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Sample records for l5-s1 disc herniation

  1. Foraminoplastic transfacet epidural endoscopic approach for removal of intraforaminal disc herniation at the L5-S1 level

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Sulewski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Transforaminal endoscopic disc removal in the L5-S1 motion segment of the lumbar spine creates a technical challenge due to anatomical reasons and individual variability. The majority of surgeons prefer a posterior classical or minimally invasive approach. There is only one foraminoplastic modification of the technique in the literature so far. In this paper we present a new technique with a foraminoplastic transfacet approach that may be suitable in older patients with advanced degenerative disease of the spine. PMID:24729817

  2. Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Cox, J M; Hazen, L J; Mungovan, M

    1993-06-01

    A computed tomography (CT)-confirmed L5-S1 disk protrusion is reported to be reduced following chiropractic adjustment, as seen on repeat CT scanning. Correlation of the CT reports with the patient's symptoms before and after manipulation is reported. A 38-yr-old female was treated for low back pain and right lower extremity first sacral dermatome sciatica. CT confirmed disk herniations at both the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels were found. Motor weakness of the right gluteus maximus muscle was found and extremely tight hamstring muscles accompanying positive straight leg signs were elicited. A clinical and imaging diagnosis of an L5-S1 disk herniation was made. Distraction type chiropractic manipulation, electrical stimulation, exercises, nutrition advice and low back wellness class were administered with complete relief of sciatic pain and nearly complete relief of low back pain. Chiropractic distraction manipulation is an effective treatment of lumbar disk herniation, if the chiropractor is observant during its administration for patient tolerance to manipulation under distraction and any signs of neurological deficit demanding other types of care.

  3. Effect of prosthesis endplate lordosis angles on L5-S1 kinematics after disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P; Wojewnik, Bartosz; Voronov, Leonard I; Havey, Robert M; Renner, Susan M; Zelenakova, Julia; McIntosh, Braden; Carandang, Gerard; Abjornson, Celeste; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that L5-S1 kinematics will not be affected by the lordosis distribution between the prosthesis endplates. Twelve cadaveric lumbosacral spines (51.3 ± 9.8 years) were implanted with 6° or 11° prostheses (ProDisc-L) with four combinations of superior/inferior lordosis (6°/0°, 3°/3°, 11°/0°, 3°/8°). Specimens were tested intact and after prostheses implantation with different lordosis distributions. Center of rotation (COR) and range of motion (ROM) were quantified. Six-degree lordosis prostheses (n = 7) showed no difference in flexion-extension ROM, regardless of design (6°/0° or 3°/3°) (p > 0.05). In lateral bending (LB), both designs reduced ROM (p < 0.05). In axial rotation, only the 3°/3° design reduced ROM (p < 0.05). Eleven-degree lordosis prostheses (n = 5) showed no difference in flexion-extension ROM for either design (p > 0.05). LB ROM decreased with distributed lordosis prostheses (3°/8°) (p < 0.05). Overall, L5-S1 range of motion was not markedly influenced by lordosis distribution among the two prosthesis endplates. The ProDisc-L prosthesis design where all lordosis is concentrated in the superior endplate yielded COR locations that were anterior and caudal to intact controls. The prosthesis with lordosis distributed between the two endplates yielded a COR that tended to be closer to intact. Further clinical and biomechanical studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of lordosis angle distribution on the fate of the facet joints.

  4. Lumbar disc herniation presenting with contralateral symptoms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Zhi Sheng Darren; Lin, Shuxun

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is common and may be symptomatic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is an appropriate tool to confirm the diagnosis and affected level of the spine. While a disc herniation is usually associated with ipsilateral symptoms, a few cases have been reported to present with contralateral symptoms. We report a unique case of left lumbar disc herniation at L5/S1 who presented with contralateral symptoms and was successfully treated with a right L5/S1 foraminal block. However, the patient developed concordant ipsilateral symptoms 6 weeks later and was treated with left L5/S1 microdiscectomy. PMID:28435926

  5. Lumbar disc herniation presenting with contralateral symptoms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koh, Zhi Sheng Darren; Lin, Shuxun; Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is common and may be symptomatic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is an appropriate tool to confirm the diagnosis and affected level of the spine. While a disc herniation is usually associated with ipsilateral symptoms, a few cases have been reported to present with contralateral symptoms. We report a unique case of left lumbar disc herniation at L5/S1 who presented with contralateral symptoms and was successfully treated with a right L5/S1 foraminal block. However, the patient developed concordant ipsilateral symptoms 6 weeks later and was treated with left L5/S1 microdiscectomy.

  6. Age-related differences in the response of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc to spinal traction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Beattie, Paul F; Bowden, Jennifer; Larson, Robert; Wang, Haonan

    2017-10-01

    Lumbar traction is a common treatment for low back pain; however its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that a key effect of lumbar traction is its capacity to influence fluid movement within the intervertebral disc (IVD). To determine differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained with lumbar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the L5-S1 IVD before, and during, the application of lumbar traction. Case series, repeated measures. A static traction load of ∼50% of body-weight was applied to the low back using a novel "MRI-safe" apparatus. DWI of the lumbar spine was performed prior to, and during the application of the traction load. Participants were currently asymptomatic and included a young adult group (n = 18) and a middle-aged group (n = 15). The young adult group had a non-significant 2.2% increase in ADC (mean change = 0.03 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s, SD = 0.24, 95% CI = -0.09, 0.15). The ADC for the middle-aged group significantly increased by 20% (mean change of 0.18 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s, SD = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.28; p = 0.003; effect size = 0.95). There was an inverse relationship between the ADC obtained before traction and the percent increase in ADC that was measured during traction. Static traction was associated with an increase in diffusion of water within the L5-S1 IVDs of middle-age individuals, but not in young adults, suggesting age-related differences in the diffusion response. Further study is needed to assess the relationship between these findings and the symptoms of back pain. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical outcomes of degenerative spondylolisthesis with L5-S1 disc degeneration: comparison between lumbar floating fusion and lumbosacral fusion at a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Hui; Niu, Chi-Chien; Keorochana, Gun

    2011-09-01

    A retrospective clinical and radiographic study was performed. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and a preexisting degenerative L5-S1 disc treated with a lumbar floating fusion (LFF) versus lumbosacral fusion (LSF). Fusion for treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis often ends at the L5 level. These patients usually had a preexisting L5-S1 disc degeneration; however, no literature mentions the role of prophylactic LSF in degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with L5-S1 disc degeneration. A total of 107 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up who had lumbosacral or LFF with pedicle instrumentation for degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) classification was used to evaluate the radiographic results of the L5-S1 segment. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified Brodsky's criteria were used to evaluate patients' clinical results. The incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) (includes radiographic and clinical ASD) of both ends was recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age distribution, or amount of follow-up between the LFF and LSF groups. The LSF group had a higher percentage of patients that underwent total L5 laminectomy with loss of L5-S1 posterior ligament integrity (LSF = 92% vs. LFF = 67%, P = 0.019). The higher incidence of cephalic ASD in the LSF group was statistically significant (LSF = 25% vs. LFF = 9.7%, P = 0.049). Although no patient in the LSF group developed L5-S1 ASD, need for L5-S1 segment revision surgery was not prevented with LSF. Clinical outcomes on the basis of the success rate (LFF = 85.5% vs.LSF = 70.8%, P = 0.103) and ODI difference (LFF = 28.97 ± 15.82 vs. LSF = 23.04 ± 10.97, P = 0.109), there were no statistically significant difference between these two groups. Posterior instrumentation with posterolateral LFF for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis with

  8. A finite element model of the L4-L5-S1 human spine segment including the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the discs.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Hector E; Gómez, Lessby; García, Jose J

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to study disc degeneration and the risk of injury during occupational activities, a new finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5-S1 segment of the human spine was developed based on the anthropometry of a typical Colombian worker. Beginning with medical images, the programs CATIA and SOLIDWORKS were used to generate and assemble the vertebrae and create the soft structures of the segment. The software ABAQUS was used to run the analyses, which included a detailed model calibration using the experimental step-wise reduction data for the L4-L5 component, while the L5-S1 segment was calibrated in the intact condition. The range of motion curves, the intradiscal pressure and the lateral bulging under pure moments were considered for the calibration. As opposed to other FE models that include the L5-S1 disc, the model developed in this study considered the regional variations and anisotropy of the annulus as well as a realistic description of the nucleus geometry, which allowed an improved representation of experimental data during the validation process. Hence, the model can be used to analyze the stress and strain distributions in the L4-L5 and L5-S1 discs of workers performing activities such as lifting and carrying tasks.

  9. Computer-guided percutaneous interbody fixation and fusion of the L5-S1 disc: a 2-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mac Millan, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The clinical outcomes of lumbar fusion are diminished by the complications associated with the surgical approach. Posterior approaches cause segmental muscular necrosis and anterior approaches risk visceral and vascular injury. This report details a two-year prospective study of a percutaneous method which avoids the major problems associated with existing approaches. Seventeen patients underwent percutaneous, trans-sacral fusion and fixation of L5-S1 with the assistance of computer guidance. Each patient was followed for a minimum of two years post surgery. SF-36 questionnaires and radiographs were obtained preoperatively and at two years post-operatively. Fusion was assessed with post-operative radiographs and/or CT scan. Ninety-three percent of the people fused as judged by plain AP films, Ferguson's view radiographs, and/or CT scans at the two year follow-up. Prospective health and functional SF-36 scores showed significant improvement from the preoperative to the postoperative period. There were no significant complications related to the approach or to the placement of the implants. Percutaneous fusion of the lumbosacral spine appears safe and provides excellent clinical results with a minimal amount of associated tissue trauma.

  10. Cervical intradural disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Y; Onari, K; Kondo, S; Inasaka, R; Horii, H

    2001-03-15

    A case report of anterior en bloc resected cervical intradural disc herniation and a review of the literature. To discuss the pathogenesis of cervical intradural disc herniation. Including this study case, only 17 cases of cervical intradural disc herniation have been reported. There have been few detailed reports concerning the pathogenesis of cervical intradural disc herniation. A cervical intradural disc herniation at C6-C7, with localized hypertrophy and segmentally ossified posterior longitudinal ligament, is reported in a 45-year-old man who had Brown-Sequard syndrome diagnosed on neurologic examination. Neuroradiologic, operative, and histologic findings, particularly the pathology of the anterior en bloc resected posterior vertebral portion of C6 and C7, were evaluated for discussion of the pathogenesis. Adhesion of dura mater and hypertrophic posterior longitudinal ligament was observed around a perforated portion of the herniated disc, and histologic study showed irregularity in fiber alignment accompanied by scattered inflammatory cell infiltration and hypertrophy in the posterior longitudinal ligament. The cervical intradural disc herniation was removed successfully and followed by C5-Th1 anterior interbody fusion with fibular strut graft. Neurologic recovery was complete except for minor residual sensory disturbance in the leg 7 years after the surgery. Cervical intradural disc herniation is an extremely rare condition. The pathogenesis remains obscure. Only 16 cases have been reported in the literature, and there has been little discussion concerning the local pathology of the herniated portion. The pathogenesis of the disease in the patient reported here was considered to be the adhesion and fragility of dura mater and posterior longitudinal ligament. This was caused by hypertrophy, with chronic inflammation and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament sustaining chronic mechanical irritation to the dura mater, leading to perforation of

  11. Disc herniations in the national football league.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin L; Buchowski, Jacob M; Bumpass, David B; Lehman, Ronald A; Mall, Nathan A; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. To determine the overall incidence, location, and type of disc herniations in professional football players to target treatment issues and prevention. Disc herniations represent a common and debilitating injury to the professional athlete. The NFL's (National Football League's) Sports Injury Monitoring System is a surveillance database created to monitor the league for all injuries, including injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. A retrospective analysis was performed on all disc herniations to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine during a 12-season period (2000-2012) using the NFL's surveillance database. The primary data points included the location of the injury, player position, activity at time of injury, and playing time lost due to injury. During the 12 seasons, 275 disc herniations occurred in the spine. In regard to location, 76% occurred in the lumbar spine and most frequently affected the L5-S1 disc. The offensive linemen were most frequently injured. As expected, blocking was the activity that caused most injuries. Lumbar disc herniations rose in prevalence and had a mean loss of playing time of more than half the season (11 games). Thoracic disc herniations led to the largest mean number of days lost overall, whereas players with cervical disc herniations missed the most practices. Disc herniations represent a significant cause of morbidity in the NFL. Although much attention is placed on spinal cord injuries, preventive measures targeting the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine may help to reduce the overall incidence of these debilitating injuries.Level of Evidence: N/A.

  12. Biomechanics of the L5-S1 motion segment after total disc replacement - Influence of iatrogenic distraction, implant positioning and preoperative disc height on the range of motion and loading of facet joints.

    PubMed

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik; Putzier, Michael; Zander, Thomas

    2015-09-18

    Total disc replacement has been introduced to overcome negative side effects of spinal fusion. The amount of iatrogenic distraction, preoperative disc height and implant positioning have been considered important for surgical success. However, their effect on the postoperative range of motion (RoM) and loading of the facets merits further discussion. A validated osteoligamentous finite element model of the lumbosacral spine was employed and extended with four additional models to account for different disc heights. An artificial disc with a fixed center of rotation (CoR) was implemented in L5-S1. In 4000 simulations, the influence of distraction and the CoR's location on the RoM, facet joint forces (FJFs) and facet capsule ligament forces (FCLFs) was investigated. Distraction substantially altered segmental kinematics in the sagittal plane by decreasing range of flexion (0.5° per 1mm of distraction), increasing range of extension (0.7°/mm) and slightly affecting complete sagittal RoM (0.2°/mm). The distraction already strongly increased the FCLFs during surgery (up to 230N) and in flexion (~12N/mm), with higher values in models with larger preoperative disc heights, and increased FJFs in extension. A more anterior implant location decreased the RoM in all planes. In most loading cases, a more posterior location of the implant's CoR increased the FJFs and FCLFs, whereas a more caudal location increased the FCLFs but decreased the FJFs. The results of this study may explain the worse clinical results in patients with overdistraction after TDR. The complete RoM in the sagittal plane appears to be insensitive to detecting surgery-related biomechanical changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The immediate reduction in low back pain intensity following lumbar joint mobilization and prone press-ups is associated with increased diffusion of water in the L5-S1 intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Paul F; Arnot, Cathy F; Donley, Jonathan W; Noda, Harmony; Bailey, Lane

    2010-05-01

    Single-group, prospective, repeated-measures design. To determine differences in the changes of diffusion of water in the L5-S1 intervertebral disc between subjects with nonspecific low back pain (LBP) who reported an immediate reduction in pain intensity of 2 or greater on an 11-point (0-10) numeric rating scale after a 10-minute session of lumbar joint mobilization, followed by prone press-up exercises, compared to those who did not report an immediate reduction in pain intensity of 2 or greater on the pain scale. Combining lumbar joint mobilization and prone press-up exercises is a common intervention for patients with LBP; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy of this approach. Increased knowledge of the physiologic effects of the combined use of these treatments, and the relationship to pain reports, can lead to refinement of their clinical application. Twenty adults, aged 22 to 54, participated in this study. All subjects reported LBP of at least 2 on an 11-point (0-10) verbally administered numeric rating scale at the time of enrollment in the study and were classified as being candidates for the combination of joint mobilization and prone press-ups. Subjects underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted lumbar magnetic resonance imaging scans before and immediately after receiving a 10-minute session of lumbar pressures in a posterior-to-anterior direction and prone press-up exercises. Subjects who reported a decrease in current pain intensity of 2 or greater immediately following treatment were classified as immediate responders, while the remainder were classified as not-immediate responders. The apparent diffusion coefficient, representing the diffusion of water in the nucleus pulposis, was calculated from the midsagittal diffusion-weighted images. Following treatment, immediate responders (n = 10) had a mean increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient in the middle portion of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc of 4

  14. Lumbar disc herniation in young children.

    PubMed

    Haidar, R; Ghanem, I; Saad, S; Uthman, I

    2010-01-01

    This article explores lumbar disc herniation in young children through focusing on matters relevant to patient presentation, physical examination, differential diagnosis, imaging and treatment. Major databases were searched for studies that addressed lumbar disc herniation in young children. Diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation in young children is usually delayed because of the rarity and lack of experience with this entity and the difficulty in extracting a reliable medical history. Nevertheless, lumbar disc herniation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any young child presenting with a chief complaint of back pain and/or radiculopathy, especially in the setting of recent trauma. This should be coupled with a directed physical examination to elicit signs and narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging, will help establish a diagnosis; yet radiographs are still required to exclude other spinal lesions. The initial management of lumbar disc herniation in children is the same as that in adults and consists of conservative treatment unless lumbar disc herniation affects the patient's motor and neurological functions in which case, early surgical treatment must be undertaken. Although the latter remains more difficult, current experience suggests a favourable outcome. Awareness of lumbar disc herniation will help the paediatrician extract a relevant medical history, perform a directed physical examination, and order appropriate imaging studies. This will aid in initiating early intervention, be it conservative or operative, and achieving a favourable outcome.

  15. Disc herniations in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin L; Buchowski, Jacob M; Bumpass, David B; Lehman, Ronald A; Mall, Nathan A; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. To determine the overall incidence, location, and type of disc herniations in professional football players to target treatment issues and prevention. Disc herniations represent a common and debilitating injury to the professional athlete. The NFL's (National Football League's) Sports Injury Monitoring System is a surveillance database created to monitor the league for all injuries, including injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. A retrospective analysis was performed on all disc herniations to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine during a 12-season period (2000–2012) using the NFL's surveillance database. The primary data points included the location of the injury, player position, activity at time of injury, and playing time lost due to injury. During the 12 seasons, 275 disc herniations occurred in the spine. In regard to location, 76% occurred in the lumbar spine and most frequently affected the L5–S1 disc. The offensive linemen were most frequently injured. As expected, blocking was the activity that caused most injuries. Lumbar disc herniations rose in prevalence and had a mean loss of playing time of more than half the season (11 games). Thoracic disc herniations led to the largest mean number of days lost overall, whereas players with cervical disc herniations missed the most practices. Disc herniations represent a significant cause of morbidity in the NFL. Although much attention is placed on spinal cord injuries, preventive measures targeting the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine may help to reduce the overall incidence of these debilitating injuries. N/A

  16. A patient with thoracic intradural disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Robert G; Williams, Brian J; Lega, Bradley C; Sanborn, Matthew R; Marcotte, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Intradural disc herniation is a rare disease that occurs most commonly in the lumbar region, while fewer than 5% occur in the thoracic and cervical regions. We report a patient with thoracic intradural disc herniation at T12-L1 who presented with radiculopathy and motor weakness. The preoperative MRI did not demonstrate an intradural lesion, and it was identified intraoperatively by inspection and palpation of the thecal sac. The disc was removed, and the patient experienced good neurological recovery and remains pain free 1 year after surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sudden quadriplegia after acute cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Sadanand, Venkatraman; Kelly, Michael; Varughese, George; Fourney, Daryl R

    2005-08-01

    Acute neurological deterioration secondary to cervical disc herniation not related to external trauma is very rare, with only six published reports to date. In most cases, acute symptoms were due to progression of disc herniation in the presence of pre-existing spinal canal stenosis. A 42-year-old man developed weakness and numbness in his arms and legs immediately following a sneeze. On physical examination he had upper motor neuron signs that progressed over a few hours to a complete C5 quadriplegia. An emergent magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a massive C4/5 disc herniation. He underwent emergency anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Postoperatively, the patient remained quadriplegic. Eighteen days later, while receiving rehabilitation therapy, he expired secondary to a pulmonary embolus. Autopsy confirmed complete surgical decompression of the spinal cord. Our case demonstrates that acute quadriplegia secondary to cervical disc herniation may occur without a history of myelopathy or spinal canal stenosis after an event as benign as a sneeze.

  18. Percutaneous treatment of intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin

    2010-06-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniations. In the absence of significant pain relief with conservative treatment including oral pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs, selective image-guided periradicular infiltrations are generally indicated. The precise control of needle positioning allows optimal distribution of steroids along the painful nerve root. After 6 weeks of failure of conservative treatment including periradicular infiltration, treatment aiming to decompress or remove the herniation is considered. Conventional open surgery offers suboptimal results and is associated with significant morbidity. To achieve minimally invasive discal decompression, different percutaneous techniques have been developed. Their principle is to remove a small volume of nucleus, which results in an important reduction of intradiscal pressure and subsequently reduction of pressure inside the disc herniation. However, only contained disc herniations determined by computed tomography or magnetic resonance are indicated for these techniques. Thermal techniques such as radiofrequency or laser nucleotomy seem to be more effective than purely mechanical nucleotomy; indeed, they achieve discal decompression but also thermal destruction of intradiscal nociceptors, which may play a major role in the physiopathology of discal pain. The techniques of image-guided spinal periradicular infiltration and percutaneous nucleotomy with laser and radiofrequency are presented with emphasis on their best indications.

  19. Myeloradicular damage in traumatic cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Bucciero, A; Carangelo, B; Cerillo, A; Gammone, V; Panagiotopoulos, K; Vizioli, L

    1998-12-01

    The literature on pure traumatic disc herniation is now voluminous but diversity of opinion exists regarding frequency, pathogenesis and management of this type of lesion. As a further contribution to the solution of the question it is thus justified to report our series of cervical traumatic disc herniation. During the period from January 1986 to December 1994, 41 patients (25 males and 16 females, between the ages of 24 and 51 years) with traumatic cervical disc herniations were operated on by anterior approach. Twenty-six (63.4%) patients presented with radicular syndrome, 3 (7.3%) with medullary symptoms and signs, and 12 (29.3%) with myeloradiculopathy. Disc herniation was at the C3/4 level in 4 (9.7%) cases, at the C4/5 level in 7 (17.1%) cases, at the C5/6 level in 24 (58.5%) cases, and at the C6/7 level in 8 (19.5%) cases. In 6 (40%) patients suffering from myelopathy (with or without radiculopathy) an area of high MR signal intensity was observed within the cervical cord on T2-weighted images; such area corresponded at the level of cord compression by disc and was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images. All patients underwent discectomy without bone grafting. Among patients with radiculopathy, 27 (71%) experienced complete relief of preoperative symptomatology, and 11 (29%) minor pain and/or neurological deficits without interference with work activities. The myelopathy completely disappeared in 11 (73.3%) cases whereas remained unchanged in 3 (20%); 1 patient with myelopathy experienced amelioration of preoperative specific symptoms and signs. The results of surgery for cervical radiculopathy due to traumatic disc herniation are satisfactory since 92 to 100% of the patients postoperatively regain prior activities, an observation we have confirmed with our own series. The results in cases of myelopathy are less satisfactory: although approximately 73% of our patients with myelopathy reported total relief of preoperative symptomatology, published reports

  20. [Surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Hrabálek, L; Kalita, O; Langová, K

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different surgical approaches to thoracic disc herniation, and to show the role of segmental fusion and selection of an appropriate microsurgical decompression technique for the successful outcome of surgery. A group of 27 patients, 10 men and 17 women, between 31 and 70 years (average age, 49.33 years) were included in this prospective study. They underwent surgery for thoracic degeneration disc disease in the period from June 1994 to August 2008. In all patients, the severity of myelopathy was assessed using the grading Frankel system and JOA score, axial and radicular pain intensity was evaluated with VAS and ODI rating systems. The diagnosis was established on the basis of thoracic spine radiography, thoracic spine MRI and a CT scan of the segment. A total of 30 thoracic segments, in the range of Th4/Th5 to Th12/L1, were indicated for surgery. Localisation of the hernia was medial at 19 segments, mediolateral at three and lateral at eight segments. Soft disc herniation was found in 17 cases and hard disc protrusion at the remaining 13 segments. Surgery for significant myelopathy was carried out in 23 patients and for pain in four patients. According to the surgical procedure used, the patients were allocated to two groups: group A comprised 10 patients treated without disc replacement through a laminectomy or a costotransversectomy exposure, and group B consisted of 17 patients undergo- ing intersomatic fusion via a thoracotomy. Clinical and radiographic examinations were made at regular intervals for at least 1 year of follow-up. The results of clinical assessment, including JOA scores, JOA Recovery Rate, VAS scores at rest and after exercise and ODI, were statistically analysed for each group and compared. There was a statistically significant difference in JOA evaluation of myelopathy between the groups in group A, the mean JOA score declined from 7.9 to 7.0, i.e., -0.9 point, while in group B it

  1. Outcome of nucleoplasty in patients with radicular pain due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Qassim, Abdulla; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nucleoplasty (percutaneous lumbar disc decompression) is a minimally invasive procedure that utilizes radiofrequency energy as a treatment for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation, against open microdiscectomy, which would be the mainstay treatment modality. The literature reports a favorable outcome in up to 77% of patients at 6 months. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nucleoplasty in the management of discogenic radicular pain. Materials and Methods: The medical notes of 33 patients, admitted for nucleoplasty between June 2006 and September 2007, were reviewed retrospectively. All had radicular pain, and contained herniated disc as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbosacral spine. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months post-procedure. The outcome measures employed in this study were satisfaction with symptoms and self-reported improvement. Results: Thirty-three cases were examined (18 males and 15 females). Twenty-seven procedures were performed with no complications and six were abandoned due to anatomical reasons. There were 18 and 15 cases of disc herniation at L5/S1 and L4/5 levels, respectively. Four weeks following the procedure, 13 patients reported improvement in symptoms, and 14 remained symptomatically the same and subsequently had open microdiscectomy. Conclusion: Nucleoplasty has been shown to be a safe and minimal-access procedure. Less than half of our selected cohort of patients reported symptomatic improvement at 1-month follow-up. We no longer offer this procedure to our patients. Possible reasons are discussed. PMID:23633860

  2. [Long-term 10-year outcome after chemonucleolysis for lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Aribit, F; Charissoux, J L; Arnaud, J P

    2002-05-01

    We studied the efficacy of papaine for treatment of herniated discs at a mean 10-year follow-up and compared results with other series and other treatments. From an initial group of 160 patients, 96 patients, 53 men and 43 women, mean age 39 years, were selected for evaluation. These patients had 46 L4L5 herniations and 50 L5S1 herniations. All 96 patients were operated in the same department and received the same dose of papaine under the same anesthesia conditions. All patients were followed regularly to 3 months postoperatively then were reviewed 3 to 17 years after surgery. Inquiries were made about return to work, pain, and activity. Physical examination and x-rays were obtained for all patients. There were no neurological complications in our series. Seventeen patients required a second procedure for sciatic pain. Most of the patients continued their normal occupational and social activities after papaine treatment, but many of them had chronic lumbar pain. Our results were comparable with series reporting a similar long follow-up. Surgery is more efficient than papaine but long-term results are equivalent. Chemopapaine treatment provided good long-term results in our patients, similar to surgery. Chemonucleolysis may be employed as first line treatment for young patients with non-excluded disc herniation with sciatic pain.

  3. [Results of percutaneous discectomy in the management of lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Lima-Ramírez, P G; Montiel-Jarquín, A J; Barragán-Hervella, R G; Sánchez-Durán, M A; Ochoa-Neri, A; Loria-Castellanos, J; Vázquez-Rodríguez, C; Villatoro-Martínez, A; Castillo-Pérez, J J

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous discectomy is a disc decompression technique approved by the FDA that is useful to improve pain caused by a herniated disc. However, its practice is under discussion because the benefits of the technique are controversial. To describe the clinical course of patients with low lumbar disc herniation (L4-L5, L5-S1) treated by percutaneous surgery within one year of surgery and prove that it is a useful surgical option for the relief of symptoms caused by this pathological entity. Cohort study; the clinical course of 21 patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous discectomy manually during March 2011-November 2013, is presented. The evaluation was made before surgery and at four, 30, 180 and 365 days after surgery by numerical pain scale (NPS), Oswestry (IDO) and MacNab criteria. We used nonparametric inferential statistics (Wilcoxon) for differences in proportions. n = 21, six (28.57%) men, 15 (71.42%) women; average age: 37.95, (14-56) ± 10.60 years; the most affected vertebral level was L4-L5 in 57.14% of the patients; the NPS preoperative average was 7.75 (5-9) ± 1.12; at 365 days: average 2.14 (0-7) ± 2.37. The IDO preoperative average was 37% (28-40%) ± 3.06, and at 365 days: 9.52% (0-40%) ± 13.92. The prognosis (IDO) in the presurgical was good to zero (0%) patients and in 15 (71.42%) at 365 days, regular in five (23.80%) and poor in one (4.78%) (p = 0.00, CI 95% 0.00 to 0.13, Wilcoxon); according to MacNab criteria, in 15 (71.42%) patients were excellent and good, poor in four (19.04%) and bad in two (9.52%) (p = 0.00). Percutaneous discectomy provides good results for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (L4-L5, L5-S1) at 365 days after surgery.

  4. Effects of spine loading in a patient with post-decompression lumbar disc herniation: observations using an open weight-bearing MRI.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Sybert, Daryl; Law, Tim; Clark, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to use an open weight-bearing MRI to identify the effects of different loading conditions on the inter-vertebral anatomy of the lumbar spine in a post-discectomy recurrent lumbar disc herniation patient. A 43-year-old male with a left-sided L5-S1 post-decompression re-herniation underwent MR imaging in three spine-loading conditions: (1) supine, (2) weight-bearing on standing (WB), and (3) WB with 10 % of body mass axial loading (WB + AL) (5 % through each shoulder). A segmentation-based proprietary software was used to calculate and compare linear dimensions, angles and cross sections across the lumbar spine. The L5 vertebrae showed a 4.6 mm posterior shift at L5-S1 in the supine position that changed to an anterior translation >2.0 mm on WB. The spinal canal sagittal thickness at L5-S1 reduced from supine to WB and WB + AL (13.4, 10.6, 9.5 mm) with corresponding increases of 2.4 and 3.5 mm in the L5-S1 disc protrusion with WB and WB + AL, respectively. Change from supine to WB and WB + AL altered the L5-S1 disc heights (10.2, 8.6, 7.0 mm), left L5-S1 foramen heights (12.9, 11.8, 10.9 mm), L5-S1 segmental angles (10.3°, 2.8°, 4.3°), sacral angles (38.5°, 38.3°, 40.3°), L1-L3-L5 angles (161.4°, 157.1°, 155.1°), and the dural sac cross sectional areas (149, 130, 131 mm 2 ). Notably, the adjacent L4-L5 segment demonstrated a retro-listhesis >2.3 mm on WB. We observed that with weight-bearing, measurements indicative of spinal canal narrowing could be detected. These findings suggest that further research is warranted to determine the potential utility of weight-bearing MRI in clinical decision-making.

  5. Do Turkish patients with lumbar disc herniation know body mechanics?

    PubMed

    Topcu, Sacide Yildizeli

    2017-01-01

    Most common and important cause of the low back pain is lumbar disc herniation. Patients with lumbar disc herniation face with difficulties during daily activities due to the reduction of physical functions. In order to maintain daily activities without pain and discomfort, the patients should be informed about proper positions and body mechanics. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and the applications of the patients with lumbar disc herniation about body mechanics. This descriptive study was conducted with 75 patients with lumbar disc herniation in Edirne, Turkey. The population consisted of 75 patients who accepted to participate in the study. In the collection of data the questionnaire, which was developed according to literature by the researcher, was used. Descriptive statistics, student t-test, variance and correlation analysis were used for assessment of the data. The significance level was accepted at 0.05. It was found that 53.3% of the patients experienced awful/very severe pain. and there were some points that the patients have enough information about; mobilisation, standing, carrying the goods, leaning back while sitting, leaning somewhere while standing, getting support from the chair when standing up, avoiding sudden position changes, changing feet frequently while standing. It was detected that a statistical relation between educational level and knowledge about body mechanics exists. This study shows that individuals with lumbar disc herniation have not enough information about body mechanics and they experienced long-term severe pain. Nurses and other health care workers have important role in explaining the importance of body mechanics to the patients and should encourage them to use that in daily life.

  6. Automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation with shape and appearance features from MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja'S.; Corso, Jason J.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2010-03-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a major reason for lower back pain (LBP), which is the second most common neurological ailment in the United States. Automation of herniated disc diagnosis reduces the large burden on radiologists who have to diagnose hundreds of cases each day using clinical MRI. We present a method for automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using appearance and shape features. We jointly use the intensity signal for modeling the appearance of herniated disc and the active shape model for modeling the shape of herniated disc. We utilize a Gibbs distribution for classification of discs using appearance and shape features. We use 33 clinical MRI cases of the lumbar area for training and testing both appearance and shape models. We achieve over 91% accuracy in detection of herniation in a cross-validation experiment with specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 94%.

  7. Psychopathological Influence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woo; Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Sik; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is no report about psychopathological effect causing by disc herniation. The disease could impose psychopathological influence on the social life, the treatment period, and response to the treatment. This study was to evaluate retrospectively the psychopathological influence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) among Korean 19-year-old males. Materials and Methods We compared the Korean military multiphasic personality inventory (KMPI) profiles of 74 LDH cases with the KMPI profiles of 150 controls. The LDH groups were categorized to 2 groups according to the presence of thecal sac compression by disc materials, and evaluated the relation between the KMPI and LDH. Results The decrease of the faking-good response scale and increase of the faking-bad response scale were observed more in the LDH group than in the normal volunteer group (p<0.05). The neurosis set such as anxiety, depression and somatization was markedly increased in the LDH group compared to the normal volunteers group (p<0.05). The scale of personality disorder was also increased more in the LDH group (p=0.002). The differences of KMPI scales were not correlated with the severe pathology of LDH. Conclusion Young male with LDH may tend to have more abnormal results of multiphasic personality inventory test compared to the normal volunteers, suggesting that LDH may be related to the psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate and treat the psychopathological aspects in patients with LDH. PMID:23709412

  8. Significance of Vertebral Endplate Failure in Symptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Madan Mohan; Kaur, Sheetal; Sarangi, Jitendra; Mohapatra, Manoranjan

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Objective: Endplate lesions though have been implicated in the genesis of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), very little is known regarding their clinical course. Thus, the present study is aimed to investigate the incidence and types of endplate failure (EPF) in LDH and its correlation with the clinical symptoms and prognosis. Methods: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 66 patients with isolated single level LDH were studied. Three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient (3D FSPGR) MRI and computed tomography scans were used to identify the bony and cartilaginous EPF. Twenty-five patients were operated on and 41 patients were treated conservatively. Changes in the pain score, function and neurology were noted at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Results: Endplate lesions were observed in 64 patients (96.9%), including bony endplate failure (bony failure) in 47 patients (71.2%) and isolated cartilaginous endplate lesions in 17 patients (25.7%). Bony failure group had similar pain and functional scores but more severe neurological deficit at the initial evaluation. Clinical parameters improved in all groups, but the recovery was lesser in conservatively treated bony failure patients. Conclusion: Endplate lesions are commonly associated with symptomatic LDH. Presence of bony failure can increase neurological deficit and reduce the chance of recovery with conservative management. The 3D FSPGR sequence of MRI can be successfully used for detection of the endplate lesions in the herniated disc. PMID:28660105

  9. Significance of Vertebral Endplate Failure in Symptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Madan Mohan; Mahapatra, Sudhir Kumar; Kaur, Sheetal; Sarangi, Jitendra; Mohapatra, Manoranjan

    2017-05-01

    Prospective cohort study. Endplate lesions though have been implicated in the genesis of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), very little is known regarding their clinical course. Thus, the present study is aimed to investigate the incidence and types of endplate failure (EPF) in LDH and its correlation with the clinical symptoms and prognosis. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 66 patients with isolated single level LDH were studied. Three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient (3D FSPGR) MRI and computed tomography scans were used to identify the bony and cartilaginous EPF. Twenty-five patients were operated on and 41 patients were treated conservatively. Changes in the pain score, function and neurology were noted at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Endplate lesions were observed in 64 patients (96.9%), including bony endplate failure (bony failure) in 47 patients (71.2%) and isolated cartilaginous endplate lesions in 17 patients (25.7%). Bony failure group had similar pain and functional scores but more severe neurological deficit at the initial evaluation. Clinical parameters improved in all groups, but the recovery was lesser in conservatively treated bony failure patients. Endplate lesions are commonly associated with symptomatic LDH. Presence of bony failure can increase neurological deficit and reduce the chance of recovery with conservative management. The 3D FSPGR sequence of MRI can be successfully used for detection of the endplate lesions in the herniated disc.

  10. Percutaneous endoscopic intra-annular subligamentous herniotomy for large central disc herniation: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Baek, Oon Ki; Kim, Ho Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    Technical case report. To describe the novel technique of percutaneous endoscopic herniotomy using a unilateral intra-annular subligamentous approach for the treatment of large centrally herniated discs. Open discectomy for large central disc herniations may have poor long-term prognosis due to heavy loss of intervertebral disc tissue, segmental instability, and recurrence of pain. Six consecutive patients who presented with back and leg pain, and/or weakness due to a large central disc herniation were treated using percutaneous endoscopic herniotomy with a unilateral intra-annular subligamentous approach. The patients experienced relief of symptoms and intervertebral disc spaces were well maintained. The annular defects were noted to be in the process of healing and recovery. Percutaneous endoscopic unilateral intra-annular subligamentous herniotomy was an effective and affordable minimally invasive procedure for patients with large central disc herniations, allowing preservation of nonpathological intradiscal tissue through a concentric outer-layer annular approach.

  11. [Treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and sciatica with percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Hua-Wei; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ming-Lian

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the clinical effects of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic technique in treating lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and sciatica. From June 2011 to January 2012,the clinical data of 46 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and sciatica underwent percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic technique were retrospectively analyzed. There were 28 males and 18 females,ranging in age from 11 to 77 years old with an average of (39.7_ 15.3) years old,20 cases were L5S1 and 26 cases were L4,5. All patients had the symptoms such as lumbago and sciatica and their straight-leg raising test were positive. Straight-leg raising test of patients were instantly repeated after operation;operative time,volume of blood loss,complication, length of stay and duration of back to work or daily life were recorded. The clinical effects were assessed according to the VAS,JOA and JOABPEQ score. All operations were successful,postoperative straight-leg raising test were all negative. Operative time,volume of blood loss,length of stay,duration of back to work or daily life,follow-up time were (93.0+/-28.0) min, (20.0+/-9.0)ml, (3.1+/-1.5) d, (11.6+/-4.2) d, (13.9+/-1.6) months,respectively. VAS score of lumbar before operation and at the 1st and 3rd,6th,12th month after operation were 5.3+/-1.2,1.9+/-1.1,1.0+/-0.8,0.9+/-0.8,0.8+/-0.6,respectively;VAS score of leg before operation and at the 1st and 3rd,6th,12th month after operation were 7.2+ 1.2,0.8+/-1.2,0.5+/-0.8,0.5+/-0.8,0.3+/-0.8,respectively. Five factors of JOABPEQ score,including lumbar pain,lumbar function, locomotor activity,social life viability and mental status,were respectively 27.0+/-30.6,37.3+/-27.4,38.5+/-26.6,33.0+/-13.7,55.4+/-19.0 before operation and 83.6+/-24.8,89.4+/-15.7,87.0+/-17.9,58.4+/-14.6,79.5+/-13.4 at final follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative JOA score were 9.1+/-2.6 and 27.3+/- 1.7, respectively. The postoperative VAS,JOA and JOABPEQ score had significantly improved (P<0

  12. Endogenous-lesioned cervical disc herniation: a retrospective review of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zifeng; Bai, Yushu; Hou, Tiesheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the pathogenic mechanisms, clinical presentation, and surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation without external trauma. Between 2004 and 2008, 9 patients with cervical disc herniation and no antecedent history of trauma were diagnosed with cervical disc herniation and underwent surgical decompression. Pathogenic mechanisms, clinical presentation, surgical treatment, and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively. In 6 patients, herniation resulted from excessive neck motion rather than from external trauma. An injury from this source is termed an endogenous-lesioned injury. Patients exhibited neurologic symptoms of compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots. In the other 3 patients, no clear cause for the herniation was recorded, but all patients had a desk job with long periods of head-down neck flexion posture. After surgery, all patients experienced a reduction in their symptoms and an uneventful recovery. Cervical disc herniation can occur in the absence of trauma. Surgical decompression is effective at reducing symptoms in these patients, similar to other patients with cervical disc herniation. Surgical treatment may be considered for this disorder when the herniation becomes symptomatic.

  13. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Kruit, Mark C.; Peul, Wilco C.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated because of sciatica. Methods MRIs of CES patients were assessed for the following features: level of disc lesion, type (uni- or bilateral) and severity of caudal compression. Pre- and postoperative clinical features (micturition dysfunction, defecation dysfunction, altered sensation of the saddle area) were retrieved from the medical files. In addition, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spinal canal diameters of CES patients were measured at MRI. AP diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica, were measured for comparison. Results 48 CES patients were included. At MRI, bilateral compression was seen in 82%; complete caudal compression in 29%. MRI features were not associated with clinical presentation nor outcome. AP diameter was measured for 26 CES patients and for 31 lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. Comparison displayed a significant smaller AP diameter of the lumbar spinal canal in CES patients (largest p = 0.002). Compared to average diameters in literature, diameters of CES patients were significantly more often below average than that of the sciatica patients (largest p = 0.021). Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating differences in lumbar spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES and lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. This finding might imply that

  14. Lumbar disc herniation with contralateral radiculopathy: do we neglect the epidural fat?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Song; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the most common cause of radiculopathy, whose pathological entity underlying nerve root compression is usually on the same side as the symptoms. However, LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy are sometimes encountered by pain physicians. There have been tremendous developments in the treatment options for LDH; the situation of LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy is indeed a dilemma for some pain physicians. We will report a case of a patient with a L4-5 disc herniation whose left herniated disc caused radiculopathy on the right side. After a percutaneous lumbar endoscopic discectomy via the side ipsilateral to the symptomatic side, this case obtained a significant symptom remission. The migrated epidural fat is discussed as a cause of associated contralateral neurological deficit. Only via a surgical approach ipsilateral to the herniated side, could there be a clinical improvement postoperatively.

  15. Outcomes After Lumbar Disc Herniation in the National Basketball Association

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Shobhit V.; Kester, Benjamin S.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. Hypothesis: NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Study Design: Case-control study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transaction records, and public sports archives. A 1:2 case-control study was performed in which LDH players and players without LDH were matched for player variables. Statistical analysis was employed to compare pre- and postindex season performance (games played and player efficiency rating [PER]) and career longevity between test subjects and controls in the operatively treated (OT) and nonoperatively treated (NOT) cohorts. Results: A total of 61 NBA players with LDH were included, of whom 34 underwent discectomy and 27 were managed nonoperatively. Return-to-play (RTP) rates did not differ between NOT and OT players (77.8% vs 79.4%). When compared with controls, OT players played significantly fewer games and had a lower PER than controls during the first postoperative season, but no difference was seen 2 and 3 years after surgery, with no difference in postoperative career length. In contrast, no difference in games played or PER was seen between NOT players and controls, although NOT players played significantly fewer postindex seasons. Conclusion: NBA players have a high RTP rate regardless of type of treatment for LDH; however, postindex performance differs between surgically and nonoperatively managed patients when compared with players without an LDH. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required for more definitive recommendations. Clinical Relevance: There is a high RTP rate after LDH in the NBA, although postindex performance may differ based on operative

  16. Outcomes After Lumbar Disc Herniation in the National Basketball Association.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-01-01

    Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Case-control study. Level 4. Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transaction records, and public sports archives. A 1:2 case-control study was performed in which LDH players and players without LDH were matched for player variables. Statistical analysis was employed to compare pre- and postindex season performance (games played and player efficiency rating [PER]) and career longevity between test subjects and controls in the operatively treated (OT) and nonoperatively treated (NOT) cohorts. A total of 61 NBA players with LDH were included, of whom 34 underwent discectomy and 27 were managed nonoperatively. Return-to-play (RTP) rates did not differ between NOT and OT players (77.8% vs. 79.4%). When compared with controls, OT players played significantly fewer games and had a lower PER than controls during the first postoperative season, but no difference was seen 2 and 3 years after surgery, with no difference in postoperative career length. In contrast, no difference in games played or PER was seen between NOT players and controls, although NOT players played significantly fewer postindex seasons. NBA players have a high RTP rate regardless of type of treatment for LDH; however, postindex performance differs between surgically and nonoperatively managed patients when compared with players without an LDH. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required for more definitive recommendations. There is a high RTP rate after LDH in the NBA, although postindex performance may differ based on operative versus nonoperative treatment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Interference of Detection Rate of Lumbar Disc Herniation by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Overview of Literature Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. Methods In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Results Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. Conclusions The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation. PMID:23508288

  18. Interference of detection rate of lumbar disc herniation by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.

  19. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P < 0.001), but not disc degeneration (P = 0.97). In the German Shepherd dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Interpretation in Patients With Symptomatic Lumbar Spine Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Doman, David M.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of imaging data from a clinical trial. Objective To compare the interpretation of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) by clinical spine specialists and radiologists in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Summary of Background Data MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the lumbar spine in patients with suspected lumbar disc herniation. Guidelines provide standardization of terms to more consistently describe disc herniation. The extent to which these guidelines are being followed in clinical practice is unknown. Methods We abstracted data from radiology reports from patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. We evaluated the frequency with which morphology (e.g., protrusions, extrusions, or sequestrations) was reported as per guidelines and when present we compared the morphology ratings to those of clinicians who completed a structured data form as part of the trial. We assessed agreement using percent agreement and the κ statistic. Results There were 396 patients with sufficient data to analyze. Excellent agreement was observed between clinician and radiologist on the presence and level of herniation (93.4%), with 3.3% showing disagreement regarding level, of which a third could be explained by the presence of a transitional vertebra. In 3.3% of the cases in which the clinician reported a herniation (protrusion, extrusion, or sequestration), the radiologist reported no herniation on the MRI. The radiology reports did not clearly describe morphology in 42.2% of cases. In the 214 cases with clear morphologic descriptions, agreement was fair (κ = 0.24) and the disagreement was asymmetric (Bowker’s test of symmetry P < 0.0001) with clinicians more often rating more abnormal morphologic categories. Agreement on axial location of the herniation was excellent (κ = 0.81). There was disagreement between left or right side in only 3.3% of

  1. Chymodiactin in patients with herniated lumbar intervertebral disc(s). An open-label, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    McDermott, D J; Agre, K; Brim, M; Demma, F J; Nelson, J; Wilson, R R; Thisted, R A

    1985-04-01

    To extent the safety information for Chymodiactin (chymopapain for injection), 37 neurologic and orthopedic surgeons conducted an open-label, multicenter, phase 3 clinical study. A total of 1,498 patients with one or two herniated lumbar intervertebral discs were enrolled. Therapeutic results were generally favorable, with the percentages of patients achieving either excellent or good (or successful) results ranging from 79.6% to 88.9%, depending on criteria employed in the tabulation. There were 13 cases of anaphylaxis, and 2 of these patients died of complications of anaphylaxis. Two additional patients experienced serious neurologic problems. The first of these two patients developed transverse myelitis and paraplegia approximately 3 weeks following chemonucleolysis. Transdural discograms at three levels had been done approximately 2 days prior to chemonucleolysis, in violation of the protocol. The second patient developed acute cauda equina syndrome, and, despite emergency laminectomy, had permanent neurologic sequelae. Back spasm and stiffness/soreness were the most frequently encountered adverse experiences.

  2. Economic value of treating lumbar disc herniation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Scheverin, Nicolas; Righesso, Orlando; Teles, Alisson R; Gullo, Maria Carolina; Cheng, Joseph S; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Lumbar discectomy is one of the most common surgical spine procedures. In order to understand the value of this surgical care, it is important to understand the costs to the health care system and patient for good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the cost-effectiveness of spine surgery in Latin America for lumbar discectomy in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for patients in Brazil. The authors performed a prospective cohort study involving 143 consecutive patients who underwent open discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Patient-reported outcomes were assessed utilizing the SF-6D, which is derived from a 12-month variation of the SF-36. Direct medical costs included medical reimbursement, costs of hospital care, and overall resource consumption. Disability losses were considered indirect costs. A 4-year horizon with 3% discounting was applied to health-utilities estimates. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying utility gain by 20%. The costs were expressed in Reais (R$) and US dollars ($), applying an exchange rate of 2.4:1 (the rate at the time of manuscript preparation). The direct and indirect costs of open lumbar discectomy were estimated at an average of R$3426.72 ($1427.80) and R$2027.67 ($844.86), respectively. The mean total cost of treatment was estimated at R$5454.40 ($2272.66) (SD R$2709.17 [$1128.82]). The SF-6D utility gain was 0.044 (95% CI 0.03197-0.05923, p = 0.017) at 12 months. The 4-year discounted QALY gain was 0.176928. The estimated cost-utility ratio was R$30,828.35 ($12,845.14) per QALY gained. The sensitivity analysis showed a range of R$25,690.29 ($10,714.28) to R$38,535.44 ($16,056.43) per QALY gained. The use of open lumbar discectomy to treat LDH is associated with a significant improvement in patient outcomes as measured by the SF-6D. Open lumbar discectomy performed in the Brazilian supplementary health care system provides a cost-utility ratio of R$30

  3. Effect of ligamenta flava hypertrophy on lumbar disc herniation with contralateral symptoms and signs: a clinical and morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Ahmet; Atar, Elmas K.; Yaycioglu, Soner; Gocmen-Mas, Nuket; Yazici, Canan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine whether ligamentum flavum hypertrophy among disc herniated patients causes contralateral pain symptoms. For this reason we measured the thickness of the ligament in disc herniated patients with ipsilateral or contralateral symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred disc herniated patients with ipsilateral symptoms as group I were compared with five disc herniated patients with only contralateral symptoms as group II. Ligamenta flava thicknesses and spinal canal diameters of both groups were measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a micro-caliper. Results Both groups underwent surgery only on the disc herniated side. The total thicknesses of the ligamenta flava in group II was thicker than in group I. There was no spinal stenosis in either group and no significance difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences were found for both ipsilateral and contralateral thickness of the ligament flava in both groups. We also compared thickness of the ligamenta flava for each level of disc herniation in group I; ligamenta flava hypertrophy was more common at L3-L4 and L4-L5 levels of vertebrae in females. Conclusions Aetiology of contralateral sciatica among disc herniated patients may be related to hypertrophy of the ligamenta flava, especially on the opposite side. Surgical approaches of the disc herniated side alone may be sufficient for a good outcome. PMID:22371809

  4. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-03

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Asir, Alparslan; Cetinkal, Ahmet; Gedik, Nursal; Kutlay, Ahmet Murat; Çolak, Ahmet; Kurtar, Sedat; Simsek, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the inflammatory effects of disc herniations on radicular pain has been previously published. However, the possible relationship between PIMs and myelopathy related to cervical disc herniation and spondylosis has not been investigated before. Thirty-two patients undergoing surgery for cervical disc herniation and spondylosis were investigated. Surgically obtained disc materials, stored at 70°C, were classified into two groups: cervical disc herniation alone or with myelopathy. Biochemical preparation and solid phase enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay (ELISIA) analysis of the samples were performed to assess the concentration of mediators in the samples. Very similar values of interleukin-6 were found in both groups whereas the concentrations of mediators were significantly higher in myelopathy group. This study has demonstrated that PIMs are involved in cervical intervertebral disc degeneration with higher concentrations in the samples associated with myelopathy. PMID:17476536

  6. Surgical management of giant lumbar disc herniation: analysis of 154 patients over a decade.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, A; Belfquih, H; Salami, M; Boucetta, M

    2014-10-01

    We describe a decade of our experience in the surgical management of patients with giant lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (GILID). This is a case series of patients operated for a GILID between 2000 and 2009. Among 1334 patients eligible for the present study: 154 patients presented with GILID (study group) and 1180 patients without GILID (control group). Clinical symptoms and preoperative imaging results were obtained from medical records. Complications and long-term results were assessed. This retrospective study documents the characteristic features between patients with and without GILID. The difference in the incidence of female patients was statistically significant between the study group and the control group as was the mean duration of symptoms, hyperalgic radicular pain, bilaterality of symptoms, preoperative motor deficit, central location of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), contained herniation and recurrence of LDH. GILIDs are a distinct entity: they are distinctly uncommon compared with smaller herniations, patients were statistically more likely to be hyperalgic with bilateral radicular pain and often associated with neurological deficits. The majority of patients do not display a cauda equina syndrome (CES). Low lumbar disc sites are mostly affected and disc fragments are more likely to be central-uncontained. The recurrence rate is lower for GILIDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Yan, Min; Dai, Yi; Qiu, Weidong; Deng, Shuo; Gu, Xinzhu

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is usually managed with conservative treatment or surgery. However, conservative therapy seldom yields good results, and surgery is associated with multiple complications. This study aimed to assess bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. A total of 168 patients with lumbar disc herniation suitable for radiofrequency thermocoagulation were enrolled and randomized to monopolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (control group, n=84) or bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (experimental group, n=84) treatment groups. Ablation sites were targeted under CT scan guidance, and consecutive radiofrequency therapy was used. One and two probes were used for monopolar and bipolar thermocoagulation, respectively. Thermocoagulation was achieved at 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C for 60s each, 80°C for 90s, and 92°C for 100s. Symptoms and complications were evaluated using the modified Macnab criteria and Visual Analog Scale at 7, 30, and 180days postoperatively. At 180days, a significantly higher efficacy rate was obtained in the experimental group compared with control patients (91.6% versus 79.7%, P<0.05). No severe complications were occurred in either group. Targeted ablation via bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation is efficient for lumbar disc herniation treatment, and should be further explored for broad clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion at the L5-S1 Level: Technical Considerations and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Kurzbuch, Arthur Robert; Kaech, Denis; Baranowski, Pawel; Baranowska, Alicja; Recoules-Arche, Didier

    2017-09-01

    Background  Extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) surgery is a muscle-sparing approach that allows the treatment of various degenerative spinal diseases. It is technical challenging to perform the ELIF approach at the L5-S1 level because the sacral ala obstructs the view of the intervertebral disk space. Methods  We reported earlier on the ELIF technique in which the intervertebral disk is targeted at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the midline. In this article we describe the technical process we developed to overcome the anatomic relation between the sacral ala and the intervertebral disk space L5-S1 that hinders the ELIF approach at this level. We then report in a retrospective analysis on the short-term clinical and radiologic outcome of 100 consecutive patients with degenerative L5-S1 pathologies who underwent ELIF surgery. Results  The L5-S1 ELIF approach could be realized in all patients. The short-term clinical outcome was evaluated 5 months after surgery: 92% of the patients were satisfied with their postoperative result; 8% had a poor result. Overall, 17% of the patients presented light radicular or low back pain not influencing their daily activity, and 82% of the patients working before surgery returned to work 3 to 7 months after surgery. The radiologic outcome was documented by computed tomography at 5 months after surgery and showed fusion in 99% of the patients. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging performed in 5 patients at 6 months after surgery revealed the integrity of the paraspinal muscles. Conclusions  ELIF surgery at the L5-S1 level is technically feasible for various degenerative spinal diseases. Analysis of the clinical and radiologic data in a consecutive retrospective cohort of patients who underwent this surgical procedure showed a good short-term clinical outcome and fusion rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Anterior herniation of lumbar disc induces persistent visceral pain: discogenic visceral pain: discogenic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-Zhang; Shannon, Moore-Langston; Lai, Guang-Hui; Li, Xuan-Ying; Li, Na; Ni, Jia-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Visceral pain is a common cause for seeking medical attention. Afferent fibers innervating viscera project to the central nervous system via sympathetic nerves. The lumbar sympathetic nerve trunk lies in front of the lumbar spine. Thus, it is possible for patients to suffer visceral pain originating from sympathetic nerve irritation induced by anterior herniation of the lumbar disc. This study aimed to evaluate lumbar discogenic visceral pain and its treatment. Twelve consecutive patients with a median age of 56.4 years were enrolled for investigation between June 2012 and December 2012. These patients suffered from long-term abdominal pain unresponsive to current treatment options. Apart from obvious anterior herniation of the lumbar discs and high signal intensity anterior to the herniated disc on magnetic resonance imaging, no significant pathology was noted on gastroscopy, vascular ultrasound, or abdominal computed tomography (CT). To prove that their visceral pain originated from the anteriorly protruding disc, we evaluated whether pain was relieved by sympathetic block at the level of the anteriorly protruding disc. If the block was effective, CT-guided continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block was finally performed. All patients were positive for pain relief by sympathetic block. Furthermore, the average Visual Analog Scale of visceral pain significantly improved after treatment in all patients (P < 0.05). Up to 11/12 patients had satisfactory pain relief at 1 week after discharge, 8/12 at 4 weeks, 7/12 at 8 weeks, 6/12 at 12 weeks, and 5/12 at 24 weeks. It is important to consider the possibility of discogenic visceral pain secondary to anterior herniation of the lumbar disc when forming a differential diagnosis for seemingly idiopathic abdominal pain. Continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block is an effective and safe therapy for patients with discogenic visceral pain.

