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Sample records for la-icp-ms microanalytical workstation

  1. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. LIBS and LA-ICP-MS; Old techniques, new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Colucci, M.; Russo, R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade laser ablation in-situ solid sampling for chemical analysis with an ICP-MS analyzer (LA-ICP-MS, single and multi-collector) has become a generally accepted technique across a wide range of disciplines (geochemistry, forensic science, life sciences, etc). More recently, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) has developed into a complementary technique that offers full spectral analysis of the laser plasma without the need for a mass spectrometer. Both techniques provide in-situ solid sample elemental and isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution (<5 microns) with minimal sample preparation. LA-ICP-MS affords the analyst low detection limits (ppb) and the ability to optimize across a specific mass range for high precision element or isotope ratios. LIBS, while providing slightly higher detection limits (ppm), allows for simultaneous and near complete spectral coverage of the laser plasma. Both techniques are capable of producing semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Integration of a LA and LIBS system could be a powerful tool to allow full spectral element and isotope/element ratio data on the same laser plume (plasma and particulates). Although LIBS and LA typically operate under different conditions of pulse length, spot size, and energy, the ability to capture elemental abundance information from the light that is otherwise wasted during LA makes an important complement to the limited number of ions measured in multi-collector ICP-MS analyses. Such an approach would not require the compromises in sampled volume associated with either split-streams (two ICP-MS systems required; diluted aerosol streams) or with peak switching in the MS (magnetic or electrostatic) because extraction of light-based information does not impact the number of ions measured for isotope ratios. We present LIBS experiments with UV-nanosecond lasers at 17mJ energies delivered to spot sizes of <100 μm and light directed to an ICCD detection system on NIST

  3. Progress in LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis Using a 200 nm-femtosecond Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Jacob, D. E.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Andreae, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the performance of LA-ICP-MS for the microanalysis of a variety of samples of different matrices using the 200 nm Ti-sapphire based fs-laser ablation system NWR Femto200 combined with the sector-field ICP-MS Thermo Element2. For comparison, we conducted similar experiments with three ns lasers: 193 nm Nd:YAG, 213 nm Nd:YAG, 193 nm ArF excimer. Measurements were performed with different spot sizes (10 - 65 μm), pulse repetition rates (5 - 250 Hz) and energy densities (0.5 - 0.7 Jcm-2) in spot and line scan analysis modes. We applied those settings to well-characterized and homogeneous synthetic silicate, geological, carbonate and phosphate microanalytical reference materials from NIST, USGS, MPI-DING and others. Our investigations show that in the case of UV-fs laser ablation line scan analysis is much more appropriate than spot analysis. In contrast to the ns lasers, fs laser spot analysis is characterized by a strong decrease of ion intensities, presumably caused by the generation of color centers by fs laser pulses [1]. On the other hand, line scan analyses yield uniform and relative high ion intensities so that detection limits for the various elements are similar to ns laser ablation. In LA-ICP-MS, the major limitations regarding measurement accuracy are matrix effects. The experiments demonstrate that in each case the fs data are more reproducible and less matrix-dependent with respect to fractionation factors [2] and mass-load induced matrix effects [3] than the results obtained using the ns lasers. The fractionation factors of refractory, volatile, lithophile and chalcophile elements are unity for the line scan mode and agree within an uncertainty of 1 %, whereas significantly lower, but matrix-independent, values for the volatile elements Pb (0.93 × 0.03) and Zn (0.88 × 0.04) were observed using the spot analysis mode. This implies that calibration can be performed reliably for quite different matrices using certified silicate

  4. Imaging mass spectrometry of elements in forensic cases by LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Estelle; Villa, Max; Jotterand, Morgane; Vilarino, Raquel; Bollmann, Marc; Michaud, Katarzyna; Grabherr, Silke; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was performed to map elements in thin formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of two forensic cases with firearm and electrocution injuries, respectively. In both cases, histological examination of the wounded tissue regions revealed the presence of exogenous aggregates that may be interpreted as metallic depositions. The use of imaging LA-ICP-MS allowed us to unambiguously determine the elemental composition of the observed aggregates assisting the pathologist in case assessments. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the use of imaging LA-ICP-MS as a complementary tool for forensic pathologists and toxicologists in order to map the presence of metals and other elements in thin tissue sections of post-mortem cases.

  5. Bioimaging of metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Wu, Bei; Salber, Dagmar; Palm, Christoph; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The distribution analysis of (essential, beneficial, or toxic) metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, and others), metalloids, and non-metals in biological tissues is of key interest in life science. Over the past few years, the development and application of several imaging mass spectrometric techniques has been rapidly growing in biology and medicine. Especially, in brain research metalloproteins are in the focus of targeted therapy approaches of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, or stroke, or tumor growth. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole-based mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) has been successfully applied as a powerful imaging (mapping) technique to produce quantitative images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin tissue sections of human or rodent brain. Imaging LA-ICP-QMS was also applied to investigate metal distributions in plant and animal sections to study, for example, the uptake and transport of nutrient and toxic elements or environmental contamination. The combination of imaging LA-ICP-MS of metals with proteomic studies using biomolecular mass spectrometry identifies metal-containing proteins and also phosphoproteins. Metal-containing proteins were imaged in a two-dimensional gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS or Blue Native PAGE). Recent progress in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS for selected life science applications is summarized.

  6. Histopathological localization of cadmium in rat placenta by LA-ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Furukawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Ayano; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2016-10-01

    In order to clarify the histological localization of cadmium (Cd) in the placenta, we analyzed paraffin sections of placentas from rats with a single Cd exposure on gestation day 18 by the LA-ICP-MS imaging method compared with the histopathological changes. The placentas were sampled at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Histopathologically, the trophoblasts in the labyrinth zone of the Cd group showed swelling at 1 hour. At 2 and 3 hours, the trophoblasts showed swelling and vacuolar degeneration. At 6 and 24 hours, the syncytiotrophoblasts selectively underwent necrosis/apoptosis, resulting in a decrease in number. Remarkable metallothionein expression was observed in the trophoblastic septa, particularly cytotrophoblasts at 24 hours. The LA-ICP-MS analysis detected the localization of Cd in the fetal part of the placenta from 1 hour onwards. In particular, the intensity of Cd was prominent in the labyrinth zone and tended to increase with the progression of trophoblastic septa damages. The LA-ICP-MS analysis using the paraffin sections detected the localization of Cd in the fetal part of the placenta, and this methodology will be one of the valuable tools to detect heavy metals in toxicological pathology.

  7. Infra-red femtosecond laser ablation: Benefit for LA-ICP-MS elemental analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, F.; d'Abzac, F.; Freydier, R.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.; Chmeleff, J.; Chatel, B.

    2011-12-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser ablation systems have now been used for about a decade for elemental analysis in chemical and geosciences laboratories. Published studies investigated the influence of various analytical parameters, such as laser pulsewidth, wavelength, energy or ablation duration, on the quality of the analytical data produced by fs Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). It was rapidly found that under comparable analytical conditions, chemical fractionation effects that may occur during laser-induced particle production, transport and/or decomposition in the ICP-MS plasma torch become negligible in the fs laser ablation regime under 300 fs laser pulsewidth. Another major benefit of fs laser ablation is its restricted matrix-sensitive nature compared to ns laser ablation, thereby facilitating greatly LA-ICP-MS calibration for chemical analysis with a reference material having completely different optical and chemical properties compared to the sample to be analyzed (e.g., a standard glass to calibrate analyses of a phosphate mineral). This effect is particularly remarkable as it can be stated from both UV and IR fs laser ablation studies. Reproducible laser ablations of optical quality quartz can also be produced using such an IR laser. Precise, accurate and reproducible chemical analyses may be obtained using ns laser ablation systems. However, this is achieved under carefully controlled analytical conditions using state of the art ablation cells. Instead, it appears that fs laser ablation is making LA-ICP-MS analyses more reliable. More recently, analytical studies combined with high spatial resolution microscopic techniques allowed us to understand better the nature of fs laser-matter interaction through the direct examination of the laser-induced craters and of the particles produced. These investigations have shown the dominance of mechanical over thermal effects on the solids ablated using a fs laser. Whatever the

  8. Chemical Characterization of Bed Material Coatingsby LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piispanen, M. H.; Mustonen, A. J.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S.

    Bed material coatings and the consequent agglomeration of bed material are main ash-related problems in FB-boilers. The bed agglomeration is a particular problem when combusting biofuels and waste materials. Whereas SEM-EDS together with automated image processing has proven to be a convenient method to study compositional distribution in coating layers and agglomerates, it is a relatively expensive technique and is not necessarily widely available. In this contribution, we explore the suitability of LA-ICP-MS to provide analogous information of the bed.

  9. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  10. Precise and Accurate Trace Element Analysis of Calcium Carbonate by LA-ICP-MS and its Application to Stalagmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Scholz, D.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Yang, Q.; Andreae, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    Interest in high-spatial-resolution in-situ micro-analysis of calcium carbonates (e.g., speleothems, corals, ostracods) has increased substantially in recent years, because these samples provide important information on past climate variability. The most commonly used method is LA-ICP-MS, which combines the advantages of low detection limits (ng/g range) with high spatial resolution (10 - 100 μm). Most studies apply low mass resolution ICP-MS, and the synthetic NIST 610 and 612 silicate glasses for instrumental calibration. However, there are several drawbacks of this procedure: (1) the NIST glasses have not been certified for micro-analytical purposes, (2) molecules and doubly charged ions may interfere with the mass lines of interest, and (3) the silicate matrix is quite different from the carbonate matrix. We have, therefore, systematically investigated these points by using the low (300) and medium (4000) mass resolution modes of the Thermo Element2 ICP-MS, application of different laser ablation systems (193 nm and 213 nm wavelengths, respectively) and reference materials of different matrix (NIST silicate glass, calcium carbonate, natural geological). Recently, Jochum et al. (2011) investigated the use of the NIST glasses in micro-analysis and provided both new reference values and the corresponding uncertainties at 95 % confidence level following ISO guidelines. These values differ significantly (by as much as 10 %) from the most commonly used values of Pearce et al. (1997). Our study demonstrates that many mass lines are affected by interferences in low mass resolution mode, such as the 24Mg line, which is interfered by 48Ca++ in carbonate samples, the 67Zn line, which is interfered with 27Al40Ar+ in silicate glasses, and 31P, which may be affected by 15N16O+and 14N17O+. In addition, a "gas blank" correction is insufficient in case of a significant increase of Ca and C molecules during ablation of calcium carbonate samples. These mass lines should

  11. Next generation of labeling reagents for quantitative and multiplexing immunoassays by the use of LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kanje, S; Herrmann, A J; Hober, S; Mueller, L

    2016-11-14

    Immuno imaging by the use of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a growing research field in life sciences such as biology and biomedicine. Various element labeling strategies for antibodies have been developed for the application of multiplex immunoassays analyzed by the use of LA-ICP-MS. High multiplexing capabilities, a wide linear dynamic range and the possibility of absolute quantification are the main advantages of ICP-MS. But in the context of immuno imaging by the use of LA-ICP-MS, quantification of analytes is limited due to non-controllable antibody labeling chemistry. In the presented proof-of-principle a novel antibody labeling technique has been investigated which results in a controlled labeling degree. A small affinity protein based on the C2 domain of protein G was modified with conventional metal coded tags (MeCAT) after introducing a cysteine into the C-terminus of the protein. The modified C2 domain photo-crosslinks to the Fc or Fab region of the IgG and allows specific and covalent labeling of antibodies for multiplex immunoassay analysis by the use of LA-ICP-MS. In combination with a house-made calibration membrane the amount of labeled antibody-antigen complexes in a multiplex western blot immunoassay was determined by LA-ICP-MS.

  12. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS: assessing geochemical mobility in garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Tom; Payne, Justin; Wade, Benjamin; Lanari, Pierre; Clark, Chris; Hand, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A persistent problem in the study of garnet geochemistry is that the consideration of major elements alone excludes a wealth of information preserved by trace elements, particularly the rare-earth elements (REEs). This is despite the fact that trace elements are generally less vulnerable to diffusive resetting, and are sensitive to a broader spectrum of geochemical interactions involving the entire mineral assemblage, including the growth and/or dissolution of accessory minerals. We outline a technique for the routine acquisition of high-resolution 2D trace element maps by LA-ICP-MS, and introduce an extension of the software package XMapTools for rapid processing of LA-ICP-MS data to visualise and interpret compositional zoning patterns. These methods form the basis for investigating the mechanisms controlling geochemical mobility in garnet, which are argued to be largely dependent on the interplay between element fractionation, mineral reactions and partitioning, and the length scales of intergranular transport. Samples from the Peaked Hill shear zone, Reynolds Range, central Australia, exhibit contrasting trace element distributions that can be linked to a detailed sequence of growth and dissolution events. Trace element mapping is thus employed to place garnet evolution in a specific paragenetic context and derive absolute age information by integration with existing U-Pb monazite and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology. Ultimately, the remarkable preservation of original growth zoning and its subtle modification by subsequent re-equilibration is used to `see through' multiple superimposed events, thereby revealing a previously obscure petrological and temporal record of metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation.

  13. Online Standard Additions Technique for La-ICP-MS Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Asogan, D.; Moody, S.; Clarke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, quantification with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited to the ability to matrix match both standards and samples. This can prove problematic when a particular matrix matched standard is not readily available. Liquid standard addition has been shown1-4 as an alternative technique for quantification that does not require matrix matching; however, further fundamental study is needed especially considering the different mass flow rates delivered to the plasma from traditional pneumatic nebulizers and laser ablation itself. In this work, the authors combine a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system with LA-ICP-MS. This nebulizer system efficiently removes water vapour, thereby significantly reducing oxide based mass spectral interferences. For the instrument setup, the output from the laser is combined with the dried aerosol from the nebulizer system prior to entering the ICP-MS source. By using two sources of dry aerosol, mixing efficiency is improved whilst minimising plasma power lost to solvent (water vapour) processing. The method was applied to both USGS Green River Shale and an Arkansas Womble Shale. The results showed a number of elements that were correctly quantified using the technique as compared to reference values. References Gunther, D., Cousin, H., Magyar, B., Leopold, I., J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 1997, 12, 165 - 170. Leach, J.J., Allen, L. A., Aeschliman, D.B., Houk, R.S., Anal. Chem., 1999, 71, 440 - 445. O'Conner, C.J.P., Sharp, B.L, Evans, P.J., Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2006, 21, 556. Yang, C.K., Chi, P.H., Lin, Y.C., Sun, Y.C., Yang, M.H., Talanta, 2010, 80, 1222 - 1227.

  14. Analysis of metal-binding proteins separated by non-denaturating gel electrophoresis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Becker, J Susanne; Mounicou, Sandra; Zoriy, Miroslav V; Becker, J Sabine; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2008-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have become established as very efficient and sensitive biopolymer and elemental mass spectrometric techniques for studying metal-binding proteins (metalloproteins) in life sciences. Protein complexes present in rat tissues (liver and kidney) were separated in their native state in the first dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, cadmium and lead, were detected by scanning the gel bands using quadrupole LA-ICP-MS with and without collision cell as a microanalytical technique. Several proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-MS together with a database search. For example, on one protein band cut from the BN-PAGE gel and digested with the enzyme trypsin, two different proteins - protein FAM44B and cathepsin B precursor - were identified. By combining biomolecular and elemental mass spectrometry, it was possible to characterize and identify selected metal-binding rat liver and kidney tissue proteins.

