo conversion of linoleic acid (18:2n6) to arachidonic acid (20:4n6) is demonstrated in human beings. All elongases/desaturases necessary for the conversion of linolenic acid (18:3n3) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3) are also active in the first week after birth. Although the absolute amounts of n-3 fatty acid metabolites accumulated in plasma are greater than those of the n-6 family, estimates of the endogenous pools of 18:2n6 and 18:3n3 indicate that n-6 fatty acid conversion rates are greater than those of the n-3 family. While these data clearly demonstrate the capability of infants to biosynthesize 22:6n3, a lipid that is required for optimal neural development, the amounts produced in vivo from 18:3n3 may be inadequate to support the 22:6n3 level observed in breast-fed infants. PMID:8552667

  7. Arachidonic and oleic acid exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Martínez, Guillermo A.; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Alvarado-Caudillo, Yolanda; Vaquero, Alejandro; Esteller, Manel; Carmona, F. Javier; Moran, Sebastian; Nielsen, Finn C.; Wickström-Lindholm, Marie; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Zaina, Silvio; Lund, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and availability are landmarks of metabolic diseases, which in turn are associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. To understand the role of fatty acids in disease epigenetics, we sought DNA methylation profiles specifically induced by arachidonic (AA) or oleic acid (OA) in cultured cells and compared those with published profiles of normal and diseased tissues. THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with AA or OA and analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) and Human Exon 1.0 ST array (Affymetrix). Data were corroborated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Comparisons with publicly available data were conducted by standard bioinformatics. AA and OA elicited a complex response marked by a general DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation in the 1–200 μM range, respectively, with a maximal differential response at the 100 μM dose. The divergent response to AA and OA was prominent within the gene body of target genes, where it correlated positively with transcription. AA-induced DNA methylation profiles were similar to the corresponding profiles described for palmitic acid, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and autism, but relatively dissimilar from OA-induced profiles. Furthermore, human atherosclerosis grade-associated DNA methylation profiles were significantly enriched in AA-induced profiles. Biochemical evidence pointed to β-oxidation, PPAR-α, and sirtuin 1 as important mediators of AA-induced DNA methylation changes. In conclusion, AA and OA exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome. The observation that AA may contribute to shape the epigenome of important metabolic diseases, supports and expands current diet-based therapeutic and preventive efforts. PMID:27088456

  8. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Comparison of arachidonate metabolism by alveolar macrophages from bighorn and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J; Taylor, S M; Laegreid, W W; Liggitt, H D; Leid, R W

    1991-02-01

    We have defined the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) secreted by alveolar macrophages (AMs) of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep in response to three agents: calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and opsonized zymosan. Cells were labeled with [3H]AA prior to stimulation and 11 tritiated metabolites, including prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromotography and radiometry. Zymosan stimulation resulted in the release of significantly elevated quantities (P less than 0.05), of LTB4, [5(S), 12(R)-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid], 5-HETE, [5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid], and the nonenzymatic isomers of LTB4, [LTB I, 5(S),12(R)-6-trans-LTB4] and LTB II, [5(S), 12(S)-6-trans-LTB4], from domestic sheep AM when compared to bighorn sheep AM. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation released significantly elevated quantities (P less than 0.04), of TXB2, (thromboxane B2), HHT, [12(S)-12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecaenoic acid], LTB I, LTB II, and 15-HETE, [15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid] from domestic sheep AMs when compared to bighorn sheep AMs. However, after A23187 challenge, only 15-HETE was significantly elevated (P less than 0.04) in domestic sheep AMs when compared to bighorn sheep AMs. These clear differences in AA metabolism of AMs obtained from bighorn and domestic sheep in response to three different agonists suggest not only different control mechanisms for lung metabolism of AA in the two species, but also suggest that differences in the metabolites released may lead to quite different regulation of lung defense mechanisms in the two sheep species.

  10. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt.