  10. Chemonucleolysis for relief of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, J A

    1981-01-01

    Chemonucleolysis is the nonoperative chemical removal of displaced lumbar disc material. The enzyme chymopapain, which has a wide margin of safety between its effective therapeutic and toxic doses, is effective in the management of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc. The patient will have leg pain as the dominant symptom and a 50% reduction in straight-leg raising with or without bowstring discomfort and crossover pain. Neurologic symptoms and signs are usual, as are abnormal results of contrast studies, which will verify the level of involvement. In 220 randomly selected patients who met criteria for the diagnosis of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc and did not have psychogenic or nonorganic spinal pain, a spinal stenosis or a history of a previous, unsuccessful operation to relieve the sciatica, chemonucleolysis had a success rate of 80%. The only complications were a severe anaphylactic reaction in two patients and lesser, delayed reactions in five others. All of the reactions were successfully treated. Of the 45 patients in whom chemonucleolysis was unsuccessful, 38 underwent a laminectomy. In 3 of the 38 the results of chemonucleolysis were initially good, but later the disc herniation recurred; thus, the long-term treatment failure rate was 1.4%. PMID:7011530

  11. A history of lumbar disc herniation from Hippocrates to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Truumees, Eeric

    2015-06-01

    In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with

  12. Management of sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation in the Netherlands: a survey among spine surgeons.

    PubMed

    Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C; Koes, Bart W; Thomeer, Ralph T W M

    2008-07-01

    Although clinical guidelines for sciatica have been developed, various aspects of lumbar disc herniation remain unclear, and daily clinical practice may vary. The authors conducted a descriptive survey among spine surgeons in the Netherlands to obtain an overview of routine management of lumbar disc herniation. One hundred thirty-one spine surgeons were sent a questionnaire regarding various aspects of different surgical procedures. Eighty-six (70%) of the 122 who performed lumbar disc surgery provided usable questionnaires. Unilateral transflaval discectomy was the most frequently performed procedure and was expected to be the most effective, whereas percutaneous laser disc decompression was expected to be the least effective. Bilateral discectomy was expected to be associated with the most postoperative low-back pain. Recurrent disc herniation was expected to be lowest after bilateral discectomy and highest after percutaneous laser disc decompression. Complications were expected to be highest after bilateral discectomy and lowest after unilateral transflaval discectomy. Nearly half of the surgeons preferentially treated patients with 8-12 weeks of disabling leg pain. Some consensus was shown on acute surgery in patients with short-lasting drop foot and those with a cauda equina syndrome, and nonsurgical treatment in patients with long-lasting, painless drop foot. Most respondents allowed postoperative mobilization within 24 hours but advised their patients not to resume work until 8-12 weeks postoperatively. Unilateral transflaval discectomy was the most frequently performed procedure. Minimally invasive techniques were expected to be less effective, with higher recurrence rates but less postoperative low-back pain. Variety was shown between surgeons in the management of patients with neurological deficit. Most responding surgeons allowed early mobilization but appeared to give conservative advice in resumption of work.

  13. The clinical study of percutaneous disc decompression of treating herniation of cervical disc with Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianxue; Cheng, Hefu; Wang, Jindong

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The possibility of PLDD (percutaneous laser disc decompression) and an ideal non-operative method which is long everlasting effect for PLDD was investigated. Methods: 159 patients of Cervical Disc Herniation with PLDD were studied. All the herniated discs were irradiated with 10­15J/S Nd:YAG laser quantum through optical-fiber under the supervision of C-arm X-ray. Results: All the patients were followed and reexamined CT or MRI after one to six months of PLDD. The result of cured (67.92%), excellent (24.53%), moderation (5.66%), non-effect (1.88%) was got. The excellent rate was 88.24%. The effective rate was 97.65%. Non-effective rate was 2.35%. Conclusion: When irradiated with Nd:YAG laser, the nucleus pulposus was vapouring, charring and coagulating. The volume and inner-pressure of the disc decreased. So the symptoms and signs improved. The main value of this methods were micro-damage, non-operation, no bleeding, no bone injury, good therapy effect, quick recovery, lesser pain, safety and excellent long everlasting effect. It is an ideal non-operative method of treating PLDD.

  14. Relationship between fear avoidance beliefs and burnout syndrome in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Taspinar, Ferruh; Taspinar, Betul; Ozkan, Yasemin; Afsar, Emrah; Gul, Canan; Durmaz, Elif Dilara

    2016-06-17

    Lumbar disc herniation leads to disability by restricting of patients' lives and reducing their quality of life. This situation causes a decrease in motivation of patients by triggering depressive mood. Therefore, the aim of the study was investigation of correlation between fear avoidance beliefs and burnout syndrome in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Totally forty-seven patients (24 male and 23 female patients) diagnosed lumbar disc herniation was included in this study. Maslach II Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) for determining of levels of burnout and fear avoidance level were used, respectively. It was observed that MBI and FABQ scores of the patients were 50.78 ± 10.07 and 36.61 ± 13.91, respectively. Moderate level correlation was found between FABQ and MBI total scores (r= 0.49, p= 0.00). Fear avoidance beliefs of patients with chronic back pain can affect level of burnout syndrome. Therefore, symptoms of burnout syndrome and fear avoidance beliefs of patients should be considered in evaluation and treatment process.

  15. Pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with lumbosacral disc herniation by neurophysiological and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Huber, Juliusz; Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Szymankiewicz-Szukała, Agnieszka; Moskal, Jakub; Janicki, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    The application of complex neurophysiological examination including motor evoked potentials (MEP) for pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing acute sciatica. The assessment of sensitivity and specificity of needle electromyography, MEP, and H-reflex examinations. The comparative analysis of preoperative and postoperative neurophysiological examination. In spite of the fact that complex neurophysiological diagnostic tools seem to be important for interpretation of incompatible results of neuroimaging and clinical examination, especially in the patients qualified for surgical treatment, their application has never been completely analyzed and documented. Pre- and postoperative electromyography, electroneurography, F-waves, H-reflex, and MEP examination were performed in 23 patients with confirmed disc-root conflict at lumbosacral spine. Clinical evaluation included examination of sensory perception for L5-S1 dermatomes, muscles strength with Lovett's scale, deep tendon reflexes, pain intensity with visual analogue scale, and straight leg raising test. Sensitivity of electromyography at rest and MEP examination for evaluation of L5-S1 roots injury was 22% to 63% and 31% to 56% whereas specificity was 71% to 83% and 57% to 86%, respectively. H-reflex sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of S1 root injury were 56% and 67%, respectively. A significant improvement of root latency parameter in postoperative MEP studies as compared with preoperative was recorded for L5 (P = 0.039) and S1 root's levels (P = 0.05). The analysis of the results from neurophysiological tests together with neuroimaging and clinical examination allow for a precise preoperative indication of the lumbosacral roots injury and accurate postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing sciatica. 3.

  16. Operative and nonoperative treatment of cervical disc herniation in National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Dennis S; Jones, Kristofer J; Barnes, Ronnie; Rodeo, Scott A; Cammisa, Frank P; Warren, Russell F

    2013-09-01

    Limited evidence exists to guide clinical decision making regarding cervical disc herniations in professional athletes playing for the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. To describe the presentation and treatment outcomes of cervical disc herniations in NFL athletes with a focus on safety and return to sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of a single NFL team and its consulting physicians were reviewed from 2000 to 2011. Only athletes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven disc herniation concordant with the reported symptoms were included. A total of 16 athletes met inclusion criteria. Linemen, linebackers, and defensive backs were the most represented positions (13/16 athletes; 81%). The most common presentation was radiculopathy after a single traumatic event (9/16 athletes; 56%). Three players had transient paresis. Three players underwent one-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. These 3 players had failed nonoperative therapy and had evidence of spinal cord compression with signal change on MRI, but only 1 returned to sport. Three players received epidural steroid injections, which provided transient symptomatic relief. Five players were treated nonoperatively and did not return to sport. Two of these 5 athletes had cord compression with signal change and retired rather than undergo surgery. The other 3 were cleared but were released by the team. Eight players were treated nonoperatively and returned to sport. Three of these 8 athletes had evidence of disc material abutting the cord without cord signal change but had a normal examination finding and returned to sport after resolution of their symptoms and repeat MRI that demonstrated no cord compression. Five of the 8 players had evidence of root compression and were treated symptomatically. There were no subsequent traumatic spinal cord injuries at a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Data regarding the treatment of this unique population are limited but suggest

  17. Physical examination, magnetic resonance image, and electrodiagnostic study in patients with lumbosacral disc herniation or spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2012-10-01

    To compare the clinical implications of electro-diagnostic study with those of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc or spinal stenosis. Retrospective study of clinical data. Patients with lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc or spinal stenosis, diagnosed by clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were selected. A total of 753 patients (437 with lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc and 316 with spinal stenosis) were included in the study. Clinical data for electrodiagnostic study (EDX)and MRI were compared and the sensitivity and specificity of these studies were evaluated. Among all subjects, 267 had radiculopathy on EDX (EDX (+)) and 486 no radiculopathy (EDX(-)). Furthermore, 391 had root compression on MRI (MRI (+)) and 362 no root compression on MRI (MRI (-)). Patients with radioculopathy on EDX (+) showed a significantly higher visual analogue scale score for radiating pain and a higher Oswestry Disability Index than those with negative findings by EDX (-) in the total subjects group and the lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc subgroup, and there was a trend toward higher Oswestry Disability Index in the spinal stenosis subgroup. Although patients with radioculopathy on root compression on MRI (+) also had a higher visual analogue scale for radiating pain than patients with negative findings by MRI (-) in the total subjects group and the lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc subgroup, no significant difference was seen in the Oswestry Disability Index. EDX revealed a significant correlation with muscle weakness in the total subjects group and the lumbosacral intervertebral herniated disc subgroup, and trends toward muscle weakness in the spinal stenosis subgroup, whereas there was no such significant correlation for MRI findings in any group. Electrodiagnostic study had a higher specificity in terms of physical examination data than MRI, in spite of its lower sensitivity

  18. Aggravation and subsequent disappearance of cervical disc herniation after cervical open-door laminoplasty: A case report.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Beiyu; Wu, Tingkui; Liu, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Cervical open-door laminoplasty can enlarge the volume of the cervical vertebral canal and thus has become an effective and safe treatment for multilevel cervical disc herniation and cervical stenosis. Some post-surgery complications exist, such as reduction of cervical alignment and local kyphosis. However, aggravation of cervical disc herniation at the surgical level during short-term follow-up has not been discussed. Additionally, spontaneous disappearance of herniated disc pulposus is a common phenomenon in the lumbar region but is relatively rare in the cervical region. A 42-year-old female presented with a 7-year history of neck pain and a 2-year history of paresthesia and weakness in the upper and lower limbs. The sensations and muscle strength of both upper and lower limbs were decreased. The radiological findings showed that the Pavlov ratios from C3-7 were decreased obviously. Osteophytes as well as spinal cord compression were observed at C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7. Considering the symptoms and clinical examinations, the patient was diagnosed with cervical stenosis. We performed cervical open-door laminoplasty at C3-7 to enlarge the space of the cervical vertebral canal. At the 6-month post-surgery follow-up, the patient showed obvious improvement in paresthesia and weakness in the upper limbs. The cervical disc herniation at C3/4 was aggravated. However, at the 18-month follow-up, the symptoms were relieved, and the herniated cervical disc at C3/4 spontaneously disappeared without any special treatment. We suggest that the attachment points of deep muscles in the neck region should be carefully protected during this surgery. Patients who undergo cervical open-door laminoplasty should pay attention to their cervical position and perform neck exercises to train their neck muscles. MRI is an important imaging method to observe dynamic changes in herniated discs for patients with cervical disc herniation.

  19. [Medical legal issues associated with the evaluation of herniated discs in seafarers to merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Onofri, E; Salesi, M; Massoni, F; Rosati, M V; Ricci, S

    2012-01-01

    "Seafarer" means person employed with any job on board a ship offshore, whether publicly or privately, excluding ships of war. Day by day a seafarer is forced to confront a reality in constant motion and live in environments that require awkward movements, and restricting the normal mobility of the person. In order to verify the frequency of herniated discs in this particular category of workers, given the recent introduction of INAIL tabulated diseases, a study was conducted on a sample of seafarers. Data analysis showed that 48.3% of the seafarers of the sample has herniated lumbar disc, and 34.5% of these duties in the deck, and 65.5% of the machine. The study of sample, varied as to age and task being performed, supports the assertion that the individual risk factors, especially age and obesity, are not strongly implicated in the genesis of disk herniation suffered by seafarers while the work factors (vibrations) play a more significant role in the onset of this disease. This consideration is part of a context, that of legal medical evaluation and in particular the causal relationship, which currently seems rather lacking in terms of literature and scientific production.

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; N Bhatia, Nitin; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a healthy 31-year-old man with asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Although the left S1 nerve root was obviously entrapped by a herniated mass, neither DWI nor DTI showed any significant findings for the nerve root. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found. These results are contrary to those in previously published studies of symptomatic patients, in which a combination of increased ADC and decreased FA seem to have a relationship with nerve injury and subsequent symptoms, such as leg pain or palsy. Our results seen in an asymptomatic subject suggest that the compressed nerve with no injury, such as edema, demyelination, or persistent axonal injury, may be indicated by a combination of decreased ADC and increased FA. ADC and FA could therefore be potential tools to elucidate the pathomechanism of radiculopathy.

  1. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar disc: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Dadian, Mohammad; Firouznia, Keykavous; Alalawi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in a sample of patients with image proven lumbar disc herniation. A single group cross-sectional study was conducted in a three year period from 2007 in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Overall, 202 patients aged more than or equal to 18 years with image proven herniated lumbar disc and with physical findings suggestive of lumbosacral root irritation were included. Overall, 146 (72.3%) participants had sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in females (p< 0.001, adjusted OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.00 to 6.03), patients with recurrent pain (p< 0.005, adjusted OR=2.33 with 95% CI=1.10 to 4.89) and patients with positive straight leg raising provocative test (p< 0.0001, adjusted OR=5.07, 95% CI=2.37 to 10.85). There was no significant relationship between the prevalence of SIJD, and working hours, duration of low back pain, or body mass index. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is a significant pathogenic factor with high possibility of occurrence in low back pain. Thus, regardless of intervertebral disc pathology, sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered in clinical decision making.

  2. Inequality in leg length is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Kanat, Ayhan; Erkut, Adem; Ozdemir, Bulent; Batcik, Osman Ersagun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Inequality in leg length may lead to to abnormal transmission of load across the endplates and degeneration lumbar spine and the disc space. There has been no study focusing on lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and leg length discrepancy. This subject was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adult patients with leg length discrepancy and low back pain (LBP) admitted to our department were respectivelly studied. Results: A total number of 39 subjects (31 women and eight men) with leg length discrepancy and LBP and 43 (25 females and 18 males) patients with LBP as a control group were tested. Occurrence of disc herniation is statistically different between patients with hip dysplasia and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed a statistically significant association between leg length discrepancy and occurrence of LDH. The changes of spine anatomy with leg length discrepancy in hip dysplastic patients are of importance in understanding the nature of LDH. PMID:27217654

  3. Postfixed brachial plexus radiculopathy due to thoracic disc herniation in a collegiate wrestler: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Scott A; Doberstein, Scott T; Rushlow, David R

    2013-01-01

    To present the unique case of a collegiate wrestler with C7 neurologic symptoms due to T1-T2 disc herniation. A 23-year-old male collegiate wrestler injured his neck in a wrestling tournament match and experienced pain, weakness, and numbness in his left upper extremity. He completed that match and 1 additional match that day with mild symptoms. Evaluation by a certified athletic trainer 6 days postinjury showed radiculopathy in the C7 distribution of his left upper extremity. He was evaluated further by the team physician, a primary care physician, and a neurosurgeon. Cervical spine injury, stinger/burner, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, thoracic outlet syndrome, brachial plexus radiculopathy. The patient initially underwent nonoperative management with ice, heat, massage, electrical stimulation, shortwave diathermy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without symptom resolution. Cervical spine radiographs were negative for bony pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of T1-T2 disc herniation. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the symptoms and enable him to participate for the remainder of the wrestling season. Whereas brachial plexus radiculopathy commonly is seen in collision sports, a postfixed brachial plexus in which the T2 nerve root has substantial contribution to the innervation of the upper extremity is a rare anatomic variation with which many health care providers are unfamiliar. The injury sustained by the wrestler appeared to be C7 radiculopathy due to a brachial plexus traction injury. However, it ultimately was diagnosed as radiculopathy due to a T1-T2 thoracic intervertebral disc herniation causing impingement of a postfixed brachial plexus and required surgical intervention. Athletic trainers and physicians need to be aware of the anatomic variations of the brachial plexus when evaluating and caring for patients with suspected brachial plexus radiculopathies.

  4. Management of chronic pain of cervical disc herniation and radiculitis with fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ≥ 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis.

  5. Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ≥ 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

  6. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammatory cytokines in pain induction of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, H; Saura, R; Harada, T; Doita, M; Mizuno, K

    2000-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the disease which is the major cause of radiculopathy. In terms of the pathogenesis of disease, it is reported that prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) plays an important role to induce radiculopathy. Arachidonate cascade, which is the process of PGE2 synthesis, is mainly regulated by two kinds of enzymes, phospholipaseA2 (PLA2) and cyclooxy genase (COX). Previously, PLA2 was recognized as the rate-limiting enzyme of this cascade, and some authors reported the clinical significance of PLA2 at the site of LDH concerning the radicular pain. Recently, COX was elucidated to consist of 2 types of isoform, a constitutive form of COX-1 and an inducible form of COX-2. COX-2 has been focused as a key enzyme to regulate PGE2 synthesis and plays an important role in inflammation, because COX-2 was induced in many types of cells by the stimulation of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). However, it is not fully discussed whether or not, COX-2 is induced in lumbar disc tissue and if it plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of LDH. To clarify the role of COX-2 in the pathomechanism of radiculopathy of LDH, we have investigated the expression of COX-2, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in herniated lumbar disc tissue. Immunohistologically, they were detected in the cytosol of chondrocytes constituting the disc tissue. RT-PCR showed that herniated lumbar disc-derived cells expressed mRNA of COX-2, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in the presence of inflammatory cytokines in vitro. The disc-derived cells also produced much PGE2 by stimulating of inflammatory cytokines at the same time and this PGE2 production was distinctly suppressed by a selective inhibitor of COX-2, 6-methoxy-2-naphtyl acetic acids (6MNA). These results suggest that COX-2 and inflammatory cytokines might play a causative role in the radiculopathy of LDH through upregulating PGE2 synthesis.

  7. [Epidemiology investigation and biomechanics analyses for the correlation between sacroiliac joint disorder and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ning-Ning; Shen, Guo-Quan; He, Shui-Yong; Guo, Ru-Bao

    2014-07-01

    To study the correlation between lumber disc degeneration and sacroiliac joint disorder, in order to provides a new understanding concepts and therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of chronic intractable low back pain. From August 2009 to October 2010,129 cases with lumbar disc herniation were studied with epidemiological methods. Among them, 61 patients with L4, disc herniation included 37 males and 24 females, ranging in aged from 20 to 75 years old, duration of the disease ranged from 1 to 144 months; The other 68 patients with L5S1 disc herniation included 32 males and 36 females,ranging in aged froml8 to 76 years old,duration of the disease ranged from 0.5 to 240 months. The clinical data, symptoms and signs,X-ray characteristics of lumbar spine and pelvis of the patients were investigated by epidemiological. The risk of lumbar disc herniation was calculated with case-control study; independent variables were screened with single factor analysis; the risk factors for lumbar disc herniation were determined with logistic regression analysis, and biomechanics analyses were taken. Among 129 patients with lumbar disc herniation, 88 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders, sacroiliac joint disorder was a risk factor of lumbar disc herniation (OR = 4.61, P = 0.00); 47 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders in 61 patients with L4,5 disc herniation, iliac crest uneven caused by iliac rotational displacement was a high risk factor of L4,5 disc herniation (OR = 11.27, P = 0.00); 41 cases associated with sacroiliac joint disorders in 68 patients with L5S1 disc herniation, lumbar sacral angle abnormalities caused by sacral tilt shift was a high risk factor L5S1 disc herniation (OR = 2.31, P = 0.03). Lumbar disc herniation and sacroiliac joint disorder are two of fallot, the two factors affect each other and there is a causal relationship. They are common exists in low back pain.

  8. The course and prognostic factors of symptomatic cervical disc herniation with radiculopathy: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica J; Côté, Pierre; Quesnele, Jairus J; Stern, Paula J; Mior, Silvano A

    2014-08-01

    Cervical spine disc herniation is a disabling source of cervical radiculopathy. However, little is known about its course and prognosis. Understanding the course and prognosis of symptomatic cervical disc herniation is necessary to guide patients' expectations and assist clinicians in managing patients. To describe the natural history, clinical course, and prognostic factors of symptomatic cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy. Systematic review of the literature and best evidence synthesis. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SportsDiscus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to 2013 was conducted to retrieve eligible articles. Eligible articles were critically appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. The results from articles with low risk of bias were analyzed using best evidence synthesis principles. We identified 1,221 articles. Of those, eight articles were eligible and three were accepted as having a low risk of bias. Two studies pertained to course and one study pertained to prognosis. Most patients with symptomatic cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy initially present with intense pain and moderate levels of disability. However, substantial improvements tend to occur within the first 4 to 6 months post-onset. Time to complete recovery ranged from 24 to 36 months in, approximately, 83% of patients. Patients with a workers' compensation claim appeared to have a poorer prognosis. Our best evidence synthesis describes the best available evidence on the course and prognosis of cervical disc herniations with radiculopathy. Most patients with symptomatic cervical spine disc herniation with radiculopathy recover. Possible recurrences and time to complete recovery need to be further studied. More studies are also needed to understand the prognostic factors for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intradural disc herniation: radiographic findings and surgical results with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Matsubara, Yuji; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Hirano, Kenichi; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Ukai, Junichi; Muramoto, Akio; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    To report a series of four cases of intradural disc herniation (IDH) with a review of the literature. IDH is a rare type of disc herniation. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and IDH is only confirmed during surgery in most cases. Here, we describe four cases of IDH, including three with lumbar hernia and one with thoracic hernia. A retrospective chart review, surgical database query, and review of radiology reports are presented for each case, along with a literature review of IDH. Two of the four patients had a history of surgery at the same spinal level. Ring enhancement in gadolinium-enhanced MRI, an air image in computed tomography, and complete block in myelography were observed in the series. Surgery was performed with a transdural approach in all patients. One patient underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion after postoperative recurrence. Three patients with lumbar involvement had nerve root symptoms preoperatively, but showed symptomatic improvement in the early postoperative period. In contrast, the patient with thoracic involvement had preoperative muscle weakness due to myelopathy symptoms, and had residual symptoms after surgery. IDH is a rare disease and characteristic imaging findings can be useful for diagnosis. Intraoperative findings lead to a definitive diagnosis in many cases and recognition of the pathological characteristics of IDH is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [(Modic) signal alterations of vertebral endplates and their correlation to a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar disc herniation using epidural injections].

    PubMed

    Liphofer, J P; Theodoridis, T; Becker, G T; Koester, O; Schmid, G

    2006-11-01

    To study the influence of (Modic) signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) of vertebrae L3-S1 on the outcome of an in-patient minimally invasive treatment (MIT) using epidural injections on patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The MR images of 59 consecutive patients with LDH within segments L3/L4 - L5/S1 undergoing in-patient minimally invasive treatment with epidural injections were evaluated in a clinical study. The (Modic) signal alterations of the CEP were recorded using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images. On the basis of the T2-weighted sagittal images, the extension and distribution of the SA were measured by dividing each CEP into 9 areas. The outcome of the MIT was recorded using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after therapy and in a 3-month follow-up. Within a subgroup of patients (n = 35), the distribution and extension of the signal alterations were correlated with the development of the ODI. Segments with LDH showed significantly more (p < 0.001) SA of the CEP than segments without LDH. Although the extension of the SA was not dependent on sex, it did increase significantly with age (p = 0.017). The outcome after MIT did not depend on the sex and age of the patients nor on the type of LDH. The SA extension tended to have a negative correlation with the outcome after MIT after 3 months (p = 0.071). A significant negative correlation could be established between the SA extension in the central section of the upper endplate and the outcome after 3 months (p = 0.019). 1. Lumbar disc herniation is clearly associated with the prevalence of (Modic) signal alterations. 2. Extensive signal alterations tend to correlate with a negative outcome of an MIT using epidural injections. 3. Such SA in the central portion of the upper CEP correlate significantly with a negative treatment result. 4. The central portion of the upper CEP being extensively affected by (Modic) SA is a negative predictor for the success of a minimally

  11. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Daniëlle Awm; Simons, Emmanuel; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Ammendolia, Carlo; Verhagen, Arianne P; Laslett, Mark; Devillé, Walter; Deyo, Rick A; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2010-02-17

    Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients for further imaging and possible surgery. (1) To assess the performance of tests performed during physical examination (alone or in combination) to identify radiculopathy due to lower lumbar disc herniation in patients with low-back pain and sciatica;(2) To assess the influence of sources of heterogeneity on diagnostic performance. We searched electronic databases for primary studies: PubMed (includes MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL, and (systematic) reviews: PubMed and Medion (all from earliest until 30 April 2008), and checked references of retrieved articles. We considered studies if they compared the results of tests performed during physical examination on patients with back pain with those of diagnostic imaging (MRI, CT, myelography) or findings at surgery. Two review authors assessed the quality of each publication with the QUADAS tool, and extracted details on patient and study design characteristics, index tests and reference standard, and the diagnostic two-by-two table. We presented information on sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all aspects of physical examination. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were computed for subsets of studies showing sufficient clinical and statistical homogeneity. We included 16 cohort studies (median N = 126, range 71 to 2504) and three case control studies (38 to100 cases). Only one study was carried out in a primary care population. When used in isolation, diagnostic performance of most physical tests (scoliosis, paresis or muscle weakness, muscle wasting, impaired

  12. Immediate relief of herniated lumbar disc-related sciatica by ankle acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Anfeng; Xu, Mingshu; Liang, Yan; Wei, Jinzi; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Around 90% of sciatica cases are due to a herniated intervertebral disc in the lumbar region. Ankle acupuncture (AA) has been reported to be effective in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a single session of ankle acupuncture for disc-related sciatica. Method: This will be a double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients diagnosed with disc-related sciatica will be randomly divided into 3 parallel groups. The treatment group (n = 30) will receive ankle acupuncture. The 2 control groups will either undergo traditional needle manipulation (n = 30) or sham acupuncture (n = 30) at the same point as the treatment group. The primary outcome will be pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes will be paresthesia intensity on a VAS and the Abbreviated Acceptability Rating Profile (AAPR). The success of blinding will be evaluated, and the needle-induced sensation and adverse events will be recorded. All outcomes will be evaluated before, during, and after the treatment. Discussion: This study will determine the immediate effect and specificity of ankle acupuncture for the treatment of disc-related sciatica. We anticipate that ankle acupuncture might be more effective than traditional needle manipulation or sham acupuncture. Trial registration ChiCTR-IPR-15007127 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=11989) PMID:29390461

  13. The sensitivity and specificity of the Slump and the Straight Leg Raising tests in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Javid; Togay, Halit; Unalan, Halil; Toprak, Sadk

    2008-04-01

    An accurate and specific diagnosis prevents the recurrences of low back pain and chronic spinal pain. The physical examination is the most useful tool to diagnosis. The examiner must aim to determine the exact tissue that pain arises from to make the specific diagnosis. Lumbar disc herniation is 1 disease that physical examination, symptoms, and findings on imaging technique do not always correlate with each other. The Straight Leg Raising (SLR) test has been used as the primary test to diagnosis lumbar disc herniations and found to have high correlation with findings on operation since its sensitivity is high in only disc herniations leading to root compression that may eventually need operation. More sensitive test, like the Slump, might be used in herniations in which the SLR is negative. The Slump test is really a variant of the SLR and the Lasègue's tests performed in the seated position and is a progressive series of maneuvers designed to place the sciatic nerve roots under increasing tension. At each step in the procedure, the patient informs the examiner what is being felt and whether radicular pain is produced. As a result, the Slump test applies traction to the nerve roots by incorporating spinal and hip joint flexion into the leg raising and would warn the examiner of the presence of nerve root compression when there is a negative SLR test. This study measured the sensitivity and specificity of the Slump test and compare it with the SLR test in patients with and without lumbar disc herniations. A prospective case control study of 75 patients with complaints suggestive of lumbar disc herniation was carried out in the outpatient clinics of the neurosurgery department of a state teaching hospital. Seventy-five referred or self-admitted patients with low back, leg, or low back and leg pain who had results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine were included in the study. Thirty-eight patients had signs of herniation demonstrated by MRI

  14. Ten Important Tips in Treating a Patient with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Hejrati, Hamid; Ariamanesh, Shahrara

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common spinal disorder that usually responds favorably to conservative treatment. In a small percentage of the patients, surgical decompression is necessary. Even though lumbar discectomy constitutes the most common and easiest spine surgery globally, adverse or even catastrophic events can occur. Appropriate patient selection and effective neural decompression constitute the most important points for better surgical outcomes and avoidance of unpleasant complications. Other important tips include timely performance of magnetic resonance imaging, correct interpretation of scan data, preoperative detection of underlying instability, exclusion of non-discogenic sciatica, determination of the main cause of clinical pathology, avoidance of the wrong side or level, and being sure that the more detailed procedure does not necessarily mean the more effective procedure. PMID:27790328

  15. Single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for cervical disc herniation in a professional soccer player.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Johnny; Zoia, Cesare; Clerici, Giulio; Uccella, Laura; Tabano, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    A 29-year old midfielder playing professional soccer complains of neck and right shoulder pain without apparent cause. A cervical MR shows disc herniation between C4 and C5 compressing 5th nerve root. The patient undergoes surgical discectomy plus interbody fusion with autologous bone and plate fixation with unicortical screws. No surgical complication is observed and after four weeks of rest, the patient begins a specific rehabilitation program including Tecar Therapy sessions and manual passive physical therapy for six weeks. Two times a week he attends hydrokinesis sessions. After eight weeks the athlete can restart working directly on soccer field and after less than four months he is back on an official competition.

  16. Private and Non-Private Disc Herniation Patients: Do they Differ?

    PubMed

    Gregebo, Birgitta; Dai, Deliang; Schillberg, Birgitta; Baehr, Martin; Nyström, Bo; Taube, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In the 2006 yearly report from the Swedish National Register for Lumbar Spine Surgery it was claimed that international studies show obvious differences between private and non-private patients with regard to results from back surgery. Therefore our aim was to reveal such possible differences by comparing the two categories of patients at a private clinic. The material comprises 1184 patients operated on for lumbar disc herniation during the period of 1987 to 2007. Basic pre-operative data were obtained from the medical records and follow-up was performed by a questionnaire around 5 years post-operatively. Small but statistically significant differences between private and non-private patients were seen pre-operatively regarding the proportions of a/ men and women in the samples, b/ those with physically demanding jobs, c/ those on sick leave and d/ those with lumbar pain. Over the years the admitted private patients had a decreasing mean duration of symptoms which was not seen in the non-private patients. No apparent differences (n.s.) were seen between the two categories of patients pre-operatively regarding age, presence and level of leg pain or the proportion who smoked. Post-operative improvement in leg and lumbar pain was very similar in private and non-private patients as was satisfaction with the results and the proportion of patients returning to work. Despite small pre-operative differences concerning some variables and a significant difference in symptom duration between private and non-private disc herniation patients, the final clinical results were very similar.

  17. An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, D Scott; Hwang, Steven W; Easa, John E; Resnick, Daniel K; Baisden, Jamie L; Bess, Shay; Cho, Charles H; DePalma, Michael J; Dougherty, Paul; Fernand, Robert; Ghiselli, Gary; Hanna, Amgad S; Lamer, Tim; Lisi, Anthony J; Mazanec, Daniel J; Meagher, Richard J; Nucci, Robert C; Patel, Rakesh D; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Sharma, Anil K; Summers, Jeffrey T; Taleghani, Christopher K; Tontz, William L; Toton, John F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the North American Spine Society's (NASS) Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation with Radiculopathy is to provide evidence-based recommendations to address key clinical questions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. The guideline is intended to reflect contemporary treatment concepts for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy as reflected in the highest quality clinical literature available on this subject as of July 2011. The goals of the guideline recommendations are to assist in delivering optimum efficacious treatment and functional recovery from this spinal disorder. To provide an evidence-based educational tool to assist spine specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy. Systematic review and evidence-based clinical guideline. This guideline is a product of the Lumbar Disc Herniation with Radiculopathy Work Group of NASS' Evidence-Based Guideline Development Committee. The work group consisted of multidisciplinary spine care specialists trained in the principles of evidence-based analysis. A literature search addressing each question and using a specific search protocol was performed on English-language references found in Medline, Embase (Drugs and Pharmacology), and four additional evidence-based databases to identify articles. The relevant literature was then independently rated using the NASS-adopted standardized levels of evidence. An evidentiary table was created for each of the questions. Final recommendations to answer each clinical question were developed via work group discussion, and grades were assigned to the recommendations using standardized grades of recommendation. In the absence of Level I to IV evidence, work group consensus statements have been developed using a modified nominal group technique, and these statements are clearly identified as such in the guideline

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent infiltration of macrophages into the dorsal root ganglion in a rat disc herniation model.

    PubMed

    You, Changcheng; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Xiaoqi; Xi, Chunyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Xu, Gongping; Yan, Jinglong

    2013-11-01

    A prospective molecular mechanism of macrophages infiltration in experimental disc herniation. To investigate the mechanisms of macrophages infiltration into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of disc herniation. Macrophages infiltrate the DRG after application of nucleus pulposus (NP) on the DRG, and may play an important role in radiculopathy. However, the mechanisms of macrophages infiltration after NP application remain poorly understood. After experimental disc herniation in this study, we investigated changes in the expression of ED1 (a marker of macrophages) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in DRG using immunofluorescence. We also investigated the expression of ED1 and VCAM-1 in DRG by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor at the time of surgery. We found a massive ED1-positive macrophages infiltrated the DRG, and VCAM-1-like immunoreactivity vessels became evident after NP application. Furthermore, both macrophage infiltration and VCAM-1 expression were prevented by treatment with TNF-α inhibitor at the time of surgery. These findings indicated that macrophages infiltration into the DRG was TNF-α-dependent, and might be partly mediated by VCAM-1 in the early stage of experimental lumbar disc herination. Taken together, this study provides important preliminary data suggesting that TNF-α plays an important role in the macrophage infiltration. N/A.

  19. Combined Therapies of Modified Taiyi Miraculous Moxa Roll and Cupping for Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dayong; Xue, Jinbiao; Zheng, Xiaoting

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is a kind of syndrome caused by stimulation or pressure of nerve root and cauda equina due to intervertebral disc disorder, fibrous ring rupture, and pulpiform nucleus protrusion. Application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including acupuncture therapy and cupping therapy is unique and effective treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in China. Hence, we try to investigate the combined clinical efficacy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Seventy patients were randomly assigned into combined treatment group (n = 35) and control group (n = 35). The treatment group received combined therapy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy, while control group received acupuncture therapy alone. Diagnostic criteria of TCM syndrome, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and simplified McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) were used to evaluate the therapy. 11 and 13 out of 35 subjects in the combined treatment group had improvement > 75% and between 50% and 75%, respectively. The corresponding number was 2 and 22 of 35 subjects in the acupuncture group. There was significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the treatment group and control group (P = 0.036). The scores of JOA and MPQ detected in the patients of the two groups (P < 0.05) also showed statistically significant differences. Moreover, no serious adverse events occurred in the patients, who received cupping therapy or acupuncture. The combined or alone therapies can effectively improve the treatment efficacy in the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, while the combined therapies show more comparative effectiveness. Furthermore, the combined therapies are potentially safe and cost-effective and also benefit the improvement of short-term pain. Therefore, the combined therapies of the two ancient TCM deserve further clinical applications

  20. Combined Therapies of Modified Taiyi Miraculous Moxa Roll and Cupping for Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chunyue; Gong, Yuefeng; Dong, Dayong; Xue, Jinbiao; Zheng, Xiaoting; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Shao, Jialong; Mi, Daguo

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is a kind of syndrome caused by stimulation or pressure of nerve root and cauda equina due to intervertebral disc disorder, fibrous ring rupture, and pulpiform nucleus protrusion. Application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including acupuncture therapy and cupping therapy is unique and effective treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in China. Hence, we try to investigate the combined clinical efficacy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy on patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Seventy patients were randomly assigned into combined treatment group ( n = 35) and control group ( n = 35). The treatment group received combined therapy of modified Taiyi miraculous moxa roll and cupping therapy, while control group received acupuncture therapy alone. Diagnostic criteria of TCM syndrome, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and simplified McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) were used to evaluate the therapy. 11 and 13 out of 35 subjects in the combined treatment group had improvement > 75% and between 50% and 75%, respectively. The corresponding number was 2 and 22 of 35 subjects in the acupuncture group. There was significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the treatment group and control group ( P = 0.036). The scores of JOA and MPQ detected in the patients of the two groups ( P < 0.05) also showed statistically significant differences. Moreover, no serious adverse events occurred in the patients, who received cupping therapy or acupuncture. The combined or alone therapies can effectively improve the treatment efficacy in the patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, while the combined therapies show more comparative effectiveness. Furthermore, the combined therapies are potentially safe and cost-effective and also benefit the improvement of short-term pain. Therefore, the combined therapies of the two ancient TCM deserve further clinical

  1. Does T2 mapping of the posterior annulus fibrosus indicate the presence of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation? A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Messner, Alina; Stelzeneder, David; Trattnig, Stefan; Welsch, Götz H; Schinhan, Martina; Apprich, Sebastian; Brix, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2017-03-01

    Indicating lumbar disc herniation via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF). Sagittal T2 maps of 313 lumbar discs of 64 patients with low back pain were acquired at 3.0 Tesla (3T). The discs were rated according to disc herniation and bulging. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on median, sagittal T2 maps. T2 values of the AF, in the most posterior 10% (PAF-10) and 20% of the disc (PAF-20), were compared. A significant increase in the T2 values of discs with herniations affecting the imaged area, compared to bulging discs and discs with lateral herniation, was shown in the PAF-10, where no association to the NP was apparent. The PAF-20 exhibited a moderate correlation to the nucleus pulposus (NP). High T2 values in the PAF-10 suggest the presence of disc herniation (DH). The results indicate that T2 values in the PAF-20 correspond more to changes in the NP.

  2. Clinical and instrumental assessment of herniated discs after nucleoplasty: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Alessandro; Galli, Federica; Gurgitano, Martina; Borelli, Anna; Pandolfi, Marco; Caranci, Ferdinando; Magenta Biasina, Alberto M; Pompili, Giovanni G M; Piccolo, Claudia L; Miele, Vittorio; Masciocchi, Carlo; Carrafiello, Giampaolo

    2018-01-19

    The therapy for low back pain boasts different approaches; one of these is nucleoplasty. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of nucleoplasty both by clinical response both by MR imaging evaluation, including even extrusions larger than one third of the spinal canal. Fifty-seven patients were treated with nucleoplasty in our hospital, 11 of these patients accepted both clinical and MRI evaluation after six months from treatment. The clinical evaluation was performed with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain, scored before and after the procedure. MRI evaluation consisted of analysing some imaging parameters of disc protrusions before and after the treatment. In 10 out of 11 (91%) patients, VAS was reduced and only 1 out of 11 (9%) had the same pain after procedure. The mean of decrease of VAS score was 64%. In our population 8/11 (72%) patients had a herniation larger than 1/3 of the sagittal diameter of spinal canal and 100% of them had an improvement with a mean VAS reduction value of 75%. With MRI evaluation, the mean percentage of expulsion before and after treatment was respectively 40% and 34%. The expulsion decreased in 7/13 discs, remained equal in 4/13, and increased in 2/13 discs. Among the 9 larger protrusions, 3 didn't change, 6 reduced with a decrease mean value of 13%. Other MRI parameters didn't change significantly. Our preliminary experience supports the success of coblation on pain relief, aiming to show progressively that this treatment is suitable even in case of great extrusions, which are generally treated only with surgical approach. It's not clear the usefulness of MRI control yet, even if in most of cases we could have found a certain reduction of expulsion degree.

  3. Cost savings associated with prevention of recurrent lumbar disc herniation with a novel annular closure device: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Grahovac, Gordan; Vukas, Duje; Ledic, Darko; Vilendecic, Milorad; McGirt, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    Same-level recurrent disc herniation is a well-defined complication following lumbar discectomy. Reherniation results in increased morbidity and health care costs. Techniques to reduce these consequences may improve outcomes and reduce cost after lumbar discectomy. In a prospective cohort study, we set out to evaluate the cost associated with surgical management of recurrent, same-level lumbar disc herniation following primary discectomy. Forty-six consecutive European patients undergoing lumbar discectomy for a single-level herniated disc at two institutions were prospectively followed with clinical and radiographic evaluations. A second consecutive cohort of 30 patients undergoing 31 lumbar discectomies with implantation of an annular closure device was followed at the same hospitals and same follow-up intervals. Cost estimates for reherniation were modeled on Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and patient work-day losses (indirect cost). Annular closure and control cohorts were matched at baseline. By 2 years follow-up, symptomatic recurrent same-level disc herniation occurred in three (6.5%) patients in the control cohort versus zero (0%) patients in the annular closure cohort. For patients experiencing recurrent disc herniation, mean estimated direct and indirect cost of management of recurrent disc herniation was $34,242 and $3,778, respectively. Use of an annular closure device potentially results in a cost savings of $222,573 per 100 primary discectomy procedures performed (or $2,226 per discectomy), based solely on the reduction of reoperated reherniations when modeled on U.S. Medicare costs. Recurrent disc herniation did not occur in any patients after annular closure within the 12-month follow-up. The reduction in the incidence of reherniation was associated with potentially significant cost savings. Development of novel techniques to prevent recurrent lumbar disc herniation is warranted to decrease the associated morbidity and

  4. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections followed by mechanical diagnosis and therapy to prevent surgery for lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    van Helvoirt, Hans; Apeldoorn, Adri T; Ostelo, Raymond W; Knol, Dirk L; Arts, Mark P; Kamper, Steven J; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2014-07-01

    Prospective cohort study. To report the clinical course of patients with MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation-related radicular noncentralizing pain who received transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) and mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT). Noncentralizing symptoms in patients with lumbar disc herniation are associated with poor outcome. Commonly used treatments for these patients include TESIs and MDT. No study has evaluated the outcome of combining both strategies. Consecutive candidates for herniated lumbar disc surgery with noncentralizing chronic pain were eligible. Patients received TESIs followed by MDT. The primary outcomes were pain severity in the leg, disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica), and global perceived effect (GPE). Outcomes were measured at baseline, discharge, and 12 months. Linear mixed-models and McNemar's tests were used to analyze outcome data. Sixty-nine patients receive TESIs. After TESIs, symptoms were resolved completely in 11 patients (16%). In these patients, symptom resolution was maintained at 12 months. A second subgroup of 32 patients (46%) reported significantly less pain after TESIs and showed centralization with MDT reassessment (significant reductions in leg pain and disability [P < 0.001]) and a satisfaction rate of 90% at 12 months. A third subgroup of 11 patients (16%) reported significantly less pain after TESIs but still showed noncentralization with MDT reassessment (significant reductions in leg pain and disability [P < 0.05] and a satisfaction rate of 50% at 12 months). A fourth subgroup of 15 patients (22%) did not respond on TESIs and received an operative intervention. The results indicate that a course of TESIs followed by MDT may be able to avoid surgery in a substantial proportion of candidates for herniated lumbar disc surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intraregional differences of perioperative management strategy for lumbar disc herniation: is the Devil really in the details?

    PubMed

    Zoia, Cesare; Bongetta, Daniele; Poli, Jacopo C; Verlotta, Mariarosaria; Pugliese, Raffaelino; Gaetani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This study intends to evaluate whether regional common habits or differences in case-volume between surgeons are significative variables in the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar disc herniation. An e-mail survey was sent to all neurosurgeons working in Lombardy, Italy's most populated region. The survey consisted of 17 questions about the perioperative management of lumbar disc herniation. Forty-seven percent (47%) out of 206 Lombard neurosurgeons answered the survey. Although in some respects there is clear evidence in current literature on which is the best practice to adopt for an optimal management strategy, we noticed substantial differences between respondents, not only between hospitals but also between surgeons from the same hospital. Still, no differences were evident in a high vs low case-volume comparison. We identified no regional clusterization as for practical principles in the perioperative management of lumbar disc herniation and neither was case-volume a significative variable. Other causes may be relevant in the variability between the perioperative management and the outcomes achieved by different specialists.

  6. A PHASED REHABILITATION PROTOCOL FOR ATHLETES WITH LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    VanGelder, Leonard H.; Vaughn, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Conservative non-surgical management of a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc (HLD) in athletes is a complex task due to the dramatic forces imparted on the spine during sport participation. The demands placed upon the athlete during rehabilitation and return to sport are unique not only from a sport specific perspective, but also regarding return to the sport strength and conditioning programs utilized for sport preparation. Many prescriptions fail to address postural and motor control faults specific to athletic development, which may prevent full return to sport after suffering a HLD or predispose the athlete to future exacerbations of a HLD. Strength exercises involving squatting, deadlifting, and Olympic power lifts are large components of the typical athlete's conditioning program, therefore some progressions are provided to address potential underlying problems in the athlete's technique that may have contributed to their HLD in the first place. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to propose a framework for rehabilitation that is built around the phases of healing of the disc. Phase I: Non-Rotational/Non-Flexion Phase (Acute Inflammatory Phase), Phase II: Counter rotation/Flexion Phase (Repair Phase), Phase III: Rotational Phase/Power development (Remodeling Phase), and Phase IV: Full return to sport. This clinical commentary provides a theoretical basis for these phases based on available literature as well as reviewing many popular current practice trends in the management of an HLD. The authors recognize the limits of any general exercise rehabilitation recommendation with regard to return to sport, as well as any general strength and conditioning program. It is vital that an individual assessment and prescription is made for every athlete which reviews and addresses movement in all planes of motion under all necessary extrinsic and intrinsic demands to that athlete. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175134

  7. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Grøvle, Lars; Brox, Jens Ivar; Natvig, Bård; Keller, Anne; Soldal, Dag; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-10-01

    The objectives were to estimate the cut-off points for success on different sciatica outcome measures and to determine the success rate after an episode of sciatica by using these cut-offs. A 12-month multicenter observational study was conducted on 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. The cut-off values were estimated by ROC curve analyses using Completely recovered or Much better on a 7-point global change scale as external criterion for success. The cut-off values (references in brackets) at 12 months were leg pain VAS 17.5 (0-100), back pain VAS 22.5 (0-100), Sciatica Bothersomeness Index 6.5 (0-24), Maine-Seattle Back Questionnaire 4.5 (0-12), and the SF-36 subscales bodily pain 51.5, and physical functioning 81.7 (0-100, higher values indicate better health). In conclusion, the success rates at 12 months varied from 49 to 58% depending on the measure used. The proposed cut-offs may facilitate the comparison of success rates across studies.

  8. Three-year postoperative outcomes between MIS and conventional TLIF in1-segment lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Lv, You; Chen, Jingyang; Chen, Jinchuan; Wu, Yuling; Chen, Xiangyang; Liu, Yi; Chu, Zhaoming; Sheng, Luxin; Qin, Rujie; Chen, Ming

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes between minimally invasive (MIS) and conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in treating one-segment lumbar disc herniation (LDH). One-hundred and six patients treated by MIS-TLIF (50 cases) or conventional TLIF (56 cases) were included. Perioperative results were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Radiologic parameters were based on a comparison of preoperative and three-year postoperative lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, sacral slope, the cross-sectional area of the paraspinal muscle and fusion rates. MIS TILF had significantly less blood, shorter operation time, mean return to work time and lower intramuscular pressure compared with the conventional group during the operation. VAS scores for lower back pain and ODI in MIS-TLIF were significantly decreased. The mean cross-sectional area of the paraspinal muscle was significantly decreased after surgery in the conventional TLIF group and no significant intragroup differences were established in the MIS-TLIF group. No significant differences were found in fusion rate, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis and sacral slope. Both MIS and conventional TLIF were beneficial for patients with LDH. However, MIS-TLIF manifests a great improvement in perioperative outcomes, low back pain, disability and preventing paraspinal muscle atrophy during the follow-up period observation.

  9. [ZHENG's gold hook fishing acupuncture for lumbar disc herniation: a clinical observation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bowen; Zhang, Xinghua; Sun, Runjie; Qin, Xiaoguang

    2016-04-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between Zheng's gold hook, fishing acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Sixty patients of LDH were randomly allocated to a gold hook fishing acupuncture group and an EA group, 30 cases in each one. Lumbar Jiaji (EX-1 B 2), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Guanyuanshu (BL 26) and ashi points were selected in the gold hook fishing acupuncture group; after the needles were inserted, the manipulation of gold hook fishing acupuncture was applied at tendon junction points and ashi points. The identical acupoints were selected in the EA group and patients were treated with EA. The treatment was both given once a day; ten days of treatment were taken as one session, and totally 3 sessions were given. The clinical effective rate, visual analogue scale (VAS), low back pain score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were used for efficacy evaluation. The effective rate was 93.3% (28/30) in the gold hook fishing acupuncture group, which was superior to 86.7% (26/30) in the EA group (P < 0.05). The VAS, low back pain score and ODI were both significantly improved after treatment (all P < 0.05), which were more significant in the gold hook fishing acupuncture group (all P < 0.05). ZHENG's gold hook fishing acupuncture could effectively improve the symptoms and sings of LDH, reduce the disability index and improve the quality of life, which is superior to EA.

  10. Scoliosis may increase the risk of recurrence of lumbar disc herniation after microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Chang, Huang-Chou; Wu, Jau-Ching; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Fay, Li-Yu; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Ching-Lan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the risk of recurrence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with scoliosis who underwent microdiscectomy. A series of consecutive patients who underwent microdiscectomy for LDH was retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were young adults younger than 40 years who received microdiscectomy for symptomatic 1-level LDH. An exclusion criterion was any previous spinal surgery, including fusion or correction of scoliosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those with scoliosis and those without scoliosis. The demographic data in the 2 groups were similar. All medical records and clinical and radiological evaluations were reviewed. A total of 58 patients who underwent 1-level microdiscectomy for LDH were analyzed. During the mean follow-up of 24.6 months, 6 patients (10.3%) experienced a recurrence of LDH with variable symptoms. The recurrence rate was significantly higher among the scoliosis group than the nonscoliosis group (33.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the recurrence-free interval in the scoliosis group was short. Young adults (< 40 years) with uncorrected scoliosis are at higher risk of recurrent LDH after microdiscectomy.

  11. Dysuria due to discospondylitis and intervertebral disc herniation in a male alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Marlene; Hirz, Manuela; Schmidt, Martin J; Reinacher, Manfred

    2016-05-31

    Dysuria in camelids is usually associated with the presence of lower urinary tract disease such as urolithiasis. As another differential diagnosis, urine retention may be caused by neurological disturbances resulting from infections of the spinal cord, discospondylitis or trauma. A 2.5-year-old male Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) presented with dysuria due to damage of the lumbosacral intumescence of the spinal cord. On presentation the alpaca was recumbent. Clinical examination revealed abdominal pain, oliguria, leucopenia with neutrophilia, and slightly elevated creatinine kinase. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed an irregularly shaped, dilated urinary bladder with hyperechoic serosa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed discospondylitis of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and herniation of the intervertebral disc between these vertebrae and the spinal cord. Postmortem examination confirmed severe chronic purulent discospondylitis with ventral spondylosis and narrowing of the spinal canal. Urolithiasis could not be verified. Although rare, diseases of the spinal cord should be considered as a differential diagnosis for impaired micturition in camelids.

  12. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH. PMID:26064143

  13. Minimally invasive trans-sacral approach to L5-S1 interbody fusion: Preliminary results from 1 center and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bradley, W Daniel; Hisey, Michael S; Verma-Kurvari, Sunita; Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion has long been used for the treatment of painful degenerative spinal conditions. The anterior approach is not feasible in some patients, and the posterior approach is associated with a risk of neural complications and possibly muscle injury. A trans-sacral technique was developed that allows access to the L5-S1 disc space. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion in a consecutive series of patients from 1 center and to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on this procedure. A literature search using PubMed was performed to identify articles published on trans-sacral axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). Articles reviewed included biomechanical testing, feasibility of the technique, and clinical results. The data from our center were collected retrospectively from charts for the consecutive series, beginning with the first case, of all patients undergoing fusion using the AxiaLIF technique. In most cases, posterior instrumentation was also used. A total of 41 patients with at least 6 months' follow-up were included (mean follow-up, 22.2 months). The primary clinical outcome measures were visual analog scales separately assessing back and leg pain and the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographic assessment of fusion was also performed. In the group of 28 patients undergoing single-level AxiaLIF combined with posterior fusion, the visual analog scale scores assessing back and leg pain and mean Oswestry Disability Index scores improved significantly (P < .01). In the remaining 13 patients, back pain improved significantly with a trend for improvement in leg pain. Reoperation occurred in 19.5% of patients; in half of these, reoperation was not related to the anterior procedure. A review of the literature found that the AxiaLIF technique was similar to other fusion techniques with respect to biomechanical properties and produced acceptable clinical outcomes, although results

  14. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  15. Use of an Alternative Surgical Corridor in Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion at the L5-S1 Segment: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Nam-Su; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Han-Dong

    2017-09-11

    Technical report. To demonstrate the use of an alternative surgical corridor in oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) at the L5-S1 segment. OLIF L5-S1 is essentially performed through the central disk space between the bifurcations of the iliac vessels, which is sometimes difficult due to the vascular structures that obstruct the surgical field. Another concern is retrograde ejaculation following superior hypogastric plexus injury in male patients. The alternative surgical corridor involves the lateral disk space external to the left iliac vessels. The patient position and the retroperitoneal approach are similar to those used in the conventional OLIF L5-S1. The left iliac vessels are identified and mobilized medially to the midline of the L5-S1 disk space. The vascular structures are then protected using the conventional OLIF 51 retractor system. Six patients underwent OLIF L5-S1 through the alternative lateral surgical corridor. The L5-S1 disk spaces were always exposed sufficiently for disk preparation and cage insertion. The postoperative radiographs showed a satisfactory L5-S1 reconstruction with good cage position. There were no perioperative complications during the surgical access and reconstruction procedures. When the central approach to the L5-S1 disk space poses a risk of vascular or superior hypogastric plexus injury, use of a lateral approach external to the left iliac vessels can be an alternative method to perform OLIF L5-S1.