  15. LA-ICP-MS as Tool for Provenance Analyses in Arctic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildau, Antje; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The hydraulic transport of sediments is a major geological process in terrestrial and marine systems and is responsible for the loss, redistribution and accumulation of minerals. Provenance analyses are a powerful tool for assessing the origin and dispersion of material in ancient and modern fluvial and marine sediments. Provenance-specific heavy minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile, tourmaline) can therefore be used to provide valuable information on the formation of ore deposits (placer deposits), and the reconstruction of paleogeography, hydrology, climate conditions and developments. The application of provenances analyses for the latter reason is of specific interest, since there is need for research on the progressing climate change, and heavy minerals represent good proxies for the evaluation of recent and past changes in the climate. The study of these fine particles provides information about potential regional or long distance transport paths, glacial / ice drift and current flows, freezing and melting events as well as depositional centers for the released sediments. Classic methods applied for provenance analyses are mapping of the presence / absence of diagnostic minerals, their grain size distribution, modal mineralogy and the analysis of variations in ratio of two or more heavy minerals. Electron microprobe has been established to discover changes in mineral chemistry of individual mineral phases, which can indicate fluctuations or differences in the provenance. All these methods bear the potential of high errors that lower the validity of the provenance analyses. These are for example the misclassification of mineral species due to undistinguishable optical properties or the limitations in the detection / variations of trace elements using the election microprobe. For this case study, marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean have been selected to test if LA-ICP-MS can be established as a key technique for precise and reliable provenance analyses. The Laptev

  16. Apatite fission track dating by LA-ICP-MS and External Detector Method: How do they stack up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of trace element compositions by laser ablation ICP-MS has become a widely used tool to determine in-situ ages in geochronology. Although used primarily for U-Pb dating, LA-ICP-MS has been successfully adapted to other dating techniques such as apatite fission track (Hasebe et al., 2004) or (U-Th)/He (Boyce et al., 2006), making it an ideal tool for multi-system thermochronological studies. LA-ICP-MS fission track dating has several important advantages over the traditional external detector method (EDM), particularly in terms of sample turn-around time and the fact that neutron irradiations (and the handling of radioactive materials) are no longer necessary, while providing a similar level of in-situ information. Perhaps the most important benefits of LA-ICP-MS fission track dating is that it could potentially be used as an absolute dating technique with no Zeta-calibration necessary. However, beyond the initial study of Hasebe et al. (2004), little work has been done to compare results obtained by LA-ICP-MS with those from EDM analysis, and it remains unclear whether the two methods yield equivalent results. We present an extensive dataset of fission track results that were analysed using both LA-ICP-MS and EDM dating. The samples were selected to represent a variety of compositions, with single grain ages ranging from a few million to over a billion years. Both techniques were applied on identical grains, thereby eliminating uncertainties associated with natural variability. The comparison shows that, with a few exceptions, single grain fission track ages from LA-ICP-MS and EDM are concordant within analytical uncertainties and scatter symmetrically around the 1:1 correlation line. Although the relative difference in single grain ages varies significantly in either direction (up to 70%), there are no systematic variations between the two methods suggesting that this variation is simply due to random sampling effects. However, we did find systematic

  17. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Rock and Mineral Samples by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven

    2017-02-01

    The group of the rare earth elements (REEs) serves as valuable indicator of numerous geological processes such as magma formation or fluid-rock interaction. The decay systems of the radioactive REE isotopes 138La, 147Sm and 176Lu are used for geochronometric dating of a range of events, starting from first steps of planetary formation to younger steps of geodynamic development. Thus, the abundance of all REEs occurring in a large range of concentrations as well as precise isotope ratios must be analysed in different geomaterials. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source and various types of mass spectrometers (MS) represent the basis to fulfil the analytical requirements of geoscientific studies. Today, ICP-quadrupole MS and ICP-sector field MS (SFMS) with a single detector or multiple ion collection (MC-ICP-MS) are standard instruments for REE analyses in the geosciences. Due to the need for in situ analysis, laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS has become an important trace element microprobe technique, which is widely applied for determination of REE concentrations and isotope compositions in geoscientific laboratories. The quality of concentration analysis or isotope ratio determination of REEs by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS is affected by many parameters. Most significant are interferences caused by polyatomic oxide and hydroxide ion species formed in the plasma as well as fractionation effects leading to non-stoichiometric behaviour during element determination or to biased isotope ratio measurements. Laser-induced fractionation and isobaric interferences have to be considered as additional effects for LA-ICP-MS. As analyte elements and matrix are unseparated, mineral standards matching the matrix of samples are a prerequisite for accurate and precise REE concentration and isotope ratio determination. Application of fs lasers instead of the more common ns lasers in LA-ICP-MS systems turns out to be a significant step to reduce laser-induced fractionation and to

  18. LA-iMageS: a software for elemental distribution bioimaging using LA-ICP-MS data.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Hugo; de S Pessôa, Gustavo; Arruda, Marco A Z; Capelo-Martínez, José L; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of chemical elements in different types of samples is an important field in several research areas such as biology, paleontology or biomedicine, among others. Elemental distribution imaging by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an effective technique for qualitative and quantitative imaging due to its high spatial resolution and sensitivity. By applying this technique, vast amounts of raw data are generated to obtain high-quality images, essentially making the use of specific LA-ICP-MS imaging software that can process such data absolutely mandatory. Since existing solutions are usually commercial or hard-to-use for average users, this work introduces LA-iMageS, an open-source, free-to-use multiplatform application for fast and automatic generation of high-quality elemental distribution bioimages from LA-ICP-MS data in the PerkinElmer Elan XL format, whose results can be directly exported to external applications for further analysis. A key strength of LA-iMageS is its substantial added value for users, with particular regard to the customization of the elemental distribution bioimages, which allows, among other features, the ability to change color maps, increase image resolution or toggle between 2D and 3D visualizations.

  19. Sorption of Eu(III) on granite: EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, batch and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Maeda, Koushi; Aoi, Yusuke; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Aosai, Daisuke; Mizuno, Takashi

    2013-11-19

    Eu(III) sorption on granite was assessed using combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches in neutral to acidic conditions where the mobility of Eu(III) is generally considered to be high. Polished thin sections of the granite were reacted with solutions containing 10 μM of Eu(III) and were analyzed using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. On most of the biotite grains, Eu enrichment up to 6 wt % was observed. The Eu-enriched parts of biotite commonly lose K, which is the interlayer cation of biotite, indicating that the sorption mode of Eu(III) by the biotite is cation exchange in the interlayer. The distributions of Eu appeared along the original cracks of the biotite. Those occurrences indicate that the prior water-rock interaction along the cracks engendered modification of biotite to possess affinity to the Eu(III). Batch Eu(III) sorption experiments on granite and biotite powders were conducted as functions of pH, Eu(III) loading, and ionic strength. The macroscopic sorption behavior of biotite was consistent with that of granite. At pH > 4, there was little pH dependence but strong ionic strength dependence of Eu(III) sorption. At pH < 4, the sorption of Eu(III) abruptly decreased with decreased pH. The sorption behavior at pH > 4 was reproducible reasonably by the modeling considering single-site cation exchange reactions. The decrease of Eu(III) sorption at pH < 4 was explained by the occupation of exchangeable sites by dissolved cationic species such as Al and Fe from granite and biotite in low-pH conditions. Granites are complex mineral assemblages. However, the combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches revealed that elementary reactions by a single mineral phase can be representative of the bulk sorption reaction in complex mineral assemblages.

  20. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus A G; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g(-1) of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of (13)C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with (13)C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when (13)C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO3 (v v(-1)) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g(-1). Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried aqueous

  1. Major to ultra trace element bulk rock analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Daniel; Pettke, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    An efficient, clean procedure for bulk rock major to trace element analysis by 193 nm Excimer LA-ICP-MS analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets (PPPs) employing a binder is presented. Sample powders are milled in water suspension in a planetary ball mill, reducing average grain size by about one order of magnitude compared to common dry milling protocols. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is employed as a binder, improving the mechanical strength of the PPP and the ablation behaviour, because MCC absorbs 193 nm laser light well. Use of MCC binder allows for producing cohesive pellets of materials that cannot be pelletized in their pure forms, such as quartz powder. Rigorous blank quantification was performed on synthetic quartz treated like rock samples, demonstrating that procedural blanks are irrelevant except for a few elements at the 10 ng g-1 concentration level. The LA-ICP-MS PPP analytical procedure was optimised and evaluated using six different SRM powders (JP-1, UB-N, BCR-2, GSP-2, OKUM, and MUH-1). Calibration based on external standardization using SRM 610, SRM 612, BCR-2G, and GSD-1G glasses allows for evaluation of possible matrix effects during LA-ICP-MS analysis. The data accuracy of the PPP LA-ICP-MS analytical procedure compares well to that achieved for liquid ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS glass analysis, except for element concentrations below ˜30 ng g-1, where liquid ICP-MS offers more precise data and in part lower limits of detection. Uncertainties on the external reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS PPP element concentrations are of the order of 0.5 to 2 % (1σ standard deviation) for concentrations exceeding ˜1 μg g-1. For lower element concentrations these uncertainties increase to 5-10% or higher when analyte-depending limits of detection (LOD) are approached, and LODs do not significantly differ from glass analysis. Sample homogeneity is demonstrated by the high analytical precision, except for very few elements where grain size effects can

  2. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Prasoon K; Harilal, Sivanandan S; LaHaye, Nicole L; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes.

  3. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  4. Detection of transgenerational barium dual-isotope marks in salmon otoliths by means of LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Fernández, Beatriz; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluates the use of an individual-specific transgenerational barium dual-isotope procedure and its application to salmon specimens from the Sella River (Asturias, Spain). For such a purpose, the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with multiple linear regression for the determination of the isotopic mark in the otoliths of the specimens is presented. In this sense, a solution in which two barium-enriched isotopes ((137)Ba and (135)Ba) were mixed at a molar ratio of ca. 1:3 (N Ba137/N Ba135) was administered to eight returning females caught during the spawning period. After injection, these females, as well as their offspring, were reared in a governmental hatchery located in the council of Cangas de Onís (Asturias, Spain). For comparison purposes, as well as for a time-monitoring control, egg and larva data obtained by solution analysis ICP-MS are also given. Otoliths (9-month-old juveniles) of marked offspring were analysed by LA-ICP-MS demonstrating a 100 % marking efficacy of this methodology. The capabilities of the molar fraction approach for 2D imaging of fish otoliths are also addressed.

  5. Biomonitoring of metal contamination in a marine prosobranch snail (Nassarius reticulatus) by imaging laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Santos, Mirian C; Wagner, Martin; Wu, Bei; Scheider, Jessica; Oehlmann, Jörg; Cadore, Solange; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-12-15

    An imaging mass spectrometric method using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb and metal distribution in longitudinal tissue sections of the marine snail Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Snails were sampled in northern Brittany (France) at three stations with different contamination levels. The quantification of metal distribution (imaging or mapping) in a thin slice of the snail tissue was carried out using different strategies: by one-point calibration and via matrix-matched laboratory standards using different biological materials (BCR 278, snail tissue, and rat brain). Together with the imaging of metals the distribution of two non-metals (carbon and sulfur) was analyzed. The imaging LA-ICP-MS analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for all elements investigated. The detection limits for the distribution analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb measured by LA-ICP-MS were in the low microg g(-1) range.

  6. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  7. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  8. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  9. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Perovskite (CaTiO3) is a common early crystallizing accessory phase in a variety of alkaline rocks, and has been shown to contain enough U and Th for U-Pb dating. U and Pb analysis of perovskite has been primarily carried out using the SHRIMP or ID-TIMS techniques, and the resulting U-Pb dates commonly yield the emplacement age of the host rock. To our knowledge, only one U-Pb study of perovskite has been done using the LA-ICP-MS (Cox and Wilton, 2006). Some of the advantages of this method over the SHRIMP and ID-TIMS techniques include greater speed and lower cost of analysis. In this work, the U-Pb ages of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Russia) were obtained in situ using the LA-ICP-MS. The measured 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios were corrected for time-dependent mass-bias using the well-calibrated zircon standard GJ-1 (608.5 ± 0.4 Ma; Jackson et al., 2004). On a Tera-Wasserburg diagram (Tera and Wasserburg, 1972) the analyses of perovskite from two magmatic phases (clinopyroxenite and carbonatite) plot in separate clusters. Although the variations in the 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios within each group are small, there is enough dispersion between the two clusters to obtain a reasonably precise age of 375 ± 13 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.23), which strongly suggests that the carbonatitic rocks are broadly coeval with the clinopyroxenite. The only other isotopic study on the Afrikanda Complex was done on a clinopyroxenite using the Rb-Sr method and yielded a whole rock-mineral (perovskite, biotite, augite and apatite) isochron age of 364.0 ± 3.1 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.72). This age is within error of our U-Pb date, which demonstrates that LA-ICP-MS-based U-Pb dating of perovskite can serve as a reliable geochronological tool. References Cox, R.A. and Wilton, D.H.C. (2006) U-Pb dating of perovskite by LA-ICP-MS: An example from the Oka carbonatite, Quebec, Canada. Chem. Geol., 235, 21-32. Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., Griffin, W.L. and Belousova, E.A. (2004

  10. The influence of ns- and fs-LA plume local conditions on the performance of a combined LIBS/LA-ICP-MS sensor

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are well-established analytical techniques with their own unique advantages and disadvantages. The combination of the two analytical methods is a very promising way to overcome the challenges faced by each method individually. We made a comprehensive comparison of local plasma conditions between nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser ablation (LA) sources in a combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS system. The optical emission spectra and ICP-MS signal were recorded simultaneously for both ns- and fs-LA and figures of merit of the system were analyzed. Characterization of the plasma was conducted by evaluating temperature and density of the plume under various irradiation conditions using optical emission spectroscopy, and correlations to ns- and fs-LIBS and LA-ICP-MS signal were made. The present study is very useful for providing conditions for a multimodal system as well as giving insight into how laser ablation plume parameters are related to LA-ICP-MS and LIBS results for both ns- and fs-LA.

  11. Imaging of metals, metalloids, and non-metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization and distribution of essential and beneficial metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ti, Al, Ca, K, Na, Cr and others), toxic metals (like Cd, Pb, Hg, U), metalloids (e.g., As, Se, Sb), and non-metals (such as C, S, P, Cl, I) in biological tissues is a challenging task for life science studies. Over the past few years, the development and application of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) techniques for elements has been rapidly growing in the life sciences in order to investigate the uptake and the transport of both essential and toxic metals in plant and animal sections. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a very sensitive and efficient trace, surface, and isotopic analytical technique for biological samples. LA-ICP-MS is increasingly utilized as an elemental mass spectrometric technique using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) to produce images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin biological tissue sections. Nowadays, MSI studies focus on brain research for studying neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, stroke, or tumor growth, or for the imaging of cancer biomarkers in tissue sections.The combination of the mass spectrometry imaging of metals by LA-ICP-MS with proteomics using biomolecular mass spectrometry (such as MALDI-MS or ESI-MS) to identify metal-containing proteins has become an important strategy in the life sciences. Besides the quantitative imaging of metals, non-metals and metalloids in biological tissues, LA-ICP-MS has been utilized for imaging metal-containing proteins in a 2D gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins. Recent progress in applying LA-ICP-MS in life science studies will be reviewed including the imaging of thin slices of biological tissue and applications in proteome analysis in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS to analyze metal-containing proteins.

  12. Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine; Sela, Hagit; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Becker, J. Susanne

    2008-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have proved themselves to be powerful and sensitive inorganic mass spectrometric techniques for analysing stable and radioactive isotopes in different application fields because of their high sensitivity, low detection limits, good accuracy and precision. New applications of ICP-MS focus on tracer experiments and the development of isotope dilution techniques together with nanoflow injections for the analysis of small volumes of biological samples. Today, LA-ICP-MS is the method of choice for direct determination of metals, e.g., on protein bands in gels after the gel electrophoresis of protein mixtures. Tracer experiments using highly enriched 65Cu were utilized in order to study the formation of metal-binding bovine serum proteins. A challenging task for LA-ICP-MS is its application as an imaging mass spectrometric technique for the production of isotope images (e.gE, from thin sections of brain tissues stained with neodymium). In this paper, we demonstrate the application of imaging mass spectrometry on single particles (zircon and uranium oxide). Single Precambrian zircon crystals from the Baltic Shield were investigated with respect to isotope ratios using LA-ICP-MS for age dating. The U-Pb age was determined from the isochrone with (1.48 ± 0.14) × 109 a. Using isotope ratio measurements on 10 nuclear uranium oxide single particles the 235U/238U isotope ratio was determined to be 0.032 ± 0.004. This paper describes recent developments and applications of isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles.

  13. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a commonly used proxy to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation history of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REE exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REE and strong depletion in Cerium. Studies of ancient phosphates and carbonates, however, showed that this 'modern' pattern is only rarely present in the geological past. Consequently, the wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry had to have been radically different in the earth's past. A wealth of studies has already shown that both early and late diagenesis can strongly affect REE signatures in phosphates and severely alter primary marine signals. However, no previous research was conducted on how alteration processes occurring prior to final deposition affect marine phosphates. Herein we present a dataset of multiple LA-ICP-MS measurements of REE signatures in isolated phosphate and carbonate grains deposited in a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene "Monterey event". The phosphates are represented by authigenic, biogenic and detrital grains emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones dominated by bryozoan and echinoderm fragments, as well as abundant benthic and planktic foraminifers. The results of 39 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements in three discrete rock samples reveals four markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Considering grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, detrital and biogenic phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our results show that the observed REE patterns in phosphates only broadly reflect

  14. Combining fs LA-ICP-MS, FIB and STXM-NEXAFS Methods for in-situ High-Spatial-Resolution Rock Varnish Analyses at the nm to µm Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Stoll, B.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.; Weis, U.

    2014-12-01

    Since over 200 years a number of studies debate the origin of the black or red, up to 250 µm thick coatings on desert rocks, referred to as rock varnish. The main components of varnish are poorly crystallized Mn and Fe oxides and clay minerals. Both biological and geological processes have been suggested for the genesis. We used a combination of 200 nm-femtosecond LA-ICP-MS, focused ion beam (FIB) slicing and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy - near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) for the high-spatial-resolution analysis of rock varnish from different locations (Negev, Israel; Knersvlakte, South Africa; Death Valley and Mojave Desert, California). Femtosecond LA-ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of major and trace element concentrations. In-situ measurements were conducted on thick sections with the advantages of non-matrix matched calibration, low ablation depth of ~10 µm for laser spot sizes of 10-40 µm and low detection limits of trace elements (< 0.01 - 1 µg g-1). Our results demonstrate that elements, such as Mn, Co, Pb, Ni and Cu, are highly enriched in varnish relative to the upper continental crust (up to a factor of 1000). Differences between varnishes from the various locations can be observed especially for the Mn/Fe (0.4-25.6), Mn/Ba (3-363) and Ni/Co (0.03-1.8) ratios. The REE patterns differ with LaN/YbN = 2-14 and positive Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 1.1 - 9.1). To study the internal structures of varnish, 100 - 200 nm thick FIB slices were prepared to perform mappings of Fe, Mn, O, N, CO3, K, Ca, and C at the nm scale. In addition, the oxidation stages of Mn and Fe were identified. Banded internal structures of Mn and organic C can be observed in some samples, and cavities that are partly filled by C and Mn rich material. Some coatings tend to incorporate bigger dust grains (> 1 µm), while others only show very fine grained material (< 0.1 µm). The results of the combined microanalytical

  15. Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Kysenius, Kai; Paul, Bence; Knauer, Beate; Hutchinson, Robert W; O'Connor, Ciaran; Fryer, Fred; Hennessey, Tom P; Bush, Ashley I; Crouch, Peter J; Doble, Philip A

    2017-01-22

    Metals are found ubiquitously throughout an organism, with their biological role dictated by both their chemical reactivity and abundance within a specific anatomical region. Within the brain, metals have a highly compartmentalized distribution, depending on the primary function they play within the central nervous system. Imaging the spatial distribution of metals has provided unique insight into the biochemical architecture of the brain, allowing direct correlation between neuroanatomical regions and their known function with regard to metal-dependent processes. In addition, several age-related neurological disorders feature disrupted metal homeostasis, which is often confined to small regions of the brain that are otherwise difficult to analyze. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for quantitatively imaging metals in the mouse brain, using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and specially designed image processing software. Focusing on iron, copper and zinc, which are three of the most abundant and disease-relevant metals within the brain, we describe the essential steps in sample preparation, analysis, quantitative measurements and image processing to produce maps of metal distribution within the low micrometer resolution range. This technique, applicable to any cut tissue section, is capable of demonstrating the highly variable distribution of metals within an organ or system, and can be used to identify changes in metal homeostasis and absolute levels within fine anatomical structures.