  11. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Sethi, Gautam; Reddanna, Pallu; Kalle, Arunasree M; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Dowluru, Kaladhar S V G K; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Duddukuri, Govinda Rao

    2016-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA2s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the European Food Safety Authority asserted that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an optional nutrient for the term infant even when docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present. The brief rationale is based on an explicit, widespread misapplication of the concept of "essential fatty acids" to linoleic acid that implies it is uniquely required as a nutrient per se. Linoleic acid prevents acute clinical symptoms caused by polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diets and is the major precursor for ARA in most human diets. Experimental diets with ARA as the sole n-6 similarly prevent symptoms but at a lower energy percentage than linoleic acid and show ARA is a precursor for linoleic acid. The absence of consistent evidence of ARA benefit from randomized controlled trials is apparently an issue as well. This review highlights basic and clinical research relevant to ARA requirements as an adjunct to DHA in infancy. ARA is a major structural central nervous system component, where it rapidly accumulates perinatally and is required for signaling. Tracer studies show that ARA-fed infants derive about half of their total body ARA from dietary preformed ARA. Clinically, of the 3 cohorts of term infants studied with designs isolating the effects of ARA (DHA-only vs DHA+ARA), none considered ARA-specific outcomes such as vascular or immune function; the study with the highest ARA level showed significant neurocognitive benefit. All breastfed term infants of adequately nourished mothers consume both DHA and ARA. The burden of proof to substantially deviate from the composition of breastmilk is greater than that available from inherently empirical human randomized controlled trial evidence. Infant formulas with DHA but without ARA risk harm from suppression of ARA-mediated metabolism manifest among the many unstudied functions of ARA. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For

  13. Platelet activating factor, lyso-platelet activating factor and arachidonic acid release in normal human skin and the influence of topical steroid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R M; Lawlor, F; Judge, M R; Courtney, P; Barlow, R; Kobza Black, A; Mallet, A I; Greaves, M W

    1993-01-01

    1. Previous, in vitro, studies have established the synthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF) by the 're-modelling' pathways in which the activation of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of an ether-acyl-phosphocholine to give concomitant release of lyso-PAF, the immediate precursor of PAF, and arachidonic acid, the precursor of the icosanoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PAF and eicosanoid release in human skin, and to study the effect of treatment of skin with a topical steroid, on the release of PAF, lyso-PAF and arachidonic acid. 2. A novel assay procedure was developed for the simultaneous assay of PAF and lyso-PAF in skin exudates from abrasions and suction blisters in normal human skin. In addition we assayed arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a representative eicosanoid. 3. The mean amounts of mediator recovered in the first 30 min period following abrasion were PAF 0.43, lyso-PAF 11.9, PGE2 25.7 and arachidonic acid 760 pmol/sample. The molar ratio of PAF:lyso-PAF:arachidonic acid in skin exudates from abrasions was 1:30:1800 and in suction blister exudates was 1:90:3660. 4. Time course studies showed a decline in the recoveries of arachidonic acid and lyso-PAF, of about 50% in 2 h. In contrast, PAF was recovered in exudates at a constant rate over 2 h but PGE2 release decreased by more than 90% after the initial 30 min period. 5. Topical application under occlusion, of 0.05% clobetasol propionate, a potent corticosteroid, significantly reduced lyso-PAF by 30% in suction blister exudates but did not significantly alter the concentrations of PAF or arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8329291

  14. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  16. The effect of supplementation with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid derived from single cell oils on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids of pregnant women in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Otto, S J; van Houwelingen, A C; Hornstra, G