  16. Prognostic factors for non-success in patients with sciatica and disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grøvle, Lars; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Soldal, Dag; Grotle, Margreth

    2012-09-22

    Few studies have investigated prognostic factors for patients with sciatica, especially for patients treated without surgery. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with non-success after 1 and 2 years of follow-up and to test the prognostic value of surgical treatment for sciatica. The study was a prospective multicentre observational study including 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. Potential prognostic factors were sociodemographic characteristics, back pain history, kinesiophobia, emotional distress, pain, comorbidity and clinical examination findings. Study participation did not alter treatment considerations for the patients in the clinics. Patients reported on the questionnaires if surgery of the disc herniation had been performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with non-success, defined as Maine-Seattle Back Questionnaire score of ≥5 (0-12) (primary outcome) and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index ≥7 (0-24) (secondary outcome). Rates of non-success were at 1 and 2 years 44% and 39% for the main outcome and 47% and 42% for the secondary outcome. Approximately 1/3 of the patients were treated surgically. For the main outcome variable, in the final multivariate model non-success at 1 year was significantly associated with being male (OR 1.70 [95% CI; 1.06 - 2.73]), smoker (2.06 [1.31 - 3.25]), more back pain (1.0 [1.01 - 1.02]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.09 [1.03 - 1.15]), reduced tendon reflex (1.62 [1.03 - 2.56]), and not treated surgically (2.97 [1.75 - 5.04]). Further, factors significantly associated with non-success at 2 years were duration of back problems >; 1 year (1.92 [1.11 - 3.32]), duration of sciatica >; 3 months (2.30 [1.40 - 3.80]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.10 [1.03 - 1.17]) and kinesiophobia (1.04 [1.00 - 1.08]). For the secondary outcome variable

  17. Prognostic factors for non-success in patients with sciatica and disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated prognostic factors for patients with sciatica, especially for patients treated without surgery. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with non-success after 1 and 2 years of follow-up and to test the prognostic value of surgical treatment for sciatica. Methods The study was a prospective multicentre observational study including 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. Potential prognostic factors were sociodemographic characteristics, back pain history, kinesiophobia, emotional distress, pain, comorbidity and clinical examination findings. Study participation did not alter treatment considerations for the patients in the clinics. Patients reported on the questionnaires if surgery of the disc herniation had been performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with non-success, defined as Maine–Seattle Back Questionnaire score of ≥5 (0–12) (primary outcome) and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index ≥7 (0–24) (secondary outcome). Results Rates of non-success were at 1 and 2 years 44% and 39% for the main outcome and 47% and 42% for the secondary outcome. Approximately 1/3 of the patients were treated surgically. For the main outcome variable, in the final multivariate model non-success at 1 year was significantly associated with being male (OR 1.70 [95% CI; 1.06 − 2.73]), smoker (2.06 [1.31 − 3.25]), more back pain (1.0 [1.01 − 1.02]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.09 [1.03 − 1.15]), reduced tendon reflex (1.62 [1.03 − 2.56]), and not treated surgically (2.97 [1.75 − 5.04]). Further, factors significantly associated with non-success at 2 years were duration of back problems >; 1 year (1.92 [1.11 − 3.32]), duration of sciatica >; 3 months (2.30 [1.40 − 3.80]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.10 [1.03 − 1.17]) and kinesiophobia (1.04 [1

  18. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  19. Do preoperative fear avoidance model factors predict outcomes after lumbar disc herniation surgery? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alodaibi, Faris A; Minick, Kate I; Fritz, Julie M

    2013-11-18

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) surgery is usually recommended when conservative treatments fail to manage patients' symptoms. However, many patients undergoing LDH surgery continue to report pain and disability. Preoperative psychological factors have shown to be predictive for postoperative outcomes. Our aim was to systematically review studies that prospectively examined the prognostic value of factors in the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM), including back pain, leg pain, catastrophizing, anxiety, fear-avoidance, depression, physical activity and disability, to predict postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing LDH surgery. We performed a systematic literature review of prospective studies that measured any FAM factors preoperatively to predict postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing LDH surgery. Our search databases included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. We assessed the quality of each included study using a certain quality assessment list. Degree of agreement between reviewers on quality assessment was examined. Results related to FAM factors in the included studies were summarized. Thirteen prospective studies met our inclusion criteria. Most studies were considered high quality. Heterogeneity was present between the included studies in many aspects. The most common FAM factors examinered were baseline pain, disability and depression. In, general, depression, fear-avoidance behaviors, passive pain coping, and anxiety FAM factors appeared to have negative influence on LDH surgical outcome. Baseline back pain and leg pain appeared to have differing prognostic value on LDH surgical outcomes. FAM factors seem to influence LDH surgical outcomes. Patients with high levels of depression, anxiety and fear-avoidance behaviors are more likely to have poor outcomes following LDH surgery. Conversely, high levels of leg pain, but not back pain seem to be predictor for favorable LDH surgery outcome. More research is needed to determine the exact role of FAM factors on

  20. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a belief elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Jadad, Alejandro R; Tomlinson, George A

    2017-09-18

    Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) is common for back pain and has been reported to increase the risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but there is no high quality evidence about this. In the absence of good evidence, clinicians can have knowledge and beliefs about the risk. Our purpose was to determine clinicians' beliefs regarding the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Using a belief elicitation design, 47 clinicians (16 chiropractors, 15 family physicians and 16 spine surgeons) that treat patients with back pain from primary and tertiary care practices were interviewed. Participants' elicited incidence estimates of acute LDH among a hypothetical group of patients with acute low back pain treated with and without chiropractic SMT, were used to derive the probability distribution for the relative risk (RR) for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Chiropractors expressed the most optimistic belief (median RR 0.56; IQR 0.39-1.03); family physicians expressed a neutral belief (median RR 0.97; IQR 0.64-1.21); and spine surgeons expressed a slightly more pessimistic belief (median RR 1.07; IQR 0.95-1.29). Clinicians with the most optimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT reduces the incidence of acute LDH by about 60% (median RR 0.42; IQR 0.29-0.53). Those with the most pessimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT increases the incidence of acute LDH by about 30% (median RR 1.29; IQR 1.11-1.59). Clinicians' beliefs about the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT varied systematically across professions, in spite of a lack of scientific evidence to inform these beliefs. These probability distributions can serve as prior probabilities in future Bayesian analyses of this relationship.

  1. Accuracy of straight leg raise and slump tests in detecting lumbar disc herniation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    M'kumbuzi, V R P; Ntawukuriryayo, J T; Haminana, J D; Munyandamutsa, J; Nzakizwanimana, E

    2012-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Straight Leg Raise (SLR) and slump tests in detecting Lumbar Disc Herniation (LDH). Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. Two referral hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda: King Faisal Hospital and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali. All patients aged 18 to 70 who had an MRI and who were experiencing pain in the low back, leg or low back and leg. Closed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) investigations for each patient as witnessed by a radiologist who read the image were recorded by the first researcher and blinded to other researchers. The SLR and slump tests were performed three times on each patient by independent testers who were blinded to the result of the first test. The test order was randomized for each subject and the two tests were separated by one day wash-out period. Data were analyzed using a 2x2 table to ascertain diagnostic statistics including sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals. Thirty three from a possible 37 patients mean age 41.58 ± 10 years completed all of the tests. The sensitivity of SLR was greater (0.875; CI: 0.690-0.957) than that of the slump tests (0.800; CI: 0.6087-0.911) (p = 0.01) in detecting LDH. The specificity for SLR was 0.429 (CI: 0.158-0.750) and for slump was 0.714 (CI: 0.359-0.918). Substantial agreement (K = 0.774) was obtained between the SLR and MRI. The SLR was more accurate in detecting LDH. Further validation of this pilot finding is required by studying a larger sample.

  2. [Clinical outcomes of cervical disc herniation treated by posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy].

    PubMed

    Chen, B L; Li, Y J; Lin, Y P; Du, Y X; Zhao, S; Su, G Y

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PPECD) for cervical disc herniation. Methods: A total of 23 patients who underwent PPECD for cervical disc herniation at Department of Spine Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine from August 2014 to April 2016 were reviewed. The mean age of the 17 males and 6 females was 49.5 years (range from 31 to 61 years). All patients had unilateral upper limb radiating symptoms, 13 patients with right upper limb radiating pain and 10 patients with left upper limb radiation pain, 17 patients with neck pain symptoms. Responsible segment: left C(4-5) 1 case, right C(4-5) 2 cases, left C(5-6) 4 cases, right C(5-6) 8 cases, left C(6-7) 5 cases, right C(6-7) 3 example.Operating time, length of hospitalization, complications, neck and arm Visual analog scale(VAS), and Neck Disability Index(NDI) were evaluated. The excellent and good rate of surgery was evaluated by using the Odom criteria. Harrison method was used to measure cervical curvature. The Cobb angle of the surgical segment was measured on the X-ray, and the range of motion (ROM) was calculated. The changes of the cervical curvature and the surgical segment ROM were compared pre- and post-operation. Results: The operation time was 94.1 min (range from 80 to 150 min). The average length of hospital stay was 4.8 days. The mean follow-up period was 23.5 months (range from 15 to 35 months). The preoperative arm VAS score was 6.95±0.88, 1-week postoperative arm VAS score was 2.09±0.67, the last follow-up arm VAS score was 1.04±0.98. The preoperative neck VAS score was 3.04±0.77, 1-week postoperative neck VAS score was 1.52±0.51 and the last follow-up neck VAS score was 0.61±0.78. The 1-week postoperative and last follow-up arm and neck VAS scores were significantly reduced compared with pre-operation ( P <0.01). Compared with 1 week after surgery, the last follow-up of the arm and neck VAS score

  3. Nuclear factor-kappa B decoy suppresses nerve injury and improves mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Munetaka; Inoue, Gen; Gemba, Takefumi; Watanabe, Tomoko; Ito, Toshinori; Koshi, Takana; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Yamashita, Masaomi; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a gene transcriptional regulator of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the transduction efficiency of NF-kappaB decoy to dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as well as the decrease in nerve injury, mechanical allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model. Forty rats were used in this study. NF-kappaB decoy-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was injected intrathecally at the L5 level in five rats, and its transduction efficiency into DRG measured. In another 30 rats, mechanical pressure was placed on the DRG at the L5 level and nucleus pulposus harvested from the rat coccygeal disc was transplanted on the DRG. Rats were classified into three groups of ten animals each: a herniation + decoy group, a herniation + oligo group, and a herniation only group. For behavioral testing, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated. In 15 of the herniation rats, their left L5 DRGs were resected, and the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was evaluated immunohistochemically compared to five controls. The total transduction efficiency of NF-kappaB decoy-FITC in DRG neurons was 10.8% in vivo. The expression of CGRP and ATF-3 was significantly lower in the herniation + decoy group than in the other herniation groups. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly suppressed in the herniation + decoy group. NF-kappaB decoy was transduced into DRGs in vivo. NF-kappaB decoy may be useful as a target for clarifying the mechanism of sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation.

  4. Microstructural Changes in Compressed Nerve Roots Are Consistent With Clinical Symptoms and Symptom Duration in Patients With Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weifei; Liang, Jie; Ru, Neng; Zhou, Caisheng; Chen, Jianfeng; Wu, Yongde; Yang, Zong

    2016-06-01

    A prospective study. To investigate the association between microstructural nerve roots changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and clinical symptoms and their duration in patients with lumbar disc herniation. The ability to identify microstructural properties of the nervous system with DTI has been demonstrated in many studies. However, there are no data regarding the association between microstructural changes evaluated using DTI and symptoms assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and their duration. Forty consecutive patients with foraminal disc herniation affecting unilateral sacral 1 (S1) nerve roots were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography was performed on the S1 nerve roots. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using an ODI questionnaire for each patient, and the duration of clinical symptoms was noted based on the earliest instance of leg pain and numbness. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated from tractography images. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (P < 0.001). No notable difference in ADC was observed between compressed nerve roots and contralateral nerve roots (P = 0.517). In the compressed nerve roots, a significant negative association was observed between FA values and ODI and symptom duration. However, an obvious positive association was observed between ODI and ADC values and duration on the compressed side. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed sacral nerves in patients with lumbar disc herniation and leg pain, indicating that the microstructure of the nerve root has been damaged. 3.

  5. Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. Methods A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1) and the other group did (group 2). There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Results Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome) defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months. Conclusion Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and/or radiculitis. PMID:23091395

  6. Oblique Sagittal Images Prevent Underestimation of the Neuroforaminal Stenosis Grade Caused by Disc Herniation in Cervical Spine MRI.

    PubMed

    Kintzelé, Laurent; Rehnitz, Christoph; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-André

    2018-06-06

     To identify whether standard sagittal MRI images result in underestimation of the neuroforaminal stenosis grade compared to oblique sagittal MRI images in patients with cervical spine disc herniation.  74 patients with a total of 104 cervical disc herniations compromising the corresponding nerve root were evaluated. Neuroforaminal stenosis grades were evaluated in standard and oblique sagittal images by one senior and one resident radiologist experienced in musculoskeletal imaging. Oblique images were angled 30° towards the standard sagittal plane. Neuroforaminal stenosis grades were classified from 0 (no stenosis) to 3 (high grade stenosis).  Average neuroforaminal stenosis grades of both readers were significantly lower in standard compared to oblique sagittal images (p < 0.001). For 47.1 % of the cases, one or both readers reported a stenosis grade, which was at least 1 grade lower in standard compared to oblique sagittal images. There was also a significant difference when looking at patients who had neurological symptoms (p = 0.002) or underwent cervical spine surgery subsequently (p = 0.004). Interreader reliability, as measured by kappa value, and accordance rates were better for oblique sagittal images (0.94 vs. 0.88 and 99 % vs. 93 %).  Standard sagittal images tend to underestimate neuroforaminal stenosis grades compared to oblique sagittal images and are less reliable in the evaluation of disc herniations within the cervical spine MRI. In order to assess the potential therapeutic consequence, oblique images should therefore be considered as a valuable adjunct to the standard MRI protocol for patients with a radiculopathy.   · Neuroforaminal stenosis grades are underestimated in standard compared to oblique sagittal images. · Interreader reliability is higher for oblique sagittal images. · Oblique sagittal images should be performed in patients with a cervical radiculopathy. · Kintzele L, Rehnitz C, Kauczor H et

  7. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Surgical Treatment of Spontaneous Cervical Intradural Disc Herniations: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Arunprasad; de Los Reyes, Nova Kristine M; Walters, Jerry; Kazemi, Noojan

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is a rare occurrence with limited and disparate information available regarding its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. However, its accurate detection is vital for planning surgical treatment. In this review of the literature, we collected data from all cervical IDHs described to date. Particular attention was paid to diagnostic findings, surgical approach, and causation for cervical IDH, especially at the cervicothoracic junction. A review for cases of cervical IDH was performed via the following search criteria: ("neck"[MeSH Terms] OR "neck"[All Fields] OR "cervical"[All Fields]) AND intradural[All Fields] AND disc[All Fields]. Thirty-seven cases of cervical disc herniation were identified. Demographic variables identified included age, sex, cervical level of herniation, history of associated cervical trauma, presence of Brown-Séquard syndrome, Horner syndrome, and other neurologic findings, radiographic findings, direction of surgical approach, and postoperative outcomes. A total of 37 cases of cervical IDH were identified. Most of the cases occurred at the lower levels of the cervical spine, with 35.1% at the C5-C6 level, followed by 24.3% at C6-C7, and lower still at other levels. Of the patients reviewed, 44.4% had a previous history of trauma before manifestation of symptom, with the majority being spontaneous IDH with no previous history of trauma or spine surgery. Brown-Séquard syndrome was present in 43.2% of the patients, whereas 10.8% of patients experienced Horner syndrome. The most common presentations of IDH included quadriplegia, finger/gait ataxia, radiculopathy, and nuchal pain. The degree of neurologic recovery was not associated with patient age. Most of the cervical IDHs in the literature were treated surgically via an anterior approach, but a larger portion of patients who underwent a posterior approach had improved recovery. Cervical IDH is a rare event, with this review of the

  8. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Interlaminar and Transforaminal Epidural Injection in Patients With Axial Pain due to Cervical Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Transforaminal (TF) approach is preferred by physician to interlaminar (IL) approach because it can deliver injectates directly around nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, which is regarded as main pain sources. Axial neck pain is originated from sinuvertebral nerve located in ventral epidural spaces, which has been described to be related to central or paramedian disc herniation. It is very questionable that TF injection is also more effective than IL injection in the patients with axial neck or interscapular pain. This study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of cervical epidural injection in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation and to compare the clinical outcomes between TF and IL approaches. Fifty-six and 52 patients who underwent IL and TF epidural injections, respectively, for axial neck/interscapular pain due to central or paramedian cervical disc herniation were included. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were compared between both groups at 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Successful pain relief was defined if a 50% or more reduction of NRS score was achieved in comparison with pretreatment one. Successful functional improvement was defined if at least a 40% reduction of NDI was obtained. Overall, 79 (73.1%) and 57 (52.8%) among 108 patients showed successful pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. Seventy-six (70.4%) and 52 (48.1%) had successful functional improvement at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The IL and TF groups showed no significant difference in proportion of successful results of NRS 2 weeks (73.2% vs 67.3%) and 8 weeks (48.2% vs 48.1%). Also, no significant difference was obtained in proportion of successful NDI between 2 groups at 2 weeks (75.0% vs 71.2%) and 8 weeks (53.6% vs 51.9%). Cervical epidural injection showed favorable results in 2 weeks and moderate results in 8 weeks in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation. IL and TF showed no significant difference in clinical

  9. The cauda equina syndrome in pregnant woman with a massive disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Antón Capitán, B; Malillos Torán, M

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common cause of medical consultation. Although back pain is very common, the incidence of low back pain secondary to lumbar disk herniation in pregnancy is low (1: 10,000). Cauda equina syndrome from lumbar disk herniation is a serious complication. The delay in diagnosis and treatment can be a cause of chronic disability secondary to neurological sequelae. Numerous cases of disk herniation in pregnancy have been reported, however the association of a cauda equina syndrome as a result of disk herniation is rare. A case is presented of cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman at 12-week gestation. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of flexion-distraction and drop techniques on disorders and Ferguson’s angle in female patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyunju; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Kwansub; Jeong, Mugeun

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effects of the flexion-distraction technique and the drop technique on disorders and on Ferguson’s angle in female patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty female patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were divided into an experimental group (n=15) treated with flexion-distraction and drop techniques and a control group (n=15) treated with spinal decompression therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over an eight-week period. [Results] In the comparison of changes within each group after treatment, both groups showed statistically significant decreases in disorders and in Ferguson’s angle. [Conclusion] Flexion-distraction and drop techniques may be an effective intervention to improve disorders and Ferguson’s angle in female patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:29706701

  11. Facet joint geometry and intervertebral disk degeneration in the L5-S1 region of the vertebral column in German Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Häni, Hansjürg; Busato, André R; Lang, Johann

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between facet joint geometry and intervertebral disk degeneration in German Shepherd Dogs. 25 German Shepherd Dogs and 11 control dogs of similar body weight and condition. Facet joint angles in the caudal portion of the lumbar region of the vertebral column (L5-S1) were measured by use of computed tomography, and the intervertebral discs were evaluated microscopically. The relationship between facet joint geometry and disk degeneration was evaluated by use of statistical methods. German Shepherd Dogs had significantly more facet joint tropism than control dogs, but an association with disk degeneration was not found. However, German Shepherd Dogs had a different facet joint conformation, with more sagittally oriented facet joints at L5-L6 and L6-L7 and a larger angle difference between the lumbar and lumbosacral facet joints, compared with control dogs. A large difference between facet joint angles at L6-L7 and L7-S1 in German Shepherd Dogs may be associated with the frequent occurrence of lumbosacral disk degeneration in this breed.

  12. Catabolic cytokine expression in degenerate and herniated human intervertebral discs: IL-1β and TNFα expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, Christine Lyn; Hoyland, Judith Alison; Freemont, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Current evidence implicates intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and herniation as major causes, although the pathogenesis is poorly understood. While several cytokines have been implicated in the process of IVD degeneration and herniation, investigations have predominately focused on Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). However, to date no studies have investigated the expression of these cytokines simultaneously in IVD degeneration or herniation, or determined which may be the predominant cytokine associated with these disease states. Using quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry we investigated gene and protein expression for IL-1β, TNFα and their receptors in non-degenerate, degenerate and herniated human IVDs. IL-1β gene expression was observed in a greater proportion of IVDs than TNFα (79% versus 59%). Degenerate and herniated IVDs displayed higher levels of both cytokines than non-degenerate IVDs, although in degenerate IVDs higher levels of IL-1β gene expression (1,300 copies/100 ng cDNA) were observed compared to those of TNFα (250 copies of TNFα/100 ng cDNA). Degenerate IVDs showed ten-fold higher IL-1 receptor gene expression compared to non-degenerate IVDs. In addition, 80% of degenerate IVD cells displayed IL-1 receptor immunopositivity compared to only 30% of cells in non-degenerate IVDs. However, no increase in TNF receptor I gene or protein expression was observed in degenerate or herniated IVDs compared to non-degenerate IVDs. We have demonstrated that although both cytokines are produced by human IVD cells, IL-1β is expressed at higher levels and in more IVDs, particularly in more degenerate IVDs (grades 4 to 12). Importantly, this study has highlighted an increase in gene and protein production for the IL-1 receptor type I but not the TNF receptor type I in degenerate IVDs. The data thus suggest that although both cytokines may be involved in the

  13. Hemifacial hyperhidrosis associated with ipsilateral/contralateral cervical disc herniation myelopathy. Functional considerations on how compression pattern determines the laterality

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Satoshi; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sweating is an important mechanism for ensuring constant thermoregulation, but hyperhidrosis may be disturbing. We present five cases of hemifacial hyperhidrosis as a compensatory response to an/hypohidrosis caused by cervical disc herniation. All the patients complained of hemifacial hyperhidrosis, without anisocoria or blepharoptosis. Sweat function testing and thermography confirmed hyperhidrosis of hemifacial and adjacent areas. Neck MRI showed cervical disc herniation. Three of the patients had lateral compression with well-demarcated hypohidrosis below the hyperhidrosis on the same side as the cervical lesion. The rest had paramedian compression with poorly demarcated hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis on the contralateral side. Although MRI showed no intraspinal pathological signal intensity, lateral dural compression might influence the circulation to the sudomotor pathway, and paramedian compression might influence the ipsilateral sulcal artery, which perfuses the sympathetic descending pathway and the intermediolateral nucleus. Sweat function testing and thermography should be performed to determine the focus of the hemifacial hyperhidrosis, and the myelopathy should be investigated on both sides. PMID:25014051

  14. What were the advantages of microendoscopic discectomy for lumbar disc herniation comparing with open discectomy: a meta-analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaoping; Wei, Jianxun; Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of micro-endoscopic discectomy (MED) and open discectomy (OD) for lubmar disc herniation (LDH). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing MED with OD for LDH were searched comprehensively in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library. Relevant studies retrieved, data extracted and the quality of included studies were independently performed by two authors. RevMan software (Version 5.2.0) was used to analyse and synthesis relevant data of the included studies. Nine RCTs involving 774 patients were obtained and reported the relevant outcome measures. Compared with OD group, there were significant difference in the general operation indicators including operation time, blood loss, site of incision, hospital stay and time of return to work, biochemical indexes including C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MED group. Meanwhile, there were no difference in effective rate, complication including total complications, dural leaks occurred and recurrence of the disc herniation, compared MED group with OD group. MED had slighter trauma, milder blood loss and shorter healing time than OD. The results demonstrated MED has great efficacy and safety comparable to OD. So we think that MED can be used routinely for LDH patients, especially the patients of old and intolerable major surgery. Meanwhile, it is necessary for surgeon to master indication and contraindication of MED and improve the operative technique. PMID:26770340

  15. Comparative Effectivenesses of Pulsed Radiofrequency and Transforaminal Steroid Injection for Radicular Pain due to Disc Herniation: a Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jungwon

    2016-08-01

    Transforaminal Epidural steroid injections (TFESI) have been widely adopted to alleviate and control radicular pain in accord with current guidelines. However, sometimes repeated steroid injections have adverse effects, and thus, this prospective randomized trial was undertaken to compare the effectivenesses of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) administered to a targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and TFESI for the treatment of radicular pain due to disc herniation. Subjects were recruited when first proved unsuccessful (defined as a score of > 4 on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-10 mm) and of > 30% according to the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) or the Neck Disability Index (NDI)). Forty-four patients that met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The 38 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PRF (PRF group; n = 19) or additional TFESI (TFESI group; n = 19) and were then followed for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. To evaluate pain intensity were assessed by VAS. ODI and NDI were applied to evaluate functional disability. Mean VAS scores for cervical and lumbar radicular pain were significantly lower 12 weeks after treatment in both study groups. NDI and ODI scores also declined after treatment. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the PRF and TFESI groups in terms of VAS, ODI, or NDI scores at any time during follow-up. PRF administered to a DRG might be as effective as TFESI in terms of attenuating radicular pain caused by disc herniation, and its use would avoid the adverse effects of steroid.

  16. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (≥50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  17. [Biomechanical analysis on the correlation between iliac rotation displacement and L(4,5) disc degeneration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ning-ning; Shen, Guo-quan; He, Shui-yong; Guo, Ru-bao

    2016-05-01

    To study the biomechanical relationship between iliac rotation displacement and L(4,5) disc degeneration, and to provide clinical evidences for the prevention and treatment of L(4,5) disc degeneration and herniation. From March 2012 to February 2014,68 patients with lumbar disc herniation combined with sacroiliac joint disorders were selected. Among them, 42 patients with L(4,5) disc herniation combined with sacroiliac joint disorders included 22 males and 20 females, ranging in age from 19 to 63 years old, with an average of (51.78 +/- 20.18) years old, and the duration of the disease ranged from 1 to 126 months with an average of (11.18 +/- 9.23) months. Twenty-six patients with L5S1 disc herniation combined with sacroiliac joint disorders included 11 males and 15 females, ranging in age from18 to 65 years old with an average of (45.53 +/- 27.23) years old, and the duration of the disease ranged from 0.5 to 103 months with an average of (11.99 +/- 12.56) months. Sixty-eight anteroposterior lumbar radiographs, 68 lateral lumbar radiographs,and 68 pelvic plain films were taken. The degree of lumbar scoliosis, pelvic tilt,and disc thickness were measured. The correlation between pelvic tilt and lumbar scoliosis ,lumbar scoliosis and disc thickness were studied by using linear and regression methods. The hiomechanical analysis was performed. There was a positive correlation between pelvic tilt and lumbar scoliosis in patients with L(4,5) disk herniation (R=0.49, P=0.00). There was a causal relationship and good linear proportional relationship (Y=3.05+1.07X, P=0.00) in the two variables. There was a negative correlation between lumbar scoliosis and intervertebral space in male patients with L (4,5) disk herniation (R = -0.50, P=0.01). There was a causal relationship and good linear proportional relationship in the two variables (Y=13.09-0.27X, P=0.02). But there was a positive correlation between lumbar scoliosis and intervertebral space in male patients with L5S1

  18. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    Koszela, Kamil; Krukowska, Sylwia; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-05-23

    Back pain may be caused by many factors. In many cases it is difficult to unambiguously determine a cause of the pathology, which can involve various structures in the spine. In this paper we will discuss the symptoms associated with the degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc, which involve, among others, its bulging, dislocation and pressure on the surrounding structures. These problems require an adequate clinical and imaging diagnostics in order to implement an appropriate treatment. In the first place, it should be based on the conservative methods (such as: pharmacotherapy, rehabilitation and lifestyle changes). Only in the absence of improvement it is recommended to consider a surgical treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The study was performed in 46 patients (age range: 19-85), including 26 women and 20 men. On the basis of imaging, all patients showed the presence of a slipped disc with disc herniation. The patients were treated conservatively. For pain assessment was used the The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain and The Visual- Analogue Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic efficacy of specialized rehabilitation in the spinal pain syndrome in a discopathy with a spinal disc herniation of an intervertebral disc. The rehabilitation of patients with a back pain due to the presence of herniated nucleus pulposus has a significant analgesic effect. In the case of a presence of the herniated nucleus pulposus, the rehabilitation should be considered in a first place. If no improvement, a possible surgery should be considered. An important element of a conservative treatment is an effective rehabilitation, which is of vital economic importance, because a therapy including surgery usually requires subsequent rehabilitation and is much more expensive.

  19. The Professional Athlete Spine Initiative: outcomes after lumbar disc herniation in 342 elite professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wellington K; McCarthy, Kathryn J; Savage, Jason W; Roberts, David W; Roc, Gilbert C; Micev, Alan J; Terry, Michael A; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Schafer, Michael F

    2011-03-01

    Although clinical outcomes after lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) in the general population have been well studied, those in elite professional athletes have not. Because these athletes have different measures of success, studies on long-term outcomes in this patient population are necessary. This study seeks to define the outcomes after an LDH in a large cohort of professional athletes of American football, baseball, hockey, and basketball. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 342 professional athletes from four major North American sports from 1972 to 2008 diagnosed with an LDH were identified via a previously published protocol. Two hundred twenty-six players underwent lumbar discectomy, and 116 athletes were treated nonoperatively. Only those players who had at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Functional outcome measures as defined by successful return-to-play (RTP), career games, and years played for each player cohort were recorded both before and after treatment. Conversion factors based on games/regular season and expected career length (based on individual sport) were used to standardize the outcomes across each sport. Using Statistical Analysis Software v. 9.1, outcome measures were compared in each cohort both before and after treatment using linear and mixed regression analyses and Cox proportional hazards models. A Kaplan-Meier survivorship curve was calculated for career length after injury. Statistical significance was defined as p<.05. After the diagnosis of an LDH, professional athletes successfully returned to sport 82% of the time, with an average career length of 3.4 years. Of the 226 patients who underwent surgical treatment, 184 successfully returned to play (81%), on average, for 3.3 years after surgery. Survivorship analysis demonstrated that 62.3% of players were expected to remain active 2 years after diagnosis. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome in the surgical and nonoperative cohorts. Age at

  20. Cauda Equina Syndrome Due to Vigorous Back Massage With Spinal Manipulation in a Patient With Pre-Existing Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Chen, Qian; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) resulting from acute lumbar disc herniation due to spinal massage is extremely rare. We present a case of CES caused by the acute worsening of a lumbar disc herniation after a vigorous back massage that included spinal manipulation. After vigorous back massage with spinal manipulation performed by a massage therapist, a 38-yr-old male patient experienced CES with severe numbness in both lower limbs, inability to walk due to weakness of bilateral lower limbs, and incontinence of urine and feces. The magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography scan results showed that the L4-5 disc herniated down into the spinal canal, extensively compressing the ventral dural sac. The patient was successfully treated with an emergency operation including laminectomy, spinal canal decompression, discectomy, interbody fusion, and pedicle screw fixation. The muscle power in both lower limbs of the patient recovered rapidly to support standing only 1 wk later. Moreover, he regained continence of urine and feces. In conclusion, this case brings us novel knowledge that spinal massage or manipulation may worsen pre-existing disc herniation causing CES, and a timely emergency surgery is necessary and effective for treatment of CES-related symptoms.

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Treated with Percutaneous Discectomy: Comparative Study with Microendoscopic Discectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wengui; Wu Xiaotao; Guo Jinhe

    We assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED). A retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PLD (n = 129) or MED (n = 101) in a single hospital from January 2000 to March 2002. All patients were followed up with MacNab criteria and self-evaluation questionnaires comprising the Oswestry Disability Index and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Several statistical methods were used for analyses of the data, and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.more » A total of 104 patients (80.62%) with PLD and 82 patients (81.19%) with MED were eligible for analyses, with a mean follow-up period of 6.64 {+-} 0.67 years and 6.42 {+-} 0.51 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, number of lesions, major symptoms and physical signs, and radiological findings. According to the MacNab criteria, 75.96% in the PLD group and 84.15% in the MED group achieved excellent or good results, respectively, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0402). With the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires, the average scores and minimal disability, respectively, were 6.97 and 71.15% in the PLD group and 4.89 and 79.27% in the MED group. Total average scores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were 75.88 vs. 81.86 in PLD group vs. MED group (p = 0.0582). The cost and length of hospitalization were higher or longer in MED group, a statistically significant difference (both p < 0.0001). Long-term complications were observed in two patients (2.44%) in the MED group, no such complications were observed in the PLD group. Both PLD and MED show an acceptable long-term efficacy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Compared with MED patients, long-term satisfaction is slightly lower in the PLD patients

  2. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections influence Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classification in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery.

    PubMed

    van Helvoirt, Hans; Apeldoorn, Adri T; Knol, Dirk L; Arts, Mark P; Kamper, Steven J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2016-04-27

    Prospective cohort study. Although lumbar radiculopathy is regarded as a specific diagnosis, the most effective treatment strategy is unclear. Commonly used treatments include transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) and Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT), but no studies have investigated the effectiveness of this combination. MDT differentiates pain centralization (C) from non-centralization (NC), which indicates good vs. poor prognostic validity respectively. The main aims were 1) to determine changes in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classifications after transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery and 2) to evaluate differences in short and long term outcomes for patients with different pain response classifications. Candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery were assessed with a MDT protocol and their pain response classified as centralizing or peripheralizing. For this study,only patients were eligible who showed a peripheralizing pain response at intake. All patients then received TESIs and were reassessed and classified using the MDT protocol, into groups according to pain response (resolved, centralizing, peripheralizing with less pain and peripheralising with severe pain). After receiving targeted treatment based on pain response after TESIs, ranging from advice, MDT or surgery, follow-up assessments were completed at discharge and at 12 months. The primary outcomes were disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] for Sciatica), pain severity in leg (visual analogue scale [VAS], 0-100) and global perceived effect (GPE). Linear mixed-models were used to determine between-groups differences in outcome. A total of 77 patients with lumbar disc herniation and peripheralizing symptoms were included. Patients received an average of 2 (SD 0.7) TESIs. After TESIs, 17 patients (22%) were classified as peripheralizing with continuing severe pain.These patients

  3. Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Causing Progressive Quadriparesis After Spinal Manipulation Therapy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hwan-Seo; Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is an extremely rare condition, comprising only 0.27% of all disc herniations. Three percent of IDHs occur in the cervical, 5% in the thoracic, and over 92% in the lumbar spinal canal. There have been a total of 31 cervical IDHs reported in the literature. The pathogenesis and imaging characteristics of IDH are not fully understood. A preoperative diagnosis is key to facilitating prompt intradural exploration in patients with ambivalent findings, as well as in preventing reoperation. The purpose of reporting our case is to remind clinicians to consider the possibility of cervical IDH during spinal manipulation therapy in patient with chronic neck pain.The patient signed informed consent for publication of this case report and any accompanying image. The ethical approval of this study was waived by the ethics committee of Chonbuk National University Hospital, because this study was case report and the number of patients was <3.A 32-year-old man was transferred our emergency department with progressive quadriparesis. He had no history of trauma, but had received physical therapy with spinal manipulation for chronic neck pain over the course of a month. The day prior, he had noticed neck pain and tingling in the bilateral upper and lower extremities during the manipulation procedure. The following day, he presented with bilateral weakness of all 4 extremities, which rendered him unable to walk. Neurological examination demonstrated a positive Hoffmann sign and ankle clonus bilaterally, hypoesthesia below the C5 dermatome, 3/5 strength in the bilateral upper extremities, and 2/5 strength in the lower extremities. This motor weakness was progressive, and he further complained of voiding difficulty.Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large, central disc herniations at C4-C5 and C5-C6 that caused severe spinal cord compression and surrounding edema. We performed C4-C5-C6 anterior cervical

  4. The impact of generalized joint laxity (GJL) on the posterior neck pain, cervical disc herniation, and cervical disc degeneration in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Oh, Su Chan; Yeom, Jin S; Shin, Ji-Hoon; Park, Sam-Guk; Shin, Duk-Seop; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Lee, Gun Woo

    2016-12-01

    Generalized joint laxity (GJL) can have a negative impact on lumbar spine pathology, including low back pain, disc degeneration, and disc herniation, but the relationship between GJL and cervical spine conditions remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between GJL and cervical spine conditions, including the prevalence of posterior neck pain (PNP), cervical disc herniation (CDH), and cervical disc degeneration (CDD), in a young, active population. Retrospective 1:2 matched cohort (case-control) study from prospectively collected data PATIENT SAMPLE: Of a total of 1853 individuals reviewed, 73 individuals with GJL (study group, gruop A) and 146 without GJL (control group, Group B) were included in the study according to a 1:2 case-control matched design for age, sex, and body mass index. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence and intensity of PNP at enrollment based on a visual analogue scale score for pain. The secondary outcome measures were (1) clinical outcomes as measured with the neck disability index (NDI) and 12-item short form health survey (SF-12) at enrollment, and (2) radiological outcomes of CDH and CDD at enrollment. We compared baseline data between groups. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to compare the 2 groups in terms of the outcome measures. The prevalence and intensity of PNP were significantly greater in group A (patients with GJL) than in group B (patients without GJL) (prevalence: p=.02; intensity: p=.001). Clinical outcomes as measured with NDI and SF-12 did not differ significantly between groups. For radiologic outcomes, the prevalence of CDD was significantly greater in group A than in group B (p=.04), whereas the prevalence of CDH did not differ significantly between groups (p=.91). The current study revealed that GJL was closely related to the prevalence and intensity of PNP, suggesting that GJL may be a causative factor for PNP. In addition, GJL may contribute to the occurrence of CDD, but not CDH. Spine

  5. Anterior transcorporeal approach of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong-Liang; Chu, Lei; Chen, Liang; Yang, Jun-Song

    2016-05-01

    With the continuous development of the spinal endoscopic technique in recent years, percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) has emerged, which bridges the gap between conservative therapy and traditional surgery and has been mainly divided into the anterior transdiscal approach and the posterior interlaminar access. Because of the relatively greater violation to the anterior nucleus pulposus, there is a higher potential of postoperative intervertebral space decrease in the anterior transdiscal approach than in the posterior interlaminar access. In addition, when the herniated lesion is migrated upward or downward behind the vertebral body, both approaches, and even anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, are impractical, and corpectomy is commonly considered as the only efficacious treatment. Anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy could enable an individual and adjustable trajectory within the vertebral body under different conditions of disc herniation preserving the motion of adjacent segment, especially in a migrated or sequestered lesion. This report aimed to first describe a novel anterior transcorporeal approach under endoscopy in which we addressed a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels. A technical report was carried out. A 37-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and weakness of extremities for 9 months. On neurologic examination, tingling sensation and numbness were not obvious. However, the power of extremities was dramatically decreased at a level of 3. Hoffmann sign was positive in the bilateral hand. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge herniation of the C4-C5 disc compressing the median area of the spinal cord. Besides the C4-C5 disc herniation, preoperative computer tomography (CT) also detected that the herniated disc had partial calcification. A novel anterior transcorporeal approach of PECD, through the vertebral body of C5, was performed to address a migrated disc herniation at the C4-C5 levels

  6. Cervical stability training with and without core stability training for patients with cervical disc herniation: A randomized, single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Buyukturan, B; Guclu-Gunduz, A; Buyukturan, O; Dadali, Y; Bilgin, S; Kurt, E E

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at evaluating and comparing the effects of cervical stability training to combined cervical and core stability training in patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation. Fifty patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation were included in the study, randomly divided into two groups as cervical stability and cervical-core stability. Training was applied three times a week in three phases, and lasted for a total duration of 8 weeks. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexor muscles, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia were assessed. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexors, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia improved in both groups following the training sessions (p < 0.05). Comparison of the effectiveness of these two training methods revealed that the cervical stability group produced a greater increase in the right transverse diameter of M. Longus Colli (p < 0.05). However, static endurance of trunk muscles and kinesiophobia displayed better improvement in the cervical-core stability group (p < 0.05). Cervical stability training provided benefit to patients with cervical disc herniation. The addition of core stability training did not provide any additional significant benefit. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of combining other techniques with cervical stability training in patients with cervical disc herniation. Both cervical stability training and its combination with core stability training were significantly and similarly effective on neck pain and neck muscle endurance in patients with cervical disc herniation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. Urinary 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) concentrations in dogs with acute spinal cord injury due to intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Sangster, A M; Zheng, L; Bentley, R T; Shi, R; Packer, R A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urinary 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of acrolein, as a novel biomarker in acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) due to intervertebral disc herniation in dogs. Urine from 10 client-owned dogs with ASCI collected at presentation and 10 control dogs was analyzed for 3-HPMA. The median urinary 3-HPMA concentration in ASCI dogs was significantly higher than in control dogs, but was not correlated with the severity of ASCI. The median urinary 3-HPMA concentration in intact dogs was higher than in neutered dogs. Higher urinary 3-HPMA concentrations in dogs after ASCI support a role for acrolein, a cytotoxic by-product of lipid peroxidation, in canine ASCI. Urinary 3-HPMA could be used as a biomarker in future clinical trials to measure the effect of therapeutic intervention of reducing acrolein after ASCI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Chiropractic care and risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a population-based self-controlled case series study.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Cesar A; Tomlinson, George A; Côté, Pierre; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Jadad, Alejandro R; Cassidy, J David

    2017-10-16

    Chiropractic care is popular for low back pain, but may increase the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Low back pain is a common early (prodromal) symptom of LDH and commonly precedes LDH diagnosis. Our objective was to investigate the association between chiropractic care and acute LDH with early surgical intervention, and contrast this with the association between primary care physician (PCP) care and acute LDH with early surgery. Using a self-controlled case series design and population-based healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, we investigated all adults with acute LDH requiring emergency department (ED) visit and early surgical intervention from April 1994 to December 2004. The relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery in exposed periods after chiropractic visits relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals, and compared with the relative incidence of acute LDH with early surgery following PCP visits. 195 cases of acute LDH with early surgery (within 8 weeks) were identified in a population of more than 100 million person-years. Strong positive associations were found between acute LDH and both chiropractic and PCP visits. The risk for acute LDH with early surgery associated with chiropractic visits was no higher than the risk associated with PCP visits. Both chiropractic and primary medical care were associated with an increased risk for acute LDH requiring ED visit and early surgery. Our analysis suggests that patients with prodromal back pain from a developing disc herniation likely seek healthcare from both chiropractors and PCPs before full clinical expression of acute LDH. We found no evidence of excess risk for acute LDH with early surgery associated with chiropractic compared with primary medical care.

  9. [Surgical treatment for incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Sun, Peng; Li, Xing-Xue

    2014-05-01

    To explore the reason, key diagnosic point and therapeutic method of the incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation. From July 2007 to May 2012, clinical data of 11 patients with incision fat liquefaction or early infection after lumbar discectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43.1 years, and the mean time of incisions fat colliquation or infection was 5 days and a half after operation. The main clinical features included local wound pain aggravating, fervescence, fresh seepage in the wound, and blood inflammatory index increased, etc. The wound could heal at the first treatment stage or not was an evaluation standard of curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average period of 21 months. The wounds of 10 cases healed at the first stage without recurrence and complications. In 1 case infected by staphylococcus aureus, distal part of the wound present local red, swelling and with wave motion at 2 months after operation, staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed after puncture and bacterial culture, and 1 thrum was found after local incision. The wound healed after change dressings for 1 week, without recurrence after followed up for 13 months. Preventing the risk factors before operation, minimizing invasive technique during operation reasonable antibiotics application for the lumbar operation reguiring placement objects, and correctly handling with wound after operation could prevent and reduce the incidence of incisions fat liquefaction or infection after operation of lumbar disc herniation. For incision fat liquefaction or infection, early diagnosis, debridement, VSD negative pressure irrigation and drainage, to choosing sensitive antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity, may contribute to wound early healing and decrease complication.

  10. Clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for high-grade l5-s1 spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Deviren, V; Berven, S; Kleinstueck, F; Bradford, D S

    2001-10-15

    technique is used for the treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis. According to the clinical and radiographic results from this study, partial reduction and posterior fibula interbody fusion supplemented with pedicle screw instrumentation is an effective technique for select patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis at L5-S1.

  11. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  12. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male-

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. Materials and Methods We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. Results The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. Conclusion In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD. PMID:23918557

  13. Inpatient or Outpatient Rehabilitation after Herniated Disc Surgery? – Setting-Specific Preferences, Participation and Outcome of Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Löbner, Margrit; Luppa, Melanie; Konnopka, Alexander; Meisel, Hans J.; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Stengler, Katarina; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine rehabilitation preferences, participation and determinants for the choice of a certain rehabilitation setting (inpatient vs. outpatient) and setting-specific rehabilitation outcomes. Methods The longitudinal observational study referred to 534 consecutive disc surgery patients (18–55 years). Face-to-face baseline interviews took place about 3.6 days after disc surgery during acute hospital stay. 486 patients also participated in a follow-up interview via telephone three months later (dropout-rate: 9%). The following instruments were used: depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), pain intensity (numeric analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey), subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE-scale) as well as questions on rehabilitation attendance, return to work, and amount of sick leave days. Results The vast majority of patients undergoing surgery for a herniated disc attended a post-hospital rehabilitation treatment program (93%). Thereby two-thirds of these patients took part in an inpatient rehabilitation program (67.9%). Physical, psychological, vocational and health-related quality of life characteristics differed widely before as well as after rehabilitation depending on the setting. Inpatient rehabilitees were significantly older, reported more pain, worse physical quality of life, more anxiety and depression and a worse subjective prognosis of gainful employment before rehabilitation. Pre-rehabilitation differences remained significant after rehabilitation. More than half of the outpatient rehabilitees (56%) compared to only one third of the inpatient rehabilitees (33%) returned to work three months after disc surgery (p<.001). Conclusion The results suggest a “pre-selection” of patients with better health status in outpatient rehabilitation. Gaining better knowledge about setting-specific selection processes may help optimizing rehabilitation allocation procedures and

  14. Inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation after herniated disc surgery? - Setting-specific preferences, participation and outcome of rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Löbner, Margrit; Luppa, Melanie; Konnopka, Alexander; Meisel, Hans J; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Stengler, Katarina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-01-01

    To examine rehabilitation preferences, participation and determinants for the choice of a certain rehabilitation setting (inpatient vs. outpatient) and setting-specific rehabilitation outcomes. The longitudinal observational study referred to 534 consecutive disc surgery patients (18-55 years). Face-to-face baseline interviews took place about 3.6 days after disc surgery during acute hospital stay. 486 patients also participated in a follow-up interview via telephone three months later (dropout-rate: 9%). The following instruments were used: depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), pain intensity (numeric analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey), subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE-scale) as well as questions on rehabilitation attendance, return to work, and amount of sick leave days. The vast majority of patients undergoing surgery for a herniated disc attended a post-hospital rehabilitation treatment program (93%). Thereby two-thirds of these patients took part in an inpatient rehabilitation program (67.9%). Physical, psychological, vocational and health-related quality of life characteristics differed widely before as well as after rehabilitation depending on the setting. Inpatient rehabilitees were significantly older, reported more pain, worse physical quality of life, more anxiety and depression and a worse subjective prognosis of gainful employment before rehabilitation. Pre-rehabilitation differences remained significant after rehabilitation. More than half of the outpatient rehabilitees (56%) compared to only one third of the inpatient rehabilitees (33%) returned to work three months after disc surgery (p<.001). The results suggest a "pre-selection" of patients with better health status in outpatient rehabilitation. Gaining better knowledge about setting-specific selection processes may help optimizing rehabilitation allocation procedures and improve rehabilitation effects such as return

  15. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system.

    PubMed

    Faber, G S; Chang, C C; Kingma, I; Dennerlein, J T; van Dieën, J H

    2016-04-11

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IMC system (Xsens/MVN), L5/S1 moments were estimated based on the upper-body segment kinematics using a top-down inverse dynamics analysis, and GRFs were estimated based on full-body segment accelerations. As a reference, a laboratory measurement system was utilized: GRFs were measured with Kistler force plates (FPs), and L5/S1 moments were calculated using a bottom-up inverse dynamics model based on FP data and lower-body kinematics measured with an optical motion capture system (OMC). Correspondence between the OMC+FP and IMC systems was quantified by calculating root-mean-square errors (RMSerrors) of moment/force time series and the interclass correlation (ICC) of the absolute peak moments/forces. Averaged over subjects, L5/S1 moment RMSerrors remained below 10Nm (about 5% of the peak extension moment) and 3D GRF RMSerrors remained below 20N (about 2% of the peak vertical force). ICCs were high for the peak L5/S1 extension moment (0.971) and vertical GRF (0.998). Due to lower amplitudes, smaller ICCs were found for the peak asymmetric L5/S1 moments (0.690-0.781) and horizontal GRFs (0.559-0.948). In conclusion, close correspondence was found between the ambulatory IMC-based and laboratory-based estimates of back load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A potential role for cell-based therapeutics in the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Ganey, Timothy M; Meisel, Hans Joerg

    2002-10-01

    Lower back pain and disc degeneration negatively affect quality of life and impose an enormous financial burden. An extensive body of scientific work has evolved that characterizes the disc, demonstrating spinal anatomy and morphology that contribute to risk and likely promote failure. Ultimately, matrix failure is responsible for mechanical failure, which in turn results in spinal compromise anatomically and subsequent pain. One intervening approach to breaking this sequence has been to repopulate the anatomy with autologous disc chondrocytes--cells capable of restoring the matrix and retaining the mechanical balance by which the disc functions. This strategy has been implemented both in patients and in animal models, and early results, although preliminary, support the premise as a positive approach.

  17. Effects of segmental traction therapy on lumbar disc herniation in patients with acute low back pain measured by magnetic resonance imaging: A single arm clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Noureddin; Akbarov, Parvin; Rahnama, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is considered as one of the most frequent disorders, which about 80% of adults experience in their lives. Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a cause for acute LBP. Among conservative treatments, traction is frequently used by clinicians to manage LBP resulting from LDH. However, there is still a lack of consensus about its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of segmental traction therapy on lumbar discs herniation, pain, lumbar range of motion (ROM), and back extensor muscles endurance in patients with acute LBP induced by LDH. Fifteen patients with acute LBP diagnosed by LDH participated in the present study. Participants undertook 15 sessions of segmental traction therapy along with conventional physiotherapy, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. Lumbar herniated mass size was measured before and after the treatment protocol using magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, pain, lumbar ROM and back muscle endurance were evaluated before and after the procedure using clinical outcome measures. Following the treatment protocol, herniated mass size and patients' pain were reduced significantly. In addition, lumbar flexion ROM showed a significant improvement. However, no significant change was observed for back extensor muscle endurance after the treatment procedure. The result of the present study showed segmental traction therapy might play an important role in the treatment of acute LBP stimulated by LDH.

  18. Affective, anxiety, and substance-related disorders in patients undergoing herniated disc surgery.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Margrit; Luppa, Melanie; Matschinger, Herbert; Meisel, Hans J; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Toussaint, René; Angermeyer, Matthias C; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-11-01

    At present only a small number of studies have investigated psychiatric comorbidity in disc surgery patients. Objectives of this study are (1) to examine the prevalence rate of comorbid affective, anxiety, and substance-related disorders in nucleotomy patients in comparison to the German general population and (2) to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and socio-demographic and illness-related characteristics. The study refers to 349 consecutive disc surgery patients (response rate 87%) between the age of 18 and 55 years. The final study sample consists of 239 lumbar and 66 cervical nucleotomy patients. Face-to-face interviews were conducted approximately 3.45 days (SD 3.170) after disc surgery, during hospital stay. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-DIA-X). The corresponding data of the German general population were derived from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS). 12-Month prevalence rates of any affective, anxiety or substance-related disorders range between 33.7% in cervical and 23.5% in lumbar disc surgery patients. Four-week prevalence rates of any affective, anxiety or substance disorder vary between 13.2% in cervical and 14.0% in lumbar nucleotomy patients. Disc surgery patients suffer more often from affective disorders and illicit substance abuse than the general population. Significant associations were found between psychiatric comorbidity and gender, as well as pain intensity. Disc surgery patients show a higher risk to suffer from mental disorders than the general population. The assessment of psychiatric distress and the assistance by mental health professionals should be considered during hospital and rehabilitation treatment.

  19. [The application of general magnetic therapy for the rehabilitation of the patients following the surgical treatment of herniated intervertebral discs].

    PubMed

    Voronina, D D; Kulikov, A G; Luppova, I A; Yarustovskaya, O V

    The objective of the present work was to rehabilitate more efficiently the patients who had undergone the surgical treatment for herniated discs in the lumbosacral spine by applying general magnetic therapy during the combined treatment. A total of 73 patients underwent the medical examination and treatment. The patients matched for age and sex presenting with similar clinical symptoms were divided into two groups. All of them received initial therapy that included medication, therapeutic physical exercises, and aquatic therapy. The patients in the main study group were given, in addition, general magnetic therapy. All the patients had their lower back examined before and after the treatment; moreover, they were asked to report their pain intensity based on the visual-analogue scale. The patients had their spinal and lower extremity temperature measured by means of thermal scanning with the use of remote infrared thermography and the non-invasive thermal imaging to check temperature fluctuations. To evaluate the psycho-emotional condition of the patients and to obtain their quality of life characteristics, they were asked to fill up the WAM (wellbeing, activity, mood) questionnaire; moreover, the disability Index was determined using the Oswestry questionnaire (version 2.1.), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was employed. 75.7% of the patients in the main group had the positive treatment results in the form of improvement of the affected movement skills, sensory processing abilities, and reflex functions as compared with the 58,3% success rate among the patients in the control groupd. Based on the data of non-invasive infrared thermal imaging, the patients of the main group had significantly lower post-treatment topical hyperthermia in the region of the surgical intervention in comparison with the controls which suggested the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory process and the manifestations of the muscular-tonic syndrome. Their temperature

  20. Surgical versus non-operative treatment for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Lin; Guo, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Hu, Hao-Yu; Zheng, Yi-Li; Wang, Xue-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of surgical versus non-operative treatment on the physical function and safety of patients with lumbar disc herniation. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched from initiation to 15 May 2017. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated surgical versus non-operative treatment for patients with lumbar disc herniation were selected. The primary outcomes were pain and side-effects. Secondary outcomes were function and health-related quality of life. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled mean difference with 95% confidence interval. A total of 19 articles that involved 2272 participants met the inclusion criteria. Compared with non-operative treatment, surgical treatment was more effective in lowering pain (short term: mean difference = -0.94, 95% confidence interval = -1.87 to -0.00; midterm: mean difference = -1.59, 95% confidence interval = -2.24 to -9.94), improving function (midterm: mean difference = -7.84, 95% confidence interval = -14.00 to -1.68; long term: mean difference = -12.21, 95% confidence interval = -23.90 to -0.52) and quality of life. The 36-item Short-Form Health Survey for physical functions (short term: mean difference = 6.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.43 to 12.08) and bodily pain (short term: mean difference = 5.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.40 to 10.45) was also utilized. No significant difference was observed in adverse events (mean difference = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.28 to 2.38). Low-quality evidence suggested that surgical treatment is more effective than non-operative treatment in improving physical functions; no significant difference was observed in adverse events. No firm recommendation can be made due to instability of the summarized data.

  1. Does the Level of Cervical Disc Herniation Surgery Affect Performance-based Outcomes in National Football League Athletes?

    PubMed

    Mai, Harry T; Burgmeier, Robert J; Mitchell, Sean M; Hecht, Andrew C; Maroon, Joseph C; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-12-01

    Retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of a cervical disc herniation (CDH) procedure will uniquely impact performance-based outcomes in elite athletes of the National Football League (NFL). Comparative assessments of postsurgical outcomes in NFL athletes with CDH at different levels are unknown. Further, the surgical decision-making for these types of injuries in professional football athletes remains controversial. NFL players with a CDH injury at a definitive cervical level were identified through a review of publicly available archives. Injuries were divided into upper- (C2-C4) and lower-level (C4-T1) CDH. The impact on player outcomes was determined by comparing return to play statistics and calculating a "Performance Score" for each player on the basis of pertinent statistical data, both before and after surgery. A total of 40 NFL athletes met inclusion criteria. In the upper-level group, 10 of 15 (66.6%) players successfully returned to play an average of 44.6 games over 2.6 years. The lower-level cohort had 18 of 25 (72%) players return to play with an average of 44.1 games over 3.1 years. There was no significant difference in the rate of return to play (P = 0.71). Postsurgical performance scores of the upper and lower-level groups were 1.47 vs. 0.69 respectively, with no significant difference between these groups (P = 0.06). Adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation occurred in 10% of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion patients. In 50% of foraminotomy patients, a subsequent fusion was required. A uniquely high percentage of upper-level disc herniations develop in NFL athletes, and although CDH injuries present career threatening implications, an upper-level CDH does not preclude a player from successfully returning to play at a competitive level. In fact, these athletes showed comparable postsurgical performance to those athletes who underwent CDH procedures at lower cervical levels. 4.

  2. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation and radiculitis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Boswell, Mark V

    2011-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. To assess the effectiveness of fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis with local anesthetic with or without steroids. The available literature on the effectiveness of epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to disc herniation is highly variable. One hundred twenty patients suffering with low back and lower extremity pain with disc herniation and radiculitis were randomized to one of the two groups: group I received caudal epidural injections with an injection of local anesthetic, lidocaine 0.5%, 10 mL; group II patients received caudal epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine, 9 mL, mixed with 1 mL of steroid. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake were utilized with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. The percentage of patients with significant pain relief of 50% or greater and/or improvement in functional status with 50% or more reduction in ODI scores was seen in 70% and 67% in group I and 77% and 75% in group II with average procedures per year of 3.8 ± 1.4 in group I and 3.6 + 1.1 in group II. However, the relief with first and second procedures was significantly higher in the steroid group. The number of injections performed was also higher in local anesthetic group even though overall relief was without any significant difference among the groups. There was no difference among the patients receiving steroids. Caudal epidural injection with local anesthetic with or without steroids might be effective in patients with disc herniation or radiculitis. The present evidence illustrates potential superiority of steroids compared with local anesthetic at 1-year follow-up.