  16. Genesis of Augite-Bearing Ureilites: Evidence From LA-ICP-MS Analyses of Pyroxenes and Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Lee, C-T. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrites composed primarily of coarse-grained low-Ca pyroxene and olivine with interstitial carbonaceous material, but a number of them contain augite [1]. Ureilites are considered to be restites after partial melting of a chondritic precursor, although at least some augite-bearing ureilites may be partially cumulate [1, 2]. In this scenario, the augite is a cumulus phase derived from a melt that infiltrated a restite composed of typical ureilite material (olivine+low-Ca pyroxene) [2]. To test this hypothesis, we examined the major and trace element compositions of silicate minerals in select augite-bearing ureilites with differing mg#. Polished thick sections of the augite-bearing ureilites ALH 84136 , EET 87511, EET 96293, LEW 88201, and META78008 and augite-free typical ureilite EET 90019 were examined by EPMA for major and minor elements and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for trace elements, REE in particular. Although EET 87511 is reported to contain augite, the polished section that we obtained did not.

  17. Trace elements in pyrite from the Petropavlovsk gold-porphyry deposit (Polar Urals): Results of LA-ICP-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentiev, I. V.; Abramova, V. D.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    The first study of the pyrite composition from gold deposit in the Urals by the LA-ICP-MS method has been carried out. In the pyrite high contents of Au (up to 49 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), and other micronutrients (As (417 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), Co (2825 ppm), Ni (75 ppm), Cu (1442 ppm), and Zn (19 ppm)) were detected. Furthermore, an increase in the concentrations of trace elements from early to later generations of pyrite (from Py-1 to Py-3) Au, Ag, Te, Sn, Te, and Bi and depletion of Co, As, and Ni have been revealed. Gold is mainly concentrated in the pyrite of the second generation (Py-2) and occurs mostly as an "invisible" form with prevalence of nano-sized particles of native Au, similar in composition to electrum AuAg, as well as Au- and Au-Ag tellurides. The presence in the pyrite of admixtures of Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, As, and Te, possibly favors the entrance of Au into it (up to 5-50 ppm), while in common pyrite, poor in the mentioned impurities, the gold content is <1 ppm.

  18. Provenance determination of oriental porcelain using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Bartle, Emma K; Watling, R John

    2007-03-01

    The sale of fraudulent oriental ceramics constitutes a large proportion of the illegal artifact and antique trade and threatens to undermine the legitimate international market. The sophistication and skill of forgers has reached a level where, using traditional appraisal by eye and hand, even the most experienced specialist is often unable to distinguish between a genuine and fraudulent piece. In addition, current provenancing techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and thermoluminescence (TL) dating can result in significant damage to the artifact itself. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), a relatively nondestructive analytical technique, has been used for the provenance determination of materials based on geographical origin. The technique requires the production of a laser crater, c. 100 microm in diameter, which is essentially invisible to the naked eye. Debris from this crater is analyzed using ICP-MS, with the results forming the basis of the provenance establishment protocol. Chinese, Japanese, and English porcelain shards have been analyzed using this protocol and generic isotopic distribution patterns have been produced that enable the provenance establishment of porcelain artifacts to their country of production. Minor variations between elemental fingerprints of artifacts produced in the same country also indicate that it may be possible to further provenance oriental ceramics to a specific production region or kiln site.

  19. Coupling of Uranium and Thorium Series Isotope Systematics for Age Determination of Late Pleistocene Zircons using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, S.; Hirakawa, S.; Iwano, H.; Danhara, T.; Hirata, T.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon U-Th-Pb dating method is one of the most important tools for estimating the duration of magmatism by means of coupling of uranium, actinium and thorium decay series. Using U-Pb dating method, its reliability is principally guaranteed by the concordance between 238U-206Pb and 235U-207Pb ages. In case of dating Quaternary zircons, however, the initial disequilibrium effect on 230Th and 231Pa should be considered. On the other hands, 232Th-208Pb dating method can be a simple but powerful approach for investigating the age of crystallization because of negligible influence from initial disequilibrium effect. We have developed a new correction model for accurate U-Pb dating of the young zircon samples by taking into consideration of initial disequilibrium and a U-Pb vs Th-Pb concordia diagram for reliable age calibration was successfully established. Hence, the U-Th-Pb dating method can be applied to various zircons ranging from Hadean (4,600 Ma) to Quaternary (~50 ka) ages, and this suggests that further detailed information concerning the thermal history of the geological sequences can be made by the coupling of U-Th-Pb, fission track and Ar-Ar ages. In this presentation, we will show an example of U-Th-Pb dating for zircon samples from Sambe Volcano (3 to 100 ka), southwest Japan and the present dating technique using LA-ICP-MS.

  20. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  1. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method.

  2. Quantitative imaging of 2 nm monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle distributions in tissues using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Elci, S Gokhan; Yan, Bo; Kim, Sung Tae; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ying; Klemmer, Gunnar A; Moyano, Daniel F; Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2016-04-21

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have unique properties that make them important biomedical materials. Optimal use of these materials, though, requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Here we describe the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to image the biodistributions of AuNPs in tissues from mice intravenously injected with AuNPs. We demonstrate for the first time that the distributions of very small (∼2 nm core) monolayer-protected AuNPs can be imaged in animal tissues at concentrations in the low parts-per-billion range. Moreover, the LA-ICP-MS images reveal that the monolayer coatings on the injected AuNPs influence their distributions, suggesting that the AuNPs remain intact in vivo and their surface chemistry influences how they interact with different organs. We also demonstrate that quantitative images of the AuNPs can be generated when the appropriate tissue homogenates are chosen for matrix matching. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of LA-ICP-MS for tracking the fate of biomedically-relevant AuNPs in vivo, facilitating the design of improved AuNP-based therapeutics.

  3. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  4. Impact history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite: Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikov, A. V.; Andronikova, I. E.; Hill, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals from two fragments of the LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite were conducted. The fragments are impact breccias, one fragment contains both chondritic and shock vein lithologies, and the other contains shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melts. The chondritic lithology and shock veins display very similar opaque mineral compositions. The mineral compositions in the impact-melt breccias are distinctly different. The brecciated state of the Chelyabinsk meteorite suggests strong involvement of shock-related processes during the evolution of the parent body. Multiple heavy impact events occurred on the parent asteroid and on the Chelyabinsk meteoroid itself over the time period from ca. 4.5 Ga until ca. 1.2 Ma. The shock veins were produced in situ on the parent body. The impact-melt breccias could have formed because of the dramatic impact to the parent LL-chondrite body that could be partly disintegrated. The fragment containing shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melt lithologies preserves a record of melting, volatilization, partial degassing, and quenching of the molten material. The abundance and size (up to 1 mm) of the vesicles suggest that the impact melt must have been buried at some depth after formation. After impact and subsequent melting occurred, the impact-induced pressure on the shallow asteroid interior was released that caused "boiling" of volatiles and generation of S-rich bubbles. Such an impact excavated down to depths of the body generating multiple fragments with complicated histories. These fragments reaccumulated into a gravitational aggregate and formed the parental meteoroid for the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

  5. Imaging of nutrient elements in the leaves of Elsholtzia splendens by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Zoriy, Miroslav; Chen, Yingxu; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-04-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the quantitative imaging of nutrient elements (such as K, Mg, Mn, Cu, P, S and B) in the leaves of Elsholtzia splendens. The plant leaves were scanned directly with a focused Nd:YAG laser in the laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to a quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS), and the ion intensities of (39)K(+), (24)Mg(+), (55)Mn(+), (63)Cu(+), (31)P(+), (34)S(+) and (11)B(+) were measured by ICP-QMS to study the distribution of the elements of interest. The imaging technique using LA-ICP-MS on plant leaves does not require any sample preparation. Carbon ((13)C(+)) was used as an internal standard element to compensate for the difference in the amount of material ablated. Additional experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the water content of the analyzed leaves on the intensity signal of the analyte. For quantification purposes, standard reference material (NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves) was selected and doped with standard solutions of the analytes within the concentration range of 0.1-2000 mg L(-1). The synthetic laboratory standards together with the samples were measured by LA-ICP-MS. The shape and structure of the leaves was clearly given by LA-ICP-MS imaging of all the elements measured. The elemental distribution varied according to the element, but with a high content in the veins for all the elements investigated. Specifically, Cu was located uniformly in the mesophyll with a slightly higher concentration in the main vein. High ion intensity was measured for S with a high amount of this element in the veins similar to the images of the metals, whereas most of the B was detected at the tip of the leaf. With synthetic laboratory standard calibration, the concentrations of elements in the leaves measured by LA-ICP-MS were between 20 microg g(-1) for Cu and 14,000 microg g(-1) for K.

  6. Influence of femtosecond laser ablation system parameters on the characteristics of induced particles: implications for LA-ICP-MS analysis of natural monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abzac, F.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.; Chmeleff, J.; Datas, L.; Poitrasson, F.

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of Infra Red femtosecond laser-induced aerosols are studied for monazite (Moacyr) ablation, in order to evaluate optimal conditions for Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Various parameters are tested within wide ranges in order to cover near all of the usual LA-ICP-MS settings: pulse energy (E0), pulse width (τ), ablation time (t), transport length (l), nature of the carrier gas. In order to study the influence of laser wavelength on LA-ICP-MS analysis, a third harmonic generator was used to convert the fundamental λ=800nm into a λ=266nm laser emission. Acquisition protocol is the same as in d’Abzac et al. (2010)1. Data are compared with a UV-nanosecond (λ=193nm) laser ablation system using a similar ICP-MS model. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) reveals that particles morphologies and chemical compositions are not affected by any parameter. Melt droplets are observed only using argon. Electronic Low Pressure Impaction (ELPI) data show that the quantity of aerosol produced is affected by all parameters. Little changes on size distribution are noted with changing settings. Detectable variations are induced during crater deepening (poor evacuation of large particles), the transport length (deposition of smallest particles) and the use of helium (shift to smaller sizes). UV-ns-LA-ICP-MS results show signal intensities similar to IR-fs-LA-ICP-MS, but a deviation of 206Pb/238U ratio with t increased by a factor of ~33. Based on recent ID-TIMS values of 206Pb/238U ratio in Moacyr2, accuracy is increased by ~22% from UV-ns to IR-fs system and repeatability is improved by 2%. Optimal LA-ICP-MS settings are given relatively to the present analytical results and the previous studies dealing with the same system1, 3. Pulse width must remain under 500fs to avoid plasma shielding and thermal diffusion, ablation time should be limited to prevent high crater depths and poor aerosols wash out, transport length must be

  7. In situ U-Pb rutile dating by LA-ICP-MS: 208Pb correction and prospects for geological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Thomas; Stockli, Daniel F.; Luvizotto, George L.; Barth, Matthias G.; Belousova, Elena; Wolfe, Melissa R.; Hinton, Richard W.

    2011-09-01

    Rutile is a common accessory mineral that occurs in a wide spectrum of metamorphic rocks, such as in blueschists, eclogites, and granulites and as one of the most stable detrital heavy minerals in sedimentary rocks. The advent of rutile trace element thermometry has generated increased interest in a better understanding of rutile formation. This study documents important analytical advances in in situ LA-ICP-MS U/Pb geochronology of rutile: (1) Matrix matching, necessary for robust in situ dating is fulfilled by calibrating and testing several rutile standards (R10, R19, WH-1), including the presentation of new TIMS ages for the rutile standard R19 (489.5 ± 0.9 Ma; errors always stated as 2 s). (2) Initial common lead correction is routinely applied via 208Pb, which is possible due to extremely low Th/U ratios (usually <0.003) in most rutiles. Employing a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to a quadrupole ICP-MS and using R10 as a primary standard, rutile U/Pb concordia ages for the two other rutile standards (493 ± 10 Ma for R19; 2640 ± 50 Ma for WH-1) and four rutile-bearing metamorphic rocks (181 ± 4 Ma for Ivrea metapelitic granulite; 339 ± 7 Ma for Saidenbach coesite eclogite; 386 ± 8 Ma for Fjortoft UHP metapelite; 606 ± 12 Ma for Andrelandia metepelitic granulite) always agree within 2% with the reported TIMS ages and other dating studies from the same localities. The power of in situ U/Pb rutile dating is illustrated by comparing ages of detrital rutile and zircon from a recent sediment from the Christie Domain of the Gawler Craton, Australia. While the U/Pb age spectrum from zircons show several pronounced peaks that are correlated with magmatic episodes, rutile U/Pb ages are marked by only one pronounced peak (at ca 1,675 Ma) interpreted to represent cooling ages of this part of the craton. Rutile thermometry of the same detrital grains indicates former granulite-facies conditions. The methods outlined in this paper should find wide application in studies

  8. Refining LA-ICP-MS techniques for the exploration of ultra-thin layers in Alpine and Polar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Nicole; Bohleber, Pascal; Mayewski, Paul; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Kurbatov, Andrei; Sneed, Sharon; Handley, Mike; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (LA)-ICP-MS, offers minimally destructive ice core impurity analysis at unsurpassed sub-mm depth resolution. As such it is uniquely suited for exploring the closely spaced layers of ice cores collected in low accumulation sites or in regions of compressed and thinned ice. Here we present an updated characterization of the LA system developed at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute's Keck Laser Ice Facility, as determined through 1) experimentation with sticks of frozen distilled water and 2) exploitation of the exceptionally thin layers within a new ice core drilled at the Alpine glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti (4450m asl, Monte Rosa, Swiss-Italian Alps) and the variety of high-density chemical data collected from it. Colle Gnifetti (CG) is characterized by low net accumulation rates and strong vertical shear, which causes its annual layers to rapidly thin below the cm-resolution of conventional ice core analysis techniques. To best utilize its unique archive, LA measurements of Ca and Na were directly compared to those from continuous flow analysis. Through this comparison, we demonstrate that LA captures low frequency trends similar to traditional melting techniques while also emphasizing the benefits of its increased resolution. The resolution was itself verified through experimental determination of peak decay times, where peaks were created by spiking frozen distilled water at known interval with high concentration riverine water standards. Using ion chromatography and liquid-based ICP-MS measurements of discrete meltwater samples from CG we were also able to explore high-resolution profiles of S as measured by LA. The ability to resolve S at sub-mm resolution (a capability not yet demonstrated for LA analysis of ice cores) may allow more accurate determination of the character and timing of volcanic eruptions. We illustrate this finding using an exemplary S-anomaly, potentially of volcanic

  9. REE in skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS study of garnets from the Crown Jewel gold deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Miguel; Knaack, Charles; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Moretti, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Metamorphic and magmatic garnets are known to fractionate REE, with generally HREE-enriched patterns, and high Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios, making them very useful as geochemical tracers and in geochronological studies. However, these garnets are typically Al-rich (pyrope, almandine, spessartine, and grossular) and little is known about garnets with a more andraditic (Fe 3+) composition, as frequently found in skarn systems. This paper presents LA-ICP-MS data for garnets from the Crown Jewel Au-skarn deposit (USA), discusses the factors controlling incorporation of REE into garnets, and strengthens the potential of garnet REE geochemistry as a tool to help understand the evolution of metasomatic fluids. Garnets from the Crown Jewel deposit range from Adr 30Grs 70 to almost pure andradite (Adr >99). Fe-rich garnets (Adr >90) are isotropic, whereas Al-rich garnets deviate from cubic symmetry and are anisotropic, often showing sectorial dodecahedral twinning. All garnets are extremely LILE-depleted, Ta, Hf, and Th and reveal a positive correlation of ΣREE 3+ with Al content. The Al-rich garnets are relatively enriched in Y, Zr, and Sc and show "typical" HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns with small Eu anomalies. Fe-rich garnets (Adr >90) have much lower ΣREE and exhibit LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns, with a strong positive Eu anomaly. Incorporation of REE into garnet is in part controlled by its crystal chemistry, with REE 3+ following a coupled, YAG-type substitution mechanism ([X]-1VIII[REE]+1VIII[Si]-1IV[Z]+1IV), whereas Eu 2+ substitutes for X 2+ cations. Thermodynamic data (e.g., Hmixing) in grossular-andradite mixtures suggest preferential incorporation of HREE in grossular and LREE in more andraditic compositions. Variations in textural and optical features and in garnet geochemistry are largely controlled by external factors, such as fluid composition, W/ R ratios, mineral growth kinetics, and metasomatism dynamics, suggesting an overall system

  10. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  11. LA-ICP-MS of rare earth elements concentrated in cation-exchange resin particles for origin attribution of uranium ore concentrate.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shiho; Limbeck, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) concentrated on cation-exchange resin particles were measured with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain chondrite-normalized REE plots. The sensitivity of REE increased in ascending order of the atomic number, according to the sensitivity trend in pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS (PN-ICP-MS). The signal intensities of REE were nearly proportional to the concentrations of REE in the immersion solution used for particle-preparation. Minimum measurable concentration calculated from the net signals of REE was approximately 1 ng/g corresponding to 0.1 ng in the particle-preparation solution. In LA analysis, formation of oxide and hydroxide of the light REE and Ba which causes spectral interferences in the heavy REE measurement was effectively attenuated due to the solvent-free measurement capability, compared to conventional PN-ICP-MS. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, the REE-adsorbed particles prepared by immersing them in a U-bearing solution (commercially available U standard solution) were measured with LA-ICP-MS. Aside from the LA analysis, each concentration of REE in the same U standard solution was determined with conventional PN-ICP-MS after separating REE by cation-exchange chromatography. The concentrations of REE were ranging from 0.04 (Pr) to 1.08 (Dy) μg/g-U. The chondrite-normalized plot obtained through LA-ICP-MS analysis of the U standard sample exhibited close agreement with that obtained through the PN-ICP-MS of the REE-separated solution within the uncertainties.