    2000-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to pregnant women would enhance their DHA levels, both in plasma and in erythrocyte phospholipids, without reducing the content of n-6 long-chain ployenes (LCP) usually seen when DHA is supplemented alone. Healthy pregnant women, in the second trimester, were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=12) or the intervention group (n=12). The control group received no supplements and the intervention group received daily during 4 weeks encapsulated algae-derived DHA oil (0.57 g DHA/day) and fungal-derived AA oil (0.26 g AA/day). The fatty acid compositions of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were determined in weekly-collected blood samples. DHA and n-6 LCP levels of the control group were unchanged after 4 weeks. Compared to the control group, DHA levels in plasma an erythrocytes of the intervention group increased significantly. No significant reductions were found in the levels of AA and total n-6 LCP. The supplement proved to be effective in increasing the DHA levels in both plasma and erythrocyte without a concomitant decline of the n-6 LCP. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. Effect of olive oil on early and late events of colon carcinogenesis in rats: modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and local prostaglandin E2 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, R; Fernandez-Banares, F; Navarro, E; Castella, E; Mane, J; Alvarez, M; Pastor, C; Cabre, E; Gassull, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Animal model studies have shown that the colon tumour promoting effect of dietary fat depends not only on the amount but on its fatty acid composition. With respect to this, the effect of n9 fatty acids, present in olive oil, on colon carcinogenesis has been scarcely investigated.
AIMS—To assess the effect of an n9 fat diet on precancer events, carcinoma development, and changes in mucosal fatty acid composition and prostaglandin (PG)E2 formation in male Sprague-Dawley rats with azoxymethane induced colon cancer.
METHODS—Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets (5% of the energy as fat) rich in n9, n3, or n6 fat, and were administered azoxymethane subcutaneously once a week for 11 weeks at a dose rate of 7.4 mg/kg body weight. Vehicle treated groups received an equal volume of normal saline. Groups of animals were colectomised at weeks 12 and 19 after the first dose of azoxymethane or saline. Mucosal fatty acids were assessed at 12 and 19 weeks. Aberrant crypt foci and the in vivo intracolonic release of PGE2 were assessed at week 12, and tumour formation at week 19.
RESULTS—Rats on the n6 diet were found to have colonic aberrant crypt foci and adenocarcinomas more often than those consuming either the n9 or n3 diet. There were no differences between the rats on the n9 and n3 diets. On the other hand, administration of both n9 and n3 diets was associated with a decrease in mucosal arachidonate concentrations as compared with the n6 diet. Carcinogen treatment induced an appreciable increase in PGE2 formation in rats fed the n6 diet, but not in those fed the n3 and n9 diets.
CONCLUSIONS—Dietary olive oil prevented the development of aberrant crypt foci and colon carcinomas in rats, suggesting that olive oil may have chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis. These effects may be partly due to modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and local PGE2 synthesis.


Keywords: olive oil; fish oil

  18. Higher docosahexaenoic acid, lower arachidonic acid and reduced lipid tolerance with high doses of a lipid emulsion containing 15% fish oil: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Rita; Savini, Sara; Biagetti, Chiara; Bellagamba, Maria P; Marchionni, Paolo; Pompilio, Adriana; Cogo, Paola E; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2014-12-01

    Lipid emulsions containing fish oil, as source of long chain omega 3 fatty acids, have recently became available for parenteral nutrition in infants, but scanty data exist in extremely low birth weight preterms. The objective of this study was to compare plasma fatty acids and lipid tolerance in preterm infants receiving different doses of a 15% fish oil vs. a soybean oil based lipid emulsion. Preterm infants (birth weight 500-1249 g) were randomized to receive parenteral nutrition with MOSF (30% Medium-chain triglycerides, 25% Olive oil, 30% Soybean oil, 15% Fish oil) or S (S, 100% Soybean oil) both at two levels of fat intake: 2.5 or 3.5 g kg(-1) d(-1), named 2.5Fat and 3.5Fat respectively. Plasma lipid classes and their fatty acid composition were determined on postnatal day 7 and 14 by gas chromatography together with routine biochemistry. We studied 80 infants. MOSF infants had significantly higher plasma phospholipid Docosahexaenoic acid and Eicosapentaenoic and lower Arachidonic acid. Plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and free cholesterol were all significantly higher in the MOSF-3.5Fat group, while cholesterol esters were lower with MOSF than with S. The area under the curve of total bilirubin was significantly lower with MOSF than with S. The use of a lipid emulsion with 15% FO resulted in marked changes of plasma long-chain fatty acids. Whether the benefits of increasing Docosahexaenoic acid outweigh the potential negative effect of reduced Arachidonic acid should be further studied. MOSF patients exhibited reduced lipid tolerance at 3.5 g kg(-1) d(-1) fat intake. The trial was conducted between January 2008 and December 2012 so we had not registered it in a public trials registry as it is now required for trials that started after July 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. The arachidonate-dependent cytoprotective signaling evoked by peroxynitrite is a general response of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.