  3. Reliability of cervical radiculopathy, its congruence between patient history and medical imaging evidence of disc herniation and its role in surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Mostofi, Keyvan; Khouzani, Reza Karimi

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cervical disc herniation is estimated about 5.5/100,000, and they lead to surgical intervention in 26 %. Cervical disc herniation causes radiculopathy, which defines by radicular pain and sensory deficit and maybe weakness following the path of the affected nerves. Classically, cervical radiculopathy is expected to follow its specific dermatome-C4, C5, C6, C7 and C8. We investigate patients who present with discrepancy between classical radiculopathy and imaging findings in the daily practice of our profession. We reviewed the medical records of 102 patients with cervical radiculopathy, caused by cervical disc herniation. All patients had surgery. We found an apparent discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings, patients complained of radiculopathy on one side, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or CT scan finding on the other side in ten patients (10.2 %). We did not found any other abnormalities in preoperative and post-operative period. All patients underwent cervical diskectomy via anterior approach. Six weeks after surgery eight patients (80 %) recovered completely, and 3 months after all ten patients (100 %) had been relieved totally. The aim of this paper is review of this medical concept and management of radiculopathy in patients with this discrepancy. As far as we know, the subject has not yet been touched in this light in medical literature. The discrepancy between clinical radiculopathy and disc herniation level on MRI or on CT scan is not rare. Management of this discrepancy requires further investigation to avoid missing diagnosis and treatment failure.

  4. The error of L5/S1 joint moment calculation in a body-centered non-inertial reference frame when the fictitious force is ignored.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Chang, Chien-Chi; Hsiang, Simon M

    2013-07-26

    In ergonomics studies, linked segment models are commonly used for estimating dynamic L5/S1 joint moments during lifting tasks. The kinematics data input to these models are with respect to an arbitrary stationary reference frame. However, a body-centered reference frame, which is defined using the position and the orientation of human body segments, is sometimes used to conveniently identify the location of the load relative to the body. When a body-centered reference frame is moving with the body, it is a non-inertial reference frame and fictitious force exists. Directly applying a linked segment model to the kinematics data with respect to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame will ignore the effect of this fictitious force and introduce errors during L5/S1 moment estimation. In the current study, various lifting tasks were performed in the laboratory environment. The L5/S1 joint moments during the lifting tasks were calculated by a linked segment model with respect to a stationary reference frame and to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame. The results indicate that applying a linked segment model with respect to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame will result in overestimating the peak L5/S1 joint moments of the coronal plane, sagittal plane, and transverse plane during lifting tasks by 78%, 2%, and 59% on average, respectively. The instant when the peak moment occurred was delayed by 0.13, 0.03, and 0.09s on average, correspondingly for the three planes. The root-mean-square errors of the L5/S1 joint moment for the three planes are 21Nm, 19Nm, and 9Nm, correspondingly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hybrid Corpectomy and Disc Arthroplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament and Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huang-Chou; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Fay, Li-Yu; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Ching-Lan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2016-11-01

    The combination of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) has been demonstrated to be effective for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, the combination of ACCF and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for 3-level CSM has never been addressed. Consecutive patients (>18 years of age) with CSM caused by segmental ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were patients who underwent hybrid ACCF and CDA surgery for symptomatic 3-level CSM with OPLL and DDD. Medical and radiologic records were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 15 patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 18.1 ± 7.42 months. Every patient had hybrid surgery composed of 1-level ACCF (for segmental-type OPLL causing spinal stenosis) and 1-level CDA at the adjacent level (for DDD causing stenosis). All clinical outcomes, including visual analogue scale of neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index, Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, and Nurick scores of myelopathy, demonstrated significant improvement at 12 months after surgery. All patients (100%) achieved arthrodesis for the ACCF (instrumented) and preserved mobility for CDA (preoperation 6.2 ± 3.81° vs. postoperation 7.0 ± 4.18°; P = 0.579). For patients with multilevel CSM caused by segmental OPLL and DDD, the hybrid surgery of ACCF and CDA demonstrated satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes. Moreover, although located next to each other, the instrumented ACCF construct and CDA still achieved solid arthrodesis and preserved mobility, respectively. Therefore, hybrid surgery may be a reasonable option for the management of CSM with OPLL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disc Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A.; Mendez, C.; Somers, J.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study reported that the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNPs occurred well into astronauts' careers or in somecases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. In addition, when an HNP occurs after spaceflight, is it related to previous spaceflight exposure? The purpose of this study was to investigate whether multiple missions, sex, age, vehicle landing dynamics, and flight duration affect the risk of developing an HNP usinga competing risks model. The outcome of the study will inform the Human System Risk Board assessment of back pain, inform the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the previous dataset, which contained events up to December 31, 2006.

  7. Prevention of development of postoperative dysesthesia in transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for intracanalicular lumbar disc herniation: floating retraction technique.

    PubMed

    Cho, J Y; Lee, S-H; Lee, H-Y

    2011-10-01

    Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) has become a routine surgical procedure because it is minimally invasive. Perioperative complications such as dural injury, infection, nerve root irritation and recurrence can occur not only with PELD, but also with conventional open microsurgery. In contrast, post-operative dysesthesia (POD) due to existing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) injury is a unique complication of PELD. When POD occurs, even if the traversing root has been successfully decompressed, it hinders swift recovery and delays the return to daily routines. Thus, prevention of POD is the key to successful and widespread use of PELD. From January 2006 to December 2008, 154 patients underwent percutaneous endoscopic discectomy by floating retraction technique at 160 disc levels under local anesthesia. This approach towards the superomedial border of the lower pedicle and the cannula can be placed by gentle retraction of the root with perineural fat instead of direct compression of dorsal root ganglion. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, 0-10 point) for radicular pain and low back pain, and using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional status. Perioperative complications and recurrence were reviewed. The mean age was 45 years, the mean operative time was 36 min and the mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. The mean hospital stay for endoscopic discectomy was 1.8 days. No patient underwent repeated PELD or convert microsurgery by incomplete removal of the ruptured particle. All patients experienced early relief of symptoms, as determined by VAS and ODI. No patient developed POD. 1 patient experienced dural injury. There was 1 case of discitis. The recurrence rate was 1.95% (3 patients). Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for intracanalicular lumbar disc herniation is a safe and effective procedure. The floating retraction technique is recommended to avoid development of

  8. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests].

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher risk for cervical herniated intervertebral disc in physicians: A retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study with claims analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Su, Shih-Bin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-10-01

    There is no study about cervical herniated intervertebral disc (cervical HIVD) in physicians in the literature; therefore, we conceived a retrospective nationwide, population-based cohort study to elucidate the topic. We identified 26,038 physicians, 33,057 non-physician healthcare providers (HCPs), and identical numbers of non-HCP references (i.e., general population). All cohorts matched a 1:1 ratio with age and gender, and each were chosen from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We compared cervical HIVD risk among physicians, nonphysician HCPs, and non-HCP references and performed a follow-up between 2007 and 2011. We also made comparisons among physician specialists. Both physicians and nonphysician HCPs had higher cervical HIVD risk than non-HCP references (odds ratio [OR]: 1.356; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.162-1.582; OR: 1.383; 95% CI: 1.191-1.605, respectively). There was no significant difference of cervical HIVD risk between physicians and nonphysician HCPs. In the comparison among physician specialists, orthopedists had a higher cervical HIVD risk than other specialists, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.547; 95% CI: 0.782-3.061). Physicians are at higher cervical HIVD risk than the general population. Because unknown confounders could exist, further prospective studies are needed to identify possible causation.

  10. Isocentric Navigation of Percutaneous Endoscopic Transforaminal Discectomy at the L5/S1 Level in Difficult Puncture Cases: A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Wang, Teng; Hu, Shuo; Guan, Xiaofei; Gu, Xin; He, Shisheng

    2017-05-01

    Accurate puncture during percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy at the L5/S1 level in cases with high iliac crest and narrow foramen were difficult, even though the difficulties of foraminoplasty could be overcome by advanced instruments like reamers. The report aimed to describe an isocentric navigation technique with a definite pathway in difficult puncture cases at the L5/S1 level. Technical note. Difficult punctures were defined as over 10 punctures of the needle before obtaining an ideal puncture location by senior surgeons with experience of over 500 percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy (PETD) cases. A total of 124 punctures were recorded in 11 difficult puncture cases at the L5/S1 level. A definite pathway was created by an isocentric navigation theory, which was based on a surface locator and an arch-guided device. The surface locator was used to rapidly and accurately identify the puncture target with the recognition of the surrounding rods under fluoroscopy. The arch-guided device can ensure that the puncture target always remains at the center of a virtual sphere. We recorded the puncture times, fluoroscopy exposure times, radiation exposure time, operative time, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Japanese Orthopeadic Association (JOA) score, and patient satisfaction. The average puncture times were significantly reduced to 1.27 with the arch-guided device compared with conventional puncture methods (P < 0.05). The average operative time was 90.09 ± 11.00 minutes and the fluoroscopy times were 53.36 ± 5.85. The radiation exposure time was 50.91 ± 5.20 seconds. VAS score of leg and back pain, as well as JOA score, were all significantly improved after surgery (P < 0.05). The excellent and good rate of satisfaction was 90.91%. No major complications, including cerebral fluid leakage, surgical infection, and postoperative nerve root injury, were recorded in this small sample. This was a small-sample study with a short follow-up. The

  11. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  12. Similar outcome despite slight clinical differences between lumbar radiculopathy induced by lateral versus medial disc herniations in patients without previous foraminal stenosis: a prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mérot, Oriane A; Maugars, Yves M; Berthelot, Jean-Marie M

    2014-08-01

    It has been claimed that lumbar radiculopathy induced by foraminal disc herniations had poorer outcome and different clinical features, including: 1-more progressive onset, but shorter duration between the first sign and request of medical care; 2-more severe radiculopathy; 3-less frequent/severe back pain; 4-less limitation of straight leg raising (SLR); 5-more frequent neurologic deficiencies; 6-poorer outcome. To check whether this still holds true when including only patients without other reasons for foraminal stenosis, that is, whether patients with medial disc herniations had different features and outcome than those with more lateral disc herniations. All patients hospitalized to treat a lumbar radiculopathy within a 6-month period in two French rheumatology units in 2012 were included in this prospective study each time computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging had already been performed and showed clear disc bulging/herniation but no features of medial or lateral spinal stenosis. Fifty-nine patients (31 males, 49 with sciatica only) were included: 31 (53%) had medial disc herniations and 28 (47%) had more lateral herniations (posterolateral in 3, foraminal in 20, and far lateral in 5). Outcome was assessed by a phone call 1 year after the baseline assessment using a standardized questionnaire. Patients were asked whether they experienced a relapse of their radiculopathy after discharge from the hospital; whether they had been operated or not; whether they felt it had improved or not; whether they felt cured or not; to assess their level of pain radiating in the leg when standing on a 0 to 10 verbal scale; and how long they could walk. Features of patients with medial disc herniations were compared with patients with more lateral herniations. No significant differences according to the location of herniations were noticed for the speed of radiculopathy onset, time elapsed since onset, back pain (both lying or standing), and leg pain (both

  13. The Impact of Workers' Compensation on Outcomes of Surgical and Nonoperative Therapy for Patients with a Lumbar Disc Herniation SPORT

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Blood, Emily A.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Pransky, Glenn S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective randomized and observational cohorts. Objective To compare outcomes of patients with and without workers' compensation who had surgical and nonoperative treatment for a lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH). Summary of Background Data Few studies have examined the association between worker's compensation and outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment. Methods Patients with at least 6 weeks of sciatica and a lumbar IDH were enrolled in either a randomized trial or observational cohort at 13 US spine centers. Patients were categorized as workers' compensation or nonworkers' compensation based on baseline disability compensation and work status. Treatment was usual nonoperative care or surgical discectomy. Outcomes included pain, functional impairment, satisfaction and work/disability status at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results Combining randomized and observational cohorts, 113 patients with workers' compensation and 811 patients without were followed for 2 years. There were significant improvements in pain, function, and satisfaction with both surgical and nonoperative treatment in both groups. In the nonworkers' compensation group, there was a clinically and statistically significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that remained significant at 2 years. However, in the workers' compensation group, the benefit of surgery diminished with time; at 2 years no significant advantage was seen for surgery in any outcome (treatment difference for SF-36 bodily pain [−5.9; 95% CI: −16.7–4.9] and physical function [5.0; 95% CI: −4.9–15]). Surgical treatment was not associated with better work or disability outcomes in either group. Conclusion Patients with a lumbar IDH improved substantially with both surgical and nonoperative treatment. However, there was no added benefit associated with surgical treatment for patients with workers' compensation at 2 years while those in the nonworkers' compensation group had

  14. A narrative review of non-operative treatment, especially traditional Chinese medicine therapy, for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Xu, Haidong; Wang, Juntao; Liu, Bin; Sun, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIDH), as the main contributor to low back pain and sciatica, imposes a heavy burden on both the individual and society. Non-operative treatment or conservative treatment has proven effective in alleviation of the symptoms of LIDH and are considered to be a first-line choice for most cases. Active lifestyle, physical therapy, complementary and alternative medicine therapy or Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy, and pharmacotherapy are routinely used as effective non-operative treatment for LIDH patients. However, how to choose one or several conservative treatments with higher efficacy, less side effects, minimal injury, and low cost is still a challenge for doctors and LIDH patients. Furthermore, there are some national characteristics for some conservative treatments in different countries, which bring difficulties for the widespread use of these methods. Here we initiated a search on the non-operative treatment especially TCM therapy for LIDH mainly using PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and Chinese biomedicine database since the 1980s with no restriction of language. According to these related references, we gave a narrative review which emphasizes up-to-date knowledge regarding the effectiveness and safety of various conservative methods with special consideration for TCM therapy including acupuncture, autonomy, Chinese massage, and Chinese herbal medicines, for LIDH treatment. We hope this review will further contribute to an understanding of conservative treatment as an important choice for LIDH patients and provide useful information for the development of more effective conservative methods for LIDH treatment.

  15. A randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial of postoperative rehabilitation in dogs after surgical decompression of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Natalia; Sims, Cory; Fenn, Joe; Williams, Kim; Griffith, Emily; Early, Peter J; Mariani, Chris L; Munana, Karen R; Guevar, Julien; Olby, Natasha J

    2018-05-01

    Experimental evidence shows benefit of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) but there are limited objective data on the effect of rehabilitation on recovery of dogs after surgery for acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations (TL-IVDH). Compare the effect of basic and intensive post-operative rehabilitation programs on recovery of locomotion in dogs with acute TL-IVDH in a randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial. Thirty non-ambulatory paraparetic or paraplegic (with pain perception) dogs after decompressive surgery for TL-IVDH. Blinded, prospective clinical trial. Dogs were randomized (1:1) to a basic or intensive 14-day in-house rehabilitation protocol. Fourteen-day open field gait score (OFS) and coordination (regulatory index, RI) were primary outcomes. Secondary measures of gait, post-operative pain, and weight were compared at 14 and 42 days. Of 50 dogs assessed, 32 met inclusion criteria and 30 completed the protocol. There were no adverse events associated with rehabilitation. Median time to walking was 7.5 (2 - 37) days. Mean change in OFS by day 14 was 6.13 (confidence intervals: 4.88, 7.39, basic) versus 5.73 (4.94, 6.53, intensive) representing a treatment effect of -0.4 (-1.82, 1.02) which was not significant, P=.57. RI on day 14 was 55.13 (36.88, 73.38, basic) versus 51.65 (30.98, 72.33, intensive), a non-significant treatment effect of -3.47 (-29.81, 22.87), P = .79. There were no differences in secondary outcomes between groups. Early postoperative rehabilitation after surgery for TL-IVDH is safe but doesn't improve rate or level of recovery in dogs with incomplete SCI. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, dose-finding study of condoliase in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Hisashi; Seo, Takayuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Chemonucleolysis with condoliase has the potential to be a new, less invasive therapeutic option for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The aim of the present study was to determine the most suitable therapeutic dose of condoliase. METHODS Patients between 20 and 70 years of age with unilateral leg pain, positive findings on the straight leg raise test, and LDH were recruited. All eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive condoliase (1.25, 2.5, or 5 U) or placebo. The primary end point was a change in the worst leg pain from preadministration (baseline) to week 13. The secondary end points were changes from baseline in the following items: worst back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), SF-36, and neurological examination. For pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses, plasma condoliase concentrations and serum keratan sulfate concentrations were measured. The safety end points were adverse events (AEs) and radiographic and MRI parameters. Data on leg pain, back pain, abnormal neurological findings, and imaging parameters were collected until week 52. RESULTS A total of 194 patients received an injection of condoliase or placebo. The mean change in worst leg pain from baseline to week 13 was -31.7 mm (placebo), -46.7 mm (1.25 U), -41.1 mm (2.5 U), and -47.6 mm (5 U). The differences were significant at week 13 in the 1.25-U group (-14.9 mm; 95% CI -28.4 to -1.4 mm; p = 0.03) and 5-U group (-15.9 mm; 95% CI -29.0 to -2.7 mm; p = 0.01) compared with the placebo group. The dose-response improvement in the worst leg pain at week 13 was not significant (p = 0.14). The decrease in the worst leg pain in all 3 condoliase groups was observed from week 1 through week 52. Regarding the other end points, the worst back pain and results of the straight leg raise test, ODI, and SF-36 showed a tendency for sustained improvement in each of the condoliase groups until week 52. In all patients at all time points, plasma condoliase concentrations

  17. Local irrigation of the surgical field with antibiotics in the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in herniated lumbar disc surgery.

    PubMed

    Kërveshi, Armend; Halili, Nehat; Kastrati, Bujar; Qosja, Faik; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-12-01

    Reported rate of infections after lumbar discectomy is 1%-15 %. This complication may result in disability or even the death. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of infection associated with lumbar discectomies when combined systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis was employed. In this retrospective study we analyzed all patients operated for herniated lumbar disc from 2009 -2012 in our institute. Beside of receiving systemic prophylaxis with 2g of Cefazoline, all patients had their operative field irrigated at the end of operation with Amikacin sulfate injection. Wound was considered infected when local and systemic signs of infection were revealed and were associated with elevated ESR, leukocytosis and elevated CRP. Assessment of infection is done by neurosurgeon during the hospitalization and later at outpatient's clinic along postoperative course of three months. A total of 604 patients were operated, of those 285 patients (47.2 %) females and 319 males (52.8 %), 12 patients were operated on two levels (1.98 %). Average patient age was 32.5 years (range 20-65 years) Localization of herniated disc was: in L/2-L/3 20 patients or 3.3 %, the L/3-L/4 level 42 patients or 7 % , the L/4 -L /5 262 patients or 43.3 % at the level L/V- S/1 280 patients or 46.3 %. Three patients (0.49%) developed wound infection, two of them superficial infection only with local signs: local pain, redness and leakage. They were treated with oral antibiotics. One with deep wound infection. He presented with local and systemic signs and treated with i.v antibiotics. All the cultures from wound swab revealed staphylococcus aureus. Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotic (Cefazoline 2.0) intravenous administration 30 minutes before the incision and irrigation of operative field with local antibiotic Amikacine sulfate at the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in patients operated for herniated lumbar disc when compared with systemic antibiotic prophylaxis only.

  18. Role of vitamin D3 in treatment of lumbar disc herniation--pain and sensory aspects: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-09-25

    Vitamin D receptors have been identified in the spinal cord, nerve roots, dorsal root ganglia and glial cells, and its genetic polymorphism association with the development of lumbar disc degeneration and herniation has been documented. Metabolic effects of active vitamin D metabolites in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells have been studied. Lumbar disc herniation is a process that involves immune and inflammatory cells and processes that are targets for immune regulatory actions of vitamin D as a neurosteroid hormone. In addition to vitamin D's immune modulatory properties, its receptors have been identified in skeletal muscles. It also affects sensory neurons to modulate pain. In this study, we aim to study the role of vitamin D3 in discogenic pain and related sensory deficits. Additionally, we will address how post-treatment 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level influences pain and sensory deficits severity. The cut-off value for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 that would be efficacious in improving pain and sensory deficits in lumbar disc herniation will also be studied. We will conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Our study population will include 380 cases with one-level and unilateral lumbar disc herniation with duration of discogenic pain less than 8 weeks. Individuals who do not have any contraindications, will be divided into three groups based on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level, and each group will be randomized to receive either a single-dose 300,000-IU intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 or placebo. All patients will be under conservative treatment. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments will be performed with the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. For the 15-day duration of this study, questionnaires will be filled out during telephone interviews every 3 days (a total of five times). The initial and final interviews will be scheduled at our clinic. After 15 days, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D

  19. The role of fluoroscopic interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic pain of lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank J E

    2013-09-01

    There is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of epidural injections in managing pain and disability from lumbar disc herniation, despite extensive utilization. There is paucity of literature on interlaminar epidural injections in managing lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis in contemporary interventional pain management settings utilizing fluoroscopy. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids for disc herniation and radiculitis. The primary outcome was defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of ≥ 50%. One hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups. Group I patients received lumbar interlaminar injections containing a local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 6 mL), whereas Group II patients received lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of 0.5% lidocaine, 5 mL, mixed with 1 mL of non-particulate betamethasone. In the patients who responded with initial 2 procedures with at least 3 weeks of relief, significant improvement was seen in 80% of the patients in the local anesthetic group and 86% of the patients in the local anesthetic and steroid group. The overall average procedures per year were 3.6 in the local anesthetic group and 4.1 in the local anesthetic and steroid group, with an average relief of 33.7 ± 18.1 weeks in the local anesthetic group and 39.1 ± 12.2 weeks in the local anesthetic and steroid group over a period of 52 weeks in the overall population. Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids might be effective in patients with disc herniation or radiculitis, with potential superiority of steroids compared with local anesthetic alone at 1 year follow-up. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Individualized functional restoration as an adjunct to advice for lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy. A preplanned subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Andrew J; Ford, Jon J; Hinman, Rana S; Richards, Matthew C; Surkitt, Luke D; Chan, Alexander Y P; Slater, Sarah L; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    Physical therapy is commonly sought by people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. It is unclear whether physical therapy is effective for this population. To determine the effectiveness of physical therapist-delivered individualized functional restoration as an adjunct to guideline-based advice in people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. This is a preplanned subgroup analysis of a multicenter parallel group randomized controlled trial. The study included 54 participants with clinical features of radiculopathy (6-week to 6-month duration) and imaging showing a lumbar disc herniation. Primary outcomes were activity limitation (Oswestry Disability Index) and separate 0-10 numerical pain rating scales for leg pain and back pain. Measures were taken at baseline and at 5, 10, 26, and 52 weeks. The participants were randomly allocated to receive either individualized functional restoration incorporating advice (10 sessions) or guideline-based advice alone (2 sessions) over a 10-week period. Treatment was administered by 11 physical therapists at private clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Between-group differences for activity limitation favored the addition of individualized functional restoration to advice alone at 10 weeks (7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-15.1) and 52 weeks (8.2, 95% CI 0.7-15.6), as well as back pain at 10 weeks (1.4, 95% CI 0.2-2.7). There were no significant differences between groups for leg pain at any follow-up. Several secondary outcomes also favored individualized functional restoration over advice. In participants with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy, an individualized functional restoration program incorporating advice led to greater reduction in activity limitation at 10- and 52-week follow-ups compared with guideline-based advice alone. Although back pain was significantly reduced at 10 weeks with individualized functional restoration, this effect was not maintained at

  1. Clinical findings and electrodiagnostic testing in 108 consecutive cases of lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, M; Aretini, A; Arrigucci, U; Ginanneschi, F; Greco, G; Sicurelli, F

    2013-10-01

    This prospective study aim to examine whether clinical findings and electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) in patients with lumbosacral monoradiculopathy due to herniated disc (HD) differ as a function of root involvement level (L5 vs. S1) and HD zone (paramedian vs. intraforaminal). All patients with L4, L5 or S1 monoradiculopathy were prospectively enrolled at four electromyography (EMG) labs over a 2-year period. The diagnosis was based on a congruence between patient history and MRI evidence of HD. We compared the sensitivities of clinical findings and EDX with respect to both root involvement level and HD zone. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in order to verify the association between abnormal EMG, clinical, and neuroradiological findings. One hundred and eight patients (mean age 47.7 years, 55% men) were consecutively enrolled. Sensory loss in the painful dermatome was the most frequent finding at physical examination (56% of cases). EMG was abnormal in at least one muscle supplied by femoral and sciatic nerves in 45 cases (42%). Inclusion of paraspinal muscles increased sensitivity to only 49% and that of proximal muscles was useless. Motor and sensory neurography was seldom abnormal. The most frequent motor neurographic abnormalities were a delay of F-wave minimum latency and decrease in the compound muscle action potential amplitude from extensor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis in L5 and S1 radiculopathies, respectively. Sensory neurography was usually normal, the amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was seldom reduced when HD injured dorsal root ganglion or postganglionic root fibres. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EMG abnormalities could be predicted by myotomal muscular weakness, abnormal deep reflexes, and paraesthesiae. The only clinical and electrophysiological differences with respect to root involvement level concerned deep reflexes and motor neurography of deep peroneal and tibial nerves. Only some EDX

  2. Increased Volume of Lumbar Surgeries for Herniated Intervertebral Disc Disease and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Myo Jeong; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Min-Jung; Hahn, Seokyung; Shin, Sukyoun; Jong, Jong-Myung; Lee, Jun Ho

    2018-04-15

    Retrospective cohort study of a nationwide database. The primary objective was to summarize the use of surgical methods for lumbar herniated intervertebral disc disease (HIVD) at two different time periods under the national health insurance system. The secondary objective was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis by utilizing incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The selection of surgical method for HIVD may or may not be consistent with cost effectiveness under national health insurance system, but this issue has rarely been analyzed. The data of all patients who underwent surgeries for HIVD in 2003 (n = 17,997) and 2008 (n = 38,264) were retrieved. The surgical methods included open discectomy (OD), fusion surgery, laminectomy, and percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). The hospitals were classified as tertiary-referral hospitals (≥300 beds), medium-sized hospitals (30-300 beds), or clinics (<30 beds). ICER showed the difference in the mean total cost per 1% decrease in the reoperation probability among surgical methods. The total cost included the costs of the index surgery and the reoperation. In 2008, the number of surgeries increased by 2.13-fold. The number of hospitals increased by 34.75% (731 in 2003 and 985 in 2008). The proportion of medium-sized hospitals increased from 62.79% to 70.86%, but the proportion of surgeries performed at those hospitals increased from 61.31% to 85.08%. The probability of reoperation was highest after laminectomy (10.77%), followed by OD (10.50%), PELD (9.20%), and fusion surgery (7.56%). The ICERs indicated that PELD was a cost-effective surgical method. The proportion of OD increased from 71.21% to 84.12%, but that of PELD decreased from 16.68% to 4.57%. The choice of surgical method might not always be consistent with cost-effectiveness strategies, and a high proportion of medium-sized hospitals may be responsible for this change. 4.

  3. The NEtherlands Cervical Kinematics (NECK) trial. Cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation; a double-blind randomised multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Arts, Mark P; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker, Elske; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2010-06-16

    Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation. Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years. Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prosthesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial. Netherlands Trial Register NTR1289.

  4. The NEtherlands Cervical Kinematics (NECK) Trial. Cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation; a double-blind randomised multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years. Discussion Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prothesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial. Trial Registration Netherlands

  5. Effects of Artcure Diffusional Patch application on pain and functional status in lumbar disc herniation patients: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Mahmut; Aksekili, Mehmet Atıf Erol; Alkan, Berat Meryem; Kara, Halil; Çağlar, Ceyhun

    2017-06-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Artcure Diffusional Patch, which contains a mixture of 6 herbal oils (oleum thymi, oleum limonis, oleum nigra, oleum rosmarini, oleum chamomilla, oleum lauriexpressum) and has a hypoosmolar lipid structure, in the conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation patients and to show the advantages and/or possibility of using this as an alternative method to surgery. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 79 clinically diagnosed patients were included in the study. Clinical evaluations were performed on patients who had findings of protrusion or extrusion in their magnetic resonance results. The treatment group was treated with the Artcure Diffusional Patch while the control group received a placebo transdermal diffusional patch. The functional state of patients was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index and pain intensity was measured with a visual analog scale as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes of the study were Lasegue's sign, the femoral stretching test, and paravertebral muscle spasm. The treatment group showed a dramatic recovery in the first month following the application in regards to Oswestry Disability Index scores and visual analog scale values. The patients treated with the Artcure Diffusional Patch showed a statistically significant difference in recovery as compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the Artcure Diffusional Patch may be an alternative for the conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy.

  6. Cost utility analysis of caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, central spinal stenosis, and post lumbar surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Cash, Kimberly A; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    In this era of escalating health care costs and the questionable effectiveness of multiple interventions, cost effectiveness or cost utility analysis has become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, and has an influence coverage decisions. Even though multiple cost effectiveness analysis studies have been performed over the years, extensive literature is lacking for interventional techniques. Cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections for managing chronic low back pain demonstrated highly variable results including a lack of cost utility in randomized trials and contrasting results in observational studies. There has not been any cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections in large randomized trials performed in interventional pain management settings. To assess the cost utility of caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and lumbar post surgery syndrome. This analysis is based on 4 previously published randomized trials. A private, specialty referral interventional pain management center in the United States. Four randomized trials were conducted assessing the clinical effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids for lumbar disc herniation, lumbar discogenic or axial low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and post surgery syndrome. A cost utility analysis was performed with direct payment data for a total of 480 patients over a period of 2 years from these 4 trials. Outcome included various measures with significant improvement defined as at least a 50% improvement in pain reduction and disability status. The results of 4 randomized controlled trials of low back pain with 480 patients with a 2 year follow-up with the actual reimbursement data showed cost utility for one year of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of $2,206 for disc herniation, $2,136 for axial or discogenic pain without

  7. Herniated Cervical Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor, with the help of a nurse or physical therapist, may also begin education and training on specific exercises to strengthen your neck. These exercises may be performed at home or you may visit a physical therapist for a more specific program to meet ...

  8. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, with the help of a nurse or physical therapist, begin education and training about performing the activities of daily ... Treatments Discectomy Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise MRI NSAIDs Physical Therapy Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain Traction Watchful Waiting & Education ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  9. Immediate relief of herniated lumbar disc-related sciatica by ankle acupuncture: A study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Anfeng; Xu, Mingshu; Liang, Yan; Wei, Jinzi; Liu, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Around 90% of sciatica cases are due to a herniated intervertebral disc in the lumbar region. Ankle acupuncture (AA) has been reported to be effective in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a single session of ankle acupuncture for disc-related sciatica. This will be a double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients diagnosed with disc-related sciatica will be randomly divided into 3 parallel groups. The treatment group (n = 30) will receive ankle acupuncture. The 2 control groups will either undergo traditional needle manipulation (n = 30) or sham acupuncture (n = 30) at the same point as the treatment group. The primary outcome will be pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes will be paresthesia intensity on a VAS and the Abbreviated Acceptability Rating Profile (AAPR). The success of blinding will be evaluated, and the needle-induced sensation and adverse events will be recorded. All outcomes will be evaluated before, during, and after the treatment. This study will determine the immediate effect and specificity of ankle acupuncture for the treatment of disc-related sciatica. We anticipate that ankle acupuncture might be more effective than traditional needle manipulation or sham acupuncture. ChiCTR-IPR-15007127 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=11989). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Force Versus Low-Force Lumbar Traction in Acute Lumbar Sciatica Due to Disc Herniation: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Schaeffer, Michael; Sauleau, Erik; Vautravers, Philippe; Lecocq, Jehan; Dupeyron, Arnaud

    This study compared the effects of high-force versus low-force lumbar traction in the treatment of acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation. A randomized double blind trial was performed, and 17 subjects with acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation were assigned to high-force traction at 50% body weight (BW; LT50, n = 8) or low force traction at 10% BW (LT10, n = 9) for 10 sessions in 2 weeks. Radicular pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), lumbo-pelvic-hip complex motion (finger-to-toe test), lumbar-spine mobility (Schöber-Macrae test), nerve root compression (straight-leg-raising test), disability (EIFEL score), drug consumption, and overall evaluation of each patient were measured at days 0, 7, 1, 4, and 28. Significant (P < .05) improvements were observed in the LT50 and LT10 groups, respectively, between day 0 and day 14 (end of treatment) for VAS (-44% and -36%), EIFEL score (-43% and -28%) and overall patient evaluation (+3.1 and +2.0 points). At that time, LT50 specifically improved in the finger-to-toe test (-42%), the straight-leg-raising test (+58), and drug consumption (-50%). No significant interaction effect (group-by-time) was revealed, and the effect of traction treatment was independent of the level of medication. During the 2-week follow-up at day 28, only the LT10 group improved (P < .05) in VAS (-52%) and EIFEL scores (-46%). During this period, no interaction effect (group-by-time) was identified, and the observed responses were independent of the level of medication. For this preliminary study, patients with acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation who received 2 weeks of lumbar traction reported reduced radicular pain and functional impairment and improved well-being regardless of the traction force group to which they were assigned. The effects of the traction treatment were independent of the initial level of medication and appeared to be maintained at the 2-week follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  11. [Therapeutic effect and safety of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a Meta analysis].

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Xu, Peng; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Bo; Guo, Shao-Qing

    2016-08-25

    To conduct a meta analysis of studies comparing theapeutic effect and safety of microendoscopic discectomy to conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation in China. A systematic literature retrieval was conducted in the Chinese Bio medicine Database, CNKI database, Chongqin VIP database and Wangfang database. The statistical analysis was performed using a RevMan 4.2 software. The comparison included excellent rate, operation times, blood loss, periods of bed rest and resuming daily activities, hospital stay or hospital stay after surgery, and complications of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy. The search yielded 20 reports, which included 2 957 cases treated by microendoscopic discectomy and 2 130 cases treated by conventional open discectomy. There were 12, 11, 7, 5, 4 and 4 reports which had comparison of operation times, blood loss, period of bed rest, periods of resuming daily activities, hospital stay and hospital stay after surgery respectively. Complications were mentioned in 10 reports. Compared to patients treated by open discectomy, patients treated by microendoscopic discectomy had a higher excellent rates [OR=1.29, 95%CI (1.03, 1.62)], less blood loss[OR=-63.67, 95%CI (-86.78, -40.55)], less period of bed rest[OR=-15.33, 95%CI (-17.76, -12.90)], less period of resumption of daily activities [OR=-24.41, 95%CI (-36.86, -11.96)], less hospital stay [OR=-5.00, 95%CI (-6.94, -3.06)] or hospital stay after surgery [OR=-7.47, 95%CI (-9.17, -5.77) respectively. However, incidence of complications and operation times were proved no significant different between microendoscopic discectomy and open discectomy. Microendoscopic discectomy and conventional open discectomy in treatment of lumbar disc herniation are both safe, effective; incidence of complications are nearly. Patients with lumbar disc herniation treated by microendoscopic discectomy have fewer blood loss, shorter periods of bed rest and hospital

  12. Local Irrigation of the Surgical Field with Antibiotics in the End of Procedure Reduces the Infection Rate in Herniated Lumbar Disc Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kërveshi, Armend; Halili, Nehat; Kastrati, Bujar; Qosja, Faik; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reported rate of infections after lumbar discectomy is 1%–15 %. This complication may result in disability or even the death. Aim The aim of the study is to assess the rate of infection associated with lumbar discectomies when combined systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis was employed. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed all patients operated for herniated lumbar disc from 2009 -2012 in our institute. Beside of receiving systemic prophylaxis with 2g of Cefazoline, all patients had their operative field irrigated at the end of operation with Amikacin sulfate injection. Wound was considered infected when local and systemic signs of infection were revealed and were associated with elevated ESR, leukocytosis and elevated CRP. Assessment of infection is done by neurosurgeon during the hospitalization and later at outpatient’s clinic along postoperative course of three months. Results: A total of 604 patients were operated, of those 285 patients (47.2 %) females and 319 males (52.8 %), 12 patients were operated on two levels (1.98 %). Average patient age was 32.5 years (range 20–65 years) Localization of herniated disc was: in L/2-L/3 20 patients or 3.3 %, the L/3-L/4 level 42 patients or 7 % , the L/4 -L /5 262 patients or 43.3 % at the level L/V- S/1 280 patients or 46.3 %. Three patients (0.49%) developed wound infection, two of them superficial infection only with local signs: local pain, redness and leakage. They were treated with oral antibiotics. One with deep wound infection. He presented with local and systemic signs and treated with i.v antibiotics. All the cultures from wound swab revealed staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotic (Cefazoline 2.0) intravenous administration 30 minutes before the incision and irrigation of operative field with local antibiotic Amikacine sulfate at the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in patients operated for herniated lumbar disc when

  13. [A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Mao, Ke-ya; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Yong-gang; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Xue-song; Li, Peng; Mao, Ke-zheng

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. From January 2010 to December 2011, 16 recurrent lumbar disc herniation patients, 10 male and 6 female patients with an average age of 45 years (35-68 years) were treated with unilateral incision MIS-TLIF through working channel. After decompression, interbody fusion and fixation using unilateral pedicle screws, a translaminar facet screw was inserted from the same incision through spinous process and laminar to the other side facet joint. The results of perioperative parameters, radiographic images and clinical outcomes were assessed. The repeated measure analysis of variance was applied in the scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disablity index (ODI). All patients MIS-TLIF were accomplished under working channel including decompression, interbody fusion and hybrid fixation without any neural complication. The average operative time was (148 ± 75) minutes, the average operative blood loss was (186 ± 226) ml, the average postoperative ambulation time was (32 ± 15) hours, and the average hospitalization time was (6 ± 4) days. The average length of incision was (29 ± 4) mm, and the average length of translaminar facets screw was (52 ± 6) mm. The mean follow-up was 16.5 months with a range of 12-24 months. The postoperative X-ray and CT images showed good position of the hybrid internal fixation, and all facets screws penetrate through facets joint. The significant improvement could be found in back pain VAS, leg pain VAS and ODI scores between preoperative 1 day and postoperative follow-up at all time-points (back pain VAS:F = 52.845, P = 0.000;leg pain VAS:F = 113.480, P = 0.000;ODI:F = 36.665, P = 0.000). Recurrent lumbar disc herniation could be treated with MIS-TLIF using hybrid fixation through unilateral incision, and the

  14. Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 2--Disc herniation and radiculitis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Boswell, Mark V

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is a subject of ongoing research. The prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranges from 1.2% to 43%. Epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed interventions in the United States in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis. There is a paucity of evidence with contemporary methodology used in performing epidural injections under fluoroscopy and based on pain relief and functional status improvement. A randomized, double-blind, equivalence trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation or radiculitis in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief and evaluate the differences between local anesthetic with or without steroids. Patients were assigned to one of 2 groups; Group I patients received caudal epidural injections with an injection of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%), whereas, Group II patients received caudal epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine 9 mL mixed with 1 mL of steroid. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocations sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized which included the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post-treatment. Significant pain relief was defined as 50% or more, whereas significant improvement in disability score was defined as a reduction of 40% or more. The percentage of patients with significant pain relief of 50% or greater at 12 months was 79% in Group I and 81% in Group II. Reduction of Oswestry scores of at least 40% was seen in 83% of the patients in Group I and 91% in Group II. The

  15. A case of an 18-year-old male rugby union forward with a C5/C6 central disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Henare Renata

    2009-01-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old front row forward rugby player who had a history of episodic neck pain for over 2 years following playing games of rugby. The initial event of April 2005 for which the symptoms manifested was a scrum collapse; he continued playing until a front-on tackle occurred when the symptoms dictated that he leave the field and be taken to the local hospital. A diagnosis of a cervical sprain was made and conservative management ensued. During the selections held on January 2008, a medical assessment was made and an MRI found that he had a central disc herniation at C5/C6. He was referred to a spinal orthopaedic surgeon for further treatment. The risks to cervical spinal injuries are illustrated in this case, in a scrum and in the tackle. The prevention of such an injury is discussed.

  16. A case of an 18-year-old male rugby union forward with a C5/C6 central disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Henare Renata

    2009-01-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old front row forward rugby player who had a history of episodic neck pain for over 2 years following playing games of rugby. The initial event of April 2005 for which the symptoms manifested was a scrum collapse; he continued playing until a front-on tackle occurred when the symptoms dictated that he leave the field and be taken to the local hospital. A diagnosis of a cervical sprain was made and conservative management ensued. During the selections held on January 2008, a medical assessment was made and an MRI found that he had a central disc herniation at C5/C6. He was referred to a spinal orthopaedic surgeon for further treatment. The risks to cervical spinal injuries are illustrated in this case, in a scrum and in the tackle. The prevention of such an injury is discussed. PMID:21686741

  17. The effectiveness of fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic cervical disc herniation and radiculitis: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W; Malla, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30% to 50%. Cervical disc herniation and radiculitis is one of the common conditions described responsible for chronic neck and upper extremity pain. Cervical epidural injections for managing chronic neck pain with disc herniation are one of the commonly performed non-surgical interventions in the United States. However, the literature supporting cervical interlaminar epidural steroids in managing chronic neck pain is scant. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. A private interventional pain management practice and specialty referral center in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in providing effective and long-lasting relief in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis, and to evaluate the differences between local anesthetic with or without steroids. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of non-particulate betamethasone. Multiple outcome measures were utilized. They included the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), employment status, and opioid intake. Assessments were done at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Significant pain relief was defined as 50% or more; significant improvement in disability score was defined as a reduction of 50% or more. Significant pain relief (> or = 50%) was demonstrated in 77% of patients in both groups. Functional status improvement was demonstrated by a reduction (> or = 50%) in the NDI scores in 74% of Group I and 71% of Group II at 12 months. The overall average procedures per year

  18. [Assessment of the correlation between histological degeneration and radiological and clinical parameters in a series of patients who underwent lumbar disc herniation surgery].

    PubMed

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Paredes, Igor; Alén, José F; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Lagares, Alfonso

    The use of histological degeneration scores in surgically-treated herniated lumbar discs is not common in clinical practice and its use has been primarily restricted to research. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there is an association between a higher grade of histological degeneration when compared with clinical or radiological parameters. Retrospective consecutive analysis of 122 patients who underwent single-segment lumbar disc herniation surgery. Clinical information was available on all patients, while the histological study and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging were also retrieved for 75 patients. Clinical variables included age, duration of symptoms, neurological deficits, or affected deep tendon reflex. The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated using Modic and Pfirrmann scores for the affected segment by 2 independent observers. Histological degeneration was evaluated using Weiler's score; the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and neovascularization, not included in the score, were also studied. Correlation and chi-square tests were used to assess the association between histological variables and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated for the MRI variables using weighted kappa. No statistically significant correlation was found between histological variables (histological degeneration score, inflammatory infiltrates or neovascularization) and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement for radiological scores resulted in a kappa of 0.79 for the Pfirrmann scale and 0.65 for the Modic scale, both statistically significant. In our series of patients, we could not demonstrate any correlation between the degree of histological degeneration or the presence of inflammatory infiltrates when compared with radiological degeneration scales or clinical variables such as the patient's age or duration of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirug

  19. Return to sport after open and microdiscectomy surgery versus conservative treatment for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Michael P; Sylvain, Jonathan; Loudon, Janice K; Goode, Adam

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar disc herniation has a prevalence of up to 58% in the athletic population. Lumbar discectomy is a common surgical procedure to alleviate pain and disability in athletes. We systematically reviewed the current clinical evidence regarding athlete return to sport (RTS) following lumbar discectomy compared to conservative treatment. A computer-assisted literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, OVID and PubMed databases (from inception to August 2015) was utilised using keywords related to lumbar disc herniation and surgery. The design of this systematic review was developed using the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using the Downs and Black scale (0-16 points). The search strategy revealed 14 articles. Downs and Black quality scores were generally low with no articles in this review earning a high-quality rating, only 5 articles earning a moderate quality rating and 9 of the 14 articles earning a low-quality rating. The pooled RTS for surgical intervention of all included studies was 81% (95% CI 76% to 86%) with significant heterogeneity (I(2)=63.4%, p<0.001) although pooled estimates report only 59% RTS at same level. Pooled analysis showed no difference in RTS rate between surgical (84% (95% CI 77% to 90%)) and conservative intervention (76% (95% CI 56% to 92%); p=0.33). Studies comparing surgical versus conservative treatment found no significant difference between groups regarding RTS. Not all athletes that RTS return at the level of participation they performed at prior to surgery. Owing to the heterogeneity and low methodological quality of included studies, rates of RTS cannot be accurately determined. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. [Effect of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion on functional activity of back-leg and plasma substance P level in patients with lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Yang, Xiao-fang; Jiang, Yu; Xiang, Kai-wei; Li, Hai-yu

    2014-12-01

    To observe the effect of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion combined with acupuncture on back-leg activities and plasma substance P (SP) levels in patients with lumbar disc herniation, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying pain relief. A total of 114 patients with lumbar disc herniation were randomly divided into control group (n=56) and treatment group (n=58) according to a random digits table. Patients of the control group were treated by manual acupuncture stimulation of main acupoints Jiaji (EX-B 2), Huantiao (GB 30, affected side), Chengshan (BL 57, affected side), Kunlun (BL 60, affected side), and supplemented acupoints Yanglingquan (GB 34), Weizhong (BL 40) and Zusanli (ST 36) in combination with wheat-flour-cake separated moxibustion at the main acupoints, and patients of the treatment group were treated by medicinal-cake [Chuanwu (Radix Aconiti), Caowu (Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii), Ruxiang (Olibanum), etc. ]-separated moxibustion in combination with manual acupuncture stimulation of the same acupoints mentioned above. Acupuncture treatment was conducted for 30 min, followed by moxibustion for 15 min. The treatment was given once daily for 10 days. The patients' back-leg functional activity ability was assessed using straight-leg raising test, and the pain state assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, respectively. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by using "Crite- ria for Diagnosis and Outcome Evaluation of Clinical Disorders or Syndromes of Chinese Medicine" issued in 1994 and plasma SP content was detected by radioimmunoassay. After the therapy, the back-leg activity score and JOA score of both groups were significantly higher than those of pre-treatment in the same one group (P<0. 05, P<0. 01), and those of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The VAS score of the treatment group was re- markably lower than that of the control group (P<0. 01

  1. Minimally invasive removal of a recurrent lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus by the small incised microendoscopic discectomy interlaminar approach.

    PubMed

    Koga, S; Sairyo, K; Shibuya, I; Kanamori, Y; Kosugi, T; Matsumoto, H; Kitagawa, Y; Sumita, T; Dezawa, A

    2012-02-01

    In this report, we introduce two cases of recurrent herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) at L5-S1 that were successfully removed using the small incised microendoscopic discectomy (sMED) technique, proposed by Dezawa and Sairyo in 2011. sMED was performed via the interlaminar approach with a percutaneous endoscope. The patients had previously underdone microendoscopic discectomy for HNP. For the recurrent HNP, the sMED interlaminar approach was selected because the HNP occurred at the level of L5-S1; the percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal approach was not possible for anatomical reasons. To perform sMED via the interlaminar approach, we employed new, specially made devices to enable us to use this technique. In conclusion, sMED is the most minimally invasive approach available for HNP, and its limitations have been gradually eliminated with the introduction specially made devices. In the near future, percutaneous endoscopic surgery could be the gold standard for minimally invasive disc surgery. © 2012 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology and prior healthcare utilization of patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial's (SPORT) three observational cohorts: disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin; Lurie, Jon D; Tosteson, Tor D; Hanscom, Brett; Abdu, William A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James

    2006-04-01

    Prospective observational cohorts. To describe sociodemographic and clinical features, and nonoperative (medical) resource utilization before enrollment, in patients who are candidates for surgical intervention for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) according to SPORT criteria. Intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis are the three most common diagnoses of low back and leg symptoms for which surgery is performed. There is a paucity of descriptive literature examining large patient cohorts for the relationships among baseline characteristics and medical resource utilization with these three diagnoses. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) conducts three randomized and three observational cohort studies of surgical and nonsurgical treatments for patients with IDH, SpS, and DS. Baseline data include demographic information, prior treatments received, and functional status measured by SF-36 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-AAOS/Modems version). The data presented represent all 1,411 patients (743 IDH, 365 SpS, 303 DS) enrolled in the SPORT observational cohorts. Multiple logistic regression was used to generate independent predictors of utilization adjusted for sociodemographic variables, diagnosis, and duration of symptoms. The average age was 41 years for the IDH group, 64 years for the SpS group, and 66 years for the DS group. At enrollment, IDH patients presented with the most pain as reported on the SF-36 (BP 26.3 vs. 33.2 SpS and 33.8 DS) and were the most impaired (ODI 51 vs. 42.3 SpS and 41.5 DS). IDH patients used more chiropractic treatment (42% vs. 33% SpS and 26% DS), had more Emergency Department (ED) visits (21% vs. 7% SpS and 4% DS), and used more opiate analgesics (49% vs. 29% SpS and 27% DS). After adjusting for age, gender, diagnosis, education, race, duration of symptoms, and compensation, Medicaid patients used

  3. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: Eight-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Morgan, Tamara S.; Abdu, William A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Concurrent prospective randomized and observational cohort studies. Objective To assess the 8-year outcomes of surgery vs. non-operative care. Summary of Background Data Although randomized trials have demonstrated small short-term differences in favor of surgery, long-term outcomes comparing surgical to non-operative treatment remain controversial. Methods Surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation meeting SPORT eligibility criteria enrolled into prospective randomized (501 participants) and observational cohorts (743 participants) at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Interventions were standard open discectomy versus usual non-operative care. Main outcome measures were changes from baseline in the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI - AAOS/Modems version) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results Advantages were seen for surgery in intent-to-treat analyses for the randomized cohort for all primary and secondary outcomes other than work status; however, with extensive non-adherence to treatment assignment (49% patients assigned to non-operative therapy receiving surgery versus 60% of patients assigned to surgery) these observed effects were relatively small and not statistically significant for primary outcomes (BP, PF, ODI). Importantly, the overall comparison of secondary outcomes was significantly greater with surgery in the intent-to-treat analysis (sciatica bothersomeness [p > 0.005], satisfaction with symptoms [p > 0.013], and self-rated improvement [p > 0.013]) in long-term follow-up. An as-treated analysis showed clinically meaningful surgical treatment effects for primary outcome measures (mean change Surgery vs. Non-operative; treatment effect; 95% CI): BP (45.3 vs. 34.4; 10.9; 7.7 to 14); PF (42.2 vs. 31.5; 10.6; 7.7 to 13.5) and ODI (−36.2 vs. −24.8; −11.2; −13.6 to −9.1). Conclusion Carefully

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic pain of lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Falco, Frank J E; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is the subject of ongoing research, with a reported prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranging from 1.2% to 43%. Among the numerous non-surgical interventions available, epidural injections are the most commonly performed interventions in the United States in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic, with or without steroids, in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation or radiculitis in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief. Patients were assigned to one of 2 groups with local anesthetic only or with local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocations sequence by simple randomization. Seventy patients were included in this analysis. Patient outcomes were measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake. Decrease of > or = 50% of NRS scores and Oswestry scores were considered significant. Significant pain relief (> or = 50%) was seen at 12 months in 74% of patients in Group I and 86% in Group II, and 69% and 83% in ODI scores respectively. Significant differences were noted in pain relief characteristics at 6 months between Group I and Group II (p = 0.001) and functional status improvement was significantly better in Group II at 6 months and 12 months (p = 0.019 and 0.045). The overall average procedures per year were 4.3 in Group I and 4.2 in Group II with an average total relief per year of 42.2 +/- 10.5 weeks in Group I and 41.4 +/- 11.0 weeks in Group II over a period of 52 weeks in the successful

  5. Cervical epidural injections in chronic discogenic neck pain without disc herniation or radiculitis: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W; Malla, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30% to 50%. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the causes and treatments of chronic neck pain. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed non-surgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. A randomized, double-blind, active control trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation or radiculitis or facet joint pain. Patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: injection of local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Seventy patients were included in this analysis. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocation sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Significant pain relief or functional status was defined as a 50% or more reduction. Significant pain relief (> or = 50%) was demonstrated in 80% of patients in both groups and functional status improvement (> or = 50%) in 69% of Group I and 80% of Group II. The overall average procedures per year were 3.9 +/- 1.01 in Group I and 3.9 +/- 0.8 in Group II with an average total relief per year of 40.3 +/- 14.1 weeks in Group I and 42.1 +/- 9.9 weeks in Group II over a period of 52 weeks in the successful group. The results of this study are limited by the

  6. Two-year comprehensive medical management of degenerative lumbar spine disease (lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, or disc herniation): a value analysis of cost, pain, disability, and quality of life: clinical article.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Shau, David N; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    Current health care reform calls for a reduction of procedures and treatments that are less effective, more costly, and of little value (high cost/low quality). The authors assessed the 2-year cost and effectiveness of comprehensive medical management for lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, and herniation by utilizing a prospective single-center multidisciplinary spine center registry in a real-world practice setting. Analysis was performed on a prospective longitudinal quality of life spine registry. Patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis (n = 50), stenosis (n = 50), and disc herniation (n = 50) who had symptoms persisting after 6 weeks of medical management and who were eligible for surgical treatment were entered into a prospective registry after deciding on nonsurgical treatment. In all cases, comprehensive medical management included spinal steroid injections, physical therapy, muscle relaxants, antiinflammatory medication, and narcotic oral agents. Two-year patient-reported outcomes, back-related medical resource utilization, and occupational work-day losses were prospectively collected and used to calculate Medicare fee-based direct and indirect costs from the payer and societal perspectives. The maximum health gain associated with medical management was defined as the improvement in pain, disability, and quality of life experienced after 2 years of medical treatment or at the time a patient decided to cross over to surgery. The maximum health gain in back pain, leg pain, disability, quality of life, depression, and general health state did not achieve statistical significance by 2 years of medical management, except for pain and disability in patients with disc herniation and back pain in patients with lumbar stenosis. Eighteen patients (36%) with spondylolisthesis, 11 (22%) with stenosis, and 17 (34%) with disc herniation eventually required surgical management due to lack of improvement. The 2-year improvement did not achieve a minimum clinically

  7. Twelve-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive physiotherapy following disc herniation operation.

    PubMed

    Ebenbichler, Gerold R; Inschlag, Silke; Pflüger, Verena; Stemberger, Regina; Wiesinger, Günther; Novak, Klaus; Christoph, Krall; Resch, Karl L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of postoperative comprehensive physiotherapy starting one week after lumbar disc surgery. Twelve-year follow-up of a three-armed, randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial. Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Of 111 patients following first-time, uncomplicated lumbar disc surgery who participated in the original study and completed the treatment originally allocated, 74 ((67%; 29 (73%) physiotherapy, 22 (58%) sham therapy, 23 (68%) no therapy) completed a 12-year follow-up examination. In the original study, patients had been randomly assigned to comprehensive physiotherapy, sham intervention (neck massage), or no therapy. Low Back Pain Rating Scale; best score 0, worst score 130 points). At 12 years after surgery, the group participating in comprehensive physiotherapy had significantly better functional outcomes, as rated on the Low Back Pain Rating Score, than the untreated group (mean difference: -13.2 (95% CI: (-25.4; -1.0)). Equally, there was a clinically relevant, non-significant difference between the sham therapy and no therapy (mean difference: -12.5 (95%CI: -26.1; 1.1)). Consequently, the Low Back Pain Rating Score outcome did not differ between physiotherapy and sham therapy (mean difference: -0.7 (95%CI: -14.2; 12.8)). Participating in a comprehensive physiotherapy program following lumbar disc surgery may be associated with better long-term health benefits over no intervention, but may not be superior to sham therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Prolonged conservative treatment or 'early' surgery in sciatica caused by a lumbar disc herniation: rationale and design of a randomized trial [ISRCT 26872154

    PubMed Central

    Peul, Wilco C; van Houwelingen, Hans C; van der Hout, Wilbert B; Brand, Ronald; Eekhof, Just AH; Tans, Joseph ThJ; Thomeer, Ralph TWM; Koes, Bart W

    2005-01-01

    Background The design of a randomized multicenter trial is presented on the effectiveness of a prolonged conservative treatment strategy compared with surgery in patients with persisting intense sciatica (lumbosacral radicular syndrome). Methods/design Patients presenting themselves to their general practitioner with disabling sciatica lasting less than twelve weeks are referred to the neurology outpatient department of one of the participating hospitals. After confirmation of the diagnosis and surgical indication MRI scanning is performed. If a distinct disc herniation is discerned which in addition covers the clinically expected site the patient is eligible for randomization. Depending on the outcome of the randomization scheme the patient will either be submitted to prolonged conservative care or surgery. Surgery will be carried out according to the guidelines and between six and twelve weeks after onset of complaints. The experimental therapy consists of a prolonged conservative treatment under supervision of the general practitioner, which may be followed by surgical intervention in case of persisting or progressive disability. The main primary outcome measure is the disease specific disability of daily functioning. Other primary outcome measures are perceived recovery and intensity of legpain. Secondary outcome measures encompass severity of complaints, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism, costs and preference. The main research question will be answered at 12 months after randomization. The total follow-up period covers two years. Discussion Evidence is lacking concerning the optimal treatment of lumbar disc induced sciatica. This pragmatic randomized trial, focusses on the 'timing' of intervention, and will contribute to the decision of the general practictioner and neurologist, regarding referral of patients for surgery. PMID:15707491

  9. [Patients' assessment of the importance of measures relevant for treatment in lumbar disc herniations and their satisfaction--a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Winking, M; Niewöhner, L; Nestler, U; Böker, D K

    2001-01-01

    In modern health system hospital is integral part of patients treatment. The hospital competes with an ubiquitous medical supply of adjacent institutions and general doctors. As a part of the medical supply chain a hospital may not exist as an "island" itself. Necessity in health politics and economics leads to image and advertisement strategies for a long term survival of hospitals. An analysis of medical output in patients treatment will build the basis for future development and strategies. By a questionnaire 170 patients suffering from a lumbar disc herniation were asked before starting medical treatment about their expectations and at the end of hospitalisation about their contentment with their stay in hospital. The very high expectations in medical treatment and nursing were fulfilled by the clinical staff. Here all patients were much more content they expected priorly. But the patients valued a distinct deficit in contentment in the co-treatment by other clinical faculties of the hospital. The reason of these results were explained by big distances inside the hospital and long time waiting between medical examinations. Our results show that intensive care by physicians and nurses increase contentment of patients. An additional improvement of patients judgement about hospital services will be possible by introduction of a routine co-treatment of other medical faculties.