  12. Cerebral bioimaging of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Matusch, Andreas; Depboylu, Candan; Palm, Christoph; Wu, Bei; Höglinger, Günter U; Schäfer, Martin K-H; Becker, J Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful technique for the determination of metal and nonmetal distributions within biological systems with high sensitivity. An imaging LA-ICP-MS technique for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn was developed to produce large series of quantitative element maps in native brain sections of mice subchronically intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP) as a model of Parkinson's disease. Images were calibrated using matrix-matched laboratory standards. A software solution allowing a precise delineation of anatomical structures was implemented. Coronal brain sections were analyzed crossing the striatum and the substantia nigra, respectively. Animals sacrificed 2 h, 7 d, or 28 d after the last MPTP injection and controls were investigated. We observed significant decreases of Cu concentrations in the periventricular zone and the fascia dentata at 2 h and 7d and a recovery or overcompensation at 28 d, most pronounced in the rostral periventricular zone (+40%). In the cortex Cu decreased slightly to -10%. Fe increased in the interpeduncular nucleus (+40%) but not in the substantia nigra. This pattern is in line with a differential regulation of periventricular and parenchymal Cu, and with the histochemical localization of Fe, and congruent to regions of preferential MPTP binding described in the rodent brain. The LA-ICP-MS technique yielded valid and statistically robust results in the present study on 39 slices from 19 animals. Our findings underline the value of routine micro-local analytical techniques in the life sciences and affirm a role of Cu availability in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Improvement of the determination of element concentrations in quartz-hosted fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and Pitzer thermodynamic modeling of ice melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisen, Mathieu; Dubessy, Jean; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Lach, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become an essential analytical tool for the study of paleofluid chemistry through the analysis of individual fluid inclusions. The calculation of major and trace element concentrations in fluid inclusions is usually based on empirical equations whose significance and accuracy are questionable. In addition, methods for estimation of analytical uncertainties element concentration in individual fluid inclusions are lacking. This study describes a method based upon Pitzer's thermodynamic model for the calculation of major element (Na, K, Mg and Ca) concentrations in low-to moderate-salinity fluid inclusions. A signal processing protocol, used in combination with the new method is also developed to calculate the concentration, for each inclusion, and uncertainty for each major and trace element. In order to validate the proposed method, synthetic and natural fluid inclusions (from Alpine quartz veins) were ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser and analyzed with a quadrupole ICP-MS, equipped with an octopole collision-reaction cell. The difference between the calculated and actual element concentration (i.e. accuracy) does not exceed 20% and the calculated relative standard deviation (i.e. precision) for all element concentrations is ˜10% in standards (glasses, solutions in capillary tubes and synthetic fluid inclusions). The element concentrations obtained with this new method for the Alpine fluid inclusions are in good agreement with those previously measured using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) or crush-leach methods. Finally, the calculated concentrations and associated uncertainties determined for each element in individual fluid inclusions show that the sensitivity of LA-ICP-MS analysis is high enough to reflect small variations of major and trace element concentrations in the Alpine paleofluid, initially considered to have a constant chemistry. The new approach presented in

  14. REE distribution in zircon from reference rocks of the Arctic region: Evidence from study by the LA-ICP-MS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. I.; Drogobuzhskaya, S. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Kaulina, T. V.; Lyalina, L. M.; Novikov, A. I.; Steshenko, E. N.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the LA-ICP-MS analysis of the concentrations of REEs, U, Th, and Hf in zircon from Paleo- and Neoarchean reference rocks of the Kola region (garnet-amphibole gneiss, basic and acid granulites, and granite pegmatite) are reported. A new methodology of the study of accessory zircons has been validated and modified. The accuracy of the results is confirmed by analysis of standard zircons Temora 1 and 91 500 and by comparison with the data obtained in other laboratories.

  15. A new LA-ICP-MS method for Ti-in-Quartz: Implications and application to HP rutile-quartz veins from the Czech Erzgebirge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Feineman, M. D.; Woods, G.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental determination of the pressure and temperature controls on Ti solubility in quartz provide a calibration of the Ti-in-quartz (TitaniQ) geothermometer applicable to geologic conditions up to ~20 kbar (Thomas et al. (2010) Contrib Mineral Petrol 160, 743-759). One of the greatest limitations to analyzing Ti in metamorphic quartz by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is the lack of a suitable matrix-matched reference material. Typically LA-ICP-MS analyses of Ti in minerals use 49Ti as a normalizing mass because of an isobaric interference from 48Ca, which is present in most well characterized reference glasses, on 48Ti. The benefit of using a matrix-matched reference material to analyze Ti in quartz is the opportunity to use 48Ti (73.8 % abundance) as a normalizing mass, which results in an order of magnitude increase in signal strength compared to the less abundant isotope 49Ti (5.5 % abundance), thereby increasing the analytical precision. Here we characterize Ti-bearing SiO2 glasses from Heraeus Quarzglas and natural quartz grains from the Bishop Tuff by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and LA-ICP-MS, in order to determine their viability as reference materials for Ti in quartz. Titanium contents in low-CL rims in the Bishop Tuff quartz grains were determined to be homogenous by EPMA (41 ± 2 µg/g Ti, 2σ), and are a potential natural reference material. We present a new method for determining 48Ti concentrations in quartz by LA-ICP-MS at the 1 µg/g level, relevant to quartz in HP-LT terranes. We suggest that natural quartz such as the homogeneous low-CL rims of the Bishop Tuff quartz are more suitable than NIST reference glasses as an in-house reference material for low Ti concentrations because matrix effects are limited and Ca isobaric interferences are avoided, thus allowing for the use of 48Ti as a normalizing mass. Titanium concentration from 33 analyses of low

  16. LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in glass spherules of the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Leonie; Deutsch, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The 3.58±0.04 Ma old El'gygytgyn impact structure (Central Chukotka, NE Siberia) with a diameter of 18 km (Gurov and Gurova 1979, Layer 2000) is one of only two terrestrial craters with a volcanic target; therefore, analysis of its target and impact lithologies is of basic interest for comparative planetology. Lake El'gygytgyn is a very valuable climate archive in the Arctic as it was neither covered by glaciers (Melles et al. 2007) nor has the lake ever fallen dry. Climate and impact research were the rationale for the ICDP drilling project that finished successfully in spring 2009. Impactites like melt rocks and breccias are rarely found in outcrops yet are present in the 80 m terrace of Lake El'gygytgyn (Gurov and Gurova 1979). Numerous investigations on petrography, shock metamorphism, and geochemistry of impactites from El'gygytgyn have been published so far (e.g. Gurov et al. 2007). We report the first trace element data for seven 30- to 760-μm-sized impact glass spherules that have been collected about10 km off the crater center from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River outside the crater rim. The spherules are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black; they contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments. Major elements were measured with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe, 31 trace elements were analyzed with the Finnigan Element2 LA-ICP-MS with 5 Hz, 8-9 J/cm2 at with Si as internal, and NIST612 as external standard (Institut f. Mineralogie, WWU Münster). The spot size was 60 μm. All spherules show a very homogeneous major and trace element distribution yet clear differences exist between the samples in the SiO2 content (in weight percent) 53-68: four of the glasses are dacitic, two andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic in composition. In addition, MgO (2.1-9.2), K2O (0.6-3.3), and (in ppm) Ni (317-1096), Co (25-79), Zr (100-169), Rb (18-107), and Ba (459-1092) display wide

  17. Metal imaging in non-denaturating 2D electrophoresis gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the detection of metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Susanne; Lobinski, Ryszard; Becker, J Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed as a powerful analytical technique for metal imaging of 2D gels for the detection of metalloproteins in rat kidney after electrophoretic separation. Protein complexes, extracted with water, were separated in their native state in the first and second dimension by blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Essential and toxic metals, such as zinc, copper, iron, manganese and lead, were monitored by LA-ICP-MS after gel ablation by a focused laser beam in a way that the total surface of a selected fragment of the gel was totally ablated. The metal distribution of this part of the gel was then constructed by plotting the metal (isotope) signal intensity as a function of the x,y (isoelectric point, molecular mass) coordinates of the gel. The proteins at locations rich in metals were cut out, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).

  18. Multiplexed quantification of plant thylakoid proteins on Western blots using lanthanide-labeled antibodies and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Pedas, Pai; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2013-05-21

    We have developed a novel calibration method that allows concurrent quantification of multiple proteins by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) after Western blotting. Calibrants were made of nitrocellulose membranes doped with lanthanide standards. Excellent linearity was obtained in the interval from 0 to 24 ng lanthanide cm(-2). Cerium-labeled lysozyme was introduced as an internal reference protein, enabling correction for up to 50% difference in transfer efficiency during the blotting of membranes. The sensitivity of the LA-ICP-MS method was comparable to state-of-the-art chemiluminescence detection and was further improved by a factor of 20, using a polymer tag. Our method allowed reproducible and multiplexed quantification of five thylakoid proteins extracted from chloroplasts of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤ 5% in three independent analytical series). The method was capable of measuring the L subunit in photosystem I of an Arabidopsis mutant containing <5% of this particular protein, relative to the wild type. We conclude that the developed calibration method is highly suited for multiplexed and comparative protein studies, allowing for intermembrane comparisons with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  19. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  20. Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.

    2012-03-01

    Laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure elemental concentrations at the 100 {micro}m scale in a 3-dimensional manner in a basalt sample collected from the Hanford 300 Area in south-central Washington State. A modified calibration method was developed to quantify the LA-ICP-MS signal response using a constant-sum mass fraction of eight major elements; the method produced reasonable concentration measurements for both major and trace elements when compared to a standard basalt sample with known concentrations. 3-dimensional maps (stacked 2-D contour layers, each measuring 2100 {micro}m x 2100 {micro}m) show relatively uniform concentration with depth for intrinsic elements such as Si, Na, and Sr. However, U and Cu accumulation were observed near the rock surface, consistent with the site's release history of these pollutants. U and Cu show substantial heterogeneity in their concentration distributions in horizontal slices, while the intrinsic elements are essentially uniformly distributed. From measured U concentrations of this work and reported mass fractions, cobbles and gravels were estimated to contain from 0.6% to 7.5% of the contaminant U, implicating the coarse fraction as a long-term release source.

  1. Elemental bioimaging in kidney by LA-ICP-MS as a tool to study nephrotoxicity and renal protective strategies in cisplatin therapies.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Giesen, Charlotte; Lázaro, Alberto; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Humanes, Blanca; Cañas, Benito; Panne, Ulrich; Tejedor, Alberto; Jakubowski, Norbert; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2011-10-15

    A laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)-based methodology is presented for Pt, Cu, and Zn bioimaging on whole kidney 3 μm sagittal sections from rats treated with pharmacological doses of cisplatin, which were sacrificed once renal damage had taken place. Pt turned out to accumulate in the kidney cortex and corticomedullary junction, corresponding to areas where the proximal tubule S3 segments (the most sensitive cells to cisplatin nephrotoxicity) are located. This demonstrates the connection between platinum accumulation and renal damage proved by histological examination of HE-stained sections and evaluation of serum and urine biochemical parameters. Cu and Zn distribution maps revealed a significant displacement in cells by Pt, as compared to control tissues. A dramatic decrease in the Pt accumulation in the cortex was observed when cilastatin was coadministered with cisplatin, which can be related to its nephroprotective effect. Excellent imaging reproducibility, sensitivity (LOD 50 fg), and resolution (down to 8 μm) were achieved, demonstrating that LA-ICP-MS can be applied as a microscopic metal detector at cellular level in certain tissues. A simple and quick approach for the estimation of Pt tissue levels was proposed, based on tissue spiking.

  2. In-situ Cl/Br measurements in scapolite and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: A powerful tool to constrain fluid sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerli, J.; Rusk, B.; Spandler, C.; Oliver, N. H. S.; Emsbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine are highly conservative elements, and are therefore widely used to trace the origin of fluids in sedimentary and hydrothermal/magmatic systems (e.g. Hanor & McIntosh, 2007; Nahnybida et al., 2009). Halogens are important ligands for metal transport in hydrothermal solutions and thus their behavior in hydrothermal environments is crucial for comprehending ore-forming processes. Besides fluid inclusions, scapolite-group minerals hold great potential as a tracer of igneous, metamorphic, and hydrothermal processes, as no Cl/Br fractionation in scapolite has been observed and therefore halogen ratios in scapolite are thought to mirror the halogen ratios in coexisting melts and fluids (Pan & Dong, 2003). Hence, Cl/Br ratios in fluid inclusions and minerals can be utilized to trace the origin of fluids and fluid-rock interaction pathways. Due to their high ionization energies, bromine and chlorine are not routinely measured by LA-ICP-MS and suitable standards are rare. Little is known about the potential interferences and analytical limitations of in-situ chlorine and bromine analysis by LA-ICP-MS. Nevertheless, Seo et al. (2011) showed that quantification of Br and Cl in single synthetic and natural fluid inclusions is possible. In this study, we have analyzed several scapolite grains of known bromine and chlorine concentrations by LA-ICP-MS and assess the capabilities and limitations of this method. The results show that Cl/Br ratios measured by LA-ICP-MS closely reproduce known values determined by microprobe (Cl), the Noble Gas Method (Br) and INAA (Br) (Kendrick, 2011; Lieftink et al., 1993) using laser ablation spot sizes from 24-120 μm. The well-characterized scapolite grains cover bromine concentrations from 50-883 ppm and chlorine concentrations from 3 to 4 wt.%. In order to further assess the method, we analyzed Cl/Br ratios in natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite that were previously characterized by crush and leach ion

  3. Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

    2013-09-01

    The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

  4. Imaging of metals in biological tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): state of the art and future developments.

    PubMed

    Sabine Becker, J

    2013-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is well established as a sensitive trace and ultratrace analytical technique with multielement capability for bioimaging of metals and studying metallomics in biological and medical tissue. Metals and metalloproteins play a key role in the metabolism and formation of metal-containing deposits in the brain but also in the liver. In various diseases, analysis of metals and metalloproteins is essential for understanding the underlying cellular processes. LA-ICP-MS imaging (LA-ICP-MSI) combined with other complementary imaging techniques is a sophisticated tool for investigating the regional and cellular distribution of metals and related metal-containing biomolecules. On the basis of successful routine techniques for the elemental bioimaging of cryosections by LA-ICP-MSI with a spatial resolution between 200 and ~10 µm, the further development used online laser microdissection ICP-MSI to study the metal distribution in small biological sample sections (at the cellular level from 10 µm to the submicrometer range). The use of mass spectrometric imaging of metals and also nonmetals is demonstrated on a series of biological specimens. This article discusses the state of the art of bioimaging of metals in thin biological tissue sections by LA-ICP-MSI with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale, future developments and prospects for quantitative imaging techniques of metals in the nanometer range. In addition, combining quantitative elemental imaging by LA/laser microdissection-ICP-MSI with biomolecular imaging by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-MSI will be challenging for future life science research.

  5. Printing metal-spiked inks for LA-ICP-MS bioimaging internal standardization: comparison of the different nephrotoxic behavior of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Moraleja, Irene; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Neumann, Boris; Tejedor, Alberto; Luz Mena, M; Jakubowski, Norbert; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2016-03-01

    The study of the distribution of the cytostatic drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin along the kidney may help to understand their different nephrotoxic behavior. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allows the acquisition of trace element images in biological tissues. However, results obtained are affected by several variations concerning the sample matrix and instrumental drifts. In this work, an internal standardization method based on printing an Ir-spiked ink onto the surface of the sample has been developed to evaluate the different distributions and accumulation levels of the aforementioned drugs along the kidney of a rat model. A conventional ink-jet printer was used to print fresh sagittal kidney tissue slices of 4 μm. A reproducible and homogenous deposition of the ink along the tissue was observed. The ink was partially absorbed on top of the tissue. Thus, this approach provides a pseudo-internal standardization, due to the fact that the ablation sample and internal standard take place subsequently and not simultaneously. A satisfactory normalization of LA-ICP-MS bioimages and therefore a reliable comparison of the kidney treated with different Pt-based drugs were achieved even for tissues analyzed on different days. Due to the complete ablation of the sample, the transport of the ablated internal standard and tissue to the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is practically taking place at the same time. Pt accumulation in the kidney was observed in accordance to the dosages administered for each drug. Although the accumulation rate of cisplatin and oxaliplatin is high in both cases, their Pt distributions differ. The strong nephrotoxicity observed for cisplatin and the absence of such side effect in the case of oxaliplatin could explain these distribution differences. The homogeneous distribution of oxaliplatin in the cortical and medullar areas could be related with its higher affinity for

  6. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  7. Elemental mapping in fossil tooth root section of Ursus arctos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Vašinová Galiová, M; Nývltová Fišáková, M; Kynický, J; Prokeš, L; Neff, H; Mason, A Z; Gadas, P; Košler, J; Kanický, V

    2013-02-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to map the matrix (Ca, P) and trace (Ba, Sr, Zn) elements in the root section of a fossilized brown bear (Ursus arctos) tooth. Multielemental analysis was performed on a (2.5 × 1.5)cm(2) area. For elemental distribution, a UP 213 laser ablation system was coupled either with a quadrupole or a time of flight ICP-MS. The cementum and dentine on the slice of the sample surface were clearly distinguishable, especially changes in elemental distribution in the summer and winter bands in the fossil root dentine. Migration and diet of U. arctos were determined on the basis of fluctuations in Sr/Zn ratio and their contents. Quantification was accomplished with standard reference material of bone meal (NIST 1486) and by the use of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). Changes in Sr/Zn and Sr/Ba ratios relating to the season, and composition of food during the lifetime of the animal are discussed on basis of analysis of light stable isotopes. It was observed that there was an increase in the Sr/Zn ratio during the winter season caused by a reduction of food intake during hibernation. Above mentioned inferences drawn from elemental data obtained by LA-ICP-MS were confirmed independently by determination of carbon, nitrogen and strontium isotopes. Moreover, diagenesis and its interfering influence on the biogenic composition of cementum and dentine were resolved. According to the distribution and/or content of the element of interest, post-mortem alterations were revealed. Namely, U, Na, Fe, Mg and F predicate about the suitability of the selected area for determination of migration and diet.

  8. Developing a Correction to Remove Systematic Bias in U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Zircon Ages Related to Zircon "Matrix Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Angelo, T. V.; Guest, B.