    PubMed

    Tommasini, Ilaria; Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Cantoni, Orazio

    2004-04-16

    U937, THP-1, and J774 cells or human monocytes and macrophages display similar levels of sensitivity to peroxynitrite and exposure to an otherwise non-toxic concentration of the oxidant in the presence of a phospholipase A(2) inhibitor was invariably associated with the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent toxicity. These events were prevented by exogenous arachidonic acid (AA). In general, the protective concentrations of AA were greater in those cell types releasing more AA. Thus, non-toxic concentrations of peroxynitrite commit cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage to MPT-dependent toxicity that is however prevented by endogenous AA.

  20. Deficits in docosahexaenoic acid and associated elevations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Stanford, Kevin E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M

    2008-09-30

    Previous antemortem and postmortem tissue fatty acid composition studies have observed significant deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cell (RBC) and postmortem cortical membranes of patients with unipolar depression. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, Brodmann area 10) of patients with bipolar disorder (n=18) and age-matched normal controls (n=19) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, DHA (-24%), arachidonic acid (-14%), and stearic acid (C18:0) (-4.5%) compositions were significantly lower, and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) (+12.5%) composition significantly higher, in the OFC of bipolar patients relative to normal controls. Based on metabolite:precursor ratios, significant elevations in arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid conversion/metabolism were observed in the OFC of bipolar patients, and were inversely correlated with DHA composition. Deficits in OFC DHA and arachidonic acid composition, and elevations in arachidonic acid metabolism, were numerically (but not significantly) greater in drug-free bipolar patients relative to patients treated with mood-stabilizer or antipsychotic medications. OFC DHA and arachidonic acid deficits were greater in patients plus normal controls with high vs. low alcohol abuse severity. These results add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of bipolar disorder.

  1. Arachidonic acid modulation of alpha1H, a cloned human T-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cribbs, L L; Satin, J

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and the products of its metabolism are central mediators of changes in cellular excitability. We show that the recently cloned and expressed T-type or low-voltage-activated Ca channel, alpha1H, is modulated by external AA. AA (10 microM) causes a slow, time-dependent attenuation of alpha1H current. At a holding potential of -80 mV, 10 microM AA reduces peak inward alpha1H current by 15% in 15 min and 70% in 30 min and shifts the steady-state inactivation curve -25 mV. AA inhibition was not affected by applying the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The epoxygenase inhibitor octadecynoic acid partially antagonized AA attenuation of alpha1H. The epoxygenase metabolite epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (8,9-EET) mimicked the inhibitory effect of AA on alpha1H peak current. A protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitor (peptide fragment 19-36) only partially antagonized the AA-induced reduction of peak alpha1H current and the shift of the steady-state inactivation curve but had no effect on 8,9-EET-induced attenuation of current. In contrast, PKA has no role in the modulation of alpha1H. These results suggest that AA attenuation and shift of alpha1H may be mediated directly by AA. The heterologous expression of T-type Ca channels allows us to study for the first time properties of this important class of ion channel in isolation. There is a significant overlap of the steady-state activation and inactivation curves, which implies a substantial window current. The selective shift of the steady-state inactivation curve by AA reduces peak Ca current and eliminates the window current. We conclude that AA may partly mediate physiological effects such as vasodilatation via the attenuation of T-type Ca channel current and the elimination of a T-type channel steady window current.

  2. Obesity is positively associated with arachidonic acid-derived 5- and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE).

    PubMed

    Pickens, Charles Austin; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Zhang, Chen; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-05-01

    Oxylipids are oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites that are responsible for the onset and resolution of the inflammatory response. Enzymatic oxygenation through the lipoxygenase (LOX) or cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways can form oxylipids that have either proinflammatory or proresolving functions depending on the type of PUFA substrate and degree of metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine how PUFA substrates and their corresponding oxylipids are associated with obesity. Plasma non-esterified FA and oxylipids were isolated from 123 Caucasian males using solid phase extraction and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included linear regressions and polytomous logistic regressions, and the responses were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and serum leptin, total adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-peptide. Models were adjusted for age and smoking, and p-values were corrected for false discovery per Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni. We report that BMI, WC, and several serum cytokines were highly associated arachidonic acid (ARA)-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and vicinal diols (i.e., alcohols on adjacent carbon atoms) derived from several PUFAs. There was a significant linear relationship between BMI, WC, and serum leptin, and ARA-derived 5-, 11-, and 15-HETE. Specifically, BMI and WC were positively associated with proinflammatory 5- and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), even after normalization to ARA concentrations and false discovery p-value correction. Individuals with 5-HETE concentrations >5.01nmol/L or 11-HETE concentrations and >0.89nmol/L were over 5 times more likely to be obese compared to those with ≤1.86nmol/L and ≤0.39nmol/L, respectively. Vicinal diols from linoleic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid were inversely associated with obesity. Across all statistical