  10. Herniated disk

    MedlinePlus

    ... help support the spine. A brace may prevent injuries in people who lift heavy objects at work. But ... Cervical radiculopathy; Herniated intervertebral disk; Prolapsed intervertebral disk; Slipped ...

  11. Comparative Analysis between Total Disc Replacement and Posterior Foraminotomy for Posterolateral Soft Disc Herniation with Unilateral Radiculopathy : Clinical and Biomechanical Results of a Minimum 5 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Kim, Young-Baeg; Kim, Du Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical outcomes and biomechanical effects of total disc replacement (TDR) and posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF) and to propose relative inclusion criteria. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2008 were included. All patients had single-level disease and only radiculopathy. The overall sagittal balance and angle and height of a functional segmental unit (FSU; upper and lower vertebral body of the operative lesion) were assessed by preoperative and follow-up radiographs. C2–7 range of motion (ROM), FSU, and the adjacent segment were also checked. Results The clinical outcome of TDR (group A) was tended to be superior to that of PCF (group B) without statistical significance. In the group A, preoperative and postoperative upper adjacent segment level motion values were 8.6±2.3 and 8.4±2.0, and lower level motion values were 8.4±2.2 and 8.3±1.9. Preoperative and postoperative FSU heights were 37.0±2.1 and 37.1±1.8. In the group B, upper level adjacent segment motion values were 8.1±2.6 and 8.2±2.8, and lower level motion values were 6.5±3.3 and 6.3±3.1. FSU heights were 37.1±2.0 and 36.2±1.8. The postoperative FSU motion and height changes were significant (p<0.05). The patient’s satisfaction rates for surgery were 88.2% in group A and 88.8% in group B. Conclusion TDR and PCF have favorable outcomes in patients with unilateral soft disc herniation. However, patients have different biomechanical backgrounds, so the patient’s biomechanical characteristics and economic status should be understood and treated using the optimal procedure. PMID:28061490

  12. [A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation-induced Sciatica by Acupuncture Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve Trunk].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ling; Hu, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xue-Yu; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Min; He, Liu

    2016-10-25

    To observe the efficacy of acupuncture stimulation of the sciatic nerve trunk in the treatment of patients suffering from sciatica induced by lumbar disc herniation (LDH). A total of 60 LDH sciatica patients met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each. Patients of the treatment group were treated by directly needling the sciatic nerve and routine acupuncture of Ashi -points, Lumbar Jiaji (EX-B 2), Dachangshu (BL 28), etc., and those of the control group treated by simple routine acupuncture. The treatment was conducted once a day, 5 times a week, 4 weeks altogether. The clinical effect was evaluated according to the "Standards for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Effect Evaluation of Syndromes of Chinese Medicine" and the pain intensity was assessed by using simplified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) containing pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI). After the treatment, of the two 30 cases of LDH sciatica patients in the control and treatment groups, 11 and 18 were cured, 7 and 7 experienced marked improvement, 10 and 4 were effective, 2 and 1 was invalid, with the effective rate being 93.3% and 96.7%, respectively. The cured+markedly effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( P <0.05, 83.3% vs 60.0%). Compared with pre-treatment, the scores of PRI, VAS and PPI were evidently lowered in both groups ( P <0.01), and the effect of the treatment group was notably better than that of the control group ( P <0.01). Acupuncture stimulation of the sciatic nerve trunk is effective in relieving sciatica in LDH patients, and is superior to simple routine acupuncture in the clinical efficacy.

  13. A comparison of water-based and land-based core stability exercises in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Deniz; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Lambeck, Johan; Yazici, Gokhan; Aykol, Sukru; Demirci, Harun

    2016-01-01

    To determine and compare the effects of core stability exercise programs performed in two different environments in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients. Thirty-one patients who were diagnosed with LDH and were experiencing pain or functional disability for at least 3 months were randomly divided into two groups as land-based exercises or water specific therapy. Also, 15 age-sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited as healthy controls. Both groups underwent an 8-week (3 times/week) core stabilization exercise program. Primary outcomes were pain, trunk muscle static endurance and perceived disability level. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life. Level of static endurance of trunk muscles was found to be lower in the patients compared to the controls at baseline (p < 0.05). Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in all outcomes (p < 0.05) after 8-week intervention. When two treatment groups were compared, no differences were found in the amount of change after the intervention (p > 0.05). After the treatment, static endurance of trunk muscles of the LDH patients became similar to controls (p > 0.05). According to these results, core stabilization exercise training performed on land or in water both could be beneficial in LDH patients and there is no difference between the environments. An 8-week core stabilization program performed in water or on land decrease pain level and improve functional status in LDH patients. Both programs seem beneficial to increase health-related quality of life and static endurance of trunk muscles. Core stability exercises could be performed in water as well, no differences were found between methods due to environment.

  14. Physicians as well as nonphysician health care professionals in Taiwan have higher risk for lumbar herniated intervertebral disc than general population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Feng-Kai; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Hung-Jung; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Physicians in Taiwan have long working hours and are at risk for inappropriate posture when handling patients, which may contribute to lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (L-HIVD). This study was conducted to delineate this issue, which is still unknown. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 25,428 physicians, 32,316 nonphysician health care professionals (HCPs), and an identical number of age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. All individuals who had L-HIVD before 2007 were excluded. We compared the L-HIVD risk between physicians and general population, nonphysician HCPs and general population, and physicians and nonphysician HCPs by tracing their medical histories between 2007 and 2011. A comparison among physician specialties was also performed. Physicians and nonphysician HCPs had higher L-HIVD risk than the general population [odds ratio (OR): 1.149; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.011–1.307 and OR: 1.220; 95% CI: 1.080–1.378, respectively]. Physicians did not have higher L-HIVD risk than nonphysician HCPs [adjusted OR (AOR): 0.912; 95% CI: 0.795–1.046]. Physician specialties of orthopedics and obstetrics and gynecology had a trend of higher L-HIVD risk than other specialties (AOR: 1.538; 95% CI: 0.805–2.939, and AOR: 1.306; 95% CI: 0.967–1.764, respectively). Physicians as well as nonphysician health care professionals in Taiwan have higher L-HIVD risk than the general population, which could be attributed to a probable role of long working hours. This result provides an important reference for the government to promote occupational health in health care professionals; however, further studies are warranted for the underlying mechanisms. PMID:29505537

  15. Physicians as well as nonphysician health care professionals in Taiwan have higher risk for lumbar herniated intervertebral disc than general population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Feng-Kai; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Hung-Jung; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have long working hours and are at risk for inappropriate posture when handling patients, which may contribute to lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (L-HIVD). This study was conducted to delineate this issue, which is still unknown. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 25,428 physicians, 32,316 nonphysician health care professionals (HCPs), and an identical number of age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. All individuals who had L-HIVD before 2007 were excluded. We compared the L-HIVD risk between physicians and general population, nonphysician HCPs and general population, and physicians and nonphysician HCPs by tracing their medical histories between 2007 and 2011. A comparison among physician specialties was also performed. Physicians and nonphysician HCPs had higher L-HIVD risk than the general population [odds ratio (OR): 1.149; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.011-1.307 and OR: 1.220; 95% CI: 1.080-1.378, respectively]. Physicians did not have higher L-HIVD risk than nonphysician HCPs [adjusted OR (AOR): 0.912; 95% CI: 0.795-1.046]. Physician specialties of orthopedics and obstetrics and gynecology had a trend of higher L-HIVD risk than other specialties (AOR: 1.538; 95% CI: 0.805-2.939, and AOR: 1.306; 95% CI: 0.967-1.764, respectively). Physicians as well as nonphysician health care professionals in Taiwan have higher L-HIVD risk than the general population, which could be attributed to a probable role of long working hours. This result provides an important reference for the government to promote occupational health in health care professionals; however, further studies are warranted for the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A posterior ring apophyseal fracture and disc herniation in a 21-year-old competitive basketball player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Deleo, Trevor; Merotto, Samuel; Smith, Colyn; D’Angelo, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diagnosis and management of a competitive male basketball player with discogenic low back pain and presence of an old posterior ring apophyseal fracture (PRAF). This case will highlight the importance of early recognition and considerations regarding patient management for this differential of radiating low back pain. Clinical Features: A 21-year-old provincial basketball player presented with recurrent radiating low back pain into the left groin and lower limb. After several weeks of persistent symptoms including pain, muscle weakness, and changes in the Achilles deep tendon reflex, imaging was obtained that revealed a large disc extrusion with an old posterior ring apophyseal fracture. In collaboration with a spine surgeon and family physician, the patient was treated using a conservative, multimodal approach. Treatment consisted of graded mobilizations, spinal manipulative therapy, interferential current, and soft tissue therapy to the lumbar spine. Rehabilitation exercises focused on centralizing symptoms and improving strength, proprioception and function of the lower limb. After a period of 8 weeks, the patient was able to complete all activities of daily living without pain in addition to returning to basketball practice. Summary: PRAF is a unique condition in the immature spine and recent evidence suggests that those involved in sports requiring repetitive motion of the lumbar spine may be at increased risk. The astute clinician must consider this differential in young populations presenting with discogenic low back pain, as a timely diagnosis and necessary referral may allow for effective conservative management to reduce symptoms. Equally as important, one must be aware of the complications from PRAF as a contributing source of low back pain and dysfunction into adulthood. Knowing when to refer for advanced imaging and/or a surgical consult given the variable clinical presentation and prognosis is an essential component to care

  17. A Radiographic Measurement of the Anterior Epidural Space at L4-5 Disc Level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Sheng; Wu, Jie-Shi; Lu, Hai-Dan; Zhu, Hao-Gang; Li, Xia; Dong, Jian; Yuan, Feng-Lai

    2017-05-01

    To observe the morphology character of the anterior epidural space at the L 4-5 disc level and to provide an anatomical basis for safely and accurately performing a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). Fifty-five cases with L 5 S 1 lumbar disc herniation were included in this study, and cases with L 4-5 disease were excluded. When the puncture needle reached the epidural space at the L 5 S 1 level, iohexol was injected at the pressure of 50 cm H 2 O during the PELD, then C-Arm fluoroscopy was used to obtain standard lumbar frontal and lateral images. The widths of epidural space at the level of the L 4 lower endplate, the L 5 upper endplate, as well as the middle point of the L 4-5 disc were measured from the lumbar lateral X-ray film. Epidural space at the L 4-5 disc plane performs like a trapezium chart with a short side at the head end and a long side at the tail end in the lumbar lateral X-ray radiograph, while the average widths of epidural space were 10.2 ± 2.5, 12.3 ± 2.3, and 13.8 ± 2.6 mm at the upper, middle, and lower level of the L 4-5 disc. Understanding the morphological characteristics of epidural space will contribute to improving the safety of the tranforaminal percutaneous endoscopy technique. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Spinal sagittal imbalance in patients with lumbar disc herniation: its spinopelvic characteristics, strength changes of the spinal musculature and natural history after lumbar discectomy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Xingang; Jiang, Zhensong; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tao

    2016-07-22

    Spinal sagittal imbalance is a widely acknowledged problem, but there is insufficient knowledge regarding its occurrence. In some patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), their symptom is similar to spinal sagittal imbalance. The aim of this study is to illustrate the spinopelvic sagittal characteristics and identity the role of spinal musculature in the mechanism of sagittal imbalance in patients with LDH. Twenty-five adults with spinal sagittal imbalance who initially came to our clinic for treatment of LDH, followed by posterior discectomy were reviewed. The horizontal distance between C7 plumb line-sagittal vertical axis (C7PL-SVA) greater than 5 cm anteriorly with forward bending posture is considered as spinal sagittal imbalance. Radiographic parameters including thoracic kyphotic angle (TK), lumbar lordotic angle (LL), pelvic tilting angle (PT), sacral slope angle (SS) and an electromyography(EMG) index 'the largest recruitment order' were recorded and compared. All patients restored coronal and sagittal balance immediately after lumbar discectomy. The mean C7PL-SVA and trunk shift value decreased from (11.6 ± 6.6 cm, and 2.9 ± 6.1 cm) preoperatively to (-0.5 ± 2.6 cm and 0.2 ± 0.5 cm) postoperatively, while preoperative LL and SS increased from (25.3° ± 14.0° and 25.6° ± 9.5°) to (42.4° ± 10.2° and 30.4° ± 8.7°) after surgery (P < 0.05). The preoperative mean TK and PT (24.7° ± 11.3° and 20.7° ± 7.8°) decreased to (22.0° ± 9.8° and 15.8 ± 5.5°) postoperatively (P < 0.05). The largest recruitment order on the level of T7-T8, T12-L1 and the herniated level all improved compared with before and after surgery (P < 0.05). All patients have been followed up for more than 2 years. The mean ODI was 77.8 % before surgery to 4.2 % at the final follow-up. Spinal sagittal imbalance caused by LDH is one type of compensatory sagittal imbalance. Compensatory mechanism of

  19. The Short-Term Effect of Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment in Inpatients Diagnosed with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-Riong; Jung, Jaehoon; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of hospital-based intensive nonsurgical treatment in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) inpatients admitted to an integrated hospital that offers both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine treatment. A prospective observational study. A private Korean medicine hospital inpatient setting in Korea. A total of 524 inpatients diagnosed with lumbar IDH admitted from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2013. The participants received treatment according to a CAM treatment protocol (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation) and conventional medicine treatment as needed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) of low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and patient global impression of change. The study also assessed whether improvement was obtained over minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in LBP or leg pain. The average hospital stay was 24.4 ± 13.2 days. The majority of patients received CAM treatment and a few selected conventional medicine, such as pain killers (22.7%; 4.2 ± 3.0 administrations) or nerve blocks (14.1%; 1.4 ± 0.7 sessions). At discharge, the average reduction in NRS was 3.18 ± 2.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.99-3.38) for LBP and 2.61 ± 2.60 (95% CI, 2.38-2.83) for leg pain the average reduction in ODI was 19.45 ± 19.53 (95% CI, 17.77-21.12). Two-hundred and seventy patients (51.5%) showed improvement over MCID in both NRS and ODI, 150 (28.6%) in either NRS or ODI, and 104 (19.8%) in neither. Integrated CAM treatment during hospitalization was effective for patients with lumbar IDH who had severe LBP and disability. However, these results must be investigated further to assess whether the effects surpass those seen with placebo and are cost-effective.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Polish language version of the chronic pain coping inventory-42 for patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and spondylotic changes.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2014-05-14

    The development of a pain-management program tailored to the specific needs of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) requires the proper assessment of psychosocial factors affecting each individual. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) refers to coping strategies, which are commonly defined as the cognitive and behavioral techniques an individual may resort to in stressful or demanding situations. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that differences in pain coping strategies may significantly affect how an individual deals with chronic pain. We aimed to adapt the CPCI-42 to Polish cultural conditions (PL-CPCI-42) and then verify its psychometric properties based on a group of patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes. The average age of the study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). The average duration of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was 49.37 months (SD 64.71). Lumbosacral spine X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed and all patients completed the PL-CPCI-42 and the Polish versions of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS-PL) twice. Internal consistency of the PL-CPCI-42, floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were analyzed. Resting, guarding, and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies both in the test and in the retest, in contrast to relaxation and exercise/stretch. The NPRS-PL result was 5.70 cm in the test and 5.66 in the retest. Cronbach's alpha values were recorded for the asking for assistance, coping self-statements, and seeking social support domains (0.83, 0.80, 0.83, respectively). Test-retest reliability of the PL-CPCI-42 varied from 0.53 (relaxation domain) to 0.84 (asking for assistance and coping self-statements domains). The present study provides evidence of the validity of the PL-CPCI-42 and supports its usefulness in assessing chronic pain coping strategies, which are especially

  1. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of <3 during 1 year (NRS < 3 duration), and time interval until pain was increased to require additional injections after repeat injection in Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS < 3 than Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week intervals

  2. Effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle in rats: possible implications of neuronal mechanisms in the development of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Jiro; Yamagata, Masatsune; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Moriya, Hideshige

    2005-05-01

    The effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on the stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the hamstring muscle (semitendinous) was studied. To verify the following hypothetical mechanisms underlying tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation: stretch reflex muscle activity of hamstrings is increased by painful inputs from an injured spinal nerve root and the increased stretch reflex muscle activity is maintained by central sensitization. It is reported that stretch reflex activity of the trunk muscles is induced by noxious stimulation of the sciatic nerve and maintained by central sensitization. In spinalized rats (transected spinal cord), the peroneal nerve was stimulated electrically as a conditioning stimulus. Stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the semitendinous muscle was recorded before and after the conditioning stimulus. Even after electrical stimulation was terminated, an increased stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle was observed. It is likely that a central sensitization mechanism at the spinal cord level was involved in the increased reflex activity. Central sensitization may play a part in the neuronal mechanisms of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

  3. Effect of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid or local anesthetic injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation and radiculitis: a randomized, controlled, double blind trial with a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Boswell, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation and radiculitis are common elements of low back and lower extremity pain. Among minimally invasive treatments, epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed interventions. However, the literature is mixed about their effectiveness in managing low back and lower extremity pain. In general, individual studies and systematic reviews of epidural steroid injections have been hampered by their study design, baseline differences between treatment groups, inadequate sample sizes, highly controlled settings, lack of validated outcome measures, and the inability to confirm the injectate location because fluoroscopy was not used. A randomized, controlled, double blind, active control trial. A private, interventional pain management practice, specialty referral center in the United States. To assess the effectiveness of fluoroscopically directed caudal epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. One hundred twenty patients were randomized to two groups: Group I received 10 mL caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic, lidocaine 0.5%; Group II patients received caudal epidural injections of 0.5% lidocaine, 9 mL, mixed with 1 mL of steroid. Multiple outcome measures were utilized. The primary outcome measures were Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. Significant pain relief improvement was defined as 50% or more improvement in NRS and ODI scores. In the successful category, 77% of Group I had significant pain relief of >/= 50% and functional status improvement of >/= 50% reduction in ODI scores; in Group II it was 76%, whereas overall it was 60% and 65% in Groups I and II. Over the two years, Group I had an average number of procedures of 5.5 ± 2.8; Group II was 5.3 ± 2.4. Even though there was no significant

  4. Utility of multilevel lateral interbody fusion of the thoracolumbar coronal curve apex in adult deformity surgery in combination with open posterior instrumentation and L5-S1 interbody fusion: a case-matched evaluation of 32 patients.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Alexander A; Mundis, Gregory M; Nguyen, Stacie; Okonkwo, David O; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Fessler, Richard; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Diebo, Bassel G; Burton, Douglas; Hart, Robert; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of supplementing long thoracolumbar posterior instrumented fusion (posterior spinal fusion, PSF) with lateral interbody fusion (LIF) of the lumbar/thoracolumbar coronal curve apex in adult spinal deformity (ASD). METHODS Two multicenter databases were evaluated. Adults who had undergone multilevel LIF of the coronal curve apex in addition to PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion (LS+Apex group) were matched by number of posterior levels fused with patients who had undergone PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion without LIF (LS-Only group). All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Percutaneous PSF and 3-column osteotomy (3CO) were excluded. Demographics, perioperative details, radiographic spinal deformity measurements, and HRQoL data were analyzed. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were matched (LS+Apex: 16; LS: 16) (6 men, 26 women; mean age 63 ± 10 years). Overall, the average values for measures of deformity were as follows: Cobb angle > 40°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 6 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, and mismatch between pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) > 15°. There were no significant intergroup differences in preoperative radiographic parameters, although patients in the LS+Apex group had greater Cobb angles and less LL. Patients in the LS+Apex group had significantly more anterior levels fused (4.6 vs 1), longer operative times (859 vs 379 minutes), and longer length of stay (12 vs 7.5 days) (all p < 0.01). For patients in the LS+Apex group, Cobb angle, pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), PI-LL (lumbopelvic mismatch), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05). For patients in the LS-Only group, there were significant improvements in Cobb angle, ODI score, and VAS scores for back and leg pain. The LS+Apex group had better correction of Cobb angles (56% vs 33%, p = 0.02), SVA (43% vs 5%, p = 0

  5. Outcome of L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion of high-grade L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schär, Ralph T; Sutter, Martin; Mannion, Anne F; Eggspühler, Andreas; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Fekete, Tamas F; Kleinstück, Frank; Haschtmann, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence and course of iatrogenic L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Consecutive patients treated for high-grade spondylolisthesis with IONM from 2005 to 2013 were screened for eligibility. Prospectively collected clinical and surgical data as well as radiographic outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Patients completed the multidimensional Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) before and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Seventeen patients were included, with a mean age of 26.3 (±9.5) years. Mean preoperative L5-S1 slip was 72% (±21%) and was reduced to 19% (±13%) postoperatively. Mean loss of reduction at last follow-up [mean 19 months (±14, range 3-48 months)] was 3% (±4.3%). Rate of new L5 radiculopathy with motor deficit (L5MD) after surgery was 29% (five patients). Four patients fully recovered after 3 months, one patient was lost to neurologic follow-up. IONM sensitivity and specificity for postoperative L5MD was 20 and 100%, respectively. COMI, back pain and leg pain scores showed significant (p < 0.001) improvements at 3 months postoperatively, which were retained up to 24 months postoperatively. Transient L5 radiculopathy after reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade spondylolisthesis is frequent. With IONM the risk of irreversible L5 radiculopathy is minimal. If IONM signal changes recover, full clinical recovery is expected within 3 months. Overall, patient-reported outcome of reduction and instrumented fusion of high-grade spondylolisthesis showed clinically important improvement.

  6. Comparison of pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization and fusion surgery in the treatment of radiographic adjacent-segment degeneration: a retrospective analysis of single L5-S1 degenerative spondylosis covering 4 years.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Sun, Jianguang; Luo, Chenghan; Huang, Shilei; Li, Liren; Ji, Xiang; Duan, Xiaozong; Wang, Zhenqing; Pi, Guofu

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw-based dynamic spinal stabilization systems (PDSs) were devised to decrease, theoretically, the risk of long-term complications such as adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after lumbar fusion surgery. However, to date, there have been few studies that fully proved that a PDS can reduce the risk of ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a PDS can influence the incidence of ASD and to discuss the surgical coping strategy for L5-S1 segmental spondylosis with preexisting L4-5 degeneration with no related symptoms or signs. METHODS This study retrospectively compared 62 cases of L5-S1 segmental spondylosis in patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (n = 31) or K-Rod dynamic stabilization (n = 31) with a minimum of 4 years' follow-up. The authors measured the intervertebral heights and spinopelvic parameters on standing lateral radiographs and evaluated preexisting ASD on preoperative MR images using the modified Pfirrmann grading system. Radiographic ASD was evaluated according to the results of radiography during follow-up. RESULTS All 62 patients achieved remission of their neurological symptoms without surgical complications. The Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional-hazards model showed no statistically significant differences between the 2 surgical groups in the incidence of radiographic ASD (p > 0.05). In contrast, the incidence of radiographic ASD was 8.75 times (95% CI 1.955-39.140; p = 0.005) higher in the patients with a preoperative modified Pfirrmann grade higher than 3 than it was in patients with a modified Pfirrmann grade of 3 or lower. In addition, no statistical significance was found for other risk factors such as age, sex, and spinopelvic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Pedicle screw-based dynamic spinal stabilization systems were not found to be superior to posterior lumbar interbody fusion in preventing radiographic ASD (L4-5) during the midterm follow-up. Preexisting ASD with a modified Pfirrmann

  7. A more realistic disc herniation model incorporating compression, flexion and facet-constrained shear: a mechanical and microstructural analysis. Part II: high rate or 'surprise' loading.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhi; Wade, Kelly R; Schollum, Meredith L; Robertson, Peter A; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil D

    2017-10-01

    Part I of this study explored mechanisms of disc failure in a complex posture incorporating physiological amounts of flexion and shear at a loading rate considerably lower than likely to occur in a typical in vivo manual handling situation. Given the strain-rate-dependent mechanical properties of the heavily hydrated disc, loading rate will likely influence the mechanisms of disc failure. Part II investigates the mechanisms of failure in healthy discs subjected to surprise-rate compression while held in the same complex posture. 37 motion segments from 13 healthy mature ovine lumbar spines were compressed in a complex posture intended to simulate the situation arising when bending and twisting while lifting a heavy object at a displacement rate of 400 mm/min. Seven of the 37 samples reached the predetermined displacement prior to a reduction in load and were classified as early stage failures, providing insight to initial areas of disc disruption. Both groups of damaged discs were then analysed microstructurally using light microscopy. The average failure load under high rate complex loading was 6.96 kN (STD 1.48 kN), significantly lower statistically than for low rate complex loading [8.42 kN (STD 1.22 kN)]. Also, unlike simple flexion or low rate complex loading, direct radial ruptures and non-continuous mid-wall tearing in the posterior and posterolateral regions were commonly accompanied by disruption extending to the lateral and anterior disc. This study has again shown that multiple modes of damage are common when compressing a segment in a complex posture, and the load bearing ability, already less than in a neutral or flexed posture, is further compromised with high rate complex loading.

  8. Quantitative Discomanometry: Correlation of Intradiscal Pressure Values to Pain Reduction in Patients With Intervertebral Disc Herniation Treated With Percutaneous, Minimally Invasive, Image-Guided Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Papakonstantinou, O., E-mail: sogofianol@gmail.com

    Purpose: To illustrate quantitative discomanometry's (QD) diagnostic efficacy and predictive value in discogenic-pain evaluation in a prospective study correlating intradiscal pressure values with pain reduction after percutaneous image-guided technique (i.e., percutaneous decompression, PD). Materials and Methods: During the last 3 years, 36 patients [21 male and 15 female (mean age 36 {+-} 5.8 years)] with intervertebral disc hernia underwent QD before PD. Under absolute sterilization and fluoroscopy, a mixture of contrast medium and normal saline (3:1 ratio) was injected. A discmonitor performed a constant rate injection and recorded pressure and volume values, thus producing the relative pressure-volume curve. PD wasmore » then performed. Pain reduction and improved mobility were recorded at 3, 12, and 24 months after PD using clinical evaluation and a numeric visual scale (NVS; 0 to 10 units). Results: Mean pain values of 7.5 {+-} 1.9 (range 4 to 8) NVS units were recorded before PD; these decreased to 2.9 {+-} 2.44 at 3 months, 1.0 {+-} 1.9 at 12 months, and 1.0 {+-} 1.9 NVS units at 24 months after PD. Recorded correlations (pressure, volume, significant pain-reduction values) with bilateral statistical significance included a maximum injected volume of 2.4 ml (p = 0.045), P{sub o} < 14 psi [initial pressure required to inject 0.1 ml of the mixture inside the disc (p = 0.05)], P{sub max} {<=} 65 psi [greatest pressure value on the curve (p = 0.018)], and P{sub max} - P{sub o} {<=} 47 psi (p = 0.038). Patients meeting these pressure or volume cut-off points, either independently or as a total, had significant pain reduction (>4 NVS units) after PD. No complications were noted. Conclusions: QD is an efficient technique that may have predictive value for discogenic pain evaluation. It might serve as a useful tool for patient selection for intervertebral disc therapies.« less

  9. Hybrid testing of lumbar CHARITE discs versus fusions.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, Manohar; Malcolmson, George; Teng, Edward; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Henderson, Gweneth; Serhan, Hassan

    2007-04-20

    An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. To quantify effects on operated and other levels, including adjacent levels, due to CHARITE disc implantations versus simulated fusions, using follower load and the new hybrid test method in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion. Spinal fusion has been associated with long-term accelerated degeneration at adjacent levels. As opposed to the fusion, artificial discs are designed to preserve motion and diminish the adjacent-level effects. Five fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (T12-S1) underwent multidirectional testing in flexion-extension and bilateral torsion with 400 N follower load. Intact specimen total ranges of motion were determined with +/-10 Nm unconstrained pure moments. The intact range of motion was used as input for the hybrid tests of 5 constructs: 1) CHARITE disc at L5-S1; 2) fusion at L5-S1; 3) CHARITE discs at L4-L5 and L5-S1; 4) CHARITE disc at L4-L5 and fusion at L5-S1; and 5) 2-level fusion at L4-L5-S1. Using repeated-measures single factor analysis of variance and Bonferroni statistical tests (P < 0.05), intervertebral motion redistribution of each construct was compared with the intact. In flexion-extension, 1-level CHARITE disc preserved motion at the operated and other levels, while 2-level CHARITE showed some amount of other-level effects. In contrast, 1- and 2-level fusions increased other-level motions (average, 21.0% and 61.9%, respectively). In torsion, both 1- and 2-level discs preserved motions at all levels. The 2-level simulated fusion increased motions at proximal levels (22.9%), while the 1-level fusion produced no significant changes. In general, CHARITE discs preserved operated- and other-level motions. Fusion simulations affected motion redistribution at other levels, including adjacent levels.

  10. Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2013-12-27

    Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts.

  11. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ailiang; Wang, Kun; Ding, Lianghua; Bao, Xinnan; Wang, Xuan; Qiu, Xubin; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:28243141

  12. Biomechanical comparison of a two-level Maverick disc replacement with a hybrid one-level disc replacement and one-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Serkan; Rivera, Yamil; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir A; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2009-10-01

    Multilevel lumbar disc disease (MLDD) is a common finding in many patients. Surgical solutions for MLDD include fusion or disc replacement. The hybrid model, combining fusion and disc replacement, is a potential alternative for patients who require surgical intervention at both L5-S1 and L4-L5. The indications for this hybrid model could be posterior element insufficiency, severe facet pathology, calcified ligamentum flavum, and subarticular disease confirming spinal stenosis at L5-S1 level, or previous fusion surgery at L5-S1 and new symptomatic pathology at L4-L5. Biomechanical data of the hybrid model with the Maverick disc and anterior fusion are not available in the literature. To compare the biomechanical properties of a two-level Maverick disc replacement at L4-L5, L5-S1, and a hybrid model consisting of an L4-L5 Maverick disc replacement with an L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion using multidirectional flexibility test. An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. Six fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (L4-S1) were subjected to unconstrained load in axial torsion (AT), lateral bending (LB), flexion (F), extension (E), and flexion-extension (FE) using multidirectional flexibility test. Four surgical treatments-intact, one-level Maverick at L5-S1, two-level Maverick between L4 and S1, and the hybrid model (anterior fusion at L5-S1 and Maverick at L4-L5) were tested in sequential order. The range of motion of each treatment was calculated. The Maverick disc replacement slightly reduced intact motion in AT and LB at both levels. The total FE motion was similar to the intact motion. However, the E motion is significantly increased (approximately 50% higher) and F motion is significantly decreased (30%-50% lower). The anterior fusion using a cage and anterior plate significantly reduced spinal motion compared with the condition (p<.05). No significant differences were found between two-level Maverick disc prosthesis and the hybrid model in terms of

  13. [Diagnostic imaging of changes of the canine intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    Harder, Lisa K

    2016-10-12

    Intervertebral disc degeneration can cause intervertebral disc herniation. Diagnostic imaging, including radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, is the most important tool in diagnosis. Firstly, an overview of macroscopic and biochemical physiology and pathology of the intervertebral disc will be given. Subsequently, the physics of diagnostic imaging and the appearance of intervertebral disc degeneration and displacement in several imaging methods are described.

  14. Multidirectional testing of one- and two-level ProDisc-L versus simulated fusions.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, Manohar; Henderson, Gweneth; Abjornson, Celeste; Yue, James

    2007-05-20

    An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. To evaluate intervertebral rotation changes due to lumbar ProDisc-L compared with simulated fusion, using follower load and multidirectional testing. Artificial discs, as opposed to the fusions, are thought to decrease the long-term accelerated degeneration at adjacent levels. A biomechanical assessment can be helpful, as the long-term clinical evaluation is impractical. Six fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (T12-S1) underwent multidirectional testing in flexion-extension, bilateral lateral bending, and bilateral torsion using the Hybrid test method. First, intact specimen total range of rotation (T12-S1) was determined. Second, using pure moments again, this range of rotation was achieved in each of the 5 constructs: A) ProDisc-L at L5-S1; B) fusion at L5-S1; C) ProDisc-L at L4-L5 and fusion at L5-S1; D) ProDisc-L at L4-L5 and L5-S1; and E) 2-level fusion at L4-L5 to L5-S1. Significant changes in the intervertebral rotations due to each construct were determined at the operated and nonoperated levels using repeated measures single factor ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical tests (P < 0.05). Adjacent-level effects (ALEs) were defined as the percentage changes in intervertebral rotations at the nonoperated levels due to the constructs. One- and 2-level ProDisc-L constructs showed only small ALE in any of the 3 rotations. In contrast, 1- and 2-level fusions showed increased ALE in all 3 directions (average, 7.8% and 35.3%, respectively, for 1 and 2 levels). In the disc plus fusion combination (construct C), the ALEs were similar to the 1-level fusion alone. In general, ProDisc-L preserved physiologic motions at all spinal levels, while the fusion simulations resulted in significant ALE.

  15. T1 hyperintense disc in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan A; Silbergleit, Richard; Olson, Rick E; Wilson, Jon; Krishnan, Anant

    2012-10-01

    Case report. To report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation. A 46-year-old man without previous diagnosis of alkaptonuria underwent evaluation for progressive back pain revealing a T1-hyperintense disc herniation at the L3-L4 level. Discectomy recovered a blackened disc that was pathologically confirmed to be nucleus pulposus with alkaptonuric involvement. The differential diagnosis of a T1-hyperintense, T2-hypointense disc on magnetic resonance imaging is discussed, with emphasis on the pathophysiology of alkaptonuria. A single patient is reported. Pathologically proven patient presentation with radiological and pathological images. We report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation.

  16. Strain on intervertebral discs after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, S; Kabayama, S; Yamamoto, T; Yone, K; Sakou, T; Nakanishi, K

    1999-04-01

    An analysis of the change in strain distribution of intervertebral discs present after anterior cervical decompression and fusion by an original method. The analytical results were compared to occurrence of herniation of the intervertebral disc on magnetic resonance imaging. To elucidate the influence of anterior cervical decompression and fusion on the unfused segments of the spine. There is no consensus regarding the exact significance of the biomechanical change in the unfused segment present after surgery. Ninety-six patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion for herniation of intervertebral discs were examined. Shear strain and longitudinal strain of intervertebral discs were analyzed on pre- and postoperative lateral dynamic routine radiography of the cervical spine. Thirty of the 96 patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before and after surgery, and the relation between alteration in strains and postsurgical occurrence of disc herniation was examined. In the cases of double- or triple-level fusion, shear strain of adjacent segments had increased 20% on average 1 year after surgery. Thirteen intervertebral discs that had an abnormally high degree of strain showed an increase in longitudinal strain after surgery. Eleven (85%) of the 13 discs that showed an abnormal increase in longitudinal strain had herniation in the same intervertebral discs with compression of the spinal cord during the follow-up period. Relief of symptoms was significantly poor in the patients with recent herniation. Close attention should be paid to long-term biomechanical changes in the unfused segment.

  17. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized.

  18. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  19. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy.

    PubMed

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  20. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for Foot Drop Twelve Years After Lumbar Total Disc Replacment: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Telfeian, Albert E; Oyelese, Adetokunbo; Fridley, Jared; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2018-05-19

    Lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) is considered for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease with the hope that by preserving motion the long-term fusion complication of adjacent segment disease can be avoided. The complications of LTDR can be divided into approach-related and long-term complications. Very little has been described about the complications and treatment for complications more than 10 years after the device has been implanted. Here we describe a tranforaminal endoscopic discectomy procedure for a patient presenting with foot drop twelve years after a L5-S1 total disc replacement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Aspergillus discitis with acute disc abscess.

    PubMed

    Assaad, W; Nuchikat, P S; Cohen, L; Esguerra, J V; Whittier, F C

    1994-10-01

    Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the vertebral body and disc space is rare. This report discusses a case that occurred in an immunosuppressed 29-year-old man and reviews the pertinent medical literature. To review the management and treatment of Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the vertebral body and disc space. The patient presented with acute neurologic compromise resulting from L5-S1 discitis and a large epidural soft tissue component secondary to the Aspergillus infection. The patient underwent aggressive surgical debridement along with treatment with amphotericin B and had a complete clinical recovery. The authors recommend a combined medical-surgical approach in most cases of vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis. Early surgery with vigorous surgical debridement along with antifungal treatment seems to yield a good outcome.

  2. Disc cell clusters in pathological human intervertebral discs are associated with increased stress protein immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christopher A; Roberts, Sally; Evans, Helena; Brown, Sharon J

    2009-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells within the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) maintain distinct functional extracellular matrices and operate within a potentially noxious and stressful environment. How disc cells respond to stress and whether stress is responsible for triggering degeneration is unknown. Disc cell proliferation and cluster formation are most marked in degenerate IVDs, possibly indicating attempts at matrix repair. In other tissues, stress proteins increase rapidly after stress protecting cell function and, although implicated in degeneration of articular cartilage, have received little attention in degenerative IVD pathologies. We have compared the distribution of stress protein immunolocalization in pathological and control IVDs. Disc tissues were obtained at surgery from 43 patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and herniation, and 12 controls at postmortem. Tissues were immunostained with a polyclonal antibody for heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and monoclonal antibodies for the heat shock proteins, Hsp27 and Hsp72, using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. Positively stained cells were expressed as a percentage of the total. Cell cluster formation was also assessed. The proportion of cells in clusters was similar in the AF (both 2%) and NP (8 and 9%) of control and DDD samples, whereas in herniated tissues this was increased (AF 12%, NP 14%). Stress antigen staining tended to be more frequent in clustered rather than in single/doublet cells, and this was significant (P < 0.005) in both the AF and NP of herniated discs. Clustered cells, which are most common in herniated discs, may be mounting a protective response to abnormal environmental factors associated with disc degeneration. A better understanding of the stress response in IVD cells may allow its utilization in disc cell therapies.

  3. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers.

    PubMed

    Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo

    2008-04-16

    Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic) changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers) from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration) and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification). The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference) were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI), and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure). Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant of severe disc degeneration.

  4. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    PubMed Central

    Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo

    2008-01-01

    Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic) changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers) from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration) and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification). Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference) were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI), and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure). Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant of severe disc

  5. Idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation

    PubMed Central

    Turel, Mazda K; Wewel, Joshua T; Kerolus, Mena G; O'Toole, John E

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare and often missed cause of thoracic myelopathy. The clinical presentation and radiological appearance is inconsistent and commonly confused with a dorsal arachnoid cyst and often is a misdiagnosed entity. While ventral spinal cord herniation through a dural defect has been previously described, intravertebral herniation is a distinct entity and extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year old man with idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation and discuss the clinico-radiological presentation, pathophysiology and operative management along with a review the literature of this unusual entity. PMID:29021685

  6. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation. Results The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%). Conclusion Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value. PMID:25983807

  7. Conservatively treated massive prolapsed discs: a 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Benson, RT; Tavares, SP; Robertson, SC; Sharp, R; Marshall, RW

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The natural history of a lumbar hernia of the nucleus pulposus (HNP) is not fully known and clear indications for operative intervention cannot be established from the literature. Several studies have shown that the largest discs appear to have the greatest tendency to resolve. The aim of this study was to investigate whether massive prolapsed discs can be safely managed conservatively once clinical improvement has occurred. PATIENTS AND METHODS Thirty-seven patients were studied by clinical assessments and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over 2 years. Patients had severe sciatica at first, but began to show clinical improvement despite the large disc hernia-tions. Clinical assessment included the Lasegue test and neurological appraisal. The Oswestry Disability Index was used to measure function and changes in function. Serial MRI studies allowed measurement of volume changes of the herniated disc material over a period of time. RESULTS Initial follow-up at an average of 23.2 months revealed that 83% had a complete and sustained recovery at the initial follow-up. Only four patients required a discectomy. The average Oswestry disability index improved from 58% to 15%. Volumetric analysis of serial MRI scans found an average reduction of 64% in disc size. There was a poor correlation between clinical improvement and the extent of disc resolution. CONCLUSIONS A massive disc herniation can pursue a favourable clinical course. If early progress is shown, the long-term prognosis is very good and even massive disc herniations can be treated conservatively. PMID:19887021

  8. Diagnosis and operatory treatment of the patients with failed back surgery caused by herniated disk relapse.

    PubMed

    Bodiu, A

    2014-01-01

    THE OBJECT OF STUDY: Analysis of surgical treatment results in patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and repeated laminotomy and discectomy for the improvement of pain and disability. Data analysis was performed on a complex diagnosis and treatment of 56 patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation who had previously underwent 1-3 lumbar disc surgeries. An MRI investigation with paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium) was used for the diagnosis and differentiation of epidural fibrosis, and a dynamic lateral X-ray investigation was carried out for the identification of segmental instability. The evolution period after the previous surgery was between 1 and 3 years after the index surgery. Pain expression degree and dynamics were assessed with the pain visual analog scale (VAS) in early and late postoperative periods. Postoperative success was assessed by using a modified MacNab scale. The follow-up recording period after the last operation was of at least 1 year, ranging from 1 to 4 years. The surgical treatment was effective in most cases, recording a reduction in pain expression level from 7.2-7.7 points on the VAS scale to 1.7-2.1 in the early period and 2.2-2.6 in the late period (1 year). Repeated surgery was effective in 21 of 30 (70%) cases who underwent decompression surgery without fusion and in 20 of 26 (76.9%) cases who underwent repeated surgery with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Overall, postoperative success was assessed by using a modified MacNab scale. Repeated surgery is a viable option for patients who have clinical manifestations of recurrent disc herniation. Investigation with contrast agent by MRI allows differentiating disk herniation recurrences from epidural fibrosis. Supplementing repeated discectomies and decompression with intervertebral transforaminal fusion provide superior clinical outcomes, especially in patients with clinical and radiological signs of lumbar

  9. Retroperitoneal oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral discs: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Molinares, Diana M; Davis, Timothy T; Fung, Daniel A

    2015-10-09

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to analyze MR images of the lumbar spine and document: 1) the oblique corridor at each lumbar disc level between the psoas muscle and the great vessels, and 2) oblique access to the L5-S1 disc space. Access to the lumbar spine without disruption of the psoas muscle could translate into decreased frequency of postoperative neurological complications observed after a transpsoas approach. The authors investigated the retroperitoneal oblique corridor of L2-S1 as a means of surgical access to the intervertebral discs. This oblique approach avoids the psoas muscle and is a safe and potentially superior alternative to the lateral transpsoas approach used by many surgeons. METHODS One hundred thirty-three MRI studies performed between May 4, 2012, and February 27, 2013, were randomly selected from the authors' database. Thirty-three MR images were excluded due to technical issues or altered lumbar anatomy due to previous spine surgery. The oblique corridor was defined as the distance between the left lateral border of the aorta (or iliac artery) and the anterior medial border of the psoas. The L5-S1 oblique corridor was defined transversely from the midsagittal line of the inferior endplate of L-5 to the medial border of the left common iliac vessel (axial view) and vertically to the first vascular structure that crossed midline (sagittal view). RESULTS The oblique corridor measurements to the L2-5 discs have the following mean distances: L2-3 = 16.04 mm, L3-4 = 14.21 mm, and L4-5 = 10.28 mm. The L5-S1 corridor mean distance was 10 mm between midline and left common iliac vessel, and 10.13 mm from the first midline vessel to the inferior endplate of L-5. The bifurcation of the aorta and confluence of the vena cava were also analyzed in this study. The aortic bifurcation was found at the L-3 vertebral body in 2% of the MR images, at the L3-4 disc in 5%, at the L-4 vertebral body in 43%, at the L4-5 disc in 11%, and at the L-5 vertebral

  10. Retroperitoneal oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral discs in the lateral position: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy T; Hynes, Richard A; Fung, Daniel A; Spann, Scott W; MacMillan, Michael; Kwon, Brian; Liu, John; Acosta, Frank; Drochner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    Access to the intervertebral discs from L2-S1 in one surgical position can be challenging. The transpsoas minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach is preferred by many surgeons, but this approach poses potential risk to neural structures of the lumbar plexus as they course through the psoas. The lumbar plexus and iliac crest often restrict the L4-5 disc access, and the L5-S1 level has not been a viable option from a direct lateral approach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate an MIS oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral disc space in cadaveric specimens while keeping the specimens in a lateral decubitus position with minimal disruption of the psoas and lumbar plexus. Twenty fresh-frozen full-torso cadaveric specimens were dissected, and an oblique anatomical corridor to access the L2-S1 discs was examined. Measurements were taken in a static state and with mild retraction of the psoas. The access corridor was defined at L2-5 as the left lateral border of the aorta (or iliac artery) and the anterior medial border of the psoas. The L5-S1 corridor of access was defined transversely from the midsagittal line of the inferior endplate of L-5 to the medial border of the left common iliac vessel and vertically to the first vascular structure that crosses midline. The mean access corridor diameters in the static state and with mild psoas retraction, respectively, were as follows: at L2-3, 18.60 mm and 25.50 mm; at L3-4, 19.25 mm and 27.05 mm; and at L4-5, 15.00 mm and 24.45 mm. The L5-S1 corridor mean values were 14.75 mm transversely, from midline to the left common iliac vessel and 23.85 mm from the inferior endplate of L-5 cephalad to the first midline vessel. The oblique corridor allows access to the L2-S1 discs while keeping the patient in a lateral decubitus position without a break in the table. Minimal psoas retraction without significant tendon disruption allowed for a generous corridor to the disc space. The L5-S1 disc space can be

  11. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations associated with intervertebral disc disease in 84 dogs.

    PubMed

    Schueler, R O; White, G; Schueler, R L; Steiner, J M; Wassef, A

    2018-05-01

    To determine the differences in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity between dogs with intervertebral disc herniation and healthy control dogs. Eighty-four client-owned dogs with intervertebral disc herniation, diagnosed by neurologic examination and imaging, and 18 healthy control dogs. Samples of whole blood were collected within 90 minutes of admission. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were measured by a commercial immunoassay and evaluated for association with intervertebral disc herniation, signalment, neurolocalisation and the preadmission administration of glucocorticosteriods or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were statistically increased in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation (P<0·01, n=38). A subgroup of dogs (19/38) with elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations was re-evaluated between 2 and 4 weeks later, and 15 had resolution of clinical signs and values less than 200 μg/L. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were not significantly correlated with clinical gastrointestinal disease, neurolocalisation or the preadmission administration of corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These results suggest that serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations are significantly elevated in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Incidence of trocar site herniation following robotic gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie H; Soliman, Pamela T; Odetto, Diego; Munsell, Mark F; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Fleming, Nicole; Westin, Shannon N; Nick, Alpa M; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2013-11-01

    Trocar site herniation is a recognized complication of minimally invasive surgery, but published data on trocar site herniation after robotic surgery are scarce. We sought to determine the incidence of trocar site herniation in women undergoing robotic surgery for gynecologic disease. A retrospective review of robotic surgeries performed from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012, was conducted. Postoperative trocar site herniations were identified, along with time to presentation, location of herniation, and management. Patients were excluded if surgery was converted to laparotomy or traditional laparoscopy. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare patients with and without herniation with respect to continuous variables, and Fisher's exact test was used to compare these 2 groups with respect to categorical variables. The study included 500 patients, 3 of whom experienced herniation at a single trocar site. The patients with and without herniation did not differ with respect to age, body mass index, smoking status, medical comorbidities, operating time, or estimated blood loss. All 3 herniations occurred at 12-mm trocar sites. Two herniations occurred at assistant port sites, and 1 occurred at the umbilical camera port site. The median time to herniation was 21 days (range, 8-38 days). One patient required immediate surgical intervention; the other 2 patients had conservative management. Trocar site herniation is a rare complication following robotic surgery. The most important risk factor for trocar site herniation appears to be larger trocar size, as all herniations occurred at 12-mm port sites. © 2013.

  13. Lumbar foraminal stenosis, the hidden stenosis including at L5/S1.

    PubMed

    Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhide; Eguchi, Yawara; Kubota, Go; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    In patients with lower back and leg pain, lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS) is one of the most important pathologies, especially for predominant radicular symptoms. LFS pathology can develop as a result of progressing spinal degeneration and is characterized by exacerbation with foraminal narrowing caused by lumbar extension (Kemp's sign). However, there is a lack of critical clinical findings for LFS pathology. Therefore, patients with robust and persistent leg pain, which is exacerbated by lumbar extension, should be suspected of LFS. Radiological diagnosis is performed using multiple radiological modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, including plain examination and novel protocols such as diffusion tensor imaging, as well as dynamic X-ray, and computed tomography. Electrophysiological testing can also aid diagnosis. Treatment options include both conservative and surgical approaches. Conservative treatment includes medication, rehabilitation, and spinal nerve block. Surgery should be considered when the pathology is refractory to conservative treatment and requires direct decompression of the exiting nerve root, including the dorsal root ganglia. In cases with decreased intervertebral height and/or instability, fusion surgery should also be considered. Recent advancements in minimally invasive lumbar lateral interbody fusion procedures enable effective and less invasive foraminal enlargement compared with traditional fusion surgeries such as transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. The lumbosacral junction can cause L5 radiculopathy with greater incidence than other lumbar levels as a result of anatomical and epidemiological factors, which should be better addressed when treating clinical lower back pain.

  14. Spontaneous regression of posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments: case series.

    PubMed

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Ikuta, Ko; Fukutoku, Yoshiaki; Tono, Osamu; Doi, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    Posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments is an extremely rare disorder. Surgical treatment was performed in all reported cases. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of the use of conservative treatment for posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments. To report the possibility of a spontaneous regression of posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments. Case series. Four patients with posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments were treated at Karatsu Red Cross Hospital between April 2008 and August 2010. Spontaneous regression of the posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments with relief of symptoms was observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three cases. Another patient underwent surgical treatment. The present and previously reported cases of posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments were analyzed with respect to patient age, imaging features on MRI, the level of the lesion, clinical symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. Conservative treatment was successful, and spontaneous lesion regression was seen on MRI with symptom relief in three cases. Although posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragment cases are generally treated surgically, the condition can regress spontaneously over time, as do sequestrated disc fragments. Spontaneous regression of lumbar disc herniations is a widely accepted observation at present. Posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments fall under the sequestrated type of disc herniation. In fact, the course of treatment for posterior epidural migrated lumbar disc fragments should be determined based on the symptoms and examination findings, as in cases of ordinary herniation. However, providing early surgical treatment is important if the patient has acute cauda equina syndrome or the neurologic symptoms worsen over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between Clinical Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Lumbar Disc Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S S; Lakhey, R B; Sharma, P; Pokhrel, R K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely done for diagnosis of lumbar disc prolapse. Many abnormalities of disc are observed even in asymptomatic patient.This study was conducted tocorrelate these abnormalities observed on Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. A This prospective analytical study includes 57 cases of lumbar disc prolapse presenting to Department of Orthopedics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to August 2012. All patientshad Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine and the findings regarding type, level and position of lumbar disc prolapse, any neural canal or foraminal compromise was recorded. These imaging findings were then correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Chi-square test was used to find out p-value for correlation between clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings using SPSS 17.0. This study included 57 patients, with mean age 36.8 years. Of them 41(71.9%) patients had radicular leg pain along specific dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 104 lumbar disc prolapselevel. Disc prolapse at L4-L5 and L5-S1 level constituted 85.5%.Magnetic resonance imaging findings of neural foramina compromise and nerve root compression were fairly correlated withclinical findings of radicular pain and neurological deficit. Clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings of lumbar discprolasehad faircorrelation, but all imaging abnormalities do not have a clinical significance.

  16. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Sheldon; Tarrago, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A 4-year-old black boy was admitted to the hospital with vomiting, low-grade fever, and dehydration that were thought to be caused by viral gastroenteritis. He proceeded over the next 12 hours to rapidly deteriorate with brain herniation leading to brain death. The ultimate cause of death was found to be acute lead intoxication from a swallowed foreign body.

  17. Developments in intervertebral disc disease research: pathophysiology, mechanobiology, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kathryn T; Jacobsen, Timothy D; Maidhof, Robert; Virojanapa, Justin; Overby, Chris; Bloom, Ona; Quraishi, Shaheda; Levine, Mitchell; Chahine, Nadeen O

    2015-03-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability worldwide and the second most common cause of physician visits. There are many causes of back pain, and among them, disc herniation and intervertebral disc degeneration are the most common diagnoses and targets for intervention. Currently, clinical treatment outcomes are not strongly correlated with diagnoses, emphasizing the importance for characterizing more completely the mechanisms of degeneration and their relationships with symptoms. This review covers recent studies elucidating cellular and molecular changes associated with disc mechanobiology, as it relates to degeneration and regeneration. Specifically, we review findings on the biochemical changes in disc diseases, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases; advancements in disc disease diagnostics using imaging modalities; updates on studies examining the response of the intervertebral disc to injury; and recent developments in repair strategies, including cell-based repair, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Findings on the effects of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, on nucleus pulposus tissue engineering are presented. Studies described in this review provide greater insights into the pathogenesis of disc degeneration and may define new paradigms for early or differential diagnostics of degeneration using new techniques such as systemic biomarkers. In addition, research on the mechanobiology of disease enriches the development of therapeutics for disc repair, with potential to diminish pain and disability associated with disc degeneration.

  18. Does core mobility of lumbar total disc arthroplasty influence sagittal and frontal intervertebral displacement? Radiologic comparison with fixed-core prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Delécrin, Joël; Allain, Jérôme; Beaurain, Jacques; Steib, Jean-Paul; Chataigner, Hervé; Aubourg, Lucie; Huppert, Jean; Ameil, Marc; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background An artificial disc prosthesis is thought to restore segmental motion in the lumbar spine. However, it is reported that disc prosthesis can increase the intervertebral translation (VT). The concept of the mobile-core prosthesis is to mimic the kinematic effects of the migration of the natural nucleus and therefore core mobility should minimize the VT. This study explored the hypothesis that core translation should influence VT and that a mobile core prosthesis may facilitate physiological motion. Methods Vertebral translation (measured with a new method presented here), core translation, range of motion (ROM), and distribution of flexion-extension were measured on flexion-extension, neutral standing, and lateral bending films in 89 patients (63 mobile-core [M]; 33 fixed-core [F]). Results At L4-5 levels the VT with M was lower than with F and similar to the VT of untreated levels. At L5-S1 levels the VT with M was lower than with F but was significantly different compared to untreated levels. At M levels a strong correlation was found between VT and core translation; the VT decreases as the core translation increases. At F levels the VT increases as the ROM increases. No significant difference was found between the ROM of untreated levels and levels implanted with either M or F. Regarding the mobility distribution with M and F we observed a deficit in extension at L5-S1 levels and a similar distribution at L4-5 levels compared to untreated levels. Conclusion The intervertebral mobility was different between M and F. The M at L4-5 levels succeeded to replicate mobility similar to L4-5 untreated levels. The M at L5-S1 succeeded in ROM, but failed regarding VT and mobility distribution. Nevertheless M minimized VT at L5-S1 levels. The F increased VT at both L4-5 and L5-S1. Clinical Relevance This study validates the concept that the core translation of an artificial lumbar disc prosthesis minimizes the VT. PMID:25802632

  19. Symptomatic pneumocephalus: A rare complication of discal herniation's surgery.

    PubMed

    Gader, Ghassen; Karmeni, Nadhir; Ben Saïd, Imed; Jemel, Hafedh

    2018-05-23

    Context We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with no pathological history, operated from an L4-L5 disc herniation by a left unilateral approach. The dura mater enveloping the left L5 root was accidentally injured at its lateral face causing a breach with CSF leakage. This breach could not be sutured. A few hours after waking, the patient presented an agitation followed by three generalized tonico-clonic seizures. Cerebral imaging revealed pneumocephalus. The patient was hospitalized in an intensive care unit. The symptoms gradually faded and the patient was discharged 3 days after surgery. Findings Pneumocephalus is defined by the presence of air inside the skull. The symptoms of pneumocephalus are generally non-specific and varied, and this complication should also be kept in mind to prevent potentially severe course. The prevention of postoperative pneumocephalus depends on a well-defined strategy in the case of iatrogenic dural tear. Conclusions Symptomatic pneumocephalus is a very rare complication in the course of lumbar surgery. Conservative therapy may be appropriate even in severe symptomatic manifestations.