    2014-12-01

    For more than a decade the occurrence of systematic discrepancies between the U-Pb ages of zircons determined by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS has been acknowledged. Trace element concentrations, crystallographic orientation and damage to the crystal lattice by radioactive decay have all been cited as possible causes for the discrepancy termed the "matrix effect". Recent studies have concluded that differences in Laser Induced Elemental Fractionation (LIEF) between zircon reference materials results from variations in the ablation rate between the primary reference, which is used to build a model for LIEF during data reduction, and the unknowns. These variations are likely related to physical differences in the crystal lattice caused by alpha particle ejection. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the ablation rate for ~200 individual ablation pits in a variety of reference materials using an optical profilometer. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between delta age (the difference between the age calculated by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age, expressed as a percentage) and ablation rate. The relationship between calculated alpha dosage for each ablation and delta age is less clear. This suggests that the zircon's thermal history may play an important role in controlling ablation rate through annealing of crystal lattice defects. However, alpha dosage is readily quantifiable during routine zircon U-Pb analyses and therefore its relationship to delta age may provide a useful first order correction to remove systematic biases from U-Pb ages. Raman spectroscopy could provide a more robust measure of radiation damage in the zircon lattice and could help to refine our understanding of the processes involved.

  9. Paleoproterozoic age of the Zeya Group, Stanovoy Complex of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy Superterrane (Central Asian mobile belt): Results of Sm-Nd isotopic and U-Th-Pb geochronological (LA-ICP-MS) analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, A. B.; Velikoslavinsky, S. D.; Kovach, V. P.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Skovitina, T. M.; Zagornaya, N. Yu.; Wang, K.-L.; Chung, S.-L.; Jahn, B.-M.

    2016-12-01

    Geochemical Sm-Nd isotope and U-Th-Pb geochronological (LA-ICP-MS) studies have demonstrated that the Zeya Group of the Stanovoy Complex of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy Superterrane (Central Asian fold belt) is not Paleoarchean, as was previously thought, but Paleoproterozoic in age.

  10. "Invisible" gold and PGE elements in synthetic crystals of sphalerite and covellite: A EPMA, LA-ICP-MS and XAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkacheev, Dmitry; Chareev, Dmitry; Abramova, Vera; Tagirov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Sphalerite and covellite are widespread minerals in the different genetic types of deposits and forms under the various conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the possible range of concentration and chemical state of Au and PGE (Pt, Pd, Rh) in sphalerite (Zn,Fe) S and covellite (CuS). These minerals were synthesized using gas transport and salt flux techniques. The crystals of ZnS were grown using the gas transport method at 850°C and the salt flux one using NaCl/KCl, CsCl/NaCl/KCl, and LiCl/RbCl eutectic mixtures at 850, 645 and 470°C, respectively. CuS crystals were synthesized using the salt flux method in RbCl/LiCl melt at 470 and 340°C. The trace metal activity was always controlled by the presence of pure metal or its sulfide, and, therefore, the concentration of these elements in synthesized phases represent the maximum possible value for given T/f(S2) synthesis parameters. The LA-ICP-MS and/or EPMA techniques were used to determine the Au concentration in synthesized phases. The concentration of Au in sphalerite, synthesized at 850°C with admixture of Cd, Se, In, Fe, and Mn, reached 0.3wt%, whereas the sphalerite cell parameter extremely increased up to 5.4161Å relatively to 5.4060 Å for pure ZnS. It was found that the observed high Au concentration is caused by the presence of In (2091±46 ppm Au in sample with Fe and In in comparison with 14±7 for Se-bearing ZnS, 94±12 ppm for Fe-Mn-bearing sphalerite, and 96±46 for Fe-bearing sphalerite. The concentration of Au in Fe-bearing sphalerite synthesized at 645°C does not exceed 5 ppm. Therefore, increase of temperature results in the increase of Au concentration in sphalerite. The concentration of Au in another Fe-bearing-sphalerite series synthesized using gas transport method at 850°C various from 200 to 500 ppm and depends on the iron content. This fact could be related to the oxidation state or Fe in ZnS-FeS solid solution series. The concentration of Pt and Pd, Rh in sphalerite is

  11. Investigating Compositional Variation of Ceramic Materials during the Late Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain - Preliminary LA-ICP-MS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Danielle J.; Niziolek, Lisa C.

    2015-10-01

    Investigations have been undertaken to assess the extent to which compositional analysis can be used to determine trade and interaction on the Great Hungarian Plain during the Late Neolithic. Ceramic and clay samples in the Körös and Berettyó River Basins were analyzed at the Elemental Analysis Facilities (EAF) at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL, USA. With the use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the aim of the project was to ascertain if micro-regional or site-specific compositional signatures could be determined in a region that is typically characterized as highly geologically homogenous. Identifying site-specific signatures enables archaeologists to model prehistoric interactions and, in turn, determine the relationship between interaction and various socio-cultural changes. This paper focuses on the preliminary compositional results of materials analyzed from three different sites across the Plain and the methodological implications for future anthropological research in the region.

  12. LA-ICP/MS Analysis of Plastics as a Method to Support Polymer Assay in the Assessment of Materials for Low Background Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Bliss, Mary; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP; Liezers, Martin

    2016-03-12

    Ultra low-background radiation measurements are essential to several large-scale physics investigations, such as those involving neutrinoless double-beta decay, dark matter detection (such as SuperCDMS), and solar neutrino detection. There is a need for electrically and thermally insulating dielectric materials with extremely low-background radioactivity for detector construction. This need is best met with plastics. Most currently available structural plastics have milliBecquerel-per-kilogram total intrinsic radioactivity. Modern low-level detection systems require a large variety of plastics with low microBecquerel-per-kilogram levels. However, the assay of polymer materials for extremely low levels of radioactive elements, uranium and thorium in particular, presents new challenges. It is only recently that any certified reference materials (CRMs) for toxic metals such as lead or cadmium in plastics have become available. However, there are no CRMs for uranium or thorium in thermoplastics. This paper discusses our assessment of the use of laser ablation (LA) for sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for analysis of polyethylene (PE) samples, with an emphasis on uranium determination. Using a CRM for lead in PE, we examine LA and ICP-MS parameters that determine whether the total atom efficiencies for uranium and lead are similar, and explore methods to use the lead content in a plastic as part of the process of estimating or determining the uranium content by LA-ICP-MS.

  13. Monitoring of platinum in a single hair by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) after cisplatin treatment for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozebon, Dirce; Dressler, Valderi L.; Matusch, Andreas; Becker, J. Sabine

    2008-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to quantify and monitor the concentration of Pt along a single strand of hair from a patient who had been treated with cisplatin as cytostatic drug. The sensitivity of the analytical method developed could be increased by total ablation of the hair cross-section compared to partial ablationE A low-noise intensity ratio was obtained along the strand, while the blank was negligible. The variation of the Pt signal with reference to each cisplatin dose was clearly observed. Home-made standards consisting of Pt-enriched hair strands served as calibrators and sulphur (measuring 34S+) was used as the internal reference element. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve for platinum was 0.9973 and the detection limit was 0.029 [mu]g g-1. The rate of hair growth between doses was constant. The mean relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for five replicates of single hair strands ranged from 15 to 22%. The maximum concentrations of Pt found along the hair strands were 26.9 ± 5.3, 14.7 ± 3.3, 20.9 ± 3.9 and 26.1 ± 3.8 [mu]g g-1, which correspond to four treatment of cisplatin administered to the patient at 3-week intervals.

  14. A comparison of the use of refractive index (RI) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the provenance establishment of glass bottles.

    PubMed

    May, Christopher D; Watling, R John

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been compared with the traditional method of refractive index (RI) measurement for the establishment of the provenance of glass bottles. Using the RI method alone, it is not possible to discriminate between certain glass bottles produced up to 18 days apart from a single manufacturing plant. Furthermore, variations in RI within a single bottle can be large enough to invalidate co-provenance establishment using this technique alone. Determination of the trace elemental composition of bottles collected over a 1-month period confirmed that minimal variation of trace metal distribution occurred within individual bottles made during this period. Therefore, the trace element composition of any fragment of glass from a broken bottle may be considered representative of the elemental composition of the entire bottle. In addition, statistical comparison of the distribution of approximately 38 of the 56 analytes that were determined established that it was possible to discriminate between two glass bottles manufactured in the same plant two hours apart. Using this methodology it has been possible to develop an analytical protocol to significantly improve the accurate comparison and provenance establishment of forensic glass evidence.

  15. In situ LA-ICP-MS and EPMA trace element characterization of Fe-Ti oxides from the phoscorite-carbonatite association at Phalaborwa, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Bolhar, Robert; Cawthorn, R. Grant; Frei, Dirk

    2016-11-01

    In situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are used to characterize magnetite and ilmenite of the phoscorite-carbonatite association at Phalaborwa. We trace the behavior of the compatible elements for two different generations of magnetite related to (1) a magmatic stage, with variable Ti-V content, which pre-dates the copper mineralization, and (2) a late hydrothermal, low-Ti, low-temperature event, mostly post-dating sulfide formation. Magnetite is shown to be a robust petrogenetic indicator; no influence on its chemical composition is detected from the intergrowth with the accompanying phases, including the interaction with coexisting sulfides. High spatial resolution EPMA characterize the tiny late-stage hydrothermal magnetite veins, as well as the ilmenite granular and lamellar exsolutions mostly developed in the magnetite from the phoscorite. By combining geochemical data with geothermo-oxybarometry calculations for magnetite-ilmenite pairs, we infer that the most primitive magnetite probably formed at oxygen fugacity above the nickel nickel oxide (NNO) buffer, revealing an evolutionary trend of decreasing temperature and oxygen fugacity. Geochemical similarity exists between magnetite from phoscorite and carbonatite, thus supporting a common mantle source for the phoscorite-carbonatite association.

  16. Rediscovering the palette of Alentejo (Southern Portugal) earth pigments: provenance establishment and characterization by LA-ICP-MS and spectra-colorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Green, R.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2009-09-01

    Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic murals across the Alentejo region since pre-historic times. An integrated methodology incorporating laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and spectra-colorimetric analysis (CIELAB coordinates and reflectance curves), complemented by XRD, WDXRF, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, and granulometric analysis, was used to characterize thirty-one Alentejo colored earths in an effort to correlate provenance with pigments properties. Data obtained from elemental analysis (major and trace) revealed a generic and similar elemental “fingerprint” that unable their distinction according to geographic provenance. Samples of weathered iron ore deposits derived from explored iron, copper, and sulfur mines are more easily discriminated using the chalcophilic (“sulfur-loving“) elements. Color analysis revealed a range of hues; olive-yellow to dark reddish-brown owing mainly to differences in the type and proportion of the color component present, independent of the accessory mineral.

  17. Title: The validation of Cryogenic Laser Ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) methods by comparison to laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS methods, for the analysis of metals in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R.; Darrah, T. H.; Horton, M.

    2009-12-01

    ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) are well established techniques for the analysis of metals in geological and environmental samples. LA-ICP-MS is commonly used in geological applications to determine the spatial distribution of metal concentrations at small sampling intervals (as low as 10 microns). However, measurement of metals in water-rich, soft biological tissues typically requires samples to be digested into solutions, obfuscating spatial variations in metal concentrations. The cryogenic cell solidifies (by freezing) soft tissue, allowing these tissues to be analyzed by laser ablation for spatial variations in metal concentration. The cell is temperature programmable and capable of maintaining a sample at any temperature between -35C and 25C throughout prolonged analysis. We validate the cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) method using NIST Glass SRM 612. We also compare metal concentration data analyzed by cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS), LA-ICP-MS, and solution based ICP-MS, for human and rodent brain samples. The cryogenic laser ablation cell will expand analytical capabilities for measuring spatial distribution and concentration of metals incorporated into biological tissues.

  18. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  19. LA-ICP-MS mineral chemistry of titanite and the geological implications for exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Leiluo; Bi, Xianwu; Hu, Ruizhong; Tang, Yongyong; Wang, Xinsong; Xu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The Jinshajiang-Red River alkaline igneous belt in the eastern Indian-Asian collision zone, of southwestern China, hosts abundant, economically important Cu-Mo-Au mineralization of Cenozoic age. Major- and trace-element compositions of titanites from representative Cu-mineralized intrusions determined by LA-ICP-MS show higher values for Fe2O3/Al2O3, ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, Ce/Ce*, (Ce/Ce*)/(Eu/Eu*), U, Th, Ta, Nb and Ga, and lower values for Al2O3, CaO, Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta and Sr than those for titanites from barren intrusions. Different ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, U, Th, Ta and Nb values of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were controlled mainly by the coexisting melt compositions. However, different Sr concentrations and negative Eu anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most probably caused by different degrees of crystallization of feldspar from melts. In addition, different Ga concentrations and positive Ce anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most likely caused by different magmatic fO2 conditions. Pronounced compositional differences of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions can provide a useful tool to help discriminate between ore-bearing and barren intrusions at an early stage of exploration, and, thus, have a potential application in exploration for porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, and to other areas.

  20. Coupling thermodynamic modeling and high-resolution in situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology: evidence for Barrovian metamorphism late in the Grenvillian history of southeastern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Travis; Gaidies, Fred; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Easton, R. Michael; Jones, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The Flinton Group is a greenschist to upper amphibolite facies package of metasediments in southeastern Ontario that was metamorphosed during the Ottawan Orogeny. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelitic mineral assemblages suggests an increase in peak conditions of metamorphism across the 40 km wide study area from 3.5 to 7.9 kbar and 540 to 715 °C. Garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the cores of compositionally zoned porphyroblasts reveals remarkably similar P-T conditions of initial crystallization at approximately 3.7-4.0 kbar and 512-520 °C, corresponding to a relatively high geothermal gradient of ca. 34-45 °C km-1. It is inferred from modeling and reaction textures that metamorphism was along Barrovian P-T paths. Major and trace element zoning in garnet from one sample records a complex growth history as evidenced by major and trace element zoning and the distribution of xenotime, allanite and monazite inclusions. High-resolution (6 μm) LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology performed on monazite in the rock matrix and included in the outer 150 μm of garnet rim-ward of a Y annulus revealed an age of 976 ± 4 Ma. The age is interpreted to reflect monazite growth at the expense of allanite and apatite late in garnet's growth history over the P-T interval 4.5-6.8 kbar and 540-640 °C. This new age estimate for near peak metamorphism fits well into the regional framework but is significantly younger than previously reported ages for Ottawan metamorphism. Based on microstructures this new age suggests that compressional tectonics were operating much later in the history of the Grenville of southeastern Ontario than previously thought.

  1. Quantitative lead determination in coating paint on children's outwear by LA-ICP-MS: a practical calibration strategy for solid samples.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Selda; Ellez, Sevinç Zeynep; Türkmen, Zeynep; Yayla, Murat; Cengiz, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a hazardous compound that affects the central nervous system in people, particularly children, and may cause some reversible and irreversible diseases. Legal regulations try to prevent the exposure from products especially produced for children such as coating paints, jewelry, toys, bed linen, textile, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the lead levels of coating paints on children׳s outwear selling in district bazaar by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and to specify the percent of non-complying samples. Here we described the solid matrix calibration method and confirmed the results with the microwave-assisted acid digestion method. Both comparative methods were validated by analysis of the certified reference materials (NIST SRM-612 glass matrix, NIST SRM-2582 powdered paint and ERM-EC681k) and bias% for accuracy and RSD% for precision were calculated lower than 6.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The recovery ranges of laser ablation and microwave-assisted acid digestion method for Pb were found to be between 88.2-98.1% and 95.3-101.3%, respectively. The limits of detection values were determined as 0.162 mg kg(-1) for direct sampling in the ablation chamber and 0.002 ng mL(-1) for aqueous solutions. Correlation result of 16 samples (r=0.99) examined in both methods was satisfactory. In coating paint samples, 14.65% of 198 (n=29) did not comply with the 90 mg kg(-1) lead limit according to regulation. Validated quantitative laser ablation method may be preferred to quickly and reliably determine the Pb levels in other solid samples as well as coating paints.

  2. Trace element distribution in silicate phases from the cumulate mafic xenoliths of Puy Beaunit (French Massif Central): A LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaiffe, D.; Berger, J.; Femenias, O.; Coussaert, N.

    2003-04-01

    A large diversity of xenoliths is present in the scoria cones of the quaternary Puy Beaunit (French Massif Central). Mafic xenoliths are abundant, they are mainly gabbronorites with minor pyroxenites and anorthositic gabbros. It has been shown recently that they derived from a deep layered complex emplaced at the crust-mantle boundary during Late Permian (257+/- 6Ma). These rocks still partly show magmatic structures. However, sub-solidus recrystallisation and pyrometamorphic overprinting (while the xenoliths were taken up by the lava) have partly blurred the magmatic primary textures. The xenoliths now have polygonal and coronitic textures, so intercumulus phases cannot be easily identified. The abundance of orthopyroxene (generally missing in alkaline series), the low content of REE and trace elements and the nearly flat spidergram profiles suggest that these xenoliths are of subalkaline affinity. They commonly show mm- to cm- scale layering indicative of a cumulate origin. Positive (in whole rock plagioclase-rich gabbros) and negative (in pyroxene-rich gabbros) Eu anomalies also argue for a cumulate origin. The trace element contents (REE, Zr, Hf, Rb, Sr, Nb, Ta, Ba) of the main silicate phases (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and the very fine-grained coronites) have been obtained by LA-ICP-MS. Two processes control the REE content of these mafic xenoliths: 1) the degree of differentiation, which is indicated by the Mg# of the cumulus orthopyroxene; 2) the proportion of trapped interstitial liquid which is indicated by the content of highly incompatible elements (U, Th, Zr and Rb) in whole rock analyses. Plagioclases and orthopyroxenes have relatively low REE contents compared to clinopyroxene and coronitic association suggesting that they are the cumulus phases. High REE and trace element contents of clinopyroxenes and of the very fine-grained coronites point to an intercumulus origin. Moreover, in situ REE patterns show that the very fine

  3. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  4. LA-ICP-MS heavy metal analyses of fish scales from sediments of the Oxbow Lake Certak of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, M.; Kalvoda, J.; Bábek, O.; Brzobohatý, R.; Holoubek, I.; Kanický, V.; Skoda, R.