  3. Arachidonic Acid Inhibits Epithelial Na Channel Via Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Epoxygenase-dependent Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuan; Lin, Dao-Hong; Kemp, Rowena; Yaddanapudi, Ganesh S.S.; Nasjletti, Alberto; Falck, John R.; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2004-01-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the rat cortical collecting duct (CCD). Application of 10 μM AA decreased the ENaC activity defined by NPo from 1.0 to 0.1. The dose–response curve of the AA effect on ENaC shows that 2 μM AA inhibited the ENaC activity by 50%. The effect of AA on ENaC is specific because neither 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), a nonmetabolized analogue of AA, nor 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid mimicked the inhibitory effect of AA on ENaC. Moreover, inhibition of either cyclooxygenase (COX) with indomethacin or cytochrome P450 (CYP) ω-hydroxylation with N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS) failed to abolish the effect of AA on ENaC. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of AA on ENaC was absent in the presence of N-methylsulfonyl-6-(propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH), an agent that inhibits CYP-epoxygenase activity. The notion that the inhibitory effect of AA is mediated by CYP-epoxygenase–dependent metabolites is also supported by the observation that application of 200 nM 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) inhibited ENaC in the CCD. In contrast, addition of 5,6-, 8,9-, or 14,15-EET failed to decrease ENaC activity. Also, application of 11,12-EET can still reduce ENaC activity in the presence of MS-PPOH, suggesting that 11,12-EET is a mediator for the AA-induced inhibition of ENaC. Furthermore, gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis detected the presence of 11,12-EET in the CCD and CYP2C23 is expressed in the principal cells of the CCD. We conclude that AA inhibits ENaC activity in the CCD and that the effect of AA is mediated by a CYP-epoxygenase–dependent metabolite, 11,12-EET. PMID:15545402

  4. Putative binding sites for arachidonic acid on the human cardiac Kv1.5 channel

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia‐Yu; Ding, Wei‐Guang; Kojima, Akiko; Seto, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In human heart, the Kv1.5 channel contributes to repolarization of atrial action potentials. This study examined the electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms underlying arachidonic acid (AA)‐induced inhibition of the human Kv1.5 (hKv1.5) channel. Experimental Approach Site‐directed mutagenesis was conducted to mutate amino acids that reside within the pore domain of the hKv1.5 channel. Whole‐cell patch‐clamp method was used to record membrane currents through wild type and mutant hKv1.5 channels heterologously expressed in CHO cells. Computer docking simulation was conducted to predict the putative binding site(s) of AA in an open‐state model of the Kv1.5 channel. Key Results The hKv1.5 current was minimally affected at the onset of depolarization but was progressively reduced during depolarization by the presence of AA, suggesting that AA acts as an open‐channel blocker. AA itself affected the channel at extracellular sites independently of its metabolites and signalling pathways. The blocking effect of AA was attenuated at pH 8.0 but not at pH 6.4. The blocking action of AA developed rather rapidly by co‐expression of Kvβ1.3. The AA‐induced block was significantly attenuated in H463C, T480A, R487V, I502A, I508A, V512A and V516A, but not in T462C, A501V and L510A mutants of the hKv1.5 channel. Docking simulation predicted that H463, T480, R487, I508, V512 and V516 are potentially accessible for interaction with AA. Conclusions and Implications AA itself interacts with multiple amino acids located in the pore domain of the hKv1.5 channel. These findings may provide useful information for future development of selective blockers of hKv1.5 channels. PMID:26292661