  20. Sensibility testing in patients with a lumbosacral radicular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peeters, G G; Aufdemkampe, G; Oostendorp, R A

    1998-02-01

    To examine whether there is a significant difference in gnostic sensibility between affected and unaffected legs of patients suffering from lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) resulting from a disc herniation and to determine the validity of the sensibility test for detecting a disc herniation. Observer blind study of sensibility testing. Four general hospitals (neurology department) and one practice of physical and manual therapy. Fifty-one patients with radicular pain in the lumbosacral nerve roots for at least 4 wk and/or neurological deficits. The gnostic sensibility of 51 patients with a unilateral LRS was tested using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments for the L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Gnostic hypoesthetic impairments in the L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes were found in 84.6% of the 43 patients in which the presence of disc herniation was confirmed by CT. There was significant difference in gnostic sensibility between the affected and unaffected legs in the L4, L5, and S1 dermatomes for disc herniation at the L4-L5 level and for the L5 and S1 dermatomes for a disc herniation at the L5-S1 level. There was no significant difference in gnostic sensibility in the L4 dermatome for a disc herniation at the L5-S1 level. The gnostic sensibility of the affected leg is hypoesthetic compared with the unaffected leg. The specificity of the sensibility test using monofilaments is acceptable, but the sensitivity is not. The monofilament test is a useful and practical tool for excluding the presence of a disc herniation at dermatomes L4, L5 and S1 and disc herniations at the L4-L5, L5-S1 level.

  1. ILEAL HERNIATION THROUGH THE FORAMEN OF WINSLOW: OVEREATING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INTERNAL HERNIATION.

    PubMed

    Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.

  2. Effects of Axial Torsion on Disc Height Distribution: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Mammoser, Nicole M; Triano, John J; An, Howard S; Andersson, Gunnar B J; Inoue, Nozomu

    2016-05-01

    Axial rotation of the torso is commonly used during manipulation treatment of low back pain. Little is known about the effect of these positions on disc morphology. Rotation is a three-dimensional event that is inadequately represented with planar images in the clinic. True quantification of the intervertebral gap can be achieved with a disc height distribution. The objective of this study was to analyze disc height distribution patterns during torsion relevant to manipulation in vivo. Eighty-one volunteers were computed tomography-scanned both in supine and in right 50° rotation positions. Virtual models of each intervertebral gap representing the disc were created with the inferior endplate of each "disc" set as the reference surface and separated into 5 anatomical zones: 4 peripheral and 1 central, corresponding to the footprint of the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, respectively. Whole-disc and individual anatomical zone disc height distributions were calculated in both positions and were compared against each other with analysis of variance, with significance set at P < .05. Mean neutral disc height was 7.32 mm (1.59 mm). With 50° rotation, a small but significant increase to 7.44 mm (1.52 mm) (P < .0002) was observed. The right side showed larger separation in most levels, except at L5/S1. The posterior and right zones increased in height upon axial rotation of the spine (P < .0001), whereas the left, anterior, and central decreased. This study quantified important tensile/compressive changes disc height during torsion. The implications of these mutually opposing changes on spinal manipulation are still unknown. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The predictive value of the baseline Oswestry Disability Index in lumbar disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was to determine patient factors predictive of good outcome after lumbar disc arthroplasty. Specifically, the paper examines the relationship of the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to patient outcome at 1 year. The study is a retrospective review of 20 patients undergoing a 1-level lumbar disc arthroplasty at the author's institution between 2004 and 2008. All data were collected prospectively. Data included the ODI, visual analog scale scores, and patient demographics. All patients underwent a 1-level disc arthroplasty at L4-5 or L5-S1. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on their baseline ODI. Patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 demonstrated better outcomes with lumbar disc arthroplasty. Only 1 (20%) of 5 patients with a baseline ODI higher than 60 reported a good outcome. In contrast, 13 (87%) of 15 patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 showed a good outcome (p = 0.03). The negative predictive value of using ODI > 60 is 60% in patients who are determined to be candidates for lumbar arthroplasty. Lumbar arthroplasty is very effective in some patients. Other patients do not improve after surgery. The baseline ODI results are predictive of outcome in patients selected for lumbar disc arthroplasty. A baseline ODI > 60 is predictive of poor outcome. A high ODI may be indicative of psychosocial overlay.

  4. Association Between Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Propionibacterium acnes Infection: Clinical Research and Preliminary Exploration of Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Zhe; Wu, Yongchao; Zeng, Ji; Zheng, Qixin; Xiao, Baojun; Cai, Xianyi; Xiao, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research and animal experiment. To investigate whether lumbar disc degeneration is associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) infection. The hypothesis that herniated discs may be infected with P acnes by way of bacteremia is remarkable. This may bring a tremendous change in treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, this hypothesis is still controversial. Since P acnes isolated may be related to contamination. Nucleus pulposus from 22 patients (30 discs) with lumbar disc herniation was collected during discectomy, following aerobic and anaerobic cultures for 10 days.Twenty-four rabbits were divided into four groups. After L3-L6 being exposed, an incision was made into the three discs in groups A and B. While in groups C and D, two random segments were operated. Six weeks later, 0.05 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was inoculated into operated discs in group A and sterile physiological saline in group B. In group C, 0.2 mL of 5 × 10 CFU/mL P acnes was injected through ear vein. Sterile saline was used in group D. Six weeks later, MRI was performed. Then, nucleus pulposus and paraspinal muscles were harvested for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Clinical research: Anaerobic cultures were positive in three cases: two coagulase-negative staphylococci, one particles chain bacterium. No P acnes was found. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in one aerobic culture.Animal experiment: P acnes was found in 11 out of 18 (61%) discs in group A. There was no P acnes found in the other three groups. Degenerated discs were suitable for P acnes growth. This research did not find the evidence of the symptomatic degenerated lumbar discs infected with P acnes or that P acnes could infect the degenerated lumbar discs by way of bacteremia. N/A.

  5. Mild (not severe) disc degeneration is implicated in the progression of bilateral L5 spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Vivek A S; Chamoli, Uphar; Viglione, Luke L; Tsafnat, Naomi; Diwan, Ashish D

    2018-04-02

    Spondylolytic (or lytic) spondylolisthesis is often associated with disc degeneration at the index-level; however, it is not clear if disc degeneration is the cause or the consequence of lytic spondylolisthesis. The main objective of this computed tomography based finite element modelling study was to examine the role of different grades of disc degeneration in the progression of a bilateral L5-lytic defect to spondylolisthesis. High-resolution computed tomography data of the lumbosacral spine from an anonymised healthy male subject (26 years old) were segmented to build a 3D-computational model of an INTACT L1-S1 spine. The INTACT model was manipulated to generate four more models representing a bilateral L5-lytic defect and the following states of the L5-S1 disc: nil degeneration (NOR LYTIC), mild degeneration (M-DEG LYTIC), mild degeneration with 50% disc height collapse (M-DEG-COL LYTIC), and severe degeneration with 50% disc height collapse(S-COL LYTIC). The models were imported into a finite element modelling software for pre-processing, running nonlinear-static solves, and post-processing of the results. Compared with the baseline INTACT model, M-DEG LYTIC model experienced the greatest increase in kinematics (Fx range of motion: 73% ↑, Fx intervertebral translation: 53%↑), shear stresses in the annulus (Fx anteroposterior: 163%↑, Fx posteroanterior: 31%↑), and strain in the iliolumbar ligament (Fx: 90%↑). The S-COL LYTIC model experienced a decrease in mobility (Fx range of motion: 48%↓, Fx intervertebral translation: 69%↓) and an increase in normal stresses in the annulus (Fx Tensile: 170%↑; Fx Compressive: 397%↑). No significant difference in results was noted between M-DEG-COL LYTIC and S-COL LYTIC models. In the presence of a bilateral L5 spondylolytic defect, a mildly degenerate index-level disc experienced greater intervertebral motions and shear stresses compared with a severely degenerate index-level disc in flexion and extension

  6. Contralateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Syndrome: A Consequence of Brain Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Meysam; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh

    2017-01-01

    Vascular compromise is a well-known consequence of brain herniation syndromes. Transtentorial brain herniation most often involves posterior cerebral arteries. However, isolated involvement of contralateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) during unilateral impending brain herniation is reported only once and we present another case of this exceedingly rare entity. A 24-year-old man was referred to us with impending herniation due to a multiloculated hydrocephalus, and during the course of illness, he developed an isolated SCA ischemia in the opposite side of the most dilated entrapped horn. In the current article we discuss the probable pathophysiologic mechanisms of this phenomenon, as well as recommending more inclusive brain studies in cases suspected of Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon in unilateral brain herniation. The rationale for this commentary is that contralateral SCA transient ischemia or infarct might be the underdiagnosed underlying pathomechanism of ipsilateral hemiparesis occurring in many cases of this somehow vague phenomenon. PMID:28490164

  7. Effects of Axial Torsion on Disc Height Distribution: an In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Mammoser, Nicole M.; Triano, John J.; An, Howard S.; Andersson, Gunnar B.J.; Inoue, Nozomu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Axial rotation of the torso is commonly used during manipulation treatment of low back pain. Little is known about the effect of these positons on disc morphology. Rotation is a three-dimensional event that is inadequately represented with planar images in the clinic. True quantification of the intervertebral gap can be achieved with a disc height distribution. The objective of this study was to analyze disc height distribution patterns during torsion relevant to manipulation in vivo. Methods Eighty-one volunteers were CT-scanned both in supine and in right 50° rotation positions. Virtual models of each intervertebral gap representing the disc were created with the inferior endplate of each ‘disc’ set as the reference surface and separated into five anatomical zones: four peripheral and one central, corresponding to the footprint of the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, respectively. Whole-disc and individual anatomical zone disc height distributions were calculated in both positions, and were compared against each other with ANOVA, with significance set at p < 0.05. Results Mean neutral disc height was 7.32 (1.59) mm. With 50° rotation, a small but significant increase to 7.44 (1.52) mm (p < 0.0002) was observed. The right side showed larger separation in most levels, except at L5/S1. The posterior and right zones increased in height upon axial rotation of the spine (p < 0.0001), while the left, anterior and central decreased. Conclusions This study quantified important tensile/compressive changes disc height during torsion. The implications of these mutually opposing changes on spinal manipulation are still unknown. PMID:27059249

  8. Biomechanical Changes in Disc Pressure and Facet Strain after Lumbar Spinal Arthroplasty with CharitéTM in the Human Cadaveric Spine under Physiologic Compressive Follower Preload.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lim, Dong-Jun; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2017-01-01

    Arthroplasty maintains the biomechanical features of a healthy disc, decreases the adjacent segment disease rate, and decreases the accelerated degeneration rate of the neighboring discs in traditional fusion procedures. However, there are only a few reports on adjacent disc pressure (DP) and facet strain (FS) after lumbar arthroplasty under a physiologic compressive preload. Baseline DP and FS measurements were obtained from five intact cadaveric human lumbosacral spines for different modes of motion. DP was measured by inserting pressure transducer needle tips into the L3-L4 and L5-S1 discs. FS gauges were fixed on both sides of the laminae near the L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 facet joints. After SB Charité < sup > TM < /sup > III implantation at the L4-L5 level, the measurements were repeated at preload and compared with those of the intact spine. Under the preload condition, the central DP of the upper disc was decreased during extension and bending, and it significantly increased during rotation (p < 0.05). In the lower disc, the central DP insignificantly decreased during bending and increased during extension and flexion. A statistically significant increase in FS was observed during rotation at the operative facet (p < 0.05). Compared to the intact spine, all FS values were insignificantly decreased during lateral bending but increased during axial rotation. In an ex-vivo physiologic preload setting, the SB Charité < sup > TM < /sup > III provided relatively inconsistent and sometimes increased DP or FS at the operative and adjacent levels after arthroplasty.

  9. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy for patients with sciatica: Two-year results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Jacobs, Wilco Ch; Schenk, Barry; van den Berg-Huijsmans, Annette A; Koes, Bart W; Arts, Mark A; van Buchem, M A; Peul, Wilco C

    2017-06-01

    Background Percutaneous laser disc decompression is a minimally invasive treatment, for lumbar disc herniation and might serve as an alternative to surgical management of sciatica. In a randomised trial with two-year follow-up we assessed the clinical effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression compared to conventional surgery. Materials and methods This multicentre randomised prospective trial with a non-inferiority design, was carried out according to an intent-to-treat protocol with full institutional review board approval. One hundred and fifteen eligible surgical candidates, with sciatica from a disc herniation smaller than one-third of the spinal canal, were randomly allocated to percutaneous laser disc decompression ( n = 55) or conventional surgery ( n = 57). The main outcome measures for this trial were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, visual analogue scores for back and leg pain and the patient's report of perceived recovery. Results The primary outcome measures showed no significant difference or clinically relevant difference between the two groups at two-year follow-up. The re-operation rate was 21% in the surgery group, which is relatively high, and with an even higher 52% in the percutaneous laser disc decompression group. Conclusion At two-year follow-up, a strategy of percutaneous laser disc decompression, followed by surgery if needed, resulted in non-inferior outcomes compared to a strategy of microdiscectomy. Although the rate of reoperation in the percutaneous laser disc decompression group was higher than expected, surgery could be avoided in 48% of those patients that were originally candidates for surgery. Percutaneous laser disc decompression, as a non-surgical method, could have a place in the treatment arsenal of sciatica caused by contained herniated discs.

  10. Volvulus of the liver with intrathoracic herniation.

    PubMed

    Moussa, G; Thomson, P M; Bohra, A

    2014-10-01

    We present a rare case of a liver volvulus, stomach and transverse colon herniating through the diaphragm. This scenario has not been reported previously. We discuss the presentation and management of this interesting case. A 65-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and recurrent pericardial effusions, treated previously with a subxiphoid pericardial oval window fenestration, presented with acute upper abdominal pain radiating to the chest. High contrast computed tomography showed a volvulus of the liver with consequent venous congestion, and herniation of the liver, stomach and transverse colon through an anterior diaphragmatic defect. With liver perfusion threatened, an urgent laparoscopic repair was performed. The stomach and transverse colon were reduced, and the twisted left lobe of the liver was unrotated and reduced into the abdominal cavity. A double-sided synthetic mesh was used to repair the defect. The patient made an uneventful recovery. This is a novel complication of a patient presenting with abdominal pain with a previous history of pericardial window fenestration. A laparoscopic reduction and repair can be performed safely with excellent postoperative results.

  11. Differentiation of idiopathic spinal cord herniation from dorsal arachnoid webs on MRI and CT myelography.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Randall; Steven, Andrew; Wessell, Aaron; Fischbein, Nancy; Sansur, Charles A; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Ibrahimi, David; Raghavan, Prashant

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Dorsal arachnoid webs (DAWs) and spinal cord herniation (SCH) are uncommon abnormalities affecting the thoracic spinal cord that can result in syringomyelia and significant neurological morbidity if left untreated. Differentiating these 2 entities on the basis of clinical presentation and radiological findings remains challenging but is of vital importance in planning a surgical approach. The authors examined the differences between DAWs and idiopathic SCH on MRI and CT myelography to improve diagnostic confidence prior to surgery. METHODS Review of the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) database between 2005 and 2015 identified 6 patients with DAW and 5 with SCH. Clinical data including demographic information, presenting symptoms and neurological signs, and surgical reports were collected from the electronic medical records. Ten of the 11 patients underwent MRI. CT myelography was performed in 3 patients with DAW and in 1 patient with SCH. Imaging studies were analyzed by 2 board-certified neuroradiologists for the following features: 1) location of the deformity; 2) presence or absence of cord signal abnormality or syringomyelia; 3) visible arachnoid web; 4) presence of a dural defect; 5) nature of dorsal cord indentation (abrupt "scalpel sign" vs "C"-shaped); 6) focal ventral cord kink; 7) presence of the nuclear trail sign (endplate irregularity, sclerosis, and/or disc-space calcification that could suggest a migratory path of a herniated disc); and 8) visualization of a complete plane of CSF ventral to the deformity. RESULTS The scalpel sign was positive in all patients with DAW. The dorsal indentation was C-shaped in 5 of 6 patients with SCH. The ventral subarachnoid space was preserved in all patients with DAW and interrupted in cases of SCH. In no patient was a web or a dural defect identified. CONCLUSIONS DAW and SCH can be reliably distinguished on imaging by scrutinizing the nature of the dorsal indentation and the integrity of

  12. Asymmetrical and smaller size of trunk muscles in combat sports athletes with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Kazunori; Koyama, Koji; Okada, Takashi; Nakazato, Koichi; Takahashi, Ray; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Hiranuma, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (LDD) frequently occurs in athletes. Associations between LDD and trunk muscles still remain unclear. This study examined whether there is an association between the prevalence of LDD and the symmetry and size of the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the trunk muscles in combat sports athletes. Participants in this study were 151 collegiate male combat sports athletes. A total of 755 lumbar intervertebral discs from L1-2 to L5-S1 in 151 athletes were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a comprehensive grading system of LDD (grades I-V). All 151 athletes were divided into 2 groups: LDD and non-LDD. CSAs of trunk muscles at the L3-4 disc level were measured using MRI. Sixty-nine athletes had LDD at 1 or more disc levels (45.7 %). The LDD grade for the lower 2 disc levels was significantly higher than that for the other disc levels (p < 0.001). The CSAs of the left and right sides in trunk muscles were significantly asymmetrical, independent of the LDD which was prevalent in the disc levels (obliques: p = 0.040; quadratus lumborum: p < 0.001). The relative CSAs of trunk muscles to their body weight in the LDD group were significantly smaller than those in the non-LDD group (rectus abdominis: p = 0.011; obliques: p = 0.024; quadratus lumborum: p = 0.006; lumbar erector spinae plus multifidus: p = 0.001). This study suggests that the prevalence of LDD is associated with asymmetrical and relatively smaller CSAs of trunk muscles in combat sports athletes.

  13. Inguinoscrotal herniation of a caecal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sachin Krishan

    2017-12-07

    An 84-year-old man with multiple comorbidities presented from a residential care home with a 1-month history of asthenia and moderate abdominal pain. On examination, he was found to have an irreducible right-sided inguinoscrotal hernia. Subsequent blood tests revealed a significant anaemia (haemoglobin 48 g/L), for which he was transfused. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a large caecal tumour, herniating through the right inguinal canal into the scrotum. The patient underwent an elective open right hemicolectomy with inguinal hernia defect repair, from which he recovered well. He was discharged from the ward 12 days postoperatively and is awaiting outpatient follow-up. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Release and repair of a ventral thoracic spinal cord herniation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Ventral thoracic spinal cord herniation is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of progressive myelopathy. This video demonstrates the imaging characteristics and surgical techniques for release and reduction of the spinal cord herniation as well as primary repair and reinforcement of the ventral dural hernia defect through an extended posterior approach. An instrumented fusion was concomitantly performed. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/6Pcokep6Tug.

  15. Inguinal herniation with hydrometra/mucometra in a poodle bitch

    PubMed Central

    Sontas, B. Hasan; Toydemir, F.T. Seval; Erdogan, Özge; Şennazli, Gülbin; Ekici, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old, sexually intact poodle bitch was presented with a 2-year history of inguinal mass. A tentative diagnosis of hydrometra/mucometra with inguinal herniation was made and ovariohysterectomy with hernia repair was performed. Both fluid-filled uterine horns, both broad ligaments, and the uterine body were observed to be herniated through the inguinal ring. On histopathology, marked edema and diffuse hemorrhage were diagnosed in the uterus. PMID:24155486

  16. Chronic cerebral herniation in shunted Dandy-Walker malformation.

    PubMed

    Naidich, T P; Radkowski, M A; McLone, D G; Leestma, J

    1986-02-01

    A review of serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 25 patients with the Dandy-Walker malformation revealed six patients with chronic downward transincisural herniation of the cerebrum after shunt decompression of the posterior fossa cyst or malfunction of a lateral ventricular drainage catheter, or both. Chronic cerebral herniation was detected postmortem in a seventh patient with the Dandy-Walker malformation. The CT findings and autopsy appearance of this previously undescribed feature of shunted Dandy-Walker malformation are illustrated.

  17. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Manu N; Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E; James, Garth A; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S; Alamin, Todd F; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R; Gogia, Jaspaul S; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kuo, Calvin C; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A Nick; Stewart, Philip S; Stonemetz, Jerry L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Witham, Timothy F; Coscia, Michael F; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it provides the first visual evidence of P

  18. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm is present in intervertebral discs of patients undergoing microdiscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ruzicka, Filip; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; James, Garth A.; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Lipina, Radim; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Alamin, Todd F.; Anand, Neel; Baird, John C.; Bhatia, Nitin; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Eastlack, Robert K.; Fisher, Steve; Garfin, Steven R.; Gogia, Jaspaul S.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Kuo, Calvin C.; Lee, Yu-Po; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Michu, Elleni; Noskova, Hana; Raz, Assaf; Sana, Jiri; Shamie, A. Nick; Stewart, Philip S.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Witham, Timothy F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Background In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P. acnes biofilm in the intervertebral discs. Methods Specimens from 368 patients undergoing microdiscectomy for disc herniation were divided into several fragments, one being homogenized, subjected to quantitative anaerobic culture, and assessed for bacterial growth, and a second fragment frozen for additional analyses. Colonies were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and P. acnes phylotyping was conducted by multiplex PCR. For a sub-set of specimens, bacteria localization within the disc was assessed by microscopy using confocal laser scanning and FISH. Results Bacteria were cultured from 162 discs (44%), including 119 cases (32.3%) with P. acnes. In 89 cases, P. acnes was cultured exclusively; in 30 cases, it was isolated in combination with other bacteria (primarily coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp.) Among positive specimens, the median P. acnes bacterial burden was 350 CFU/g (12 - ~20,000 CFU/g). Thirty-eight P. acnes isolates were subjected to molecular sub-typing, identifying 4 of 6 defined phylogroups: IA1, IB, IC, and II. Eight culture-positive specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and revealed P. acnes in situ. Notably, these bacteria demonstrated a biofilm distribution within the disc matrix. P. acnes bacteria were more prevalent in males than females (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.0013). Conclusions This study confirms that P. acnes is prevalent in herniated disc tissue. Moreover, it

  19. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  20. Intradiscal pressure study of percutaneous disc decompression with nucleoplasty in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung C; Lee, Sang-heon; Chen, Darwin

    2003-04-01

    Intradiscal pressure was measured after percutaneous disc decompression by nucleoplasty in human cadavers with different degrees of disc degeneration. To assess intradiscal pressure change after disc decompression, and to analyze the influence of degeneration on the intradiscal pressure change. Partial removal of the nucleus has been shown to decompress herniated discs, relieving pressure on nerve roots and, in some cases, offering relief from disc pain. Nucleoplasty, a new minimally invasive procedure using patented Coblation technology, combines coagulation and ablation for partial removal of the nucleus. Coblated channels remove the tissue volume and may decrease the disc pressure. Three fresh human cadaver spinal specimens (T8-L5; age, 54-84 years; mean age, 70.7 years) were used in this investigation. The intradiscal pressure was measured at three points: before treatment, after each channel was created, and after treatment using a 25-guage 6-inch needle connected to a Merit Medical Systems Intellisystem Inflation Monitor. The needles were calibrated initially to approximately 30 pounds per square inch. For the control, the change in disc pressure was recorded by the same procedure without using Coblation energy. To evaluate the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, disc pressure changes were compared between treatment with and without Coblation energy. Intradiscal pressure was markedly reduced in the younger, healthy disc cadaver. In the older, degenerative disc cadavers, the change in intradiscal pressure after nucleoplasty was very small. There was an inverse correlation between the degree of disc degeneration and the change in intradiscal pressure. Pressure reduction through nucleoplasty is highly dependent on the degree of spine degeneration. Nucleoplasty markedly reduced intradiscal pressure in nondegenerative discs, but had a negligible effect on highly degenerative discs.

  1. Return to Sports After Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Andreas; Behr, Michael; Preuss, Alexander; Villard, Jimmy; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) is typically indicated in young patients with a cervical soft disc herniation. There are few data on the activity level of patients after cervical TDR, in particular from young patients who are expected to have a high activity level with frequent exercising. The expectation is that returning to active sports after cervical TDR is not restricted. Fifty patients were treated with a monosegmental cervical TDR at our department between May 2006 and March 2012. Clinical status and radiographic parameters were evaluated preoperatively and during follow-up. In addition, information was gathered regarding neck disability index, pain, a questionnaire concerning athletic aspects, and a modified Tegner activity score. The study design was a prospective case series. All patients were treated with the Prestige artificial cervical disc for a single-level soft disc herniation with radiculopathy. The average age was 40 years, and the mean follow-up period was 53 months (range, 26-96). The median neck disability index during follow-up was 5, and median visual analog scale for pain was 2. Two professional athletes, 20 semiprofessionals, 24 hobby athletes, and 5 patients with a very low activity level were treated. The median time to resumption of sporting activity was 4 weeks after surgery. All professionals and semiprofessionals recovered to their previous activity level. All of the 20 hobby athletes recovered to resume their sport participation. The modified Tegner preoperative score was 4 and the postoperative score was 3.5 (P = 0.806). We found that cervical TDR did not prohibit sporting activities. All patients recovered and were able to take part in their previous activities at an appropriate intensity level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical treatment of thoracic disc disease via minimally invasive lateral transthoracic trans/retropleural approach: analysis of 33 patients.

    PubMed

    Nacar, Osman Arikan; Ulu, Mustafa Onur; Pekmezci, Murat; Deviren, Vedat

    2013-07-01

    Thoracic disc herniations are associated with serious neurological consequences if not treated appropriately. Although a number of techniques have been described, there is no consensus about the best surgical approach. In this study, the authors report their experience in the operative management of patients with thoracic disc herniations using minimally invasive lateral transthoracic trans/retropleural approach. A series of 33 consecutive patients with thoracic disc herniations who underwent anterior spinal cord decompression followed by instrumented fusion through lateral approach is being reported. Demographic and radiographic data, perioperative complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Forty disc levels in 33 patients (18F/15M; mean age, 52.9) were treated. Twenty-three patients presented with myelopathy (69 %), 31 had radiculopathy (94 %), and 31 had axial pain (94 %). Among patients with myelopathy, 14 (42.4 %) had bladder and/or bowel dysfunction. In the last eight cases (24 %), the approach was retropleural instead of transpleural. Patients were followed up for 18.2 months on average. The mean length of hospital stay was 5 days. None of the patients developed neurological deterioration postoperatively. Among 23 patients who had myelopathy signs, 21 (91 %) had improved postoperatively. The mean preoperative visual analog scale pain score, Oswestry Disability Index score, SF-36 PCS, and mental component summary scores were 7.5, 42.4, 29.6, and 37.5 which improved to 3.5, 33.2, 35.5, and 52.6, respectively. Perioperative complications occurred in six patients (18.1 %), all of which resolved uneventfully. Minimally invasive lateral transthoracic trans/retropleural approach is a safe and efficacious technique for achieving adequate decompression in thoracic disc herniations in a less invasive manner than conventional approaches.

  3. Gynecomastia associated with herniated nipples: an optimal surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

    2012-04-01

    Gynecomastia is a common disorder observed in male plastic surgery patients. Treatment options may include observation, surgical excision, or liposuction techniques. Congenital herniated nipple is a more rare condition, especially in male patients. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with bilateral gynecomastia and herniated nipple-areolar complexes. A staged repair was undertaken in this patient with grade 2 gynecomastia. The first operation was ultrasonic liposuction bilaterally, yielding 200 mL of aspirate from the left and 400 mL on the right, to correct the gynecomastia. The second procedure, performed 6 months later, was a bilateral periareolar mastopexy to repair the herniated nipple-areolar complexes. The result of the first procedure was flattened and symmetrical breast tissue bilaterally, essentially a correction of the gynecomastia. The herniated nipples were still present, however. Bilateral periareolar mastopexies were then performed with resulting reduction of the herniations. There were no complications with either procedure, and a good cosmetic result was achieved. A staged surgical approach was successful in correcting both conditions with an excellent aesthetic result and the advantage of decreased risk for nipple complications.

  4. Human cartilage endplate permeability varies with degeneration and intervertebral disc site.

    PubMed

    DeLucca, John F; Cortes, Daniel H; Jacobs, Nathan T; Vresilovic, Edward J; Duncan, Randall L; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-02-29

    Despite the critical functions the human cartilage endplate (CEP) plays in the intervertebral disc, little is known about its structural and mechanical properties and their changes with degeneration. Quantifying these changes with degeneration is important for understanding how the CEP contributes to the function and pathology of the disc. Therefore the objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of disc degeneration on human CEP mechanical properties, determine the influence of superior and inferior disc site on mechanics and composition, and simulate the role of collagen fibers in CEP and disc mechanics using a validated finite element model. Confined compression data and biochemical composition data were used in a biphasic-swelling model to calculate compressive extrafibrillar elastic and permeability properties. Tensile properties were obtained by applying published tensile test data to an ellipsoidal fiber distribution. Results showed that with degeneration CEP permeability decreased 50-60% suggesting that transport is inhibited in the degenerate disc. CEP fibers are organized parallel to the vertebrae and nucleus pulposus and may contribute to large shear strains (0.1-0.2) and delamination failure of the CEP commonly seen in herniated disc tissue. Fiber-reinforcement also reduces CEP axial strains thereby enhancing fluid flux by a factor of 1.8. Collectively, these results suggest that the structure and mechanics of the CEP may play critical roles in the solute transport and disc mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Cartilage Endplate Permeability Varies with Degeneration and Intervertebral Disc Site

    PubMed Central

    DeLucca, John F.; Cortes, Daniel H.; Jacobs, Nathan T.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Duncan, Randall L.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the critical functions the human cartilage endplate (CEP) plays in the intervertebral disc, little is known about its structural and mechanical properties and their changes with degeneration. Quantifying these changes with degeneration is important for understanding how the CEP contributes to the function and pathology of the disc. Therefore the objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of disc degeneration on human CEP mechanical properties, determine the influence of superior and inferior disc site on mechanics and composition, and simulate the role of collagen fibers in CEP and disc mechanics using a validated finite element model. Confined compression data and biochemical composition data were used in a biphasic-swelling model to calculate compressive extrafibrillar elastic and permeability properties. Tensile properties were obtained by applying published tensile test data to an ellipsoidal fiber distribution. Results showed that with degeneration CEP permeability decreased 50–60% suggesting that transport is inhibited in the degenerate disc. CEP fibers are organized parallel to the vertebrae and nucleus pulposus and may contribute to large shear strains (0.1–0.2) and delamination failure of the CEP commonly seen in herniated disc tissue. Fiber-reinforcement also reduces CEP axial strains thereby enhancing fluid flux by a factor of 1.8. Collectively, these results suggest that the structure and mechanics of the CEP may play critical roles in the solute transport and disc mechanics. PMID:26874969

  6. The change in the diffusion of water in normal and degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs following joint mobilization compared to prone lying.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Paul F; Donley, Jonathan W; Arnot, Cathy F; Miller, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Prospective, repeated measures obtained under treatment and control conditions. The purposes of this study were to provide preliminary evidence regarding the immediate change in the diffusion of water in the nuclear region of normal and degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) following a single session of lumbar joint mobilization, and to compare these findings to the immediate change in the diffusion of water following a 10-minute session of prone lying. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy of lumbar joint mobilization. Increased knowledge of the physiologic effects of lumbar joint mobilization can lead to refinement of its clinical application. A total of 24 people (15 males and 9 females), ranging in age from 22 to 58 years, participated in this study. All subjects had a history of activity-limiting low back pain. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRIs) were obtained immediately before and after a 10-minute session of lumbar joint mobilization. At least 1 month later, a second session was performed in which DW-MRIs were obtained immediately before and after a 10-minute session of prone lying. Following lumbar joint mobilization, a significant increase (P = .002) in the mean values for diffusion of water was observed within degenerative IVDs at L5-S1 (22.2% increase; effect size, 0.97). Degenerative IVDs at L1-2 to L4-5 and normal IVDs at L1-2 to L5-S1 did not demonstrate a change in diffusion following joint mobilization. Prone lying was not associated with a change in diffusion for normal or degenerative IVDs. The stimulus provided by lumbar joint mobilization may influence the diffusion of water in degenerative IVDs at L5-S1; however, these are preliminary findings and the relationship of these findings to pain and function needs further investigation.

  7. Comparison of surgical invasiveness between microdiscectomy and three different endoscopic discectomy techniques for lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Chul; Shim, Hyeong-Ki; Hwang, Jin-Sup; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Dong Chan; Jung, Hwan Hui; Park, Hyeon Ah; Park, Choon-Keun

    2018-05-19

    Muscle injury is inevitable during surgical exposure of the spine. This study was conducted to investigate paraspinal muscle injury after the following four surgical techniques: microdiscectomy (MD), percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD), percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy (PEID), and unilateral biportal endoscopic discectomy (UBED). Eighty patients who underwent the four surgical techniques were prospectively observed. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on admission and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. The CPK ratio was calculated as CPK 1 (postoperative day 1)/CPK 0 (admission). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the high-intensity lesion in the paraspinal muscle was measured on magnetic resonance images after surgery. The operation time and hospital stay duration were also examined. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. The MD group had the significantly highest CPK 1, CPK 3 levels and CPK ratio (p<0.01, p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). Serial CRP levels were significantly highest in the MD group (p<0.01). The PELD and PEID groups had lower CRP 1 level than the UBED group. The MD group had the significantly largest CSA (p<0.01). The CSA was larger in the UBED group than in the PELD and PEID groups (p<0.01). The operation time and hospital stay duration were significantly shortest in the PELD group (p<0.01, p<0.01). The MD group had significantly higher VAS scores for back pain on postoperative days 1 and 3 than the other groups (p<0.01 and p=0.02). PELD is the least invasive spinal surgical technique. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Clinical and radiological factors related to the presence of motor deficit in lumbar disc prolapse: a prospective analysis of 70 consecutive cases with neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vibhu; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Kanna, Rishi; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the clinic-radiological factors associated with neurological deficit following lumbar disc herniation. A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 140 cases of micro-discectomy following lumbar disc herniation. Group 1 included 70 consecutive patients with motor deficit and group 2 (controls) included 70 patients with intact neurology. Motor deficit was defined as the occurrence of motor power ≤3/5 in L2-S1 myotomes. Multiple clinical and radiological parameters were studied between the two groups. Patients with diabetes (p 0.004), acute onset of symptoms (p 0.036), L3-4 discs (p 0.001), sequestrated discs (p 0.004), superiorly migrated discs (p 0.012) and central discs (p 0.004), greater antero-posterior disc dimension (p 0.023), primary canal stenosis (p 0.0001); and greater canal compromise (p 0.002) had a significant correlation with the development of neurological deficit. The presence of four or more of these risk factors showed a higher chance of the presence of motor deficit (sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 77%). Age, sex, previous precipitating events, severity of pain, smoking, and number of herniations levels did not affect the occurrence of deficit (p > 0.05 for all). Patients with or without bladder symptoms were similar with respect to all clinico-radiological parameters. However, the time delay since the occurrence of deficit was significantly shorter in patients with bladder involvement (p 0.001). Patients with diabetes, acute presentation, central, sequestrated and superiorly migrated discs, high lumbar disc prolapse, and greater spinal canal compromise are predisposed to the presence of motor deficit.

  9. ALIF and total disc replacement versus 2-level circumferential fusion with TLIF: a prospective, randomized, clinical and radiological trial.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Eike K; Strube, Patrick; Pumberger, Matthias; Zahn, Robert K; Putzier, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Prospective, randomized trial. The treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) with two-level fusion has been associated with a reasonable rate of complications. The aim of the present study was to compare (Hybrid) stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at L5/S1 with total disc replacement at L4/5 (TDR) as an alternative surgical strategy to (Fusion) 2-level circumferential fusion employing transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with transpedicular stabilization at L4-S1. A total of 62 patients with symptomatic DDD of segments L5/S1 (Modic ≥2°) and L4/5 (Modic ≤2°; positive discography) were enrolled; 31 were treated with Hybrid and 31 with Fusion. Preoperatively, at 0, 12, and a mean follow-up of 37 months, clinical (ODI, VAS) and radiological evaluations (plain/extension-flexion radiographs evaluated for implant failure, fusion, global and segmental lordosis, and ROM) were performed. In 26 of 31 Hybrid and 24 of 31 Fusion patients available at the final follow-up, we found a significant clinical improvement compared to preoperatively. Hybrid patients had significantly lower VAS scores immediately postoperatively and at follow-up compared to Fusion patients. The complication rates were low and similar between the groups. Lumbar lordosis increased in both groups. The increase was mainly located at L4-S1 in the Hybrid group and at L1-L4 in the Fusion group. Hybrid patients presented with increased ROM at L4/5 and L3/4, and Fusion patients presented with increased ROM at L3/4, with significantly greater ROM at L3/4 compared to Hybrid patients at follow-up. Hybrid surgery is a viable surgical alternative for the presented indication. Approach-related inferior trauma and the balanced restoration of lumbar lordosis resulted in superior clinical outcomes compared to two-level circumferential fusion with TLIF.

  10. Instability of warped discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.

  11. Effect of total lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Deutsch, Harel

    2012-10-01

    Original article : To study effect of lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis. There has been a growing interest in total disc replacement (TDR) for back pain with the rising concern of adjacent segment degeneration. Lumbar fusion surgery has been shown to lead to decrease in lumbar lordosis, which may account for postfusion pain resulting in less acceptable clinical outcome after successful fusion. TDR has recently emerged as an alternative treatment for back pain. There have been very few studies reporting lumbar sagittal outcome after TDR. Retrospective study of radiographic data of 17 patients who underwent TDR for single level degenerative disc disease at the author's institution was carried out. Study included measurement of preoperative and postoperative segmental and global lumbar lordosis and angle of lordosis. Patients age varied from 19 to 54 (mean, 35) years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. TDR was performed at L4-5 level in 3 patients and L5-S1 level in 14 patients. The average values for segmental lordosis, global lordosis, and angle of lordosis at the operated level before and after surgery were 17.3, 49.7, and 8.6 degrees and 21.6, 54, and 9.5 degrees, respectively. There was a trend toward significant (P=0.02) and near significant (P=0.057) increase in segmental and global lordosis, respectively after TDR. Although prosthesis increased angle of lordosis at the level implanted in majority of the patients, the difference in preoperative and postoperative angle of lordosis was not significant (P=0.438). In addition, there was no correlation between the angle of implant of chosen and postoperative angle of lordosis at the operated level. The effect of TDR on sagittal balance appears favorable with an increase in global and segmental lumbar lordosis after single level TDR for degenerative disc disease. The degree of postoperative angle of lordosis was not affected by the angle of implant chosen at the operated level and varied

  12. Spinal Cord Herniation After Cervical Corpectomy with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W

    2017-04-01

    Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is rare, is mostly idiopathic, and occurs predominantly in the thoracic spine. SCH is less common in the cervical spine and has been reported after posterior cervical spine surgery associated with the development of pseudomeningoceles. Two cases of SCH have been reported after anterior cervical corpectomies for ossified posterior longitudinal ligament with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. We report the third such case, but the first in a patient without ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (degenerative disc disease and pseudarthrosis). A 56-year-old woman presented with bilateral arm pain and weakness. She had undergone 3 previous anterior cervical spine surgeries at an outside medical center with the most recent 7 years ago with C5 and C6 corpectomies and fusion with a persistent CSF leak. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography myelography showed spinal cord herniation through the mesh cage at C6. The patient underwent a redo C5 and C6 corpectomy with untethering of the spinal cord. The patient was asymptomatic 2 years later. This is the first reported case of anterior cervical SCH in a patient without ossified posterior longitudinal ligament after multiple anterior cervical fusions including a cervical corpectomy for pseudarthrosis with a CSF leak. We hypothesize that persistent CSF leak causes a pressure gradient across the dura mater through the cage to the lower pressure in the retropharyngeal space, which led to herniation of the spinal cord into the anterior cage. We review the literature and discuss the treatment choices for anterior cervical SCH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of herniated Dandy-Walker cysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wesley; Vettraino, Ivana M; Comstock, Christine H; Lal, Nirish; Kazmierczak, Chris; Shetty, Anil; Raff, Gil; Zakalik, Karol; Romero, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this series is to describe the prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcome of fetuses affected with Dandy-Walker malformation in which a posterior cyst herniated through a bony defect of the occipital skull, foramen magnum, or both. Two- and 3-dimensional sonography were used to examine 2 fetuses with poorly delineated cerebellar structures and a large posterior cystic neck mass. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added to this evaluation as a complementary diagnostic modality. Three-dimensional sonography helped characterize the precise site of cyst herniation through the occipital skull or foramen magnum. Fetal MRI confirmed the sonographic findings. Neonatal MRI studies identified heterotopic gray matter as evidence of a neuronal migration disorder in both fetuses. The second fetus also had agenesis of the corpus callosum. Retrospective review of the fetal MRI (25.9 weeks' menstrual age) and 3-dimensional sonographic (18.7 weeks' menstrual age) studies confirmed ventricular wall nodularity involving the occipital horns of the second fetus. The antenatal detection of a large posterior cystic neck mass and a poorly defined or nonvisualized cerebellar vermis suggest Dandy-Walker malformation with a herniated cyst. Three-dimensional sonography and fetal MRI are important adjunctive methods that can be used to evaluate the herniation site and a possible neuronal migrational disorder.

  14. Human cells derived from degenerate intervertebral discs respond differently to those derived from non-degenerate intervertebral discs following application of dynamic hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Le Maitre, Christine Lyn; Frain, Jennie; Fotheringham, Andrew P; Freemont, Anthony J; Hoyland, Judith Alison

    2008-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is one of the body's most important load-bearing structures with the major mechanical force experienced in the nucleus pulposus (NP) being hydrostatic pressure (HP). Physiological levels of HP have an anabolic effect on IVD matrix metabolism in cells derived from non-degenerate animal and herniated IVD while excessive HP has a catabolic effect. However, no studies have investigated the response of non-degenerate and degenerate human disc cells derived from non-herniated discs to HP. Here we investigate the effect of physiological HP on such cells using a novel loading rig. Human IVD cells (both NP and AF) cultured in alginate were subjected to dynamic HP (0.8-1.7 MPa 0.5 Hz) for 2 h. Cell viability was assessed, RNA extracted and qRT-PCR for 18 s, c-fos, Sox-9, collagen type II, aggrecan and MMP-3 performed. Cell viability was unaffected by the loading regime. In non-degenerate NP cells, HP increased c-fos, aggrecan, Sox-9 and collagen type II (significantly so in the case of c-fos and aggrecan), but not MMP-3 gene expression. In contrast, application of HP to AF or degenerate NP cells had no effect on target gene expression. Our data shows that cells obtained from the healthy NP respond to dynamic HP by up-regulating genes indicative of healthy matrix homeostasis. However, responses differed in degenerate NP cells suggesting that an altered mechanotransduction pathway may be operational.

  15. Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD): Experience and Results From Multiple Centers and 19,880 Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolo Tassi, Gian; Choy, Daniel S. J.; Hellinger, Johannes; Hellinger, Stefan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-05-01

    In mid-February 1986, Peter Ascher and Daniel Choy performed the first Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD) at the Neurosurgical Department, University of Graz, Graz, Austria. It was planned to deliver 1000 joules with a Nd:YAG laser to a herniated L4-5 disc causing sciatica. At 600 joules the procedure was terminated because the pain was gone. Since then, PLDD has spread all over the world, with procedures being performed in the entire spine except for T1-T4 because these discs do not permit percutaneous access with a needle. The success rate has ranged from 70 to 89%, and the complication rate, chiefly discitis, from 0.3 to 1.0%. When successful, return to normal work averages one week. Long term follow-up to 23 years yields a recurrence rate of 4-5%.

  16. Enhancement of KTP/532 laser disc decompression and arthroscopic microdiscectomy with a vital dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Anthony T.

    1993-07-01

    Currently, the clinical indications and results of arthroscopic microdiscectomy and laser disc decompression come close to, but do not exceed, the results of classic discectomy or microdiscectomy for the whole spectrum of surgical disc herniations. However, as minimally invasive techniques continue to evolve, results can be expected to equal or be potentially superior to conventional surgery. This exhibit demonstrates how the use of a vital dye can enhance standard arthroscopic microdiscectomy techniques and, when used in conjunction with KTP/532 laser disc decompression, allows for better arthroscopic visualization, documentation, and extraction of nucleus pulposus, ultimately expanding the current limiting criteria for minimally invasive techniques. When proper patient selection is combined with good clinical indications, the surgical results are rather dramatic, often achieving immediate relief of sciatica in the operating room.

  17. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  18. Association between menopause and lumbar disc degeneration: an MRI study of 1,566 women and 1,382 men.

    PubMed

    Lou, Chao; Chen, Hongliang; Mei, Liangwei; Yu, Weiyang; Zhu, Kejun; Liu, Feijun; Chen, Zhenzhong; Xiang, Guangheng; Chen, Minjiang; Weng, Qiaoyou; He, Dengwei

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to revisit and further investigate the association between menopause and disc degeneration in the lumbar spine using a magnetic resonance imaging-based eight-level grading system. This study cohort comprised of 1,566 women and 1,382 age-matched men who were admitted for low back pain from June 2013 to October 2016. Data on age, weight, height, body mass index, age at natural menopause, and years since menopause (YSM) were obtained. Lumbar disc degeneration was assessed using a magnetic resonance imaging-based eight-level grading system. After adjustment for the confounding factors of age, height, and weight, young age-matched men were more susceptible to disc degeneration than premenopausal women (P < 0.05). However, after menopause, postmenopausal women had a significant tendency to develop more severe disc degeneration than their age-matched men (P < 0.05), and also compared with premenopausal and perimenopausal women (P < 0.01). Postmenopausal women were divided into nine subgroups by every 5 YSM. When YSM was less than 15 years, a positive trend was observed between YSM and severity of disc degeneration, respectively, at L1/L2 (r = 0.241), L2/L3 (r = 0.193), L3/L4 (r = 0.191), L4/L5 (r = 0.165), L5/S1 (r = 0.153), and all lumbar discs (r = 0.237) (P < 0.05 or 0.01). The analysis of covariance indicated a significant difference in each disc level (P < 0.05 or 0.01) between every two groups. When YSM was more than 15 years, the significant difference, however, disappeared in each disc level (P > 0.05). Menopause is associated with lumbar disc degeneration. The association occurred in the first 15 YSM, suggesting estrogen deficiency might be a risk factor of disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Further studies need to be carried out for deciding whether age or menopause plays a more important role in the progression of disc degeneration in the lumbar spine.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes infected intervertebral discs cause vertebral bone marrow lesions consistent with Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Dudli, Stefan; Liebenberg, Ellen; Magnitsky, Sergey; Miller, Steve; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-08-01

    Modic type I change (MC1) are vertebral bone marrow lesions adjacent to degenerated discs that are specific for discogenic low back pain. The etiopathogenesis is unknown, but occult discitis, in particular with Propionibacteria acnes (P. acnes), has been suggested as a possible etiology. If true, antibiotic therapy should be considered for patients with MC1. However, this hypothesis is controversial. While some studies report up to 40% infection rate in herniated discs, others fail to detect infected discs and attribute reports of positive cultures to contamination during sampling procedure. Irrespective of the clinical controversy, whether it is biologically plausible for P. acnes to cause MC1 has never been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test if P. acnes can proliferate within discs and cause reactive changes in the adjacent bone marrow. P. acnes was aseptically isolated from a symptomatic human L4/5 disc with MC1 and injected into rat tail discs. We demonstrate proliferation of P. acnes and up-regulation of IL-1 and IL-6 within three days of inoculation. At day-7, disc degeneration was apparent along with fibrotic endplate erosion. TNF-α immunoreactivity was enhanced within the effected endplates along with cellular infiltrates. The bone marrow appeared normal. At day-14, endplates and trabecular bone close to the disc were almost completely resorbed and fibrotic tissue extended into the bone marrow. T-cells and TNF-α immunoreactivity were identified at the disc/marrow junction. On MRI, bone marrow showed MC1-like changes. In conclusion, P. acnes proliferate within the disc, induce degeneration, and cause MC1-like changes in the adjacent bone marrow. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1447-1455, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Integrating MRI-based geometry, composition and fiber architecture in a finite element model of the human intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Marc A; Maquer, Ghislain; Voumard, Benjamin; Grant, Aaron; Hackney, David B; Vermathen, Peter; Alkalay, Ron N; Zysset, Philippe K

    2018-05-17

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is a common disease that is often related to impaired mechanical function, herniations and chronic back pain. The degenerative process induces alterations of the disc's shape, composition and structure that can be visualized in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numerical tools such as finite element analysis (FEA) have the potential to relate MRI-based information to the altered mechanical behavior of the disc. However, in terms of geometry, composition and fiber architecture, current FE models rely on observations made on healthy discs and might therefore not be well suited to study the degeneration process. To address the issue, we propose a new, more realistic FE methodology based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For this study, a human disc joint was imaged in a high-field MR scanner with proton-density weighted (PD) and DTI sequences. The PD image was segmented and an anatomy-specific mesh was generated. Assuming accordance between local principal diffusion direction and local mean collagen fiber alignment, corresponding fiber angles were assigned to each element. Those element-wise fiber directions and PD intensities allowed the homogenized model to smoothly account for composition and fibrous structure of the disc. The disc's in vitro mechanical behavior was quantified under tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation. The six resulting load-displacement curves could be replicated by the FE model, which supports our approach as a first proof of concept towards patient-specific disc modeling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intervertebral disc regeneration or repair with biomaterials and stem cell therapy--feasible or fiction?

    PubMed

    Chan, Samantha C W; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2012-05-31

    The "gold standard" for treatment of intervertebral disc herniations and degenerated discs is still spinal fusion, corresponding to the saying "no disc - no pain". Mechanical prostheses, which are currently implanted, do only have medium outcome success and have relatively high re-operation rates. Here, we discuss some of the biological intervertebral disc replacement approaches, which can be subdivided into at least two classes in accordance to the two different tissue types, the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the annulus fibrosus (AF). On the side of NP replacement hydrogels have been extensively tested in vitro and in vivo. However, these gels are usually a trade-off between cell biocompatibility and load-bearing capacity, hydrogels which fulfill both are still lacking. On the side of AF repair much less is known and the question of the anchoring of implants is still to be addressed. New hope for cell therapy comes from developmental biology investigations on the existence of intervertebral disc progenitor cells, which would be an ideal cell source for cell therapy. Also notochordal cells (remnants of the embryonic notochord) have been recently pushed back into focus since these cells have regenerative potential and can activate disc cells. Growth factor treatment and molecular therapies could be less problematic. The biological solutions for NP and AF replacement are still more fiction than fact. However, tissue engineering just scratched the tip of the iceberg, more satisfying solutions are yet to be added to the biomedical pipeline.

  2. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  3. Release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick-type artificial lumbar disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek).

    PubMed

    Zeh, Alexander; Planert, Michael; Siegert, Gabriele; Lattke, Peter; Held, Andreas; Hein, Werner

    2007-02-01

    Cross-sectional study of 10 patients to measure the serum levels of cobalt and chromium after TDA. To investigate the release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick-type artificial lumbar disc. In total hip endoprosthetics and consequently for TDA (total disc arthroplasty), metal-on-metal combinations are used with the aim of reducing wear debris. In metal-on-metal TDA the release of metal ions has until now been secondary to the main discussion. We investigated the serum cobalt and chromium concentration following implantation of 15 Maverick TDAs (monosegmental L5-S1, n = 5; bisegmental L4-L5 and L5-S1, n = 5; average age, 36.5 years). Five healthy subjects (no metal implants) acted as a control group. The measurements of the metals were carried out using the HITACHI Z-8200 AAS polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer after an average of 14.8 months. The concentrations of cobalt and chromium ions in the serum amounted on average to 4.75 microg/L (SD, 2.71) for cobalt and 1.10 microg/L (SD, 1.24) for chromium. Compared with control group, both the chromium and cobalt levels in the serum showed significant increases (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0120). At follow-up,the Oswestry Disability Score was on average significantly decreased by 24.4 points (L5-S1) (t test, P < 0.05) and by 26.8 points (L4-S1) (t test, P < 0.05). The improved clinical situation is also represented by a significant decrease of the Visual Analog Pain Scale of 42.2 points after the follow-up (t test, P < 0.05). Significant systemic release of Cr/Co was proven in the serum compared with the control group. The concentrations of Cr/Co measured in the serum are similar in terms of their level to the values measured in THA metal-on-metal combinations or exceed these values given in the literature. Long-term implication of this metal exposure is unknown and should be studied further.

  4. Kozai-Lidov disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2017-08-01

    Recent results by Martin et al. showed in 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that tilted discs in binary systems can be unstable to the development of global, damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations in which the discs exchange tilt for eccentricity. We investigate the linear stability of KL modes for tilted inviscid discs under the approximations that the disc eccentricity is small and the disc remains flat. By using 1D equations, we are able to probe regimes of large ratios of outer to inner disc edge radii that are realistic for binary systems of hundreds of astronomical unit separations and are not easily probed by multidimensional simulations. For order unity binary mass ratios, KL instability is possible for a window of disc aspect ratios H/r in the outer parts of a disc that roughly scale as (nb/n)2 ≲ H/r ≲ nb/n, for binary orbital frequency nb and orbital frequency n at the disc outer edge. We present a framework for understanding the zones of instability based on the determination of branches of marginally unstable modes. In general, multiple growing eccentric KL modes can be present in a disc. Coplanar apsidal-nodal precession resonances delineate instability branches. We determine the range of tilt angles for unstable modes as a function of disc aspect ratio. Unlike the KL instability for free particles that involves a critical (minimum) tilt angle, disc instability is possible for any non-zero tilt angle depending on the disc aspect ratio.

  5. Quantitating Human Optic Disc Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graebel, William P.; Cohan, Bruce E.; Pearch, Andrew C.

    1980-07-01

    A method is presented for quantitatively expressing the topography of the human optic disc, applicable in a clinical setting to the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Pho-tographs of the disc illuminated by a pattern of fine, high contrast parallel lines are digitized. From the measured deviation of the lines as they traverse the disc surface, disc topography is calculated, using the principles of optical sectioning. The quantitators applied to express this topography have the the following advantages : sensitivity to disc shape; objectivity; going beyond the limits of cup-disc ratio estimates and volume calculations; perfect generality in a mathematical sense; an inherent scheme for determining a non-subjective reference frame to compare different discs or the same disc over time.

  6. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  7. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  8. Risk of brain herniation after craniotomy with lumbar spinal drainage: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakajima, Tsukasa; Takamura, Yoshiaki; Nakazawa, Tsutomu; Wajima, Daisuke; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Tamura, Kentaro; Yamada, Shuichi; Yokota, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-08

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall. METHODS Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared. RESULTS Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36-8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18-2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8-14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3-44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491-7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who

  9. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  10. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  11. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  12. Planet-disc interaction in laminar and turbulent discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Picogna, Giovanni; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-07-01

    In weakly ionised discs turbulence can be generated through the vertical shear instability (VSI). Embedded planets are affected by a stochastic component in the torques acting on them, which can impact their migration. In this work we study the interplay between a growing planet embedded in a protoplanetary disc and the VSI turbulence. We performed a series of 3D hydrodynamical simulations for locally isothermal discs with embedded planets in the mass range from 5 to 100 Earth masses. We study planets embedded in an inviscid disc that is VSI unstable, becomes turbulent, and generates angular momentum transport with an effective α = 5 × 10-4. This is compared to the corresponding viscous disc using exactly this α-value. In general we find that the planets have only a weak impact on the disc turbulence. Only for the largest planet (100 M⊕) does the turbulent activity become enhanced inside of the planet. The depth and width of a gap created by the more massive planets (30,100 M⊕) in the turbulent disc equal exactly that of the corresponding viscous case, leading to very similar torque strengths acting on the planet, with small stochastic fluctuations for the VSI disc. At the gap edges vortices are generated that are stronger and longer-lived in the VSI disc. Low mass planets (with Mp ≤ 10 M⊕) do not open gaps in the disc in either case, but generate for the turbulent disc an overdensity behind the planet that exerts a significant negative torque. This can boost the inward migration in VSI turbulent discs well above the Type I rate. Owing to the finite turbulence level in realistic 3D discs the gap depth will always be limited and migration will not stall in inviscid discs.