    2009-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were studied in the scales of recent and subrecent (2-25 years old) fish buried in the oxbow lake sediments of the Morava River. The samples were taken from two cores up to 4-m deep and analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and an electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The results were compared with heavy metal concentrations of bulk samples of the embedding sediment. The study has revealed substantial differences in heavy metal contents existing between the recent and subrecent fish scales documenting an extreme rapidity of the diagenesis/fossilization processes. The most apparent features of the early fossilization include the quick loss of the mucous envelope, collagen and magnesium and an enormous increase in the heavy metal concentrations in particular iron, which is connected with a colour change. The variations in heavy metal contents in fish scales within a sample are attributed to variations in heavy metal content in the environment and variable amounts of organic matter in the embedding sediment. In contrast to the contamination of the embedding sediment, no general increase in heavy metal concentrations in fish scales was observed down to the cores. It is inferred that the rapid sorption stabilizes the biologic hydroxyapatite of the fish scales, which thus rapidly attain a thermodynamic equilibrium with the embedding water-saturated sediment. The results show that the processes of sorption, fossilization and stabilization of hydroxyapatite can act very quickly over a time scale of several years and represent thus a great advantage in the preservation of the original signals of the ancient environments.

  5. Reproducibility of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) measurements in mussel shells and comparison with micro-drill sampling and solution ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Phung, Anh Tuan; Baeyens, Willy; Leermakers, Martine; Goderis, Steven; Vanhaecke, Frank; Gao, Yue

    2013-10-15

    The accumulation of trace elements (Mg, Mn, Sr, Ba) in Unio pictorum L. mussel shells from Lake Balaton has been assessed using a Laser Ablation (LA) system coupled to either a quadrupole-based or a sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP - MS), as well as by a combination of micro-drill sampling and solution ICP-MS. The LA-ICP-MS measurements were carried out in the holes made by the micro-drilling system. The longitudinal concentration profiles obtained with the different methods show similar patterns. However, the absolute concentrations determined at individual spots (holes) can be quite different. Especially Ba shows erratic peaks at a very small spatial scale. A paired, two-sample t-test between LA-ICP-MS longitudinal profiles and between LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill/solution ICP-MS profiles indicates that, in most cases, there is no significant difference between the concentration profiles of Ba, Mg, Mn and Sr. Average shell concentrations of Mg, Mn, Sr and Ba, as obtained by LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill/solution ICP-MS, compare well with bulk shell concentrations as obtained by acid digestion/ICP-MS of larger shell pieces. Next to the four elements mentioned above, also the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn could be determined by bulk shell analysis. The element concentrations in 11 shells, all sampled at the same site, show a relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2% (Ni) and 46% (Zn). LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill solution ICP-MS are not sensitive enough for the determination of ultra-trace elements in Lake Balaton's mussel shells. We estimated the amount of shell material necessary to determine Ni, Pb, Cr and Cu by micro-drilling ICP-MS (for a concentration that equals 3 times their limit of detection) at, respectively, 0.04, 0.82, 2.7 and 0.4 mg, while the amount sampled by micro-drilling is about 0.06 mg.

  6. Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi (Kola Peninsula, Russia). A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassinnes, S.; Balaganskaya, E.; Demaiffe, D.

    2005-11-01

    The nature of the petrogenetic links between carbonatites and associated silicate rocks is still under discussion (i.e., [ Gittins J., Harmer R.E., 2003. Myth and reality of the carbonatite-silicate rock "association". Period di Mineral. 72, 19-26.]). In the Paleozoic Kola alkaline province (NW Russia), the carbonatites are spatially and temporally associated to ultramafic cumulates (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite and dunite) and alkaline silicate rocks of the ijolite-melteigite series [ Kogarko, L.N., 1987. Alkaline rocks of the eastern part of the Baltic Shield (Kola Peninsula). In: Fitton, J.G., and Upton, B.G.J. (eds). Alkaline igneous rocks. Geol. Soc. Special Publication 30, 531-544; Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A., Orlova, M.P., Woolley, A.R., 1995. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 2. Former USSR. Chapman and Hall, London, 225 pp; Verhulst, A., Balaganskya, E., Kirnarsky, Y., Demaiffe, D., 2000. Petrological and geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) characteristics of the Paleozoic Kovdor ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia). Lithos 51, 1-25; Dunworth, E.A., Bell, K., 2001. The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia; isotopic and geochemical evidence for a multi-source evolution. J. Petrol. 42, 377-405; Woolley, A.R., 2003. Igneous silicate rocks associated with carbonatites: their diversity, relative abundances and implications for carbonatite genesis. Period. di Mineral. 72, 9-17)]. In the small (≈ 20 km 2) Vuoriyarvi massif, apatite is typically a liquidus phase during the magmatic evolution and so it can be used to test genetic relationships. Trace elements contents have been obtained for both whole rocks and apatite (by LA-ICP-MS). The apatites define a single continuous chemical evolution marked by an increase in REE and Na (belovite-type of substitution, i.e., 2Ca 2+ = Na + + REE 3+). This evolution possibly reflects a fractional crystallisation process of a single batch of isotopically

  7. Effects of hydrothermal alteration on Pb in the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field, ODP Leg 193, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: A LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick; Scott, Steven D.; Gorton, Michael P.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Halter, Werner

    2007-09-01

    The conventional model of leaching volcanic rocks as a source of metals in a seafloor hydrothermal systems has been tested by examining the behavior of Pb and other trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. ODP Leg 193 drill sites 1188 (Snowcap) and 1189 (Roman Ruins) on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus Basin offshore eastern Papua New Guinea provide a unique three-dimensional window into an active back-arc hydrothermal system. We investigate by means of a LA-ICP-MS microbeam technique the capacity of Pb to be leached from a host volcanic rock exposed to various types and intensities of alteration. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that utilized bulk analytical techniques but provide a more detailed explanation of the processes. Fresh representative dacitic lavas from the Pual Ridge have an average whole rock Pb content of 5.2 ppm, an average interstitial glass Pb content of 5.6 ppm and an average plagioclase Pb content of 1.0 ppm. Altered matrix samples have highly variable Pb values ranging from 0 to 52.4 ppm. High Pb values in altered samples are associated with a low temperature chlorite and clay mineral assemblage, in some cases overprinted by a high temperature (up to 350 °C) silica-rich "bleaching" alteration. Only the most highly altered matrix samples have REE patterns that differ from the fresh Pual Ridge dacite. This may represent either different lava histories or alteration characteristics that have affected normally immobile REEs. Altered samples with the highest Pb values have similar REE patterns to those of the local unaltered lavas. They are compositionally similar to typical Pual Ridge dacites indicating a genetic relationship between the main regional volcanic suite and the subseafloor hydrothermally altered, Pb-enriched material. Relative loss/gain for Pb between the analyzed altered samples and a calculated precursor show a maximum relative gain of 901%. Samples with relative Pb gain from both drill sites are

  8. LA-ICP-MS mapping of olivine from the Brahin and Brenham meteorites: Complex elemental distributions in the pallasite olivine precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Mallmann, Guilherme; Halfpenny, Angela

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the early history of olivine from the Main-Group pallasites Brahin and Brenham, we have spatially mapped their trace-element distributions using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Brahin olivine interiors contain ∼100-200 μm patches enriched in Cr, Al, Ti, V, Sc and Ga, separated by linear enrichments of P; these structures bear no relation to current crystal morphologies. Rather, cross-cutting relationships suggest they predate olivine-metal mixing. Brenham olivine also has internal variations for these elements. By contrast, Ni and Co concentrations in olivine from both meteorites decrease near crystal margins, as expected for freezing-in of profiles formed during diffusive re-equilibration with metal during cooling. Brenham olivine also has decreasing Al, Cr and Ti near the margin. Correlations between concentrations of Cr and Al exist for individual Brahin olivine grains, but do not hold over multiple grains, indicating a heterogeneous precursor. Al and Ti are correlated over multiple grains in Brahin, interpreted as Ti cations decorating pre-existing Al-defects. In Brenham olivine, similar geochemical trends exist, but the Cr-Al relationship probably represents both grain margin effects and pre-existing internal heterogeneity. The preservation of structure for elements which are normally fast diffusers in olivine hinges on coupled substitutions involving Al, which along with P diffuses much more slowly than most other elements under some conditions. Al concentrations in olivine are low and variable (3-33 ppm) which is inconsistent with crystallisation from a normal silicate melt; Al-in-olivine thermometers indicate that pallasite olivine was formed in a low-temperature environment. Following its delivery to the magma ocean/core-mantle boundary, Al-P systematics were not substantially modified. Assuming diffusivities for Al and P that are similar to Si (since they reside in the same crystallographic site

  9. Extreme enrichment of Se, Te, PGE and Au in Cu sulfide microdroplets: evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, David A.; Keays, Reid R.; McDonald, Iain; Williams, Megan R.

    2015-12-01

    The Platinova Reef, in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a magmatic Cu-PGE-Au sulfide deposit formed in the latter stages of magmatic differentiation. As is characteristic with such deposits, it contains a low volume of sulfide, displays peak metal offsets and is Cu rich but Ni poor. However, even for such deposits, the Platinova Reef contains extremely low volumes of sulfide and the highest Pd and Au tenor sulfides of any magmatic ore deposit. Here, we present the first LA-ICP-MS analyses of sulfide microdroplets from the Platinova Reef, which show that they have the highest Se concentrations (up to 1200 ppm) and lowest S/Se ratios (190-700) of any known magmatic sulfide deposit and have significant Te enrichment. In addition, where sulfide volume increases, there is a change from high Pd-tenor microdroplets trapped in situ to larger, low tenor sulfides. The transition between these two sulfide regimes is marked by sharp peaks in Au, and then Te concentration, followed by a wider peak in Se, which gradually decreases with height. Mineralogical evidence implies that there is no significant post-magmatic hydrothermal S loss and that the metal profiles are essentially a function of magmatic processes. We propose that to generate these extreme precious and semimetal contents, the sulfides must have formed from an anomalously metal-rich package of magma, possibly formed via the dissolution of a previously PGE-enriched sulfide. Other processes such as kinetic diffusion may have also occurred alongside this to produce the ultra-high tenors. The characteristic metal offset pattern observed is largely controlled by partitioning effects, producing offset peaks in the order Pt+Pd>Au>Te>Se>Cu that are entirely consistent with published D values. This study confirms that extreme enrichment in sulfide droplets can occur in closed-system layered intrusions in situ, but this will characteristically form ore deposits that are so low in sulfide that they do

  10. Temporal and Spatial Fluctuations in Ancestral Northern Cascade Arc Magmatism from New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, I. S.; Mullen, E.; Jean-Louis, P.; Tepper, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Mt. Baker and the adjacent Chilliwack batholith (MBC focus) in NW Washington preserve the longest magmatic record in the Cascade Arc, providing an excellent natural laboratory for examining the spatial, temporal and geochemical evolution of Cascade magmatism and links to tectonic processes. We present new U-Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS ages for 14 samples from MBC and neighboring regions of the north Cascades. The new results are up to 8 Myr different from previous K-Ar ages, illustrating the need for new age determinations in the Cascades. A maximum age of 34.74±0.24 Ma (2σ) (Post Creek stock) is consistent with 35-40 Ma ages for arc inception in the southern Cascades. The most voluminous MBC plutons cluster at 32-29 Ma, consistent with an early flare-up that also coincides with intrusion of the Index batholith farther south (2 samples at 33.26±0.19, 33.53±0.15 Ma). This flare-up is absent in the northernmost Cascades where the oldest pluton (Fall Creek stock) is 6.646±0.046 Ma, 4 Myr younger than previously cited. Earliest Cascade magmatism is progressively younger to the north of MBC, possibly tracing the northerly passage of the slab edge. MBC activity was continuous to 22.75±0.17 Ma (Whatcom Arm), marking the initiation of an 11 Myr hiatus. Magmatism resumed at 11.33±0.08 Ma (Indian Creek) and continued to the modern Mt. Baker cone, defining a pattern of southwesterly migration over ~55 km that may be attributable to slab rollback and arc rotation (e.g. Wells & McCaffrey 2013). Uniformity of the rate and direction of migration implies that rollback and rotation began at least 11 Myr ago. Post-hiatus magmas show distinct geochemical and petrologic characteristics including a major Pb isotopic shift. The 2.430±0.016 Ma Lake Ann stock contains 4.2 Ma zircon antecrysts, recording prolonged activity in that area. The 1.165±0.013 Ma Kulshan caldera ignimbrite contains ~200 Ma inherited zircons that may provide the first direct record of Wrangellian basement beneath

  11. Did the massive magnetite "lava flows" of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite composition by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-06-01

    The El Laco magnetite deposits consist of more than 98 % magnetite but show field textures remarkably similar to mafic lava flows. Therefore, it has long been suggested that they represent a rare example of an effusive Fe oxide liquid. Field and petrographic evidence, however, suggest that the magnetite deposits represent replacement of andesite flows and that the textures are pseudomorphs. We determined the trace element content of magnetite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from various settings at El Laco and compared them with magnetite from both igneous and hydrothermal environments. This new technique allows us to place constraints on the conditions under which magnetite in these supposed magnetite "lava flows" formed. The trace element content of magnetite from the massive magnetite samples is different to any known magmatic magnetite, including primary magnetite phenocrysts from the unaltered andesite host rocks at El Laco. Instead, the El Laco magnetite is most similar in composition to hydrothermal magnetite from high-temperature environments (>500 °C), such as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry-Cu deposits. The magnetite trace elements from massive magnetite are characterised by (1) depletion in elements considered relatively immobile in hydrothermal fluids (e.g. Ti, Al, Cr, Zr, Hf and Sc); (2) enrichment in elements that are highly incompatible with magmatic magnetite (rare earth elements (REE), Si, Ca, Na and P) and normally present in very low abundance in magmatic magnetite; (3) high Ni/Cr ratios which are typical of magnetite from hydrothermal environments; and (4) oscillatory zoning of Si, Ca, Mg, REE and most high field strength elements, and zoning truncations indicating dissolution, similar to that formed in hydrothermal Fe skarn deposits. In addition, secondary magnetite in altered, brecciated host rock, forming disseminations and veins, has the same composition as magnetite from the massive

  12. A powerful tool for assessing distribution and fate of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soils: integration of laser ablation spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on thin sections with soil micromorphology and geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Barca, Donatella

    2017-03-02

    The dynamic behavior and inherent spatial heterogeneity, at different hierarchic levels, of the soil system often make the spatial distribution of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) quite complex and difficult to assess correctly. This work demonstrates that the application of laser ablation spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to soil thin sections constitutes an ancillary powerful tool to well-established analytical methods for tracing the behavior and fate of potential soil contaminants at the microsite level. It allowed to discriminate the contribution of PTMs in distinct soil sub-components, such as parent rock fragments, neoformed, clay-enriched or humified matrix, and specific pedogenetic features of illuvial origin (unstained or iron-stained clay coatings) even at very low contents. PTMs were analyzed in three soil profiles located in the Muravera area (Sardinia, Italy), where several, now abandoned mines were exploited. Recurrent trends of increase of many PTMs from rock to pedogenic matrix and to illuvial clay coatings, traced by LA-ICP-MS compositional data, revealed a pedogenetic control on metal fractionation and distribution, based on adsorption properties of clay minerals, iron oxyhydroxides or organic matter, and downprofile illuviation processes. The main PTMs patterns coupled with SEM-EDS analyses suggest that heavy metal-bearing mineral grains were sourced from the mine plants, in addition to the natural sedimentary input. The interplay between soil-forming processes and geomorphic dynamics significantly contributed to the PTMs spatial distribution detected in the different pedogenetic horizons and soil features.

  13. Application of dried-droplets deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks for quantitative LA-ICP-MS imaging of biologically relevant minor and trace elements in tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Bonta, Maximilian; Hegedus, Balazs; Limbeck, Andreas

    2016-02-18

    In this work, a novel calibration approach for minor and trace element quantification in LA-ICP-MS imaging of biological tissues is presented. Droplets of aqueous standard solutions are deposited onto pre-cut pieces of filter paper, allowed to dry, and sputtered with a thin gold layer for use as pseudo-internal standard. Analysis of the standards using LA-ICP-MS is performed using radial line-scans across the filters. In contrast to conventionally used preparation of matrix-matched tissue standards, the dried-droplet approach offers a variety of advantages: The standards are easy to prepare, no characterization of the standards using acid digestion is required, no handling of biological materials is necessary, and the concentration range, as well the number of investigated analytes is almost unlimited. The proposed quantification method has been verified using homogenized tissue standards with known analyte concentrations before being applied to a human malignant mesothelioma biopsy from a patient who had not received any chemotherapeutic treatment. Elemental distribution images were acquired at a lateral resolution of 40 μm per pixel, limits of detection ranging from 0.1 μg g(-1) (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) to 13.2 μg g(-1) (K) were reached.

  14. Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan" by Hisatoshi Ito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of eight zircon reference materials and synthetic zircon-hafnon end-members indicate that corrections for abundance sensitivity and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon. Other polyatomic interferences in the mass range 223-233 amu are insignificant. When corrected for abundance sensitivity and interferences, activity ratios of (230Th)/(238U) for the zircon reference materials we used average 1.001 ± 0.010 (1σ error; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.45; n = 8). This includes the 91500 and Plešovice zircons, which were deemed unsuitable for calibration of (230Th)/(238U) by Ito (2014). Uranium series zircon ages generated by LA-ICP-MS without mitigating (e.g., by high mass resolution) or correcting for abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences on 230Th such as those presented by Ito (2014) are potentially unreliable.

  15. Preparation of calibration materials for microanalysis of Ti minerals by direct fusion of synthetic and natural materials: experience with LA-ICP-MS analysis of some important minor and trace elements in ilmenite and rutile.