  5. Pathways of arachidonic acid peroxyl radical reactions and product formation with guanine radicals.

    PubMed

    Crean, Conor; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2008-02-01

    Peroxyl radicals were derived from the one-electron oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by sulfate radicals that were generated by the photodissociation of peroxodisulfate anions in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions. Reactions of these peroxyl and neutral guanine radicals, also generated by oxidation with sulfate radicals, were investigated by laser kinetic spectroscopy, and the guanine oxidation products were identified by HPLC and mass spectrometry methods. Sulfate radicals rapidly oxidize arachidonic (ArAc), linoleic (LnAc), and palmitoleic (PmAc) acids with similar rate constants, (2-4) x 10 (9) M (-1) s (-1). The C-centered radicals derived from the oxidation of ArAc and LnAc include nonconjugated Rn(.) ( approximately 80%) and conjugated bis-allylic Rba(.) ( approximately 20%) radicals. The latter were detectable in the absence of oxygen by their prominent, narrow absorption band at 280 nm. The Rn(.) radicals of ArAc (containing three bis-allylic sites) transform to the Rba(.) radicals via an intramolecular H-atom abstraction [rate constant (7.5 +/- 0.7) x 10 (4) s (-1)]. In contrast, the Rn(.) radicals of LnAc that contain only one bis-allylic site do not transform intramolecularly to the Rba(.) radicals. In the case of PmAc, which contains only one double bond, the Rba(.) radicals are not observed. The Rn(.) radicals of PmAc rapidly combine with oxygen with a rate constant of (3.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The Rba(.) radicals of ArAc are less reactive and react with oxygen with a rate constant of (2.2 +/- 0.2) x 10 (8) M (-1) s (-1). The ArAc peroxyl radicals formed spontaneously eliminate superoxide radical anions [rate constant = (3.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 (4) M (-1) s (-1)]. The stable oxidative lesions derived from the 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetylguanosine or 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetyl-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine radicals and their subsequent reactions with ArAc peroxyl radicals were also investigated. The major products found were the 2,5-diamino-4 H

  6. Exploration of binding site pattern in arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes, Cyclooxygenases and Lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Vidya Rajan, Veena Kumari; Gupta, Ashish; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Reddanna, Pallu

    2015-04-16

    Cyclooxygenase (COXs) and Lipoxygenase (LOXs) pathways are the two major enzymatic pathways in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The term eicosanoid is used to describe biologically active lipid mediators including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and other oxygenated derivatives, which are produced primarily from AA. Eicosanoids generated in a tissue specific manner play a key role in inflammation and cancer. As AA is the substrate common to variety of COXs and LOXs, inhibition of one pathway results in diversion of the substrate to other pathways, which often is responsible for undesirable side effects. Hence there is need for development of not only isozyme specific inhibitors but also dual/multi enzyme inhibitors. Understanding the interactions of AA and characterizing its binding sites in these enzymes therefore is crucial for developing enzyme specific and multi enzyme inhibitors for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and/or overcoming side effects. AA binding sites in COXs and LOXs are identified and compared by the development of receptor based pharmacophore using MultiBind. Physico chemical properties were compared to understand the details of the binding sites in all the enzymes and to elucidate important amino acids that can be targeted for drug design. The alignment of AA binding sites in the seven enzymes COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, 15-LOX and plant soybean LOX-1 and LOX-3 indicated a common pattern of five common interacting groups. In the same way, comparison of AA binding sites was done pair wise and by multiple alignment in various combinations. It has been identified that aliphatic and aromatic interactions are the most common in all the enzymes. In addition interactions unique to each one of these enzymes were identified. The complete analysis of AA binding sites in the seven enzymes was performed; 120 combinations for the seven enzymes were studied in detail. All the seven enzymes are structurally quite different, yet they share AA as the