  13. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery (REALISE): design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo lumbar disc surgery for herniated discs, are advocated two different postoperative management strategies: a watchful waiting policy, or referral for rehabilitation immediately after discharge from the hospital. A direct comparison of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these two strategies is lacking. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with an economic evaluation alongside to assess the (cost-) effectiveness of rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery. Two hundred patients aged 18–70 years with a clear indication for lumbar disc surgery of a single level herniated disc will be recruited and randomly assigned to either a watchful waiting policy for first six weeks or exercise therapy starting immediately after discharge from the hospital. Exercise therapy will focus on resumption of activities of daily living and return to work. Therapists will tailor the intervention to the individual patient’s needs. All patients will be followed up by the neurosurgeon six weeks postoperatively. Main outcome measures are: functional status, pain intensity and global perceived recovery. Questionnaires will be completed preoperatively and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 26 weeks after surgery. Data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using a linear mixed model for continuous outcomes and a generalised mixed model for dichotomous outcomes. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. Discussion The results of this trial may lead to a more consistent postoperative strategy for patients who will undergo lumbar disc surgery. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3156 PMID:23560810

  14. Wave disc engine apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  15. Delayed diaphragmatic herniation masquerading as a complicated parapneumonic effusion.

    PubMed

    Tsang, J; Ryan, F

    1999-01-01

    Injury to the diaphragm following blunt or penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma is not uncommon. Recognition of this important complication of trauma continues to be a challenge because of the lack of specific clinical and plain radiographic features, the frequent presence of other serious injuries and the potential for delayed presentation. Delayed diaphragmatic herniation often presents with catastrophic bowel obstruction or strangulation. Early recognition of diaphragmatic injury is required to avoid this potentially lethal complication. The case of a 35-year-old man with a history of a knife wound to the left flank 15 years previously, who presented with unexplained acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and a unilateral exudative pleural effusion that was refractory to tube thoracostomy drainage, is reported. After admission to hospital, he developed gross dilation of his colon; emergency laparotomy revealed an incarcerated colonic herniation into the left hemithorax. Interesting clinical features of this patient's case included the patient's hobby of weightlifting, a persistently deviated mediastinum despite drainage of the pleural effusion and deceptive pleural fluid biochemical indices.

  16. Symptomatic thoracic spinal cord herniation: case series and technical report.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Ray, Wilson Z; Wright, Neill M

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on the treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there are few data on clinical outcomes. In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomatology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially because of multiple sclerosis. Finally, compared with compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISCH led to rapid improvement despite a long duration of symptoms. Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair.

  17. Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Series and Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Wright, Neill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there is little data on clinical outcomes. Clinical Presentation In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially due to multiple sclerosis. Finally compared to compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISH led to rapid improvement despite long duration of symptoms. Conclusion Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair. PMID:24871148

  18. Counter-rotating accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud on to the surface of an existing corotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inwards to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc centre. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of viscous counter-rotating discs for the cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic α-viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components, a shear layer forms between them and the middle part of this layer free-falls to the disc centre. The accretion rates are increased by factors of ˜102-104 over that for a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dependent on the viscosity and the mass fraction of the counter-rotating gas. In the case of radially separated components where the inner disc corotates and the outer disc rotates in the opposite direction, a gap between the two components opens and closes quasi-periodically. The accretion rates are ≳25 times larger than those for a disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity.

  19. Lumbar spine disc height and curvature responses to an axial load generated by a compression device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, S.; Steinbach, G. C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Axial load-dependent changes in the lumbar spine of supine healthy volunteers were examined using a compression device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging. OBJECTIVE: To test two hypotheses: Axial loading of 50% body weight from shoulder to feet in supine posture 1) simulates the upright lumbar spine alignment and 2) decreases disc height significantly. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Axial compression on the lumbar spine has significantly narrowed the lumbar dural sac in patients with sciatica, neurogenic claudication or both. METHODS: Using a device compatible with magnetic resonance imaging, the lumbar spine of eight young volunteers, ages 22 to 36 years, was axially compressed with a force equivalent to 50% of body weight, approximating the normal load on the lumbar spine in upright posture. Sagittal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed to measure intervertebral angle and disc height before and during compression. RESULTS: Each intervertebral angle before and during compression was as follows: T12-L1 (-0.8 degrees +/- 2.5 degrees and -1.5 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees ), L1-L2 (0.7 degrees +/- 1.4 degrees and 3.3 degrees +/- 2.9 degrees ), L2-L3 (4.7 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees and 7.3 degrees +/- 6 degrees ), L3-L4 (7.9 degrees +/- 2.4 degrees and 11.1 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees ), L4-L5 (14.3 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees and 14.9 degrees +/- 1.7 degrees ), L5-S1 (25.8 degrees +/- 5.2 degrees and 20.8 degrees +/- 6 degrees ), and L1-S1 (53.4 degrees +/- 11.9 degrees and 57.3 degrees +/- 16.7 degrees ). Negative values reflect kyphosis, and positive values reflect lordosis. A significant difference between values before and during compression was obtained at L3-L4 and L5-S1. There was a significant decrease in disc height only at L4-L5 during compression. CONCLUSIONS: The axial force of 50% body weight in supine posture simulates the upright lumbar spine morphologically. No change in intervertebral angle occurred at L4-L5. However, disc height at L4-L

  20. Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the

  1. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  2. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Hanscom, Brett; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Fischgrund, Jeffrey; Cammisa, Frank P.; Albert, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Context For patients with lumbar disk herniation, the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) randomized trial intent-to-treat analysis showed small but not statistically significant differences in favor of diskectomy compared with usual care. However, the large numbers of patients who crossed over between assigned groups precluded any conclusions about the comparative effectiveness of operative therapy vs usual care. Objective To compare the treatment effects of diskectomy and usual care. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective observational cohort of surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation who were treated at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states and who met the SPORT eligibility criteria but declined randomization between March 2000 and March 2003. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs usual nonoperative care. Main Outcome Measures Changes from baseline in the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/MODEMS version). Results Of the 743 patients enrolled in the observational cohort, 528 patients received surgery and 191 received usual nonoperative care. At 3 months, patients who chose surgery had greater improvement in the primary outcome measures of bodily pain (mean change: surgery, 40.9 vs nonoperative care, 26.0; treatment effect, 14.8; 95% confidence interval, 10.8-18.9), physical function (mean change: surgery, 40.7 vs nonoperative care, 25.3; treatment effect, 15.4; 95% CI, 11.6-19.2), and Oswestry Disability Index (mean change: surgery, −36.1 vs nonoperative care, −20.9; treatment effect, −15.2; 95% CI, −18.5. to −11.8). These differences narrowed somewhat at 2 years: bodily pain (mean change: surgery, 42.6 vs nonoperative care, 32.4; treatment effect, 10.2; 95% CI, 5.9-14.5), physical function (mean change: surgery, 43.9 vs nonoperavtive care 31.9; treatment

  3. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  4. Time-dependent release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick type artificial lumbar disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek).

    PubMed

    Zeh, Alexander; Becker, Claudia; Planert, Michael; Lattke, Peter; Wohlrab, David

    2009-06-01

    In total hip endoprosthetics and consequently for TDA, metal-on-metal combinations are used with the aim of reducing wear debris. In metal-on-metal TDA the release of metal ions has until now been secondary to the main discussion. In order to investigate the ion release following the implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick type artificial lumbar disc we measured the serum cobalt and chromium concentration following implantation of 15 Maverick TDAs (monosegmental L5/S1, n = 5; bisegmental L4/5 and L5/S1, n = 5; average age 36.5 years). Five healthy subjects (no metal implants) acted as a control group. The two measurements of the metals were carried out using the absorption spectrometry after an average of 14.8 and 36.7 months. In summary, the concentrations of cobalt and chromium ions in the serum at both follow-ups amounted on average to 3.3 microg/l (SD 2.6) for cobalt and 2.2 microg/l (SD 1.5) for chromium. These figures are similar to the figures shown in the literature following the implantation of metal-on-metal THA. After a comparison to the control group, both the chromium and cobalt levels in the serum showed visible increases regarding the first and the second follow-up. As there is still a significant release of cobalt and chromium into the serum after an average follow-up of 36.7 months a persistent release of these ions must be taken into consideration. Despite the evaluation of the systemic and local effects of the release of Cr/Co from orthopaedic implants has not yet been concluded, one should take into consideration an explanation given to patients scheduled for the implantation of a metal-on-metal TDA about these results and the benefits/risks of alternative combinations of gliding contact surfaces.

  5. Complications of Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement Compared to Fusion: Results From the Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter US Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption Study of the Charité Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Majd, Mohammed E.; Isaza, Jorge E.; Blumenthal, Scott L.; McAfee, Paul C.; Guyer, Richard D.; Hochschuler, Stephen H.; Geisler, Fred H.; Garcia, Rolando; Regan, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous reports of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) have described significant complications. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc represents the first level I data comparison of TDR to fusion. Methods In the prospective, randomized, multicenter IDE study, patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, with 205 patients in the Charité group and 99 patients in the control group (anterior lumbar interbody fusion [ALIF] with BAK cages). Inclusion criteria included confirmed single-level degenerative disc disease at L4-5 or L5-S1 and failure of nonoperative treatment for at least 6 months. Complications were reported throughout the study. Results The rate of approach-related complications was 9.8% in the investigational group and 10.1% in the control group. The rate of major neurological complications was similar between the 2 groups (investigational = 4.4%, control = 4.0%). There was a higher rate of superficial wound infection in the investigational group but no deep wound infections in either group. Pseudarthrosis occurred in 9.1% of control group patients. The rate of subsidence in the investigational group was 3.4%. The reoperation rate was 5.4% in the investigational group and 9.1% in the control group. Conclusions The incidence of perioperative and postoperative complications for lumbar TDR was similar to that of ALIF. Vigilance is necessary with respect to patient indications, training, and correct surgical technique to maintain TDR complications at the levels experienced in the IDE study. PMID:25802575

  6. Lumbar herniation following extended autologous latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sheila Margaret; Fatayer, Hiba; Achuthan, Rajgopal

    2013-05-30

    Reconstructive breast surgery is now recognized to be an important part of the treatment for breast cancer. Surgical reconstruction options consist of implants, autologous tissue transfer or a combination of the two. The latissimus dorsi flap is a pedicled musculocutaneous flap and is an established method of autologous breast reconstruction.Lumbar hernias are an unusual type of hernia, the majority occurring after surgery or trauma in this area. The reported incidence of a lumbar hernia subsequent to a latissimus dorsi reconstruction is very low. We present the unusual case of lumbar herniation after an extended autologous latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction following a mastectomy. The lumbar hernia was confirmed on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open mesh repair of the hernia through the previous latissimus dorsi scar. Lumbar hernias are a rare complication that can occur following latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. It should be considered in all patients presenting with persistent pain or swelling in the lumbar region.

  7. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Hanscom, Brett; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Abdu, William A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Boden, Scott D.; Deyo, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lumbar diskectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed for back and leg symptoms in US patients, but the efficacy of the procedure relative to nonoperative care remains controversial. Objective To assess the efficacy of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. Design, Setting, and Patients The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, a randomized clinical trial enrolling patients between March 2000 and November 2004 from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Patients were 501 surgical candidates (mean age, 42 years; 42% women) with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation and persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy for at least 6 weeks. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs nonoperative treatment individualized to the patient. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were changes from baseline for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons MODEMS version) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included sciatica severity as measured by the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, satisfaction with symptoms, self-reported improvement, and employment status. Results Adherence to assigned treatment was limited: 50% of patients assigned to surgery received surgery within 3 months of enrollment, while 30% of those assigned to nonoperative treatment received surgery in the same period. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated substantial improvements for all primary and secondary outcomes in both treatment groups. Between-group differences in improvements were consistently in favor of surgery for all periods but were small and not statistically significant for the primary outcomes. Conclusions Patients in both the surgery and the nonoperative treatment groups improved substantially over a 2-year period. Because of the large numbers of

  8. Optic Disc Drusen in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melinda Y.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc drusen occur in 0.4% of children and consist of acellular intracellular and extracellular deposits that often become calcified over time. They are typically buried early in life and generally become superficial, and therefore visible, later in childhood, at the average age of 12 years. Their main clinical significance lies in the ability of optic disc drusen, particularly when buried, to simulate true optic disc edema. Misdiagnosing drusen as true disc edema may lead to an invasive and unnecessary workup for elevated intracranial pressure. Ancillary testing, including ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography, may aid in the correct diagnosis of optic disc drusen. Complications of optic disc drusen in children include visual field defects, hemorrhages, choroidal neovascular membrane, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and retinal vascular occlusions. Treatment options for these complications include ocular hypotensive agents for visual field defects and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents for choroidal neovascular membranes. In most cases, however, children with optic disc drusen can be managed by observation with serial examinations and visual field testing, once true optic disc edema has been excluded. PMID:27033945

  9. [Unsatisfactory results of intradiscal injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide in the treatment of sciatica caused by intervertebral disk herniation].

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, B; Debiais, F; Heuline, A; Houvenagel, E; Bourgeois, P; Alcalay, M; Vincent, G; Bontoux, D; Kahn, M F; Delcambre, B

    1992-11-14

    Sciatica caused by intervertebral disc herniation can be treated with intradiscal injection of chymopapain. A search for a cheaper and less allergizing product led to triamcinolone hexacetonide, this procedure being known as "nucleorthesis". The first results at 6 months were encouraging. In 3 centres where triamcinolone hexacetonide was tested with a more than 2 years' follow-up 92 patients could be evaluated. The results obtained were considered satisfactory in 34 patients (36.9 percent), but they were poor in 19 patients (20.6 percent), and 39 patients (42 percent) had to be operated upon within 2 years. Return to surgery took place within the 6 months following nucleorthesis in 18 patients (19.56 percent) and beyond this period in 17 patients (22.8 percent) with degradation of the results. Moreover, calcifications were found in 19 out of 38 patients; they were of varying size, sometimes detected only at computerized tomography, and some of them appeared to produce symptoms. All considered, the failure rates, the number of patients who required surgery and the occurrence of large and sometimes symptomatic calcifications make triamcinolone nucleorthesis unacceptable compared with the recognized percentages of success with papain nucleolysis and surgical operations. For these reasons, we consider that this treatment should be abandoned.

  10. Reversible uncal herniation in a neonate with a large MCA infarct.

    PubMed

    Thibert, Ronald L; Burns, Joseph D; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Takeoka, Masanori

    2009-11-01

    Uncal herniation due to a large cerebral infarct is well-described in adults, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. This phenomenon, however, has not been previously reported in neonates. We present a newborn male delivered via cesarean section with difficult extraction who presented with frequent seizures. He was found to have an acute left MCA territory infarct secondary to an M1 occlusion detected on MRI/MRA. He became lethargic and developed a left uncal herniation on CT at 72h of life. He was treated medically with osmolar agents and hemodynamic support, and had resolution of the herniation on CT at 120h of life. At 19 months he had residual moderate right hemiparesis with only mild gait disturbance and mild speech delay. As seen in this case, uncal herniation, though rare, may occur in neonates. Also, the outcome for this neonate was much better than for typical adults with a similar disease course.

  11. Progression, incidence, and risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration in a longitudinal population-based cohort: the Wakayama Spine Study.

    PubMed

    Teraguchi, M; Yoshimura, N; Hashizume, H; Yamada, H; Oka, H; Minamide, A; Nagata, K; Ishimoto, Y; Kagotani, R; Kawaguchi, H; Tanaka, S; Akune, T; Nakamura, K; Muraki, S; Yoshida, M

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the progression, incidence, and risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) throughout the lumbar spine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population-based cohort. We followed up 617 subjects for more than 4 years as part of the Wakayama Spine Study. 1) "Progression of DD" in each of the entire, upper (L1/2 to L3/4) and lower (L4/5 and L5/S1) lumbar spine was defined as Pfirrmann grade progression at follow-up in at least one disc in the affected region. 2) "Incidence of DD" in each of these regions was defined if all discs were grade 3 or lower (white disc) at baseline, and at least one disc had progressed to grade 4 or higher (black disc) at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for progression and incidence of DD. DD progression and incidence in the entire lumbar spine were 52.0% and 31.6% in men, and 60.4% and 44.7% in women, respectively. Women was associated with DD progression in the upper lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.42). Aging was associated with the incidence of DD in each region (entire: OR = 1.14, CI = 1.06-1.14; upper: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.05-1.15; lower: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.05-1.19). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with the incidence of DD in the upper lumbar spine (OR = 6.83, CI = 1.07-133.7). This 4-year longitudinal study is the first to demonstrate DD progression and incidence in the lumbar spine and their risk factors in a large population-based cohort. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy in sciatica: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Schenk, Barry; van den Berg-Huijsmans, Annette A; Koes, Bart W; van Buchem, M A; Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C

    2015-05-01

    Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) is a minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation, with Food and Drug Administration approval since 1991. However, no randomized trial comparing PLDD to conventional treatment has been performed. In this trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a strategy of PLDD as compared with conventional surgery. This randomized prospective trial with a noninferiority design was carried out in two academic and six teaching hospitals in the Netherlands according to an intent-to-treat protocol with full institutional review board approval. One hundred fifteen eligible surgical candidates, with sciatica from a disc herniation smaller than one-third of the spinal canal, were included. The main outcome measures for this trial were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, visual analog scores for back and leg pain, and the patient's report of perceived recovery. Patients were randomly allocated to PLDD (n=57) or conventional surgery (n=58). Blinding was impossible because of the nature of the interventions. This study was funded by the Healthcare Insurance Board of the Netherlands. The primary outcome, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, showed noninferiority of PLDD at 8 (-0.1; [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.3 to 2.1]) and 52 weeks (-1.1; 95% CI, -3.4 to 1.1) compared with conventional surgery. There was, however, a higher speed of recovery in favor of conventional surgery (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.97]). The number of reoperations was significantly less in the conventional surgery group (38% vs. 16%). Overall, a strategy of PLDD, with delayed surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes at 1 year. At 1 year, a strategy of PLDD, followed by surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes compared with surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcript Levels of Major Interleukins in Relation to the Clinicopathological Profile of Patients with Tuberculous Intervertebral Discs and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Zhan, Xinli; Xiao, Zengming; Fan, Qie; Deng, Li; Cui, Mingxing; Xiong, Chunxiang; Xue, Jingbo; Xie, Xiangtao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to simultaneously examine the transcript levels of a large number of interleukins (ILs; IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, IL-26, and IL-27) and investigate their correlation with the clinicopathological profiles of patients with tuberculous intervertebral discs. Methods Clinical data were collected from 150 patients participating in the study from January 2013 to December 2013. mRNA expression levels in 70 tuberculous, 70 herniated, and 10 control intervertebral disc specimens were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results IL-10, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-27 displayed stronger expression in tuberculous spinal disc tissue than in normal intervertebral disc tissue (P<0.05). Our results illustrated multiple correlations among IL-10, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-27 mRNA expression in tuberculous samples. Smoking habits were found to have a positive correlation with IL-17 transcript levels and a negative correlation with IL-10 transcript levels (P<0.05). Pain intensity, symptom duration, C-reactive protein levels, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate exhibited multiple correlations with the transcript levels of several ILs (P<0.05). Conclusions The experimental data imply a double-sided effect on the activity of ILs in tuberculous spinal intervertebral discs, suggesting that they may be involved in intervertebral discs destruction. Our findings also suggest that smoking may affect the intervertebral discs destruction process of spinal tuberculosis. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact role of ILs in the intervertebral discs destruction process of spinal tuberculosis. PMID:24971599

  14. Comparison of animal discs used in disc research to human lumbar disc: torsion mechanics and collagen content.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Brent L; Beckstein, Jesse C; Martin, John T; Beattie, Elizabeth E; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Schaer, Thomas P; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-07-01

    Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these with the human disc. To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar discs, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal discs. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and the mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human discs. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Disc torsion mechanics are comparable with human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented are useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal disc models. Structural organization of the fiber angle may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization.

  15. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  16. A Novel Modality for Functional Imaging in Acute Intervertebral Disk Herniation via Tracking Leukocyte Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Ding, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yi; Chordia, Mahendra; Pan, Dongfeng; Shimer, Adam; Shen, Francis; Glover, David; Jin, Li; Li, Xudong

    2017-10-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in the progression of intervertebral disk (IVD) herniation and associated low back pain. However, real-time spatial diagnosis of inflammation associated with acute disk herniation has not been investigated. We sought to detect local neutrophil and macrophage infiltration near disk herniation via the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-mediated molecular imaging in a disk puncture mouse model to elucidate pathophysiological process of disk herniation. Disk herniation was induced in mouse with an established needle puncture procedure. Degenerative change of disk and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were detected with Safranin-O, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and immunohistochemical staining after injury. FPR1-specific imaging probes cFLFLF-PEG-Cy7 and [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-PEG-cFLFLF were administered systemically to sham and disk injury mice. Leukocyte infiltration was tracked by in vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging. The peptide-receptor binding specificity was further investigated with FPR1 -/- mice via ex vivo NIRF scan and in vitro binding assays. Safranin-O staining exhibited disorganized disk structure and loss of proteoglycan after puncture. Massive inflammatory cells were observed in the anterior region of punctured annulus in the injury group. The majority of neutrophils were detected at 1 through 3 days, while infiltration of macrophages appeared the most at 7 days after injury. NIRF and SPECT images revealed preferential accumulation of cFLFLF probes in herniation site in wild-type mice but not in FPR1 -/- mice. Binding of the cFLFLF peptide to FPR1 was also observed in RAW 267.4 cells and macrophages isolated from wild-type mice, whereas much less signal was observed in macrophages from FPR1 -/- mice. The presence of macrophage infiltration was also detected in human-herniated disk samples by immunohistochemistry. For the first time, leukocyte infiltration around

  17. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  18. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  19. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  20. Spontaneous delayed brain herniation through a subdural membrane after tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Dycke, Annelies; Okito, Jean-Pierre Kalala; Acou, Marjan; Deblaere, Karel; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Roost, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    We report on a rare case of spontaneous cerebral herniation through a subdural membrane in a 54-year-old patient. Brain herniation in adults as a complication of chronic subdural hematomas shortly after a neurosurgical intervention is rare. We are the first to report a case of delayed local herniation in an adult patient more than 1 year after a neurosurgical procedure. The patient suffered from a low-grade oligodendroglioma since 1993. Radiotherapy was then applied, followed by resective surgery and chemotherapy in 2008 because of tumor progression. Subsequently, he developed a symptomatic subdural hygroma treated with a subduro-atrial cerebrospinal fluid shunt. In January 2010, the shunt was occluded. Follow-up brain imaging showed a stable situation after tumor resection, with a cyst in the temporal resection cavity and a stable subdural hygroma. In February 2011, the patient visited the emergency department because of an acute right hemiparesis and progressive motor aphasia. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging was suspicious of a herniation of brain parenchyma in the left middle cranial fossa. Explorative surgery showed a locally incarcerated brain herniation through a membrane with a ring-like aperture. Resection of this membrane led to normalization of the position of the brain tissue and to clinical improvement. Brain herniation through a subdural membrane is an extremely rare complication, but must be a differential diagnosis in patients with a known chronic subdural hematoma or hygroma and clinical deterioration, even in the absence of recent surgery. Urgent surgical intervention of the herniated brain is recommended to reduce the risk of permanent neurological damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region <1-10 au. The mass accretion rates are consistent with observations, even in the very low level of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. Such a positive radial slope of the surface density strongly affects planet formation because it inhibits the inward drift or even causes the outward drift of pebble- to boulder-sized solid bodies, and it also slows down or even reversed the inward type-I migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  2. Comparison of Animal Discs Used in Disc Research to Human Lumbar Disc: Torsion Mechanics and Collagen Content

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Brent L.; Beckstein, Jesse C.; Martin, John T.; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Orías, Alejandro A. Espinoza; Schaer, Thomas P.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these to the human disc. Objective To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. Summary of Background Data There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Methods Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Results Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Conclusion Disc torsion mechanics are comparable to human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented is useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal models of the disc. Structural composition of the disc, such as initial fiber angle, may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization. PMID:22333953

  3. Imaging of degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs; linking anatomy, pathology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ashok; Roche, Oran; Mazumder, Asif; Davagnanam, Indran; Mankad, Kshitij

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain is a common medical condition that has significant implications for healthcare providers and the UK economy. Low back pain can be classified as 'specific' in which an underlying pathophysiological mechanism is identified (eg, herniated intervertebral disc). Advanced imaging should be performed in this situation and in those patients in whom systemic disease is strongly suspected. In the majority (approximately 90%), low back pain in 'non specific' and there is a weak correlation with imaging abnormalities. This is an area of ongoing research and remains controversial in terms of imaging approach and treatment (eg, theory of discogenic pain, interpretation and treatment of endplate changes). With regards Modic endplate changes, current research suggests that an infective component may be involved that may identify novel potential treatments in patients with chronic low back pain refractory to other treatment modalities. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of degenerative changes in intervertebral discs. MRI has superior soft tissue contrast resolution when compared to other imaging modalities (eg, plain radiography, CT). An understanding of normal anatomy and MR appearances of intervertebral discs, particularly with regards to how these appearances change with advancing age, is required to aid image interpretation. Knowledge of the spectrum of degenerative processes that may occur in the intervertebral discs is required in order to identify and explain abnormal MRI appearances. As the communication of MRI findings may guide therapeutic decision making and surgical intervention, the terminology used by radiologists must be accurate and consistent. Therefore, description of degenerative disc changes in the current paper is based on the most up-to-date recommendations, the aim being to aid reporting by radiologists and interpretation of reports by referring clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  4. Thermo-sensitive injectable glycol chitosan-based hydrogel for treatment of degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengzheng; Shim, Hyeeun; Cho, Myeong Ok; Cho, Ik Sung; Lee, Jin Hyun; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kwon, Bosun; Huh, Kang Moo

    2018-03-15

    The use of injectable hydrogel formulations have been suggested as a promising strategy for the treatment of degenerative disc disease to both restore the biomechanical function and reduce low back pain. In this work, a new thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels with tunable thermo-sensitivity and enhanced stability were developed with N-hexanoylation of glycol chitosan (GC) for treatment of degenerative disc disease, and their physico-chemical and biological properties were evaluated. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was controlled in a range of 23-56 °С, depending on the degree of hexanoylation and the polymer concentration. In vitro and in vivo tests showed no cytotoxicity and no adverse effects in a rat model. The hydrogel filling of the defective IVD site in an ex vivo porcine model maintained its stability for longer than 28 days. These results suggest that the hydrogel can be used as an alternative material for treatment of disc herniation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Manu N; Ruzicka, Filip; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Hermanova, Marketa; Sana, Jiri; Michu, Elleni; Baird, John C; Ahmed, Fahad S; Maca, Karel; Lipina, Radim; Alamin, Todd F; Coscia, Michael F; Stonemetz, Jerry L; Witham, Timothy; Ehrlich, Garth D; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and chronic infection by Propionibacterium acnes is controversial with contradictory evidence available in the literature. Previous studies investigating these relationships were under-powered and fraught with methodical differences; moreover, they have not taken into consideration P. acnes' ability to form biofilms or attempted to quantitate the bioburden with regard to determining bacterial counts/genome equivalents as criteria to differentiate true infection from contamination. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in patients undergoing lumbar disc microdiscectomy. The sample consisted of 290 adult patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An intraoperative biopsy and pre-operative clinical data were taken in all cases. One biopsy fragment was homogenized and used for quantitative anaerobic culture and a second was frozen and used for real-time PCR-based quantification of P. acnes genomes. P. acnes was identified in 115 cases (40%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 31 cases (11%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci in 8 cases (3%). P. acnes counts ranged from 100 to 9000 CFU/ml with a median of 400 CFU/ml. The prevalence of intervertebral discs with abundant P. acnes (≥ 1x103 CFU/ml) was 11% (39 cases). There was significant correlation between the bacterial counts obtained by culture and the number of P. acnes genomes detected by real-time PCR (r = 0.4363, p<0.0001). In a large series of patients, the prevalence of discs with abundant P. acnes was 11%. We believe, disc tissue homogenization releases P. acnes from the biofilm so that they can then potentially be cultured, reducing the rate of false-negative cultures. Further, quantification study revealing significant bioburden based on both culture and real-time PCR minimize the likelihood that observed findings are due to contamination and supports the

  6. Spinal cord herniation following cervical meningioma excision: a rare clinical entity and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Siddharth N; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Kanna, Rishi; Maheswaran, Anupama; Rajasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Spinal cord herniation following surgery is an extremely uncommon clinical condition with very few reports in published literature. This condition usually occurs as a spontaneous idiopathic phenomenon often in the thoracic spine or following a scenario of post traumatic spinal cord/nerve root injury. Rarely has it been reported following spinal cord tumor surgery. To document a case of cervical spinal cord herniation as a late onset complication following spinal cord tumor surgery with an atypical presentation of monoparesis. Case report. We describe the clinical presentation, operative procedure, post operative outcome and review of literature of this rare clinical condition. A 57-year-old man presented with right upper limb monoparesis due to a spinal cord herniation 6 years after a cervical intradural meningioma excision. The patients underwent surgery to reduce the herniation and duroplasty with subsequent complete resolution of symptoms. Spinal cord herniation must be considered as differential diagnosis in scenarios of spinal cord tumor excision presenting with late onset neurological deficit. These cases may present as paraparesis, Brown-sequard syndrome and rarely as in our case as monoparesis.

  7. Local skull trephination before transfer is associated with favorable outcomes in cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James A

    2011-01-01

    The patient with epidural hematoma and cerebral herniation has a good prognosis with immediate drainage, but a poor prognosis with delay to decompression. Such patients who present to nonneurosurgical hospitals are commonly transferred without drainage to the nearest neurosurgical center. This practice has never been demonstrated to be the safest approach to treating these patients. A significant minority of emergency physicians (EPs) have advised and taught bedside burr hole drainage or skull trephination before transfer for herniating patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of nonneurosurgeon drainage on neurologic outcome in patients with cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma. A structured literature review was performed using EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Emergency Medicine Abstracts database. No evidence meeting methodologic criteria was found describing outcomes in patients transferred without decompressive procedures. For patients receiving local drainage before transfer, 100% had favorable outcomes. Although the total number of patients is small and the population highly selected, the natural history of cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma and the best available evidence suggests that herniating patients have improved outcomes with drainage procedures before transport. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. ISSLS prize winner: microstructure and mechanical disruption of the lumbar disc annulus: part II: how the annulus fails under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Veres, Samuel P; Robertson, Peter A; Broom, Neil D

    2008-12-01

    Mechanically induced annular disruption of lumbar intervertebral discs followed by microstructural investigation. To investigate the role that elevated nuclear pressures play in disrupting the lumbar intervertebral disc's annulus fibrosus. Compound mechanical loadings have been used to recreate clinically relevant annular disruptions in vitro. However, the role that individual loading parameters play in disrupting the lumbar disc's annulus remains unclear. The nuclei of ovine lumbar intervertebral discs were gradually pressurized by injecting a viscous radio-opaque gel via their inferior vertebrae. Pressurization was conducted until catastrophic failure of the disc occurred. Investigation of the resulting annular disruption was carried out using microcomputed tomography and differential interference contrast microscopy. Gel extrusion from the posterior annulus was the most common mode of disc failure. Unlike other aspects of the annular wall, the posterior region was unable to distribute hydrostatic pressures circumferentially. In each extrusion case, severe disruption of the posterior annulus occurred. Although intralamellar disruption occurred in the mid annulus, interlamellar disruption occurred in the outer posterior annulus. Radial ruptures between lamellae always occurred in the mid-axial plane. With respect to the annular wall, the posterior region is most susceptible to failure in the presence of high nuclear pressure, even when loaded in the neutral position. Weak interlamellar cohesion of the outer posterior lamellae may explain why the majority of herniations remain contained as protrusions within the outer annular wall.

  9. [Control-lateral sciatrica after surgery for herniated disk].

    PubMed

    Sicard, A; Banai, M

    1976-12-01

    A study of 1,427 case records permitted the authors to discover 10 cases of reoperation for sciatica which appeared on the opposite side after removal of a dischernia. A new hernia was noted in 6 cases, whereas radiculitis of unknown origin, appeared to be responsible in 4 cases. The 10 patients who became cured, either after removal of the hernia, or after decompression through the foramin. These few cases, in fact rare, may be considered as relapses and thus poor surgical results. The provide a contribution to the understanding of intervertebral disc disease and raise an interesting medico-legal problem.

  10. Slow deformation of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Broberg, K B

    1993-01-01

    Intervertebral discs exhibit pronounced time-dependent deformations when subjected to load variations. These deformations are caused by fluid flow to and from the disc and by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. The fluid flow is caused by differences between mechanical and osmotic pressure. A mechanical model of lumbar disc functions allows one to calculate both the extent of fluid flow and its implications for disc height as well as the role played by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. From such calculations changes in body height are estimated. Experimental results already documented in the literature offer bases for the determination of the parameters involved. Body height variations are studied, both those related to normal diurnal rhythmicity and those related to somewhat exceptional circumstances. The normal diurnal fluid flow is found to be about +/- 40% of the disc fluid content late in the evening. Viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres contributes approximately one quarter of the height change obtained after several hours normal activity, but dominates during the first hour.

  11. Lung herniation: an uncommon presentation of Poland's syndrome in a neonate at birth

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Suresh; Revanna, Krishna Gopagondanahalli; Ari, Dinesh; Rana, Aftab Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    A term male infant was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with an asymmetric chest wall and a herniating mass through the left fourth intercostal space. While crying, the left fourth intercostal space revealed a mass which herniated on expiration and receded on inspiration. On auscultation, the heart sounds were audible on the right side of the chest. Systemic examination was otherwise unremarkable. A roentgenogram of the chest revealed dextrocardia and hyperlucent left lung fields. Echocardiogram showed dextrocardia with a structurally normal heart. A clinical diagnosis of Poland's syndrome was made based on the hypoplasia of the left pectoral muscles, ribs and nipple, dextrocardia and lung herniation. He was thriving well when reviewed at 2 years of age. PMID:23921692

  12. Concomitance of cervical intramedullary traumatic neuroma and cervical cord herniation in a tetraplegic woman.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Yi; Wu, Yung-Tsan; Liu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chun; Chu, Heng-Yi; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case of concomitant intramedullary traumatic neuroma and spinal cord herniation. A 57-year-old woman injured her cervical spine with subluxation and cord compression at the C5-C6 level. After the operation, the patient received intensive rehabilitation for one year with well response. Unfortunately, she experienced weakness and progressive numbness extending to all the limbs later. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed spinal cord herniation at the C5-C6 level and pathology proved intramedullary traumatic neuroma. After the second operation, the paresthesia over the trunk and limbs persisted, and the patient was nearly totally assisted in her activities of daily living. The intramedullary traumatic neuroma and spinal cord herniation are rare causes in patients with spinal cord dysfunction. The case presented here indicates the possibility of the coexisting conditions leading to progressive neurologic deficits in patients with old spinal cord injury.

  13. Traumatic Transient Herniation Concomitant with Tonsillar Hemorrhagic Contusion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Öğrenci, Ahmet; Koban, Orkun; Ekşi, Murat; Yaman, Onur; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils more than 5 mm below the foramen magnum is named as Chiari type I malformation and named benign tonsillar ectopia if herniation is less than 3 mm. It does not just depend on congenital causes. There are also some reasons for acquired Chiari Type 1 and benign tonsillar ectopia/herniation. Trauma is one of them. Trauma may increase tonsillar ectopia or may be the cause of new-onset Chiari type 1. The relationship between the tonsil contusion and its position is unclear. We present a case of pediatric age group with tonsillar herniation with a hemorrhagic contusion. Only 1 case has been presented so far in the literature. A case with unilateral tonsil contusion has not been presented to date. We will discuss the possible reasons for taking the place of the tonsils to the above level of the foramen magnum in the follow-up period, by looking at the literature. PMID:29104687

  14. CT-guided ozone/steroid therapy for the treatment of degenerative spinal disease--effect of age, gender, disc pathology and multi-segmental changes.

    PubMed

    Oder, Bernhard; Loewe, Maria; Reisegger, Michael; Lang, Wilfried; Ilias, Wilfried; Thurnher, Siegfried A

    2008-09-01

    Oxygen-ozone nucleolysis (ONL) is a new, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of discogenic low back pain with or without radicular symptoms. The aim of the present study was to determine associations between the morphology of the basic disease, patient-specific factors and the outcome of the treatment. Six hundred and twelve patients not responding to conservative therapy were divided into five groups (disc bulging, disc herniation, postoperative patients, osteochondrosis, others) and subjected to nucleolysis with ozone and to periradicular infiltration with steroids and local anaesthesia. The success of treatment was assessed by means of a visual analog pain scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). A significant reduction in the VAS was registered after 2 and 6 months (from 8.6 to 5.4 and 6.0; p < 0.001) in all patient groups; an excellent therapy response (VAS below 3.0) was achieved by about a third of the patients. A significant improvement in ODI was registered in all patients (46 to 31; p < 0.001), most pronounced in the herniation group (25.5, p = 0.015). Patients below 50 years had significantly better values in the VAS and ODI score 6 months after treatment. Final VAS and ODI scores for patients with a single diseased segment were 4.2 and 28.0, in two affected segments 6.5 and 32 and in three segments 6.7 and 38.5 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.051). ONL with periradicular steroid therapy might exert a functional and sustained analgesic effect in patients with degenerative changes in the lumbar spine not responding to conservative therapy and was most effective below 50 years with disc herniation in one segment.

  15. Quantification of the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vibeke F; Beck, Sarah; Christensen, Knud A; Arnbjerg, Jens

    2008-10-01

    To quantify the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds. Longitudinal study. 61 Dachshunds that had been radiographically screened for calcification of intervertebral disks at 2 years of age in other studies. Thirty-seven of the dogs had survived to the time of the present study and were > or = 8 years of age; 24 others had not survived. Radiographic examination of 36 surviving dogs was performed, and information on occurrence of disk calcification at 2 years of age were obtained from records of all 61 Dachshunds. Information on occurrence of disk herniation between 2 and 8 years of age was obtained from owners via questionnaire. Associations between numbers of calcified disks and disk herniation were analyzed via maximum likelihood logistic regression. Disk calcification at 2 years of age was a significant predictor of clinical disk herniation (odds ratio per calcified disk, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.81). Number of calcified disks in the full vertebral column was a better predictor than number of calcified disks between vertebrae T10 and L3. Numbers of calcified disks at > or = 8 years of age and at 2 years of age were significantly correlated. Number of calcified disks at 2 years of age was a good predictor of clinical disk herniation in Dachshunds. Because of the high heritability of disk calcification, it is possible that an effective reduction in occurrence of severe disk herniation in Dachshunds could be obtained by selective breeding against high numbers of calcified disks at 2 years of age.

  16. Atomic gas in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  17. New minimally invasive discectomy technique through the interlaminar space using a percutaneous endoscope.

    PubMed

    Dezawa, A; Sairyo, K

    2011-05-01

    The serial dilating technique used to access herniated discs at the L5-S1 space using percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) via an 8 mm skin incision can possibly injure the S1 nerve root. In this paper, we describe in detail a new surgical procedure to safely access the disc and to avoid the nerve root damage. This small-incision endoscopic technique, small-incision microendoscopic discectomy (sMED), mimics microendoscopic discectomy and applies PED. The sMED approach is similar to the well-established microendoscopic discectomy technique. To secure the surgical field, a duckbill-type PED cannula is used. Following laminotomy of L5 using a high-speed drill, the ligamentum flavum is partially removed using the Kerrison rongeur. Using the curved nerve root retractor, the S1 nerve root is gradually and gently moved caudally. Following the compete retraction of the S1 nerve root to the caudal side of the herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP), the nerve root is retracted safely medially and caudally using the bill side of the duckbill PED cannula. Next, using the HNP rongeur for PED, the HNP is removed piece by piece until the nerve root is decompressed. A total of 30 patients with HNP at the L5-S1 level underwent sMED. In all cases, HNP was successfully removed and patients showed improvement following surgery. Only one patient complained of moderate radiculopathy at the final visit. No complications were encountered. We introduced a minimally invasive technique to safely remove HNP at the L5-S1 level. sMED is possibly the least invasive technique for HNP removal at the L5-S1 level. © 2011 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Clinical outcomes, radiologic kinematics, and effects on sagittal balance of the 6 df LP-ESP lumbar disc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Even, Julien; Skalli, Wafa; Rakover, Jean-Patrick; Brusson, Adrien; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine

    2014-09-01

    Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease remains a controversial subject. Lumbar fusion has been associated with a potential risk of segmental junctional disease and sagittal balance misalignment. Motion preservation devices have been developed as an alternative to fusion. The LP-ESP disc is a one-piece deformable device achieving 6 df, including shock absorption and elastic return. This is the first clinical report on its use. To assess clinical outcomes and radiologic kinematics in the first 2 years after implantation. Prospective cohort of patients with LP-ESP total disc replacement (TDR) at the lumbar spine. Forty-six consecutive patients. Clinical outcomes were the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire) psychological score. Radiologic data were the range of motion (ROM), sagittal balance parameters, and mean center of rotation (MCR). Patients had single-level TDR at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Outcomes were prospectively recorded for 2 years (before and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery). The SpineView software was used for computed analysis of the radiographic data. Paired t tests were used for statistical comparisons. No intraoperative complication occurred. All clinical scores improved significantly at 24 months: the back pain VAS scores by a mean of 4.1 points and the ODI by 33 points. The average ROM of the instrumented level was 5.4°±4.8° at 2 years and more than 2° for 76% of prostheses. The MCR was in a physiological area in 73% of cases. The sagittal balance (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and segmental lordosis) did not change significantly at any point of the follow-up. Results from the 2-year follow-up indicate that LP-ESP prosthesis recreates lumbar spine function similar to that of the healthy disc in terms of ROM, quality of movement, effect on sagittal balance, and absence of modification in the kinematics of the upper adjacent level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  19. Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Romain Shanil; Dissanayake, Poruwalage Harsha; Senarath, Upul; Wijayaratne, Lalith Sirimevan; Karunanayake, Aranjan Lional; Dissanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana

    2017-05-15

    Radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) are common findings in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain; however, its role in disability and intensity of pain is debatable. This study aims to investigate the associations of the x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who attended the rheumatology clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, from May 2012 to May 2014. Severity of disability was measured using Modified Oswestry Disability Index and intensity of pain was assessed using numeric rating scale (0-100). X-ray features of LDD (disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD) and spondylolisthesis were assessed in lateral recumbent lumbar x-rays (L1/L2 to L5/S1) and graded by a consultant radiologist blinded to clinical data. Generalised linear model with linear response was used to assess the associations of x-ray features of LDD with severity of disability and intensity of pain adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and pain radiating into legs. Mean age was 48.99 ± 11.21 and 323 (73.58%) were females. 87 (19.82%) were obese. Mean severity of disability was 30.95 ± 13.67 and mean intensity of pain was 45.50 ± 20.37. 69 (15.72%), 26 (5.92%) and 85 (19.36%) patients had grade 2 disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD, respectively. 51 (11.62%) patients had lumbar spondylolisthesis. Grade of disc space narrowing and overall LDD were not associated with severity of disability or intensity of pain. The presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was associated with severity of disability. Female gender and pain radiating into legs were associated with severity of disability and intensity of pain. Advancing age was associated with x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with severity of

  20. ISSLS PRIZE IN CLINICAL SCIENCE 2017: Is infection the possible initiator of disc disease? An insight from proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Tangavel, Chitraa; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Nayagam, Sharon Miracle; Raveendran, M; Demonte, Naveen Luke; Subbaiah, Pramela; Kanna, Rishi; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Dharmalingam, K

    2017-05-01

    Proteomic and 16S rDNA analysis of disc tissues obtained in vivo. To address the controversy of infection as an aetiology for disc disorders through protein profiling. There is raging controversy over the presence of bacteria in human lumbar discs in vivo, and if they represent contamination or infection. Proteomics can provide valuable insight by identifying proteins signifying bacterial presence and, also host defence response proteins (HDRPs), which will confirm infection. 22 discs (15-disc herniations (DH), 5-degenerate (DD), 2-normal in MRI (NM) were harvested intraoperatively and immediately snap frozen. Samples were pooled into three groups and proteins extracted were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Post identification, data analysis was performed using Uniprotdb, Pantherdb, Proteome discoverer and STRING network. Authentication for bacterial presence was performed by PCR amplification of 16S rDNA. LC-MS/MS analysis using Orbitrap showed 1103 proteins in DH group, compared to 394 in NM and 564 in DD. 73 bacterial specific proteins were identified (56 specific for Propionibacterium acnes; 17 for Staphylococcus epidermidis). In addition, 67 infection-specific HDRPs, unique or upregulated, such as Defensin, Lysozyme, Dermcidin, Cathepsin-G, Prolactin-Induced Protein, and Phospholipase-A2, were identified confirming presence of infection. Species-specific primers for P. acnes exhibited amplicons at 946 bp (16S rDNA) and 515 bp (Lipase) confirming presence of P. acnes in both NM discs, 11 of 15 DH discs, and all five DD discs. Bioinformatic search for protein-protein interactions (STRING) documented 169 proteins with close interactions (protein clustering co-efficient 0.7) between host response and degenerative proteins implying that infection may initiate degradation through Ubiquitin C. Our study demonstrates bacterial specific proteins and host defence proteins to infection which strengthen the hypothesis of infection

  1. Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a fully automated algorithm (AP) to perform a volumetric measure of the optic disc using conventional stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photographs, and to compare algorithm-produced parameters with manual photogrammetry (MP), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two stereoscopic optic disc photographs (61 subjects) were analyzed. Disc area, rim area, cup area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, rim volume and cup volume were automatically computed by the algorithm. Latent variable measurement error models were used to assess measurement reproducibility for the four techniques. RESULTS: AP had better reproducibility for disc area and cup volume and worse reproducibility for cup/disc area ratio and vertical cup/disc ratio, when the measurements were compared to the MP, SLO and OCT methods. CONCLUSION: AP provides a useful technique for an objective quantitative assessment of 3D ONH structures. PMID:20588996

  2. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  3. Optical Disc Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Pamela Q. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a variety of library applications of optical disc storage technology, including CD-ROM, digital videodisc, and WORM. Research and development projects at the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library are described, products offered by library networks are reviewed, and activities in academic and…

  4. CT morphometry of adult thoracic intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Justin G R; Stringer, Mark D; Briggs, Christopher A; Davies, Tilman M; Woodley, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Despite being commonly affected by degenerative disorders, there are few data on normal thoracic intervertebral disc dimensions. A morphometric analysis of adult thoracic intervertebral discs was, therefore, undertaken. Archival computed tomography scans of 128 recently deceased individuals (70 males, 58 females, 20-79 years) with no known spinal pathology were analysed to determine thoracic disc morphometry and variations with disc level, sex and age. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights and axial dimensions were significantly greater in men (anterior disc height 4.0±1.4 vs 3.6±1.3 mm; posterior disc height 3.6±0.90 vs 3.4±0.93 mm; p<0.01). Disc heights and axial dimensions at T4-5 were similar or smaller than at T2-3, but thereafter increased caudally (mean anterior disc height T4-5 and T10-11, 2.7±0.7 and 5.4±1.2 mm, respectively, in men; 2.6±0.8 and 5.1±1.3 mm, respectively, in women; p<0.05). Except at T2-3, anterior disc height decreased with advancing age and anteroposterior and transverse disc dimensions increased; posterior and middle disc heights and indices of disc shape showed no consistent statistically significant changes. Most parameters showed substantial to almost perfect agreement for intra- and inter-rater reliability. Thoracic disc morphometry varies significantly and consistently with disc level, sex and age. This study provides unique reference data on adult thoracic intervertebral disc morphometry, which may be useful when interpreting pathological changes and for future biomechanical and functional studies.

  5. Case presentation and short perspective on management of foraminal/far lateral discs and stenosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2018-01-01

    The management of lumbar foraminal/far lateral discs (FOR/FLD) with stenosis remains controversial. Operative choices should be based on each patient's preoperative dynamic X-ray findings, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) studies. Here we reviewed several options for decompression alone vs. decompression with fusion. Safe excision of FOR/FLD with stenosis should begin at the level above the disc herniation, as identification of the superior, foraminally, and far laterally exiting nerve root is critical. Performing an undercutting laminectomy and utilizing an operating microscope usually preserves the facet joints, and in many cases, avoids the need for fusion. Other decompressive techniques include; the intertransverse (ITT), and Wiltse approaches. Fusions following complete unilateral full facetectomy may be; noninstrumented (e.g., older, osteoporotic patients) vs. instrumented (e.g., posterolateral fusion or occasionally transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion). Here we present a patient with L2-L5 stenosis, and a left L3-L4 FOR/FLD, and multiple synovial cysts who was successfully managed with an l2-L5 laminecotmy, left L34 FOR/FLD diksectomy without fusion. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact, and stability was maintained. Adjunctive measures for FOR/FLD diksectomy should include; intraoperative monitoring, use of the operating microscope, and an intraoperative film with a radiopaque marker in the correct disc space to confirm the correct level of diskectomy. There are multiple approaches to the excision of FOR/FLD with stenosis. These include; decompression alone vs. decompression with non-instrumented vs. instrumented fusion. Surgical choices must be based on individual patient's X-ray, MR, and CT findings. The aim should be to maximize the safety of disc excision with decompression of stenosis, and to preserve stability, reducing the need for fusion, while minimizing morbidity.

  6. Routine castration in 568 draught colts: incidence of evisceration and omental herniation.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R; Bailey, J; Janzen, E; Wilson, D G

    2004-05-01

    Castration is one of the most common routine surgical procedures performed in the horse, from which a number of potential complications can arise. We undertook a prospective evaluation of short-term complications associated with castration of draught colts over a 3-year period (1998-2000). To compare castration complications in a large number of draught foals with previously published literature. Five hundred and sixty-eight draught colts, age 4 or 5 months, were castrated in field conditions. Foals were observed for complications for 24 h post operatively. There was no significant difference in complication rates between open and closed surgical techniques. Inguinal/scrotal hernia rate was 4.6% (26/568) prior to surgery, and evisceration of the small intestine occurred in 4.8% (27/568). Foals observed to eviscerate underwent immediate surgical correction with an overall survival rate of 72.2% (13/18). Omental herniation was seen in 2.8% (16/568) of colts. This study showed no difference between the closed and open techniques of castration and the rate of omental herniation or evisceration. The evisceration rate in combination with the omental and presurgical herniation rates approached 12.2%, which is high enough to warrant further examination. Future investigation should help to assess predisposing factors for evisceration. Regardless of the technique employed, herniation appears to pose a significant risk to draught foals undergoing castration.

  7. Paradoxical Brain Herniation After Decompressive Craniectomy Provoked by Drainage of Subdural Hygroma.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Davide; Dobran, Mauro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Somma, Lucia; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Paradoxical brain herniation (PBH) is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of decompressive craniectomy (DC) and results from the combined effects of brain gravity, atmospheric pressure and intracranial hypotension causing herniation in the direction opposite to the site of the DC with subsequent brainstem compression. To date, the cases of PBH reported in literature are spontaneous or provoked by a lumbar puncture, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt, or ventriculostomy. We present an uncommon case of PBH provoked by percutaneous drainage of a huge subdural hygroma (SH) ipsilateral to the decompressive craniectomy causing mass effect and neurologic deterioration. After percutaneous evacuation of SH, the patient became unresponsive with dilated and fixed left pupil. A brain computed tomography scan showed marked midline shift in the direction opposite to the craniectomy site with subfalcine herniation and effacement of the peripontine cisterns. Paradoxical brain herniation (PBH) was diagnosed. Conservative treatment failed, and the patient required an emergency cranioplasty for reverse PBH. The present case highlights the possibility that all forms of CSF depletion, including percutaneous drainage of subdural CSF collection and not only CSF shunting and/or lumbar puncture, can be dangerous for patients with large craniotomies and result in PBH. Moreover, an emergency cranioplasty could represent a safe and effective procedure in patients not responding to conservative treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intermittent midline suprasternal neck mass caused by superior herniation of the thymus.

    PubMed

    Su, Siew Choo; Hess, Thomas; Whybourne, Annie; Chang, Anne B

    2015-03-01

    Neck masses in infants and children have a wide differential diagnosis. However, neck masses apparent only during raised intrathoracic pressure are rare with a limited number of causes, including superior herniation of the normal thymus, apical lung herniation, jugular phlebectasia and laryngocoele. These conditions can easily be differentiated from one another by imaging. We present an infant with intermittent suprasternal neck mass visible only during increased intrathoracic pressure, produced either by crying or straining. Diagnosis of superior herniation of the thymus into the neck was confirmed by ultrasonography with the characteristic sonographic appearances of the normal thymus as well as its shape, size and location. Ultrasonography should be the first imaging modality of choice. Management of superior herniation of the thymus into the neck should be conservative as the thymus naturally involutes with increasing age. Awareness of the differential diagnosis of neck swelling present only on Vasalva manoeuvre or increased intrathoracic pressure is important to prevent unnecessary tests, avoid radiation, biopsy and surgery. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Superior herniation of the mediastinum presenting as an anterior neck mass on straining.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Catherine M; Culham, Gordon; Seear, Michael D; Chilvers, Mark A

    2012-07-01

    We report an infant with an anterior neck mass present only on straining. Airway fluoroscopy revealed this to be due to superior mediastinal herniation. Neck masses apparent only during Valsalva maneuver are rare and awareness of the differential diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary investigation or surgery. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The relationship between quantitative measures of disc height and disc signal intensity with Pfirrmann score of disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Sara; Hutchings, John; Kwong, Clemens; Magnussen, John; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the relationship between quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity with the Pfirrmann disc degeneration scoring system and to test the inter-rater reliability of the quantitative measures. Participants were 76 people who had recently recovered from their last episode of acute low back pain and underwent MRI scan on a single 3T machine. At all 380 lumbar discs, quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity were made by 2 independent raters and compared to Pfirrmann scores from a single radiologist. For quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity a "raw" score and 2 adjusted ratios were calculated and the relationship with Pfirrmann scores was assessed. The inter-tester reliability of quantitative measures was also investigated. There was a strong linear relationship between quantitative disc signal intensity and Pfirrmann scores for grades 1-4, but not for grades 4 and 5. For disc height only, Pfirrmann grade 5 had significantly reduced disc height compared to all other grades. Results were similar regardless of whether raw or adjusted scores were used. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measures was excellent (ICC > 0.97). Quantitative measures of disc signal intensity were strongly related to Pfirrmann scores from grade 1 to 4; however disc height only differentiated between grade 4 and 5 Pfirrmann scores. Using adjusted ratios for quantitative measures of disc height or signal intensity did not significantly alter the relationship with Pfirrmann scores.