    PubMed

    Odegård, M; Mansfeld, J; Dundas, S H

    2001-08-01

    Calibration materials for microanalysis of Ti minerals have been prepared by direct fusion of synthetic and natural materials by resistance heating in high-purity graphite electrodes. Synthetic materials were FeTiO3 and TiO2 reagents doped with minor and trace elements; CRMs for ilmenite, rutile, and a Ti-rich magnetite were used as natural materials. Problems occurred during fusion of Fe2O3-rich materials, because at atmospheric pressure Fe2O3 decomposes into Fe3O4 and O2 at 1462 degrees C. An alternative fusion technique under pressure was tested, but the resulting materials were characterized by extensive segregation and development of separate phases. Fe2O3-rich materials were therefore fused below this temperature, resulting in a form of sintering, without conversion of the materials into amorphous glasses. The fused materials were studied by optical microscopy and EPMA, and tested as calibration materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, equipped with laser ablation for sample introduction (LA-ICP-MS). It was demonstrated that calibration curves based on materials of rutile composition, within normal analytical uncertainty, generally coincide with calibration curves based on materials of ilmenite composition. It is, therefore, concluded that LA-ICP-MS analysis of Ti minerals can with advantage be based exclusively on calibration materials prepared for rutile, thereby avoiding the special fusion problems related to oxide mixtures of ilmenite composition. It is documented that sintered materials were in good overall agreement with homogeneous glass materials, an observation that indicates that in other situations also sintered mineral concentrates might be a useful alternative for instrument calibration, e.g. as alternative to pressed powders.

  16. Quantification of Al2O3 nanoparticles in human cell lines applying inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (neb-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) and flow cytometry-based methods.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Steffi; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Kühnel, Dana; Busch, Wibke

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantify and compare the uptake of aluminum oxide nanoparticles of three different sizes into two human cell lines (skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and lung epithelial cells (A549)), three analytical methods were applied: digestion followed by nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (neb-ICP-MS), direct laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS), and flow cytometry. Light and electron microscopy revealed an accumulation and agglomeration of all particle types within the cell cytoplasm, whereas no particles were detected in the cell nuclei. The internalized Al2O3 particles exerted no toxicity in the two cell lines after 24 h of exposure. The smallest particles with a primary particle size (xBET) of 14 nm (Alu1) showed the lowest sedimentation velocity within the cell culture media, but were calculated to have settled completely after 20 h. Alu2 (xBET = 111 nm) and Alu3 (xBET = 750 nm) were calculated to reach the cell surface after 7 h and 3 min, respectively. The internal concentrations determined with the different methods lay in a comparable range of 2-8 µg Al2O3/cm(2) cell layer, indicating the suitability of all methods to quantify the nanoparticle uptake. Nevertheless, particle size limitations of analytical methods using optical devices were demonstrated for LA-ICP-MS and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the consideration and comparison of particle properties as parameters for particle internalization revealed the particle size and the exposure concentration as determining factors for particle uptake.

  17. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  18. Determinations of Platinum-Group Element (PGE) Distributions Using Whole-rock, SEM, EMPA, Image Analysis, and LA-ICP-MS Techniques in the Kelly Lake Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit, Sudbury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huminicki, M. A.; Cabri, L.; Sylvester, P. J.; Tubrett, M. N.

    2004-05-01

    The Kelly Lake deposit is a Ni-Cu-PGE offset-style deposit that occurs at the south end of the Copper Cliff Offset (CCO), Sudbury. The deposit consists of four ore bodies (710, 720, 725, and 740) that were first identified in 1997 and contain a published 10.5 million tonnes of ore at 1.77% Ni, 1.34% Cu, and 3.6 g/tonne combined Pt + Pd + Au. The ore bodies have a sub-vertical orientation and plunge to the south. The CCO consists of an inclusion-and sulfide-poor marginal zone of quartz diorite (QD) and an inclusion- and sulfide-rich core of QD. The sulfide assemblage is similar to other deposits along the CCO, comprising pentlandite (Pn), pyrrhotite (Po), and chalcopyrite (Ccp) with minor pyrite (Py) and trace amounts of galena [PbS]. The platinum-group mineral assemblage consists of michenerite [(Pd,Pt)BiTe], sperrylite [PtAs2], and microinclusions of hollingworthite [(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS] and ruarsite [RuAsS], which are associated with the bismuth-telluride, tsumoite [BiTe] and the sulfarsenide, cobaltite-gersdorfitte [(Co,Fe)AsS-NiAsS]. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of the platinum-group elements (PGE) within the Kelly Lake ores. Analyses were carried out using a combination of: 1) lead and nickel-sulfide fire-assay for whole rock PGE abundances; 2) scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM) image analysis, quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS), and quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) to determine size, shape, location, association, and mineral chemistry of discrete platinum-group minerals; and 3) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to determine low-level PGE contents in solid solution and as microinclusions within the sulfides and sulfarsenides. SEM, EPMA, and LA-ICP-MS results indicate that the PGE occur: 1) primarily as discrete PGM (sperrylite and michenerite), 2) in solid-solution in cobaltite-gersdorfitte, and 3) as micro-inclusions of hollingworthite and ruarsite in

  19. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  20. Provenance of lateritic bauxite deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen area, Northern Guizhou Province, China: LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Huang, Zhilong; Fan, Hongpeng; Ye, Lin; Jin, Zhongguo

    2013-07-01

    The provenance of the large and super-large scale bauxite deposits developed in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen (WZD) alumina metallogenic province in the Yangtze Block of South China is poorly understood. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from bauxite ores and the underlying Hanjiadian Group in the WZD area provide new constrains on the provenance of the WZD bauxite and provide new insight on the bauxite ore-forming process. The ages of the detrital zircons in the bauxites and the zircons in the Hanjiadian Group are similar suggesting that the bauxites are genetically related to the Hanjiadian sediments. The detrital zircon populations of the four samples studied show four primary age peaks: 2600-2400 Ma, 1900-1700 Ma, 1300-700 Ma and 700-400 Ma. The age distribution of detrital zircons indicates that they are probably derived from various sources including Neoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Paleoproterozoic, Archean and some minor Paleozoic sources. The most abundant age population contains a continuous range of ages from 1300 to 700 Ma, ages consistent with subduction-related magmatic activities (1000-740 Ma) along the western margin of the Yangtze Block and the worldwide Grenville orogenic events (1300-1000 Ma). Thus, it is suggested that the main provenances of the WZD bauxite and the Hanjiadian Group are the Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western Yangtze Block and the Grenville-age igneous rocks in the southern Cathaysia Block. In addition, this work verifies that the global Grenville orogenic events and subduction-related magmatic activities associated with the Yangtze Block had a significant influence on the formation of the WZD bauxite deposits.

  1. Tectonic attribution of the Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Western North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the Langshan basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Bo; Kong, Ling-Jie

    2016-09-01

    The Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia, China, is situated on the conjunction of the Alxa Block in the west, the northern North China Craton (NCC) in the east, and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the north, but its tectonic attribution has long been in debate, because the Alxa Block may be an independent Precambrian block from the NCC and the boundary between the two blocks may lie along the Bayanwulashan, to the west of the Langshan, instead of around the Helanshan area, to the east of the Langshan. In this study, new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of four gneisses, one amphibolite, and three granites, combined with previously published age data from Langshan basement rocks, indicate that the Langshan area may be subdivided into the Main Langshan, to the north of a series of NNW-trending faults, and the Southern Langshan in the south. The Main Langshan basement rocks were mainly formed during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with five major stages of 2.7 Ga (2686 Ma), 2.6 Ga (2619-2563 Ma), 2.5 Ga (2534-2491 Ma), 1.95 Ga (1969-1938 Ma), and 1.7 Ga (1672 Ma). These stages are largely consistent with the major tectonothermal events of the northern NCC during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic but significantly different from the principal formation period (ca. 2.5-1.9 Ga) of Alxa basement rocks. The Southern Langshan is characterized by the presence of late Paleoproterozoic ( 1.9 Ga) and Neoproterozoic ( 0.9 Ga) rocks, and the latter is consistent with the Neoproterozoic magmatism in central Alxa Block, which might be formed in a orogenesis-related compressional environment, in contrast to contemporaneous rift-related extensional tectonic setting within the NCC. Therefore, the Main Langshan and the Southern Langshan are most likely closely related to the northern NCC and the Alxa Block, respectively.

  2. Sampling strategies for the analysis of glass fragments by LA-ICP-MS Part I. Micro-homogeneity study of glass and its application to the interpretation of forensic evidence.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José R

    2005-08-15

    within different depths of the fragments. Single shot (one laser pulse per analysis) was also evaluated and its limitations for the forensic analysis of glass are also presented. The results show that float glass is homogenous even at the micro-range level allowing LA-ICP-MS as an alternative technique to perform elemental analysis of glass. However, the variation of elemental composition of headlamps and containers is larger over the source than the instrumental variation due to inherent heterogeneity and therefore specific statistical methods are recommended to compare the glass samples.

  3. Characterization of depositional age and structure of sedimentary successions by U-Pb TIMS and LA-ICP-MS dating of volcanic horizons and detrital zircons: an example from the western Trondheim Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Grenne, Tor; Corfu, Fernando; Eivind Augland, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Revealing the absolute depositional age of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions represents a long-lasting challenge in Earth Sciences. Lacking age control hampers the correct interpretation of the temporal evolution of depositional systems, and, if deformed, of the architecture of fold-and-thrust belts. Dating of detrital zircons within clastic sedimentary successions has over the past decades become a popular method to approximate the absolute depositional age and to characterize the source areas of such rocks. If combined with other geochronological information, such as dating of contemporaneous volcanic horizons, a much better resolution of the stratigraphy and structure of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions can be achieved. The western Trondheim nappe complex in the central Scandinavian Caledonides is a classical area in this respect. On top of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ophiolitic fragments, various volcanic, volcano-clastic and clastic successions tell a complex story of island-arc formation, ocean closure and continent collision. Several famous fossil horizons indicate deposition during the Middle to Upper Ordovician (ca. 470-445 Ma), but large areas lack an absolute age control and several contrasting stratigraphic schemes and structural interpretations have been presented in the past. In this contribution we present the results of LA-ICP-MS detrital U-Pb zircon dating of clastic horizons as well as U-Pb TIMS zircon dating of volcanic horizons and magmatic clasts in conglomerates in order to characterize the depositional age and structure of the western Trondheim nappe complex in more detail. Together with field observations, including way up criteria, the zircon data enable significant revisions of existing stratigraphic and structural models. At least four (volcano-)sedimentary successions can be distinguished above the ca. 480-485 Ma greenstones: (1) ca. 470-463 Ma shales, limestones and andesitic porphyrites (Hølonda and Fanabekken

  4. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon ages from the Cambrian of Al Qarqaf Arch, central-western Libya: Provenance of the West Gondwanan sand sea at the dawn of the early Palaeozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altumi, Muftah Mahmud; Elicki, Olaf; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Sagawe, Anja; Gärtner, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Detrital zircons from various stratigraphic levels of the sandstone-dominated Cambrian Hasawnah Formation of the Al Qarqaf Arch type area (central-western Libya, Saharan Metacraton area) were geochronologically investigated for the first time by LA-ICP-MS techniques for U, Th, and Pb isotopes. Of 720 analyzed grains, 329 were concordant. Of the total, about 60% of the U-Pb zircon ages are Neoproterozoic and earliest Cambrian and cluster at c. 700-680, 670-650, 615-610, 590, 570-560, and c. 540-525 Ma. These zircon populations are interpreted as detrital material derived from the Pan-African and possibly to a smaller proportion from the Cadomian orogen situated marginal to northwestern Gondwana. A few slightly older Neoproterozoic ages (c. 950-750 Ma) point to rifting events related to the dispersal of the Rodinia supercontinent. A minority of zircons became formed during the configuration of Rodinia and cluster around the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary (1039 ± 11, 1006 ± 12 and 993 ± 13 Ma). Further, some early Mesoproterozoic zircon ages had been found (1592 ± 39 and 1475 ± 20 Ma). The potential source area for the Mesoproterozoic zircons is interpreted to have been far distant from the Al Qarqaf Arch, probably concealed within the Arabian-Nubian Shield or situated in Chad, or in the Congo and Tanzania cratons. There is still no evidence for the existence of massive Mesoproterozoic crust in the Saharan Metacraton area. A considerable proportion (28%) of zircons represents Palaeoproterozoic populations at c. 2.4-2.3 Ga, and c. 2.2-1.6 Ga. Less than 5% of all zircons are Archaean in age (c. 3.4-3.25 Ga, c. 2.95-2.7 Ga, c. 2.6-2.5 Ga). A potential source area for Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean zircon grains is the West African Craton and the western part of the Saharan Metacraton. The best candidates for the main source region for the sandstones of the Hasawnah Formation in the Al Qarqaf Arch type area are the Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian orogens of

  5. A LA-ICP-MS study of minerals in the Rocche Rosse magmatic enclaves: Evidence of a mafic input triggering the latest silicic eruption of Lipari Island (Aeolian Arc, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davì, Marcella; De Rosa, Rosanna; Barca, Donatella

    2009-05-01

    The volcanic products of Lipari Island (Aeolian Arc, Italy) younger than 10 ka are mostly aphyric rhyolitic pumices and obsidians emitted during unusual strombolian-type eruptions, which ended with the emplacement of lava flows. The last volcanic activity on the island dates back to 1230 ± 40 AD, with the extrusion of Rocche Rosse (RR) obsidian lava flow. Recently, mafic enclaves of latitic to trachytic composition have been identified and an evolution process between these enclaves and the rhyolitic magma has been documented in detail [Davì, M., 2007. The Rocche Rosse rhyolitic lava flow (Lipari, Aeolian Islands): magmatological and volcanological aspects. Plinius, supplement to the European Journal of Mineralogy 33, 1-8]. In this work textural and trace-element investigation of mineral phases of the RR enclaves, such as crystals of clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and biotite, was carried out to delineate the most recent feeding system of the island, since such a reconstruction could be significant in terms of hazard forecasting. The results indicate that most of the mineral phases are reversely or oscillatory zoned with respect to both major and trace elements, suggesting an early crystallization under low fO 2 conditions from melts of intermediate composition, followed by a later growth from a more mafic (presumably shoshonitic-basaltic) magma than that from which their cores crystallized. Crystals of magnesium-rich pyroxene and forsteritic-rich olivine are indicative of the presence of this shoshonitic basaltic magma. Based on microanalytical data, it is suggested here that the feeding system of recent Lipari volcanic activity was characterized by a shoshonitic-basaltic magma originating from a deep reservoir, which may have evolved and stopped in the crust, generating zoned magma chambers at different depths, in which latitic and rhyolitic magmas reside. The sudden arrival of a new input of mafic melt may have interacted with these

  6. Telescience workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.; Doyle, Dee; Haines, Richard F.; Slocum, Michael

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Telescience Testbed Pilot Program, the Universities Space Research Association/ Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (USRA/RIACS) proposed to support remote communication by providing a network of human/machine interfaces, computer resources, and experimental equipment which allows: remote science, collaboration, technical exchange, and multimedia communication. The telescience workstation is intended to provide a local computing environment for telescience. The purpose of the program are as follows: (1) to provide a suitable environment to integrate existing and new software for a telescience workstation; (2) to provide a suitable environment to develop new software in support of telescience activities; (3) to provide an interoperable environment so that a wide variety of workstations may be used in the telescience program; (4) to provide a supportive infrastructure and a common software base; and (5) to advance, apply, and evaluate the telescience technolgy base. A prototype telescience computing environment designed to bring practicing scientists in domains other than their computer science into a modern style of doing their computing was created and deployed. This environment, the Telescience Windowing Environment, Phase 1 (TeleWEn-1), met some, but not all of the goals stated above. The TeleWEn-1 provided a window-based workstation environment and a set of tools for text editing, document preparation, electronic mail, multimedia mail, raster manipulation, and system management.

  7. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  8. LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

    2010-05-01

    The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çamlıkaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusive Complex) is represented by foliated amphibolites, cut by granitic veins and, together, cut by swarms of basic-silicic dykes that postdate regional metamorphism and related deformation. A granitic vein yielded a concordia age of 325.4 ± 2.8 Ma (Visean-Serpukhovian). Slice 2 was intruded by two small tonalitic bodies, one of which yielded a concordant age of 179.8 ± 1 Ma (Toarcian). Slice 3 above this begins with granulite-facies gneiss and schist (Karadağ Metamorphics). A representative 1 m-wide meta-granitic stock within paragneiss

  9. Introduction to RTM Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Several successful experiments were run using different types of resins and fibers for both RTM and VARTM processes. 3. According to DSC measures...INTRODUCTION TO RTM WORKSTATION Jeffrey M. Lawrence Mathieu Devillard Peter Friede Dr. Suresh G. Advani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction To RTM Workstation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  10. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  11. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  12. An innovative workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    A workstation was developed which uses the operator's eye movements and position to determine the placement of the cursor on a computer screen. A brainwave sensing technology overview and an introduction to the known rhythms or signals generated by the brain are given. This is followed by a descriptive explanation of the Ocular Attention Interface System (OASIS) and its intended integration into the proposed testbed.

  13. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  14. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  15. Teachers' Perceived Usefulness of Strategy Microanalytic Assessment Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined special education teachers' ratings of the usefulness of strategy microanalytic assessment (SMA) (i.e., self-regulation, strategy use) and standardized norm-referenced assessment information (SNRA) (i.e., cognitive and academic skills). Ninety-six participants separately rated the frequency with which SMA and SNRA are…

  16. Microanalytic Coding versus Global Rating of Maternal Parenting Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Basha, Allison; Adamson, Michelle; Winter, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between microanalytic coding and global rating systems when coding maternal parenting behaviour in two contexts. Observational data from 55 mother--child interactions with two- to four-year-old children, in either a mealtime (clinic; N?=?20 or control; N?=?20) or a playtime context (community; N?=?15), were…

  17. Au-Skarn Mineralization: Constraints from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Meinert, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    In situ U-Pb zircon geochronology by laser ablation ICP-MS was performed on samples from the intrusive rocks of the Buckhorn Mountain, Washington in order to constrain the age of the Crown Jewel Au-skarn deposit. The analyses were conducted at Washington State University using a ThermoFinnigan Element2 single collector, high resolution magnetic sector ICP-MS, and a New Wave UP 213 Nd-YAG (213 nm) laser ablation system. The analytical parameters included a repetition rate of 10 Hz, a 40 microns spot size, and a total analysis time of 30 seconds per spot. A 94-35 cascade standard was used to bracket the samples. Two distinct 206Pb/238 U ages were obtained, 52.3 Ma +/- 1.6, 165.0 Ma +/- 5.9, 163.4 +/- 5.7, and 169.8 +/- 12.1 (all errors are 2 sigma). These ages represent distinct magmatic events occuring during the two main tectonic periods in the region. The oldest age ( ˜165 Ma) is associated with the accretion of the Quesnel terrain during the Middle Jurassic while the younger age ( ˜52 Ma) represents the magmatism during the Eocene extension that is well represented by the Challis Volcanics in the vicinity. The Jurassic ages were obtained in one sample from a deformed granodiorite dike and two samples from the main granodiorite intrusive facies that, based on the skarn mineralogy zonation, is spatially associated with the skarn. The Eocene intrusive unit was intercepted in one drill core but is clearly distinct from the granodiorites both geochemically and mineralogically. This facies is more an adamellite, with a distinctive pinkish colour due to a K-spar alteration. It is higher in silica, and depleted in compatible elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mg, P, Y, and V) relative to the granodiorite. Geochemically the granodiorite has a composition typical of plutons associated with Au-skarns worldwide. Because Au mineralization is erratically distributed and does not correlate with any of the skarn mineralogy, a question can be raised. Does the Au mineralization have any connection with the more recent intrusive event? Future work will be conducted in order to clarify this question.