  7. Role of arachidonic acid lipoxygenase metabolites in acetylcholine-induced relaxations of mouse arteries

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Daniel H.; Aggarwal, Nitin T.; Chawengsub, Yuttana; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites function as EDHFs in arteries of many species. They mediate cyclooxygenase (COX)- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh). However, the role of AA metabolites as relaxing factors in mouse arteries remains incompletely defined. ACh caused concentration-dependent relaxations of the mouse thoracic and abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesentery arteries (maximal relaxation: 57 ± 4%, 72 ± 4%, 82 ± 3%, 80 ± 3%, and 85 ± 3%, respectively). The NO synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine (l-NA; 30 μM) blocked relaxations in the thoracic aorta, and l-NA plus the COX inhibitor indomethacin (10 μM) inhibited relaxations in the abdominal aorta and carotid, femoral, and mesenteric arteries (maximal relaxation: 31 ± 10%, 33 ± 5%, 41 ± 8%, and 73 ± 3%, respectively). In mesenteric arteries, NO- and COX-independent relaxations to ACh were inhibited by the lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitors nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; 10 μM) and BW-755C (200 μM), the K+ channel inhibitor apamin (1 μM), and 60 mM KCl and eliminated by endothelium removal. They were not altered by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (20 μM) or the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 μM). AA relaxations were attenuated by NDGA or apamin and eliminated by 60 mM KCl. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed arterial [14C]AA metabolites that comigrated with prostaglandins, trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs), hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETAs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids were not observed. Mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of 6-keto-PGF1α, PGE2, 12-HETE, 15-HETE, HEETAs, 11,12,15-THETA, and 11,14,15-THETA. AA metabolism was blocked by NDGA and endothelium removal. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA relaxations (maximal relaxation: 73 ± 3%) were endothelium independent and blocked by 60 mM KCl. Western

  8. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i) to analyse the intraclass correlation of different fatty acids in five meat samples, of one gram each, within the same chicken thigh, and ii) to study individual variations in the concentrations of a range of fatty acids and the ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations among fifteen chickens. Fifteen newly hatched broilers were fed a wheat-based diet containing 4% rapeseed oil and 1% linseed oil for three weeks. Five muscle samples from the mid location of the thigh of each chicken were analysed for fatty acid composition. The intraclass correlation (sample correlation within the same animal) was 0.85-0.98 for the ratios of total omega-6 to total omega-3 fatty acids and of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This indicates that when studying these fatty acid ratios, one sample of one gram per animal is sufficient. However, due to the high individual variation between chicken for these ratios, a relatively high number of animals (minimum 15) are required to obtain a sufficiently high power to reveal significant effects of experimental factors (e.g. feeding regimes). The present experiment resulted in meat with a favorable concentration ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The AA concentration varied from 1.5 to 2.8 g/100 g total fatty acids in thigh muscle in the fifteen broilers, and the ratio between AA and EPA concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 3.9. These differences among the birds may be due to genetic variance that can be exploited by breeding for lower AA

  9. The Ratio of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid in Infant Formula Influences the Fatty Acid Composition of the Erythrocyte Membrane in Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tomohiro; Kitamura, Yohei; Hamano, Hirokazu; Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in the infant formula influence on the growth and development of low-birth-weight infants (LBWI). In Japan, many infant formulas are fortified only with DHA. We investigated the safety and efficacy of an infant formula (H2025A) fortified with DHA and ARA (DHA/ARA ratio of 2:1, the same as that in Japanese breast milk). In this randomized double-blind trial, 35 LBWI were randomly allocated to 2 groups fed with H2025A or an infant formula fortified only with DHA (control formula) after discharge from the NICU. The duration of this study was one month, and the growth and fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane were compared between the 2 groups. No difference was found in the body weight gain, height gain and head circumstance gain development between the 2 groups, and no adverse event occurred in both groups. The ARA content of the erythrocyte membrane after feeding for 1 month was significantly higher in the H2025A group than in the control group. On analysis adjusted with the breast-fed ratio, the ARA and DHA contents were significantly higher in the H2025A group. It was suggested that H2025A significantly increased the ARA and DHA contents of the erythrocyte membrane of LBWI compared to the contents of the control formula. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Simultaneous activation of p38 and JNK by arachidonic acid stimulates the cytosolic phospholipase A2-dependent synthesis of lipid droplets in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guijas, Carlos; Pérez-Chacón, Gema; Astudillo, Alma M.; Rubio, Julio M.; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Balboa, María A.; Balsinde, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of human peripheral blood monocytes to free arachidonic acid (AA) results in the rapid induction of lipid droplet (LD) formation by these cells. This effect appears specific for AA in that it is not mimicked by other fatty acids, whether saturated or unsaturated. LDs are formed by two different routes: (i) the direct entry of AA into triacylglycerol and (ii) activation of intracellular signaling, leading to increased triacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester formation utilizing fatty acids coming from the de novo biosynthetic route. Both routes can be dissociated by the arachidonyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor triacsin C, which prevents the former but not the latter. LD formation by AA-induced signaling predominates, accounting for 60–70% of total LD formation, and can be completely inhibited by selective inhibition of the group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), pointing out this enzyme as a key regulator of AA-induced signaling. LD formation in AA-treated monocytes can also be blocked by the combined inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members p38 and JNK, which correlates with inhibition of cPLA2α activation by phosphorylation. Collectively, these results suggest that concomitant activation of p38 and JNK by AA cooperate to activate cPLA2α, which is in turn required for LD formation possibly by facilitating biogenesis of this organelle, not by regulating neutral lipid synthesis. PMID:22949356