  11. Traumatic Buccal Fat Pad Herniation in Young Children: A Systematic Review and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Yeong; Alfafara, Angenine; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic herniation of a buccal fat pad, predominantly seen in young children, is a rare condition. Because of its rarity and clinical features that resemble tumors, clinicians are faced with challenges at the initial diagnosis. This report describes a case of buccal fat pad herniation with excellent long-term prognosis after surgical relocation and conservative treatment and presents a systematic review of the literature on its management. Through a PubMed search, 811 articles were initially identified. Case series, case reports, technical notes, case and review reports, and retrospective case series were included. After screening and manual review, the sample was narrowed to 35 reports (41 patients) based on eligibility criteria. Articles were included if the standard criteria for traumatic intraoral herniation of buccal fat pad were met. Patients' ages ranged from 4 months to 12 years, with no specific gender predilection. Management consisted of excision (82.9%), relocation (14.6%), and observation (2.4%). Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. No reports presented a follow-up longer than 4 months; hence, data on long-term prognosis were not reported. For the present case report, a 19-month-old boy diagnosed with traumatic buccal fat pad herniation was successfully treated with surgical relocation and antibiotic support. Twelve-month follow-up showed no esthetic or functional disturbance or recurrence. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad requires special attention at the initial diagnosis. Considering its clinical importance in young children and few studies have reported long-term postresection follow-up, surgical relocation can be regarded as an excellent and more conservative treatment option. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early metabolic/cellular-level resuscitation following terminal brain stem herniation: implications for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Patients with terminal brain stem herniation experience global physiological consequences and represent a challenging population in critical care practice as a result of multiple factors. The first factor is severe depression of consciousness, with resulting compromise in airway stability and lung ventilation. Second, with increasing severity of brain trauma, progressive brain edema, mass effect, herniation syndromes, and subsequent distortion/displacement of the brain stem follow. Third, with progression of intracranial pathophysiology to terminal brain stem herniation, multisystem consequences occur, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, depletion of stress hormones, and decreased thyroid hormone bioavailability as well as biphasic cardiovascular state. Cardiovascular dysfunction in phase 1 is a hyperdynamic and hypertensive state characterized by elevated systemic vascular resistance and cardiac contractility. Cardiovascular dysfunction in phase 2 is a hypotensive state characterized by decreased systemic vascular resistance and tissue perfusion. Rapid changes along the continuum of hyperperfusion versus hypoperfusion increase risk of end-organ damage, specifically pulmonary dysfunction from hemodynamic stress and high-flow states as well as ischemic changes consequent to low-flow states. A pronounced inflammatory state occurs, affecting pulmonary function and gas exchange and contributing to hemodynamic instability as a result of additional vasodilatation. Coagulopathy also occurs as a result of consumption of clotting factors as well as dilution of clotting factors and platelets consequent to aggressive crystalloid administration. Each consequence of terminal brain stem injury complicates clinical management within this patient demographic. In general, these multisystem consequences are managed with mechanism-based interventions within the context of caring for the donor's organs (liver, kidneys, heart, etc.) after death by neurological

  13. Predictive value of abdominal CT in evaluating internal herniation after bariatric laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Ederveen, J C; van Berckel, M M G; Nienhuijs, S W; Weber, R J P; Nederend, J

    2018-06-04

    Internal herniation, a serious complication after bariatric surgery, is challenging to diagnose. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of abdominal CT in diagnosing internal herniation. The study included consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery between 1 January 2011 and 1 January 2015 at a bariatric centre of excellence. To select patients suspected of having internal herniation, reports of abdominal CT and reoperations up to 1 January 2017 were screened. CT was presumed negative for internal herniation if no follow-up CT or reoperation was performed within 90 days after the initial CT, or no internal herniation was found during reoperation. The accuracy of abdominal CT in diagnosing internal herniation was calculated using two-way contingency tables. A total of 1475 patients were included (84·7 per cent women, mean age 46·5 years, median initial BMI 41·8 kg/m 2 ). CT and/or reoperation was performed in 192 patients (13·0 per cent) in whom internal herniation was suspected. Internal herniation was proven laparoscopically in 37 of these patients. The incidence of internal herniation was 2·5 per cent. An analysis by complaint included a total of 265 episodes, for which 247 CT scans were undertaken. CT was not used to investigate 18 episodes, but internal herniation was encountered in one-third of these during reoperation. Combining the follow-up and intraoperative findings, the accuracy of CT for internal herniation had a sensitivity of 83·8 (95 per cent c.i. 67·3 to 93·2) per cent, a specificity of 87·1 (81·7 to 91·2) per cent, a positive predictive value of 53·4 (40·0 to 66·5) per cent and a negative predictive value of 96·8 (92·9 to 98·7) per cent. Abdominal CT is an important tool in diagnosing internal herniation, with a high specificity and a high negative predictive value. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Improved display of cervical intervertebral discs on water (iodine) images: incidental findings from single-source dual-energy CT angiography of head and neck arteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingxia; Shi, Dapeng; Cheng, Tianming; Liu, Hongming; Hu, Niuniu; Chang, Xiaowan; Guo, Ying; Wang, Meiyun

    2018-06-19

    To (a) assess the diagnostic performance of material decomposition (MD) water (iodine) images for the evaluation of cervical intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients who underwent dual-energy head and neck CT angiography (HNCTA) compared with 70-keV images and (b) to explore the correlation of water concentration with the T2 relaxation time of IVDs. Twenty-four consecutive patients who underwent dual-energy HNCTA and cervical spine MRI were studied. The diagnostic performance of water (iodine), 70-keV and MR images for IVD bulge and herniation was assessed. A subjective image score for each image set was recorded. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of IVDs to the cervical spinal cord were compared between water (iodine) and 70-keV images. Disc water concentration as measured on water (iodine) images was correlated with T2 relaxation time. IVD evaluations for bulge and herniation did not differ significantly among the three image sets (pairwise comparisons; all p > 0.05). SNR and CNR were significantly improved on water (iodine) images compared with those on 70-keV images (p < 0.001). Although water (iodine) images showed higher image quality scores when evaluating IVDs compared with 70-keV images, the difference is not significant (all adjusted p > 0.05). IVD water concentration exhibited no correlation with relative T2 relaxation time (all p > 0.05). Water (iodine) images facilitated analysis of cervical IVDs by providing higher SNR and CNR compared with 70-keV images. The disc water concentration measured on water (iodine) images exhibited no correlation with relative T2 relaxation time. • There was no significant difference in cervical IVD evaluations for bulge and herniation among water (iodine) images, 70-keV images and MR images. • Water (iodine) images provided higher objective and subjective image quality than 70-keV images, though the difference of subjective evaluation was not statistically significant. • The disc water

  15. The PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Positively identifying charged kaons in the PANDA forward endcap solid angle range can be achieved with the Endcap Disc DIRC, allowing kaon-pion separation from 1 up to 4 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. Design, performance, and components of this DIRC are given, including the recently introduced TOFPET-ASIC based read-out. Results of a prototype operated in a test beam at DESY in 2016 are shown.

  16. Increased Risk for Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder following Cervical Disc Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-27

    Shoulder problems are common in patients with a cervical herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD). This study aimed to explore the incidence and risk of shoulder capsulitis/tendonitis following cervical HIVD surgery. We used data from the Taiwan "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified all patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of displacement of a cervical HIVD and who underwent cervical surgery (n = 1625). We selected 8125 patients who received cervical HIVD conservative therapy only as the comparison group matched with study patients. We individually tracked these sampled patients for 6 months to identify all patients who received a diagnosis of shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis. We found that incidence rates of shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis during the 6-month follow-up period were 3.69 (95% CI: 2.49~5.27) per 100 person-years for the study group and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.89~2.86) per 100 person-years for the comparison group. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis among patients who underwent cervical disc surgery was 1.66 (95% CI = 1.09~2.53) when compared to comparison group. We concluded that patients who underwent surgery for a cervical HIVD had a significantly higher risk of developing shoulder capsulitis/tendonitis in 6 months follow-up compared to patients who received cervical HIVD conservative therapy only.

  17. The prognosis of self-reported paresthesia and weakness in disc-related sciatica.

    PubMed

    Grøvle, L; Haugen, A J; Natvig, B; Brox, J I; Grotle, M

    2013-11-01

    To explore how patients with sciatica rate the 'bothersomeness' of paresthesia (tingling and numbness) and weakness as compared with leg pain during 2 years of follow-up. Observational cohort study including 380 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation referred to secondary care. Using the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index paresthesia, weakness and leg pain were rated on a scale from 0 to 6. A symptom score of 4-6 was defined as bothersome. Along with leg pain, the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness both improved during follow-up. Those who received surgery (n = 121) reported larger improvements in both symptoms than did those who were treated without surgery. At 2 years, 18.2% of the patients reported bothersome paresthesia, 16.6% reported bothersome leg pain, and 11.5% reported bothersome weakness. Among patients with no or little leg pain, 6.7% reported bothersome paresthesia and 5.1% bothersome weakness. During 2 years of follow-up, patients considered paresthesia more bothersome than weakness. At 2 years, the percentage of patients who reported bothersome paresthesia was similar to the percentage who reported bothersome leg pain. Based on patients' self-report, paresthesia and weakness are relevant aspects of disc-related sciatica.

  18. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  19. In vivo effects of bupivacaine and gadobutrol on the intervertebral disc following discoblock and discography: a histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Strube, Patrick; Pfitzner, Berit M; Streitparth, Florian; Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically compare chondrotoxicity in surgically harvested intervertebral discs (IVDs) of patients following discoblock, discography, or no preoperative intervention. Thirty patients (IVD degeneration Modic ≥ 2°, Pfirrmann 3° or 4°) at L4/5 or L5/S1 who were planned for anterior lumbar interbody fusion were randomly assigned to three groups (open MRI: group DG - discography with gadobutrol; group DB - discoblock with bupivacaine at 4 weeks prior to surgery; group C - no intervention). The intervertebral discs were histologically evaluated and compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for cell count, apoptosis, and proliferation. A reduced cell count (groups DG vs. DB vs. C: 14.9 ± 7.1, 9.2 ± 3.8, and 16.6 ± 5.2 cells/mm 2 , respectively; p ANOVA  = 0.016), increased apoptosis (groups DG vs. DB vs. C: 34.9 ± 10.2, 47.4 ± 16.3, 32.6 ± 12.2 %, respectively; p ANOVA  = 0.039) and increased cell proliferation (post hoc pDB vs. DG or C p < 0.001; for 3-7 cell monoclonal cell nests: groups DG vs. DB vs. C: 2.4 ± 1, 3.9 ± 1, 2.2 ± 1.1, respectively; p intervention x nest size  = 0.006) were found in the IVDs of patients in group DB. This in vivo study suggests that chondrotoxic effects occur in IVD cells after the intradiscal injection of bupivacaine but not after gadobutrol administration. • Local bupivacaine administration to intervertebral discs leads to cell toxicity and proliferation. • Gadobutrol demonstrated no significant effect on cell count, apoptosis, or cell proliferation. • In vivo cytotoxicity was demonstrated histologically in humans for the first time. • Addition/administration of bupivacaine during discographies must be judged critically.

  20. Magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmeron, Raquel; Wardle, Mark

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the linear growth and vertical structure of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in weakly ionized, stratified accretion discs. The magnetic field is initially vertical and dust grains are assumed to have settled towards the mid-plane, so charges are carried by electrons and ions only. Solutions are obtained at representative radial locations from the central protostar for different choices of the initial magnetic field strength, sources of ionization, disc structure and configuration of the conductivity tensor. The MRI is active over a wide range of magnetic field strengths and fluid conditions in low-conductivity discs. Moreover, no evidence was found of a low-limit field strength below which unstable modes do not exist. For the minimum-mass solar nebula model, incorporating cosmic ray ionization, perturbations grow at 1 au for B<~ 8 G. For a significant subset of these strengths (200mG <~B<~ 5G), the maximum growth rate is of the order of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rate (0.75Ω). Hall conductivity modifies the structure and growth rate of global unstable modes at 1 au for all magnetic field strengths that support MRI. As a result, at this radius, modes obtained with a full conductivity tensor grow faster and are active over a more extended cross-section of the disc than perturbations in the ambipolar diffusion limit. For relatively strong fields (e.g. B>~ 200 mG), ambipolar diffusion alters the envelope shapes of the unstable modes, which peak at an intermediate height, instead of being mostly flat as modes in the Hall limit are in this region of parameter space. Similarly, when cosmic rays are assumed to be excluded from the disc by the winds emitted by the magnetically active protostar, unstable modes grow at this radius for B<~ 2 G. For strong fields, perturbations exhibit a kink at the height where X-ray ionization becomes active. Finally, for R= 5 au (10 au), unstable modes exist for B<~ 800 mG (B<~ 250 mG) and the maximum growth

  1. Choice of surgical approach for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in combination with cervical disc hernia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-song; Chen, De-yu; Lu, Xu-hua; Yang, Li-li; Yan, Wang-jun; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yu

    2010-03-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a common spinal disorder that presents with or without cervical myelopathy. Furthermore, there is evidence suggesting that OPLL often coexists with cervical disc hernia (CDH), and that the latter is the more important compression factor. To raise the awareness of CDH in OPLL for spinal surgeons, we performed a retrospective study on 142 patients with radiologically proven OPLL who had received surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 in our hospital. Plain radiograph, three-dimensional computed tomography construction (3D CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine were all performed. Twenty-six patients with obvious CDH (15 of segmental-type, nine of mixed-type, two of continuous-type) were selected via clinical and radiographic features, and intraoperative findings. By MRI, the most commonly involved level was C5/6, followed by C3/4, C4/5, and C6/7. The areas of greatest spinal cord compression were at the disc levels because of herniated cervical discs. Eight patients were decompressed via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), 13 patients via anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and five patients via ACDF combined with posterior laminectomy and fusion. The outcomes were all favorable. In conclusion, surgeons should consider the potential for CDH when performing spinal cord decompression and deciding the surgical approach in patients presenting with OPLL.

  2. Choice of surgical approach for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in combination with cervical disc hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-song; Lu, Xu-hua; Yang, Li–li; Yan, Wang-jun; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a common spinal disorder that presents with or without cervical myelopathy. Furthermore, there is evidence suggesting that OPLL often coexists with cervical disc hernia (CDH), and that the latter is the more important compression factor. To raise the awareness of CDH in OPLL for spinal surgeons, we performed a retrospective study on 142 patients with radiologically proven OPLL who had received surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 in our hospital. Plain radiograph, three-dimensional computed tomography construction (3D CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine were all performed. Twenty-six patients with obvious CDH (15 of segmental-type, nine of mixed-type, two of continuous-type) were selected via clinical and radiographic features, and intraoperative findings. By MRI, the most commonly involved level was C5/6, followed by C3/4, C4/5, and C6/7. The areas of greatest spinal cord compression were at the disc levels because of herniated cervical discs. Eight patients were decompressed via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), 13 patients via anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and five patients via ACDF combined with posterior laminectomy and fusion. The outcomes were all favorable. In conclusion, surgeons should consider the potential for CDH when performing spinal cord decompression and deciding the surgical approach in patients presenting with OPLL. PMID:20012451

  3. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  4. [Research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration].

    PubMed

    Liang, Hang; Deng, Xiangyu; Shao, Zengwu

    2017-10-01

    To summarize the research progress of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration and deduce the therapeutic potential of endogenous repair for intervertebral disc degeneration. The original articles about intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration were extensively reviewed; the reparative potential in vivo and the extraction and identification in vitro of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells were analyzed; the prospect of endogenous stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration was predicted. Stem cell niche present in the intervertebral discs, from which stem cells migrate to injured tissues and contribute to tissues regeneration under certain specific microenvironment. Moreover, the migration of stem cells is regulated by chemokines system. Tissue specific progenitor cells have been identified and successfully extracted and isolated. The findings provide the basis for biological therapy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells. Intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells play a crucial role in intervertebral disc regeneration. Therapeutic strategy of intervertebral disc endogenous stem cells is proven to be a promising biological approach for intervertebral disc regeneration.

  5. Rossby wave instability in astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    2014-08-01

    A brief review is given of the Rossby wave instability in astrophysical discs. In non-self-gravitating discs, around for example a newly forming stars, the instability can be triggered by an axisymmetric bump at some radius r0 in the disc surface mass-density. It gives rise to exponentially growing non-axisymmetric perturbation (\\propto \\exp \\,({ { i}}m\\phi ) , m = 1,2,…) in the vicinity of r0 consisting of anticyclonic vortices. These vortices are regions of high pressure and consequently act to trap dust particles which in turn can facilitate planetesimal growth in proto-planetary discs. The Rossby vortices in the discs around stars and black holes may cause the observed quasi-periodic modulations of the disc's thermal emission.

  6. Biomaterials for intervertebral disc regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Robert D; Setton, Lori A

    2017-06-01

    The intervertebral disc contributes to motion, weight bearing, and flexibility of the spine, but is susceptible to damage and morphological changes that contribute to pathology with age and injury. Engineering strategies that rely upon synthetic materials or composite implants that do not interface with the biological components of the disc have not met with widespread use or desirable outcomes in the treatment of intervertebral disc pathology. Here we review bioengineering advances to treat disc disorders, using cell-supplemented materials, or acellular, biologically based materials, that provide opportunity for cell-material interactions and remodeling in the treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. While a field still in early development, bioengineering-based strategies employing novel biomaterials are emerging as promising alternatives for clinical treatment of intervertebral disc disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Water Content in Lumbar Intervertebral Discs and Facet Joints Before and After Physiological Loading Using T2 Mapping MRI.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Daisuke; Murakami, Hideki; Chokan, Kou; Endo, Hirooki; Oikawa, Ryosuke; Sawamura, Shoitsu; Doita, Minoru

    2017-12-15

    T2 mapping was used to quantify the water content of lumbar spine intervertebral discs (IVDs) and facet joints before and after physiological loading. The aim of this study was to clarify the interaction between lumbar spine IVD and facet joints as load-bearing structures by measuring the water content of their matrix after physiological loading using T2 mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To date, few reports have functionally evaluated lumbar spine IVD and facet joints, and their interaction in vivo. T2 mapping may help detect changes in the water content of IVD and articular cartilage of facet joints before and after physiological loading, thereby enabling the evaluation of changes in interacted water retention between IVD and facet joints. Twenty asymptomatic volunteers (10 female and 10 male volunteers; mean age, 19.3 years; age range, 19-20 years) underwent MRI before and after physiological loading such as lumbar flexion, extension, and rotation. Each IVD from L1/2 to L5/S1 was sliced at center of the disc space, and the T2 value was measured at the nucleus pulposus (NP), anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and bilateral facet joints. In the NP, T2 values significantly decreased after exercise at every lumbar spinal level. In the anterior AF, there were no significant differences in T2 values at any level. In the posterior AF, T2 values significantly increased only at L4/5. In the bilateral facet joints, T2 values significantly decreased after exercise at every level. There was a significant decrease in the water content of facet joints and the NP at every lumbar spinal level after dynamic loading by physical lumbar exercise. These changes appear to play an important and interactional role in the maintenance of the interstitial matrix in the IVD NP and cartilage in the facet joint. 3.

  8. Naturally Occurring Disk Herniation in Dogs: An Opportunity for Pre-Clinical Spinal Cord Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Porter, Brian F.; Topp, Kimberly; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injuries represent a significant source of morbidity in humans. Despite decades of research using experimental models of spinal cord injury to identify candidate therapeutics, there has been only limited progress toward translating beneficial findings to human spinal cord injury. Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation is a naturally occurring disease that affects dogs and results in compressive/contusive spinal cord injury. Here we discuss aspects of this disease that are analogous to human spinal cord injury, including injury mechanisms, pathology, and metrics for determining outcomes. We address both the strengths and weaknesses of conducting pre-clinical research in these dogs, and include a review of studies that have utilized these animals to assess efficacy of candidate therapeutics. Finally, we consider a two-species approach to pre-clinical data acquisition, beginning with a reproducible model of spinal cord injury in the rodent as a tool for discovery with validation in pet dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:21438715

  9. "Laparoscopic excision of a large ovarian cyst herniating into the inguinal canal: a rare presentation".

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman Oneil; Machado, Lovina S M; Al Ghafri, Wadha

    2011-08-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operation in surgical practice. Despite its common occurrence, hernia often poses a surgical dilemma even for a skilled surgeon. The unexpected hernial content constitutes one of these cases. Although the often-reported, unusual contents of a hernia sac include ovary, fallopian tube, vermiform appendix, Meckel diverticulum, and urinary bladder, the herniation of a large ovarian cyst into the inguinal canal has been hardly reported. Majority of the ovarian cysts are asymptomatic or present with vague lower abdominal pain, whereas the presentation of a large ovarian cyst as an inguinolabial swelling as in our patient is extremely rare. We present here one of the few reported cases of a laparoscopic excision of a large ovarian cyst herniating into the inguinal canal and discuss the pathogenesis of an ovarian cyst as hernial content, the advantages and concerns of a laparoscopic approach in resecting large ovarian cysts, and simultaneous management of the inguinal hernia.

  10. Eccentricity evolution during planet-disc interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Rosotti, Giovanni; Teyssandier, Jean; Booth, Richard; Clarke, Cathie J.; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    During the process of planet formation, the planet-disc interactions might excite (or damp) the orbital eccentricity of the planet. In this paper, we present two long (t ˜ 3 × 105 orbits) numerical simulations: (a) one (with a relatively light disc, Md/Mp = 0.2), where the eccentricity initially stalls before growing at later times and (b) one (with a more massive disc, Md/Mp = 0.65) with fast growth and a late decrease of the eccentricity. We recover the well-known result that a more massive disc promotes a faster initial growth of the planet eccentricity. However, at late times the planet eccentricity decreases in the massive disc case, but increases in the light disc case. Both simulations show periodic eccentricity oscillations superimposed on a growing/decreasing trend and a rapid transition between fast and slow pericentre precession. The peculiar and contrasting evolution of the eccentricity of both planet and disc in the two simulations can be understood by invoking a simple toy model where the disc is treated as a second point-like gravitating body, subject to secular planet-planet interaction and eccentricity pumping/damping provided by the disc. We show how the counterintuitive result that the more massive simulation produces a lower planet eccentricity at late times can be understood in terms of the different ratios of the disc-to-planet angular momentum in the two simulations. In our interpretation, at late times the planet eccentricity can increase more in low-mass discs rather than in high-mass discs, contrary to previous claims in the literature.

  11. A compact disc under skimming light rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, R.; Di Mauro, M.; Fiore, O.; Naddeo, A.

    2018-03-01

    The optical properties of a compact disc (CD) under "skimming" light rays have been analyzed. We have noticed that a clear green line can be detected when the disc is irradiated with light rays coming from a lamp in such a way that only those skimming the CD, held horizontally, are selected. We provide a physical interpretation of this phenomenon on the basis of elementary optics concepts. Extension of these concepts to digital versatile discs (DVDs) is given.

  12. Current evidence of percutaneous nucleoplasty for the cervical herniated disk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wullems, Jorgen A; Halim, Willy; van der Weegen, Walter

    2014-07-01

    Although percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) has been shown to be both safe and effective, its application is still debated. PCN applied in disk herniation has not been systematically reviewed before, resulting in a limited insight into its effectiveness and safety, and the quality of available evidence. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the evidence on the efficacy and safety of PCN in patients with a (contained) herniated disk. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies using the following keywords: "Nucleoplasty," "Cervical," "Hernia," "Herniation," "Prolapse," "Protrusion," "Intervertebral disk," and "Percutaneous disk decompression." First, all articles were appraised for methodological quality, and then, RCTs were graded for the level of evidence according a best-evidence synthesis, because a meta-analysis was not possible. Finally, the RCTs' applicability and clinical relevance also was assessed. Of 75 identified abstracts, 10 full-text articles were included (3 RCTs and 7 nonrandomized studies). These studies represented a total of 1021 patients: 823 patients (≥ 892 disks) were treated by PCN. All studies showed low methodological quality, except for two. The level of evidence of the RCTs was graded as moderate, with low to moderate applicability and clinical relevance. All included studies showed PCN to be an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of (contained) herniated disks at short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up. However, the level of evidence is moderate and shows only low to moderate applicability and clinical relevance. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region. PMID:24567179

  14. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-02-23

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region.

  15. Design Issues in Video Disc Map Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    such items as the equipment used by ETL in its work with discs and selected images from a disc. % %. I 4 11. VIDEO DISC TECHNOLOGY AND VOCABULARY 0...The term video refers to a television image. The standard home television set is equipped with a receiver, which is capable of picking up a signal...plays for one hour per side and is played at a constant linear velocity. The industria )y-formatted disc has 54,000 frames per side in concentric tracks

  16. Debris disc constraints on planetesimal formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivov, Alexander V.; Ide, Aljoscha; Löhne, Torsten; Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Two basic routes for planetesimal formation have been proposed over the last decades. One is a classical `slow-growth' scenario. Another one is particle concentration models, in which small pebbles are concentrated locally and then collapse gravitationally to form planetesimals. Both types of models make certain predictions for the size spectrum and internal structure of newly born planetesimals. We use these predictions as input to simulate collisional evolution of debris discs left after the gas dispersal. The debris disc emission as a function of a system's age computed in these simulations is compared with several Spitzer and Herschel debris disc surveys around A-type stars. We confirm that the observed brightness evolution for the majority of discs can be reproduced by classical models. Further, we find that it is equally consistent with the size distribution of planetesimals predicted by particle concentration models - provided the objects are loosely bound `pebble piles' as these models also predict. Regardless of the assumed planetesimal formation mechanism, explaining the brightest debris discs in the samples uncovers a `disc mass problem'. To reproduce such discs by collisional simulations, a total mass of planetesimals of up to ˜1000 Earth masses is required, which exceeds the total mass of solids available in the protoplanetary progenitors of debris discs. This may indicate that stirring was delayed in some of the bright discs, that giant impacts occurred recently in some of them, that some systems may be younger than previously thought or that non-collisional processes contribute significantly to the dust production.

  17. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  18. Effects of disc warping on the inclination evolution of star-disc-binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that circumstellar discs in young stellar binaries may be driven into misalignement with their host stars due to the secular gravitational interactions between the star, disc, and the binary companion. The disc in such systems is twisted/warped due to the gravitational torques from the oblate central star and the external companion. We calculate the disc warp profile, taking into account the bending wave propagation and viscosity in the disc. We show that for typical protostellar disc parameters, the disc warp is small, thereby justifying the `flat-disc' approximation adopted in previous theoretical studies. However, the viscous dissipation associated with the small disc warp/twist tends to drive the disc towards alignment with the binary or the central star. We calculate the relevant time-scales for the alignment. We find that the alignment is effective for sufficiently cold discs with strong external torques, especially for systems with rapidly rotating stars, but is ineffective for the majority of the star-disc-binary systems. Viscous warp-driven alignment may be necessary to account for the observed spin-orbit alignment in multiplanet systems if these systems are accompanied by an inclined binary companion.

  19. Local models of astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latter, Henrik N.; Papaloizou, John

    2017-12-01

    Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumptions never made explicit nor checked for consistency. This approach is susceptible to error, and it is easy to derive local models that support spurious instabilities or fail to conserve key quantities. In this paper we present rigorous derivations, based on an asympototic ordering, and formulate a hierarchy of local models (incompressible, Boussinesq and compressible), making clear which is best suited for a particular flow or phenomenon, while spelling out explicitly the assumptions and approximations of each. We also discuss the merits of the anelastic approximation, emphasizing that anelastic systems struggle to conserve energy unless strong restrictions are imposed on the flow. The problems encountered by the anelastic approximation are exacerbated by the disc's differential rotation, but also attend non-rotating systems such as stellar interiors. We conclude with a defence of local models and their continued utility in astrophysical research.

  20. Hypovitaminosis D and Cervical Disk Herniation among Adults Undergoing Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Geoffrey E.; Buchowski, Jacob M.; Chen, Christopher T.; Kim, Han Jo; Park, Moon Soo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Single-center, retrospective study. Objective Suboptimal concentrations of vitamin D have been linked to hip and knee osteoarthritis in large, population-based cohort studies. We sought to examine the association of vitamin D levels with intervertebral disk disease. Methods From January 2010 through May 2011, 91 consecutive, eligible adult spine surgery patients who had undergone cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and preoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s25D) measurement were retrospectively included. MRI was read for C2–T1 disk herniation and degeneration (grades I to V). Logistic regressions were performed. Results Compared with the 384 disks of nondeficient patients, 162 disks of vitamin D-deficient (< 20 ng/mL) patients were more frequently herniated (40% versus 27%, p = 0.004); deficiency was not predictive of individual disk grade (unadjusted odds ratio [uOR] = 0.98, p = 0.817). On regression analysis, deficiency was associated with increased number of herniations per patient (uOR = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22 to 3.87, p = 0.009; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.11 to 4.03, p = 0.023). When disks were analyzed individually, and levels (e.g., C5 to C6), additionally controlled for, deficiency correlated with greater likelihood of herniation per disk (uOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.66, p = 0.003; aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.25 to 3.41, p = 0.005). Conclusion Among adults undergoing spine surgery at our institution, vitamin D deficiency was associated with cervical disk herniation. Considering the current epidemics of vitamin D insufficiency and neck pain, further investigation is warranted, as these data were retrospectively collected and subject to sampling bias. PMID:24436874

  1. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  2. Bilateral Optic Disc Drusen Mimicking Papilledema

    PubMed Central

    Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Ari, Şeyhmus; Çinar, Yasin; Çaça, İhsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Optic disc drusen, which are calcified deposits that form anterior to the lamina cribrosa in the optic nerve, may mimic papilledema. Case Report We report herein three cases referred to us with suspicion of disc swelling and papilledema. Following ophthalmologic evaluation with B-scan ultrasound, red-free fundus photography, and computed tomography, the diagnosis of papilledema was excluded in all cases and optic disc drusen was diagnosed. Conclusions Clinical suspicion of optic disc drusen in cases presenting with swelling of the optic nerve head is important in order to avoid unnecessary interventions and anxiety. The reported cases highlight the commonly encountered clinical presentations and the practical aspects of diagnosis and management of optic disc drusen. PMID:22787500

  3. Bilateral optic disc drusen mimicking papilledema.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Alparslan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Ari, Seyhmus; Cinar, Yasin; Caça, Ihsan

    2012-06-01

    Optic disc drusen, which are calcified deposits that form anterior to the lamina cribrosa in the optic nerve, may mimic papilledema. We report herein three cases referred to us with suspicion of disc swelling and papilledema. Following ophthalmologic evaluation with B-scan ultrasound, red-free fundus photography, and computed tomography, the diagnosis of papilledema was excluded in all cases and optic disc drusen was diagnosed. Clinical suspicion of optic disc drusen in cases presenting with swelling of the optic nerve head is important in order to avoid unnecessary interventions and anxiety. The reported cases highlight the commonly encountered clinical presentations and the practical aspects of diagnosis and management of optic disc drusen.

  4. Optic disc dysplasia in poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Steven D; Strominger, Mitchell B

    2014-06-01

    To report optic disc dysplasia in a case of Poland syndrome. Non-interventional case report. A 2-year-old boy with Poland syndrome was referred for ophthalmic evaluation after abnormal optic discs were found on exam. Physical exam at birth revealed right-sided aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, symbrachydactyly, hypoplastic scapula, and an abnormal third rib. On dilated examination the optic nerve heads were dysplastic. The findings included multiple cilioretinal vessels, situs inversus, inferotemporal excavation, and surrounding pigmentary disturbances. Only one case of optic disc anomaly has been reported in Poland syndrome and was described as morning glory syndrome. The optic discs in our patient do not fit well with other optic disc excavation syndromes but are most reminiscent of those in papillorenal syndrome. As both Poland syndrome and papillorenal syndrome share vascular dysfunction as a possible etiology, this case adds to the literature of vascular dysgenesis in Poland syndrome.

  5. Dependence of optic disc parameters on disc area according to Heidelberg Retina Tomograph: Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhin, V.; Manaenkova, G.; Bondarenko, O.

    2007-05-01

    With the help of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT-II) optic disc parameters in 211 eyes of 115 healthy patients with refraction Em +/- 3,0 D and 96 eyes of 72 patients with myopia 3,5-14,0 D without any signs of glaucoma were studied. Analysis of optic disc parameters were carried out in 5 groups of patients according to disc area: less than 1,5 mm2, 1,5- 2,5 mm2, 2,5-3,0 mm2, 3,0-3,5 mm2 and more than 3,5 mm2. An accurate depending on disc area was revealed for all optic disc parameters in all sectors, which was manifested by increasing cup disc and rim disc (area and volume) and other parameters. We consider it is necessary to use the proper tables for right interpretation of received data for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  6. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in Intervertebral Discs of Patients Undergoing Lumbar Microdiscectomy: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Manu N.; Ruzicka, Filip; Machackova, Tana; Jancalek, Radim; Smrcka, Martin; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Hermanova, Marketa; Sana, Jiri; Michu, Elleni; Baird, John C.; Ahmed, Fahad S.; Maca, Karel; Lipina, Radim; Alamin, Todd F.; Coscia, Michael F.; Stonemetz, Jerry L.; Witham, Timothy; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Birkenmaier, Christof; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and chronic infection by Propionibacterium acnes is controversial with contradictory evidence available in the literature. Previous studies investigating these relationships were under-powered and fraught with methodical differences; moreover, they have not taken into consideration P. acnes’ ability to form biofilms or attempted to quantitate the bioburden with regard to determining bacterial counts/genome equivalents as criteria to differentiate true infection from contamination. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in patients undergoing lumbar disc microdiscectomy. Methods and Findings The sample consisted of 290 adult patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An intraoperative biopsy and pre-operative clinical data were taken in all cases. One biopsy fragment was homogenized and used for quantitative anaerobic culture and a second was frozen and used for real-time PCR-based quantification of P. acnes genomes. P. acnes was identified in 115 cases (40%), coagulase-negative staphylococci in 31 cases (11%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci in 8 cases (3%). P. acnes counts ranged from 100 to 9000 CFU/ml with a median of 400 CFU/ml. The prevalence of intervertebral discs with abundant P. acnes (≥ 1x103 CFU/ml) was 11% (39 cases). There was significant correlation between the bacterial counts obtained by culture and the number of P. acnes genomes detected by real-time PCR (r = 0.4363, p<0.0001). Conclusions In a large series of patients, the prevalence of discs with abundant P. acnes was 11%. We believe, disc tissue homogenization releases P. acnes from the biofilm so that they can then potentially be cultured, reducing the rate of false-negative cultures. Further, quantification study revealing significant bioburden based on both culture and real-time PCR minimize the likelihood that observed

  7. Deep-down ionization of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Lizano, S.; Galli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The possible occurrence of dead zones in protoplanetary discs subject to the magneto-rotational instability highlights the importance of disc ionization. We present a closed-form theory for the deep-down ionization by X-rays at depths below the disc surface dominated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Simple analytic solutions are given for the major ion classes, electrons, atomic ions, molecular ions and negatively charged grains. In addition to the formation of molecular ions by X-ray ionization of H2 and their destruction by dissociative recombination, several key processes that operate in this region are included, e.g. charge exchange of molecular ions and neutral atoms and destruction of ions by grains. Over much of the inner disc, the vertical decrease in ionization with depth into the disc is described by simple power laws, which can easily be included in more detailed modelling of magnetized discs. The new ionization theory is used to illustrate the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects of Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusion for a magnetic model of a T Tauri star disc using the appropriate Elsasser numbers.

  8. Stress in Lumbar Intervertebral Discs during Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Ralph E.; Ilharreborde, Brice; Zhao, Kristin D.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Bronfort, Gert; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT The intervertebral disc is a common source of low back pain. Prospective studies suggest that treatments that intermittently distract the disc might be beneficial for chronic low back pain. Although the potential exists for distraction therapies to affect the disc biomechanically their effect on intradiscal stress is debated. PURPOSE To determine if distraction alone, distraction combined with flexion or distraction combined with extension can reduce nucleus pulposus pressure and posterior anulus compressive stress in cadaveric lumbar discs compared to simulated standing or lying. STUDY DESIGN Laboratory study using single cadaveric motion segments. OUTCOME MEASURES Strain gauge measures of nucleus pulposus pressure and compressive stress in the anterior and posterior annulus fibrosus METHODS Intradiscal stress profilometry was performed on 15 motion segments during 5 simulated conditions: standing, lying, and 3 distracted conditions. Disc degeneration was graded by inspection from 1 (normal) to 4 (severe degeneration). RESULTS All distraction conditions markedly reduced nucleus pressure compared to either simulated standing or lying. There was no difference between distraction with flexion and distraction with extension in regard to posterior annulus compressive stress. Discs with little or no degeneration appeared to distributed compressive stress differently than those with moderate or severe degeneration. CONCLUSIONS Distraction appears to predictably reduce nucleus pulposus pressure. The effect of distraction therapy on the distribution of compressive stress may be dependent in part on the health of the disc. PMID:17981092

  9. Imaginal Disc Abnormalities in Lethal Mutants of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shearn, Allen; Rice, Thomas; Garen, Alan; Gehring, Walter

    1971-01-01

    Late lethal mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, dying after the larval stage of development, were isolated. The homozygous mutant larvae were examined for abnormal imaginal disc morphology, and the discs were injected into normal larval hosts to test their capacities to differentiate into adult structures. In about half of the mutants analyzed, disc abnormalities were found. Included among the abnormalities were missing discs, small discs incapable of differentiating, morphologically normal discs with limited capacities for differentiation, and discs with homeotic transformations. In some mutants all discs were affected, and in others only certain discs. The most extreme abnormal phenotype is a class of “discless” mutants. The viability of these mutant larvae indicates that the discs are essential only for the development of an adult and not of a larva. The late lethals are therefore a major source of mutants for studying the genetic control of disc formation. Images PMID:5002822

  10. On the Radio Detectability of Circumplanetary Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Andrews, Sean M.; Isella, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Discs around young planets, so-called circumplanetary discs (CPDs), are essential for planet growth, satellite formation, and planet detection. We study the millimetre and centimetre emission from accreting CPDs by using the simple α disc model. We find that it is easier to detect CPDs at shorter radio wavelengths (e.g. λ ≲ 1 mm). For example, if the system is 140 pc away from us, deep observations (e.g. 5 hours) at ALMA Band 7 (0.87 mm) are sensitive to as small as 0.03 lunar mass of dust in CPDs. If the CPD is around a Jupiter mass planet 20 AU away from the host star and has a viscosity parameter α ≲ 0.001, ALMA can detect this disc when it accretes faster than 10-10M⊙/yr. ALMA can also detect the "minimum mass sub-nebulae" disc if such a disc exists around a young planet in YSOs. However, to distinguish the embedded compact CPD from the circumstellar disc material, we should observe circumstellar discs with large gaps/cavities using the highest resolution possible. We also calculate the CPD fluxes at VLA bands, and discuss the possibility of detecting radio emission from jets/winds launched in CPDs. Finally we argue that, if the radial drift of dust particles is considered, the drifting timescale for millimetre dust in CPDs can be extremely short. It only takes 102-103 years for CPDs to lose millimetre dust. Thus, for CPDs to be detectable at radio wavelengths, mm-sized dust in CPDs needs to be replenished continuously, or the disc has a significant fraction of micron-sized dust or a high gas surface density so that the particle drifting timescale is long, or the radial drift is prevented by other means (e.g. pressure traps).

  11. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    THOMSON, Pippa A.; MALAVASI, Elise L.V.; GRÜNEWALD, Ellen; SOARES, Dinesh C.; BORKOWSKA, Malgorzata; MILLAR, J. Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects upon multiple critical pathways in the developing and adult brain. PMID:23550053

  12. Local brain herniation after partial membranectomy for organized chronic subdural hematoma in an adult patient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Yoshikazu; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Kakizawa, Yukinari; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Local brain herniation after removal of chronic subdural haematoma is extremely rare, especially in adult patients. This study reports a case of local brain herniation after partial membranectomy for organized chronic subdural haematoma. A 77-year-old man presented with dysarthria and dysphasia caused by local brain herniation of the right frontal lobe through a defect of the inner membrane. The herniated brain was detected by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The patient underwent a craniotomy to release the herniated and strangulated brain, which were consistent with the MR imaging findings. The patient recovered fully within 1 month after surgery. To date, five cases of brain herniation through the internal subdural membrane have been reported as complications of chronic subdural haematomas. All but one case occurred in the paediatric population. Urgent surgery should be performed, even if an adult patient suffers from local brain herniation, for preservation of brain function. This is the sixth reported case of brain herniation through a defect of the inner membrane and the second reported case in the adult population.

  13. Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Herniation in a Second-Trimester Pregnant Female.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    A 30-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 2, in her second trimester presented to the local emergency department complaining of an atraumatic headache described as the worst headache of her life. While undergoing evaluation, she became unresponsive with signs of herniation, including a blown pupil and bradycardia. Emergent imaging identified an intracerebral hemorrhage requiring immediate surgical decompression. The patient was transferred by helicopter to tertiary care. Upon arrival, the patient was taken directly to the operating room and underwent a decompressive craniotomy. This article reviews the considerations for transporting pregnant patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2018 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineered disc-like angle-ply structures for intervertebral disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Sen, Sounok; Huang, Alice H; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2010-04-15

    To develop a construction algorithm in which electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds are coupled with a biocompatible hydrogel to engineer a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based disc replacement. To engineer a disc-like angle-ply structure (DAPS) that replicates the multiscale architecture of the intervertebral disc. Successful engineering of a replacement for the intervertebral disc requires replication of its mechanical function and anatomic form. Despite many attempts to engineer a replacement for ailing and degenerated discs, no prior study has replicated the multiscale hierarchical architecture of the native disc, and very few have assessed the mechanical function of formed neo-tissues. A new algorithm for the construction of a disc analogue was developed, using agarose to form a central nucleus pulposus (NP) and oriented electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds to form the anulus fibrosus region (AF). Bovine MSCs were seeded into both regions and biochemical, histologic, and mechanical maturation were evaluated with in vitro culture. We show that mechanical testing in compression and torsion, loading methods commonly used to assess disc mechanics, reveal equilibrium and time-dependent behaviors that are qualitatively similar to native tissue, although lesser in magnitude. Further, we demonstrate that cells seeded into both AF and NP regions adopt distinct morphologies that mirror those seen in native tissue, and that, in the AF region, this ordered community of cells deposit matrix that is organized in an angle-ply configuration. Finally, constructs demonstrate functional development with long-term in vitro culture. These findings provide a new approach for disc tissue engineering that replicates multi-scale form and function of the intervertebral disc, providing a foundation from which to build a multi-scale, biologic, anatomically and hierarchically relevant composite disc analogue for eventual disc replacement.

  15. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  16. Radio monitoring of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-04-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star-forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm, and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to centimetre-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  17. Particle rings and astrophysical accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Norman Rostoker had a wide range of interests and significant impact on the plasma physics research at Cornell during the time he was a Cornell professor. His interests ranged from the theory of energetic electron and ion beams and strong particle rings to the related topics of astrophysical accretion discs. We outline some of the topics related to rings and discs including the Rossby wave instability which leads to formation of anticyclonic vortices in astrophysical discs. These vorticies are regions of high pressure and act to trap dust particles which in turn may facilitate planetesimals growth in proto-planetary disks and could be important for planet formation. Analytical methods and global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations have led to rapid advances in our understanding of discs in recent years.

  18. Particle rings and astrophysical accretion discs

    SciTech Connect

    Lovelace, R. V. E., E-mail: RVL1@cornell.edu; Romanova, M. M., E-mail: romanova@astro.cornell.edu

    Norman Rostoker had a wide range of interests and significant impact on the plasma physics research at Cornell during the time he was a Cornell professor. His interests ranged from the theory of energetic electron and ion beams and strong particle rings to the related topics of astrophysical accretion discs. We outline some of the topics related to rings and discs including the Rossby wave instability which leads to formation of anticyclonic vortices in astrophysical discs. These vorticies are regions of high pressure and act to trap dust particles which in turn may facilitate planetesimals growth in proto-planetary disks andmore » could be important for planet formation. Analytical methods and global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations have led to rapid advances in our understanding of discs in recent years.« less

  19. Influence of smoking status at time of surgery for herniated lumbar disk on postoperative pain and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-07-01

    It is well established that smoking has a myriad of negative effects on varies aspects of bodily health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the smoking status at time of surgery on the postoperative subjective pain course and health related quality of life (HRQoL) until 1 year after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This prospective cohort study included patients ≥18 and ≤90 years of age with a symptomatic and radiological verified LDH. The current smoking patient collective (smoking 1 or more cigarettes a day) was compared with the nonsmoking collective (previous smokers without cigarette consumption for >2 months and never smokers) in respect of subjective pain sensation (measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS)) and HRQoL using the short-form (SF-12) questionnaire preoperatively, before discharge, as well as after 4 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. The primary outcome measures were the 1-year SF-12 scores (MCS and PCS) categorized into responders and non-responders. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-eight patients were current smokers (37.2%), whereas 43 (42.2%) and 21 (20.6%) patients were never-smokers and previous smokers, respectively. Four weeks and one year after surgery, both smokers and nonsmokers reported increase in the HRQoL as compared to preoperative values - the MCS increased more than the PCS. From a univariate and multivariate perspective, smoking status at time of surgery did not predict responder status. The present study results could not confirm the hypothesis that smoking at time of surgery was associated with worse outcome after surgery for LDH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protoplanetary disc `isochrones' and the evolution of discs in the M˙-Md plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodato, Giuseppe; Scardoni, Chiara E.; Manara, Carlo F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we compare simple viscous diffusion models for the disc evolution with the results of recent surveys of the properties of young protoplanetary discs. We introduce the useful concept of 'disc isochrones' in the accretion rate-disc mass plane and explore a set of Monte Carlo realization of disc initial conditions. We find that such simple viscous models can provide a remarkable agreement with the available data in the Lupus star forming region, with the key requirement that the average viscous evolutionary time-scale of the discs is comparable to the cluster age. Our models produce naturally a correlation between mass accretion rate and disc mass that is shallower than linear, contrary to previous results and in agreement with observations. We also predict that a linear correlation, with a tighter scatter, should be found for more evolved disc populations. Finally, we find that such viscous models can reproduce the observations in the Lupus region only in the assumption that the efficiency of angular momentum transport is a growing function of radius, thus putting interesting constraints on the nature of the microscopic processes that lead to disc accretion.

  1. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  2. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  3. Stellar wind erosion of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Airapetian, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    An analytic model is developed for the erosion of protoplanetary gas discs by high-velocity magnetized stellar winds. The winds are centrifugally driven from the surface of rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized young stars. The presence of the magnetic field in the wind leads to Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to cause a strongly turbulent wind/disc boundary layer which entrains and carries away the disc gas. The model uses the conservation of mass and momentum in the turbulent boundary layer. The time-scale for significant erosion depends on the disc accretion speed, disc accretion rate, the wind mass-loss rate, and the wind velocity. The time-scale is estimated to be ˜2 × 106 yr. The analytic model assumes a steady stellar wind with mass- loss rate dot {M}}_w ˜ 10^{-10} M_{⊙} yr-1 and velocity vw ˜ 103 km s-1. A significant contribution to the disc erosion can come from frequent powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) where the average mass-loss rate in CMEs, dot{M}_CME, and velocities, vCME, have values comparable to those for the steady wind.

  4. Chemistry in a gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilee, J. D.; Boley, A. C.; Caselli, P.; Durisen, R. H.; Hartquist, T. W.; Rawlings, J. M. C.

    2011-11-01

    Until now, axisymmetric, α-disc models have been adopted for calculations of the chemical composition of protoplanetary discs. While this approach is reasonable for many discs, it is not appropriate when self-gravity is important. In this case, spiral waves and shocks cause temperature and density variations that affect the chemistry. We have adopted a dynamical model of a solar-mass star surrounded by a massive (0.39 M⊙), self-gravitating disc, similar to those that may be found around Class 0 and early Class I protostars, in a study of disc chemistry. We find that for each of a number of species, e.g. H2O, adsorption and desorption dominate the changes in the gas-phase fractional abundance; because the desorption rates are very sensitive to temperature, maps of the emissions from such species should reveal the locations of shocks of varying strengths. The gas-phase fractional abundances of some other species, e.g. CS, are also affected by gas-phase reactions, particularly in warm shocked regions. We conclude that the dynamics of massive discs have a strong impact on how they appear when imaged in the emission lines of various molecular species.

  5. Cervical lung herniation complicating a case of acute asphyxial asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Martchek, Melissa A; Padilla, Benjamin E; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Friedlaender, Eron Y

    2015-04-01

    The abrupt onset of respiratory failure secondary to asthma, known as acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) in adults, is uncommonly reported in children. Here, we report a case of a child with the acute onset of respiratory failure consistent with AAA complicated by the finding of a neck mass during resuscitation. This 11-year-old boy with a history of asthma initially presented in respiratory failure with altered mental status after the complaint of difficulty in breathing minutes before collapsing at home. Initially, his respiratory failure was thought to be secondary to status asthmaticus, and treatment was initiated accordingly. However, a neck mass noted during the resuscitation was cause for concern, and other etiologies for his respiratory failure were considered, including an airway obstructing neck mass. After pediatric surgery and anesthesia consultation for intubation and possible tracheostomy placement, general anesthesia was induced in the operating room with an inhaled anesthetic, with prompt resolution of the bronchspasm and decompression of the neck mass. Review of the imaging and clinical course ultimately yielded a diagnosis of cervical lung herniation as the etiology of his neck mass. We report this case of AAA and cervical lung herniation and a review of the literature of these 2 uncommon phenomena in children.

  6. Intervertebral disc biomechanical analysis using the finite element modeling based on medical images.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyun; Wang, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D geometric model of the intervertebral and lumbar disks has been presented, which integrated the spine CT and MRI data-based anatomical structure. Based on the geometric model, a 3D finite element model of an L1-L2 segment was created. Loads, which simulate the pressure from above were applied to the FEM, while a boundary condition describing the relative L1-L2 displacement is imposed on the FEM to account for 3D physiological states. The simulation calculation illustrates the stress and strain distribution and deformation of the spine. The method has two characteristics compared to previous studies: first, the finite element model of the lumbar are based on the data directly derived from medical images such as CTs and MRIs. Second, the result of analysis will be more accurate than using the data of geometric parameters. The FEM provides a promising tool in clinical diagnosis and for optimizing individual therapy in the intervertebral disc herniation.

  7. Is the rate of re-operation after primary lumbar microdiscectomy affected by surgeon grade or intra-operative lavage of the disc space?

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Marlow, William; Fischer, Benjamin E; Tsegaye, Magnum; Wilby, Martin J

    2014-04-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Retrospective audit of consecutive patients. OBJECTIve. To investigate the re-operation rate following elective primary lumbar microdiscectomy and to determine whether principal surgeon grade and/or disc space lavage is a factor in recurrence. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Recurrent herniation of disc material following lumbar microdiscecomy surgery is one of the commonest complications of the procedure. Any reduction in the number of revision microdiscectomies performed per year would have a significant impact on patients' lives and on the health service economy. We undertook this study to ascertain whether principal surgeon grade and/or disc space lavage has an impact in reducing the re-operation rate. METHODS. We undertook a retrospective audit of patients who underwent elective primary lumbar microdiscectomy, over a 3-year period (n = 971). RESULTS. The overall re-operation rate for primary elective microdiscectomy was 3.8%, consistent with the published literature. The relative risk of re-operation in patients primarily operated by registrar surgeons was 1.2 fold the risk in patients operated by consultants (95% CI: 0.62, 2.35) although not statistically significant (p = 0.568). The risk of re-operation in the 'non lavage' group was 2.15 times the risk in the 'lavage' group (95% CI: 0.63, 7.34), but it did not reach significance (p = 0.222). CONCLUSIONS. Principal surgeon grade and intervertebral disc lavage have not been found conclusively to be factors in the rate of recurrence. This information is useful to reassure patients that their outcome from such surgery is not dependent on the grade of surgeon performing the operation. There is a possible trend towards intervertebral disc lavage reducing the rate of recurrence.

  8. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  9. Intervertebral disc adaptation to wedging deformation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Ian A F; Aronsson, David D; Clark, Katherine C; Roemhildt, Maria L

    2006-01-01

    Although scoliosis includes wedge deformities of both vertebrae and discs, little is known about the causes of the discal changes, and whether they result from mechanical influences on growth and/or remodelling. An external apparatus attached to transvertebral pins applied compression and 15 degrees of angulation to each of two adjacent young rat caudal intervertebral discs for 5 weeks (four animals), or for 10 weeks (four animals). Each week, micro-CT scanning documented the in vivo discal wedging. After euthanasia, tail segments (three vertebrae and the 2 angulated discs) were excised and their flexibility was measured over a range of lateral bending. The angle of maximum flexibility was recorded. Then discs were fixed in situ (with the external apparatus in place) and sectioned for polarized light microscopy. The disc-wedging deformity averaged 15 degrees initially, it averaged 20 degrees after 5 weeks, and then reduced to 10 degrees (in 10 week animals). The lateral bending flexibility showed a distinct maximum at an average of 1.1 degrees from the in vivo position in the 5-week animals, indicating structural remodeling of the discs almost to the deformed geometry. The 10-week animals had maximum flexibility at 1.4 degrees from the in vivo position (no significant difference between 5 and 10-week animals.) Collagen crimp angles [Cassidy et al., Conn Tiss Res 1989, 23:75-88] were not significantly different between convex and concave sides, again suggesting that remodeling had occurred. In a mechanically induced scoliosis deformity in skeletally immature rats, the intervertebral discs underwent remodeling within 5 weeks. This indicates that this animal model is suitable for studying adaptive wedging changes in human scoliosis.

  10. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  11. Design limitations of Bryan disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shee Yan; DuPlessis, Stephan J; Casha, Steven; Hurlbert, R John

    2006-01-01

    Disc arthroplasty is gaining momentum as a surgical procedure in the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Results must be carefully scrutinized to recognize benefits as well as limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with segmental kyphosis after Bryan disc replacement. Prospective study of a consecutively enrolled cohort of 10 patients treated in a single center using the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis for single-level segmental reconstruction in the surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Radiographic and quality of life outcome measures. Static and dynamic lateral radiographs were digitally analyzed in patients undergoing Bryan disc arthroplasty throughout a minimum 3-month follow-up period. Observations were compared with preoperative studies looking for predictive factors of postoperative spinal alignment. Postoperative end plate angles through the Bryan disc in the neutral position were kyphotic in 9 of 10 patients. Compared with preoperative end plate angulation there was a mean change of -7 degrees (towards kyphosis) in postoperative end plate alignment (p=.007, 95% confidence interval [CI] -6 degrees to -13 degrees). This correlated significantly with postoperative reduction in posterior vertebral body height of the caudal segment (p=.011, r2=.575) and postoperative functional spine unit (FSU) kyphosis (p=.032, r2=.46). Despite intraoperative distraction, postoperative FSU height was significantly reduced, on average by 1.7 mm (p=.040, 95% CI 0.5-2.8 mm). Asymmetrical end plate preparation occurs because of suboptimal coordinates to which the milling jig is referenced. Although segmental motion is preserved, Bryan disc arthroplasty demonstrates a propensity towards kyphotic orientation through the prosthesis likely as a result of intraoperative lordotic distraction. FSU angulation tends towards kyphosis and FSU height is decreased in the postoperative state from lack of anterior column support

  12. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: formation of a central stellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panamarev, Taras; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Meiron, Yohai; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer; Omarov, Chingis; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil

    2018-05-01

    We perform high-resolution direct N-body simulations to study the effect of an accretion disc on stellar dynamics in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We show that the interaction of the nuclear stellar cluster (NSC) with the gaseous accretion disc (AD) leads to formation of a stellar disc in the central part of the NSC. The accretion of stars from the stellar disc on to the super-massive black hole is balanced by the capture of stars from the NSC into the stellar disc, yielding a stationary density profile. We derive the migration time through the AD to be 3 per cent of the half-mass relaxation time of the NSC. The mass and size of the stellar disc are 0.7 per cent of the mass and 5 per cent of the influence radius of the super-massive black hole. An AD lifetime shorter than the migration time would result in a less massive nuclear stellar disc. The detection of such a stellar disc could point to past activity of the hosting galactic nucleus.

  13. Preparation of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine-medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Romet ( a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a type A medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine discs were prepare...

  14. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  15. Diagnosing Internal Herniation After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: Literature Overview, Cadaver Study and the Added Value of 3D CT Angiography.

    PubMed

    Klop, Cornelis; Deden, Laura N; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; Pijl, Milan E J; van den Ende, Anneline; Witteman, Bart P L; de Jong, Gabie M; Aufenacker, Theo J; Slump, Cornelis H; Berends, Frits J

    2018-02-05

    The purposes of the study are to outline the complexity of diagnosing internal herniation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and to investigate the added value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) for diagnosing internal herniation. A cadaver study was performed to investigate the manifestations of internal hernias and mesenteric vascularization. Furthermore, a prospective, ethics approved study with retrospective interpretation was conducted. Ten patients, clinically suspected for internal herniation, were prospectively included. After informed consent was obtained, these subjects underwent abdominal CT examination, including additional arterial phase CTA. All subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected internal herniation. The CTA was used to create a 3D reconstruction of the mesenteric arteries and surgical staples (3D CTA). The 3D CTA was interpreted, taking into account the presence and type of internal hernia that was found upon laparoscopy. Cadaveric analysis demonstrated the complexity of internal herniation. It also confirmed the expected changes in vascular structure and surgical staple arrangement in the presence of internal herniation. 3D CTA studies of the subjects with active internal hernias demonstrated remarkable differences when compared to control 3D CTA studies. The blood supply of herniated intestinal limbs in particular showed abnormal trajectories. Additionally, enteroenterostomy staple lines had migrated or altered