  11. Brain phospholipid arachidonic acid half-lives are not altered following 15 weeks of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid adequate or deprived diet

    PubMed Central

    Green, Joshua T.; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have infused radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) into rat brains and followed AA esterification into phospholipids for up to 24 h; however, the half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids is unknown. Eighteen day old rats were fed either an n-3 PUFA adequate or deprived diet for 15 weeks. Following the 15 weeks, 40 µCi of [3H] AA was injected intracerebroventricularly into the right lateral ventricle using stereotaxic surgery and returned to their dietary treatment. From 4–120 days after [3H] AA administration, brains were collected for chemical analyses. The half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids was 44 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA adequate group and 46 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA deprived group, which closely approximates the predicted half-life previously reported, based on the rate of entry from the plasma unesterified pool, suggesting the plasma unesterified pool is a major contributor to brain uptake of AA. Furthermore, unlike a previous report in which the half-life of brain phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased in n-3 PUFA deprived rats, n-3 PUFA deprivation did not significantly alter the AA half-life, suggesting different mechanisms exist to maintain brain concentrations of AA and DHA. PMID:19661256

  12. Chronic dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation leads to conservation of arachidonic acid and more rapid loss of DHA in rat brain phospholipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lauren E.; Chen, Chuck T.; Hildebrand, Kayla D.; Liu, Zhen; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine how the level of dietary n-6 PUFA affects the rate of loss of arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in brain phospholipids, male rats were fed either a deprived or adequate n-6 PUFA diet for 15 weeks postweaning, and then subjected to an intracerebroventricular infusion of 3H-ARA or 3H-DHA. Brains were collected at fixed times over 128 days to determine half-lives and the rates of loss from brain phospholipids (Jout). Compared with the adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the deprived n-6-PUFA rats had a 15% lower concentration of ARA and an 18% higher concentration of DHA in their brain total phospholipids. Loss half-lives of ARA in brain total phospholipids and fractions (except phosphatidylserine) were longer in the deprived n-6 PUFA rats, whereas the Jout was decreased. In the deprived versus adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the Jout of DHA was higher. In conclusion, chronic n-6 PUFA deprivation decreases the rate of loss of ARA and increases the rate of loss of DHA in brain phospholipids. Thus, a low n-6 PUFA diet can be used to target brain ARA and DHA metabolism. PMID:25477531

  13. Direct dopamine D2-receptor-mediated modulation of arachidonic acid release in transfected CHO cells without the concomitant administration of a Ca2+-mobilizing agent

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Christer L; Hellstrand, Monika; Ekman, Agneta; Eriksson, Elias

    1998-01-01

    In CHO cells transfected with the rat dopamine D2 receptor (long isoform), administration of dopamine per se elicited a concentration-dependent increase in arachidonic acid (AA) release. The maximal effect was 197% of controls (EC50=25 nM). The partial D2 receptor agonist, (−)-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(−)-3-PPP], also induced AA release, but with somewhat lower efficacy (maximal effect: 165%; EC50=91 nM). The AA-releasing effect of dopamine was counteracted by pertussis toxin, by the inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release, 8-(N N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), by excluding calcium from the medium, by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, quinacrine, and by long-term pretreatment with the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In addition, it was antagonized by the D2 antagonists, raclopride and (−)-sulpiride–but not by (+)-sulpiride–and absent in sham-transfected CHO cells devoid of D2 receptors. The results obtained contrast to the previous notion that dopamine and other D2 receptor agonists require the concomitant administration of calcium-mobilizing agents such as ATP, ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), thrombin, and TRH, to influence AA release from various cell lines. PMID:9756380

  14. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Ali, Shakir; Shukla, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in prod