  18. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  19. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  20. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  1. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  2. Zero-G Workstation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.

  3. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  4. Workshop on NASA workstation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    RIACS hosted a workshop which was designed to foster communication among those people within NASA working on workstation related technology, to share technology, and to learn about new developments and futures in the larger university and industrial workstation communities. Herein, the workshop is documented along with its conclusions. It was learned that there is both a large amount of commonality of requirements and a wide variation in the modernness of in-use technology among the represented NASA centers.

  5. Arusha Rover Deployable Medical Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Tyrone; Hopson, Sonya; Marzette, Russell; Monroe, Gilena; Mustafa, Ruqayyah

    2014-01-01

    The NSBE Arusha rover concept offers a means of human transport and habitation during long-term exploration missions on the moon. This conceptual rover calls for the availability of medical supplies and equipment for crew members in order to aid in mission success. This paper addresses the need for a dedicated medical work station aboard the Arusha rover. The project team investigated multiple options for implementing a feasible deployable station to address both the medical and workstation layout needs of the rover and crew. Based on layout specifications and medical workstation requirements, the team has proposed a deployable workstation concept that can be accommodated within the volumetric constraints of the Arusha rover spacecraft

  6. The Modern Integrated Anaesthesia Workstation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya P; Shetmahajan, Madhavi G; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the conventional anaesthesia machine has evolved into an advanced carestation. The new machines use advanced electronics, software and technology to offer extensive capabilities for ventilation, monitoring, inhaled agent delivery, low-flow anaesthesia and closed-loop anaesthesia. They offer integrated monitoring and recording facilities and seamless integration with anaesthesia information systems. It is possible to deliver tidal volumes accurately and eliminate several hazards associated with the low pressure system and oxygen flush. Appropriate use can result in enhanced safety and ergonomy of anaesthetic delivery and monitoring. However, these workstations have brought in a new set of limitations and potential drawbacks. There are differences in technology and operational principles amongst the new workstations. Understand the principles of operation of these workstations and have a thorough knowledge of the operating manual of the individual machines. PMID:24249877

  7. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  8. Computational Control Workstation: Users' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Straube, Timothy M.; Tave, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    A Workstation has been designed and constructed for rapidly simulating motions of rigid and elastic multibody systems. We examine the Workstation from the point of view of analysts who use the machine in an industrial setting. Two aspects of the device distinguish it from other simulation programs. First, one uses a series of windows and menus on a computer terminal, together with a keyboard and mouse, to provide a mathematical and geometrical description of the system under consideration. The second hallmark is a facility for animating simulation results. An assessment of the amount of effort required to numerically describe a system to the Workstation is made by comparing the process to that used with other multibody software. The apparatus for displaying results as a motion picture is critiqued as well. In an effort to establish confidence in the algorithms that derive, encode, and solve equations of motion, simulation results from the Workstation are compared to answers obtained with other multibody programs. Our study includes measurements of computational speed.

  9. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  10. Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Packard, Bruce R. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year...3-7 3-2. Unit type codes....................................3-7 3-3. Battle function codes ................................ 3-8 3-4...3-9 3-7. Control measure types ...............................3-11 3-8. Product description files

  11. New trends in radiology workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2002-05-01

    In the radiology workstation design, the race for adding more features is now morphing into an iterative user centric design with the focus on ergonomics and usability. The extent of the list of features for the radiology workstation used to be one of the most significant factors for a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendor's ability to sell the radiology workstation. Not anymore is now very much the same between the major players in the PACS market. How these features work together distinguishes different radiology workstations. Integration (with the PACS/Radiology Information System (RIS) systems, with the 3D tool, Reporting Tool etc.), usability (user specific preferences, advanced display protocols, smart activation of tools etc.) and efficiency (what is the output a radiologist can generate with the workstation) are now core factors for selecting a workstation. This paper discusses these new trends in radiology workstation design. We demonstrate the importance of the interaction between the PACS vendor (software engineers) and the customer (radiologists) during the radiology workstation design. We focus on iterative aspects of the workstation development, such as the presentation of early prototypes to as many representative users as possible during the software development cycle and present the results of a survey of 8 radiologists on designing a radiology workstation.

  12. X-Ray microanalytical techniques based on synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2006-01-01

    The development of 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources like European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in parallel with recent advances in the technology of X-ray microfocusing elements like Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors, diffractive (Fresnel zone plates, FZP) and refractive (compound refractive lenses, CRL) optics, makes it possible to use X-ray microscopy techniques with high energy X-rays (energy superior to 4 keV). Spectroscopy, imaging, tomography and diffraction studies of samples with hard X-rays at micrometre and sub-micrometre spatial resolutions are now possible. The concept of combining these techniques as a high-energy microscopy has been proposed and successfully realized at the ESRF beamlines. Therefore a short summary of X-ray microscopy techniques is presented first. The main emphasis will be put on those methods which aim to produce sub-micron and nanometre resolution. These methods fall into three broad categories: reflective, refractive and diffractive optics. The basic principles and recent achievements will be discussed for all optical devices. Recent applications of synchrotron based microanalytical techniques to characterise radioactive fuel particles (UO(2)) released from the Chernobyl reactor are reported.

  13. Microanalytical evaluation of a prototype stainless bearing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkus, T. J.; Olson, G. B.

    1992-04-01

    A novel bearing steel composition intended for a space shuttle main engine turbopump application has been designed by computer-aided thermodynamic modelling. Property objectives for the martensitic stainless steel are a doubling of KIC toughness and KISCC stress-corrosion resistance relative to existing bearing steels. The composition is designed to achieve sufficient refinement of M 2C carbides to provide the required hardness of RC = 60 at 0.30C, and to achieve a high stability austenite dispersion for transformation toughening. Microanalytical study of the prototype steel of composition Fe-22.5Co-12Cr-8.5Ni- 0.3Mo-0.25V-0.30C has tested key model predictions. STEM microanalysis of extracted Cr and CrMo carbides was used to evaluate solution treatment response between 1100 and 1150°C. Atom-probe microanalysis was employed to measure compositions of fine M 2C carbides in cryogenically-formed martensitic material tempered at 500°C to a slightly c raged condition promoting high toughness. The observed composition of (Cr 0.88Mo 0.03V 0.03Fe 0.06) 2 C 0.92 lies between computed values corresponding to coherent and incoherent equilibrium. The prototype steel exceeds the design toughness objectives, giving a KIC toughness of 47 MPa √ m at RC = 60.4 hardness.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  15. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, R J; Molenda, S; Souf, N; Foucher, C; Beuscart-Zephir, M C

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools.

  16. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  17. Age and growth of endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) verified with LA-ICP-MS analysis of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Rachel M; Patterson, William F; Carlson, John K; Poulakis, Gregg R

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n=15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L(∞), 0.219 y(-1)for k, and -0.81 y for t(0). Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae.

  18. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  19. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively.

  20. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  1. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  2. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  3. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  4. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  5. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, funded by Johnson Space Center, is investigating knowledge-based techniques for software reuse in NASA software development projects. Two prototypes have been demonstrated and a third is now in development. The approach is to build a foundation that provides passive reuse support, add a layer that uses domain-independent programming knowledge, add a layer that supports the acquisition of domain-specific programming knowledge to provide active support, and enhance maintainability and modifiability through an object-oriented approach. The development of new application software would use specification-by-reformulation, based on a cognitive theory of retrieval from very long-term memory in humans, and using an Ada code library and an object base. Current tasks include enhancements to the knowledge representation of Ada packages and abstract data types, extensions to support Ada package instantiation knowledge acquisition, integration with Ada compilers and relational databases, enhancements to the graphical user interface, and demonstration of the system with a NASA contractor-developed trajectory simulation package. Future work will focus on investigating issues involving scale-up and integration.

  6. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  7. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  8. Conversion of the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riveras, Nykkita L.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I am working in the Educational Programs Office. My task is to convert the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation from a Macintosh (Mac) platform to a Personal Computer (PC) platform. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation is a workstation in the Aerospace Educational Laboratory (AEL), which is one of the three components of the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA). The AEL is a state-of-the-art, electronically enhanced, computerized classroom that puts cutting-edge technology at the fingertips of participating students. It provides a unique learning experience regarding aerospace technology that features activities equipped with aerospace hardware and software that model real-world challenges. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation, in particular, offers a variety of activities pertaining to the history of aeronautics. When the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation was first implemented into the AEL it was designed with Macromedia Director 4 for a Mac. Today it is being converted to Macromedia DirectorMX2004 for a PC. Macromedia Director is the proven multimedia tool for building rich content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks, and the Internet. It handles the widest variety of media and offers powerful features for building rich content that delivers red results, integrating interactive audio, video, bitmaps, vectors, text, fonts, and more. Macromedia Director currently offers two programmingkripting languages: Lingo, which is Director's own programmingkripting language and JavaScript. In the workstation, Lingo is used in the programming/scripting since it was the only language in use when the workstation was created. Since the workstation was created with an older version of Macromedia Director it hosted significantly different programming/scripting protocols. In order to successfully accomplish my task, the final product required correction of Xtra and programming/scripting errors. I also had to convert the Mac platform

  9. Semiconductor device modeling on a workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1985-09-01

    We choose to move from large mainframe computers to workstations to gain the interactive graphics we need to prepare and to analyze semiconductor device modeling problems. Given this much on a workstation, it is convenient to attempt to solve the entire problem there. We find that a top-of-the-line Apollo 660 workstation, with bit-slice processor, pipelined arithmetic processor, and 4 megabytes of real memory, is surprisingly effective in finding solutions when running the Pisces II device modeling code. In our experiment we find where the workstation bogs down when running these problems. We both analyze the Pisces CPU time log and we sample the executing program to accumulate a histogram of execution time as distributed over the source code. Results suggest how Pisces could be adapted to solve somewhat larger problems entirely on the workstation. Evolution of a trusted derivative of Pisces, to be used on supercomputers without interactivity, is suggested to complement our success with Pisces on workstations. 4 refs.

  10. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  11. Negotiating Story Entry: A Micro-Analytic Study of Storytelling Projection in English and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a micro-analytic study of the use of language and body during storytelling in American English and Japanese conversations. Specifically, I focus on its beginning and explore how a story is "projected." A beginning of an action or activity is where an incipient speaker negotiates the floor with co-participants; they…

  12. Gesture and Speech in the Vocabulary Explanations of One ESL Teacher: A Microanalytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaraton, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a microanalytic perspective on the speech and gestures used by one teacher of English as a second language in her intensive English program classroom. Videotaped excerpts from her intermediate-level grammar course were transcribed to represent the speech, gesture, and other nonverbal behavior that accompanied unplanned…

  13. Relationship between Rock Varnish and Adjacent Mineral Dust Compositions Using Microanalytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Otter, L.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Müller, M.; Kappl, M.; Weber, B.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Weigand, M.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Rock varnishes are up to 250 μm thick, Mn- and Fe-rich, dark black to brownish-orange lustrous rock coatings. Water and aeolian dust (60-70%), in combination with biological oxidation or inorganic precipitation processes, or even a combination of both, induce varnish growth rates of a few μm per 1000 a, indicating that element enrichment and aging processes are of major importance for the varnish formation. A combination of 200 nm-fs laser- and 213 nm-ns laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), focused ion beam (FIB) slicing, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) was chosen for high-spatial-resolution analyses. The aim was to identify provenance, chemistry, and dynamics of the varnishes, and their formation over the millennia. To this end, mineral dust and adjacent varnishes were sampled in six arid to semi-arid deserts, in Israel, South Africa, California, and Saudi Arabia. Dust minerals incorporated in the varnishes were examined by STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopic and element mapping at the nm scale. Varnishes from different locations can be distinguished by element ratio plots of Pb/Ni vs. Mn/Ba. A comparison of dust element ratios of particles <50 μm to ratios of adjacent varnishes reveals much lower values for dust. However, the factors between the element ratios of dust and of varnish are similar for four of six regions (Mn/Ba: 6 ± 2; Pb/Ni: 4 ± 3). Two of the six regions diverge, which are South African (Mn/Ba: 20, Pb/Ni: 0.5) and Californian (Anza Borrego Desert: Mn/Ba: 4.5; Pb/Ni: 16.5) varnishes.The results indicate that the enrichment and degradation processes might be similar for most locations, and that Mn and Pb are preferably incorporated and immobilized in most varnishes compared to Ba and Ni. The Pb/Ni ratios of the South African varnishes are indicators for either a preferred incorporation of Ni compared to Pb from available dust, and

  14. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  15. Computational Controls Workstation: Algorithms and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopal, R.; Kumar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Computational Controls Workstation provides an integrated environment for the modeling, simulation, and analysis of Space Station dynamics and control. Using highly efficient computational algorithms combined with a fast parallel processing architecture, the workstation makes real-time simulation of flexible body models of the Space Station possible. A consistent, user-friendly interface and state-of-the-art post-processing options are combined with powerful analysis tools and model databases to provide users with a complete environment for Space Station dynamics and control analysis. The software tools available include a solid modeler, graphical data entry tool, O(n) algorithm-based multi-flexible body simulation, and 2D/3D post-processors. This paper describes the architecture of the workstation while a companion paper describes performance and user perspectives.

  16. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  17. Development of Aspen: A microanalytic simulation model of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.; Basu, N.; Quint, T.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of an agent-based microanalytic simulation model of the US economy. The microsimulation model capitalizes on recent technological advances in evolutionary learning and parallel computing. Results are reported for a test problem that was run using the model. The test results demonstrate the model`s ability to predict business-like cycles in an economy where prices and inventories are allowed to vary. Since most economic forecasting models have difficulty predicting any kind of cyclic behavior. These results show the potential of microanalytic simulation models to improve economic policy analysis and to provide new insights into underlying economic principles. Work already has begun on a more detailed model.

  18. Architecture for a PACS primary diagnosis workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kaushal; Moran, Byron

    1990-08-01

    A major factor in determining the overall utility of a medical Picture Archiving and Communications (PACS) system is the functionality of the diagnostic workstation. Meyer-Ebrecht and Wendler [1] have proposed a modular picture computer architecture with high throughput and Perry et.al [2] have defined performance requirements for radiology workstations. In order to be clinically useful, a primary diagnosis workstation must not only provide functions of current viewing systems (e.g. mechanical alternators [3,4]) such as acceptable image quality, simultaneous viewing of multiple images, and rapid switching of image banks; but must also provide a diagnostic advantage over the current systems. This includes window-level functions on any image, simultaneous display of multi-modality images, rapid image manipulation, image processing, dynamic image display (cine), electronic image archival, hardcopy generation, image acquisition, network support, and an easy user interface. Implementation of such a workstation requires an underlying hardware architecture which provides high speed image transfer channels, local storage facilities, and image processing functions. This paper describes the hardware architecture of the Siemens Diagnostic Reporting Console (DRC) which meets these requirements.

  19. The Acquisitions Workstation--Collection Development Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how collection-development librarians can customize their workstations by building a Web page to cover public service and outreach efforts to constituencies, links to tools to enable selectors to use the Web and work more efficiently, and selection of Web resources. Describes Web sites in the three categories of communication with…

  20. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  1. Technical Services Workstations. SPEC Kit 213.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugger, Judith M., Comp.; And Others

    Technical services workstations (TSWs) are personal computers that have been customized for use in technical services departments. To gather information on their use and prevalence in research libraries, the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee on Automation surveyed the 119 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)…

  2. Planning and Implementing Technical Services Workstations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael, Ed.

    The job of the library cataloger has grown increasingly complex. Catalogers must draw from a vast pool of dynamic information as they handle traditional and new forms of media. Technical Services Workstations (TSWs) provide catalogers the network data, application programs, and standard hardware required to catalog all types of media quickly and…

  3. The Microcomputer as an Educational Laboratory Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciociolo, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory workstations which provide direct connection for monitoring and control of analytical instruments such as pH meters, spectrophotometers, temperature, and chromatographic instruments. This is accomplished through analog/digital and digital/analog converters for analog signals and input/output devices for on/off signals.…

  4. Introduction of a virtual workstation into radiology medical student education.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Colin D; Lowry, Peter A; Petersen, Brian D; Jesse, Mary K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes the creation of a virtual workstation for use by medical students and implementation of that workstation in the reading room. CONCLUSION. A radiology virtual workstation for medical students was created using OsiriX imaging software to authentically simulate the experience of interacting with cases selected to cover important musculoskeletal imaging diagnoses. A workstation that allows the manipulation and interpretation of complete anonymized DICOM images may enhance the educational experience of medical students.

  5. Comparison of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental imaging in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gholap, Deepti S; Izmer, Andrei; De Samber, Björn; van Elteren, Johannes T; Selih, Vid S; Evens, Roel; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Janssen, Colin; Balcaen, Lieve; Lindemann, Inge; Vincze, Laszlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Visualization of elemental distributions in thin sections of biological tissue is gaining importance in many disciplines of biological and medical research. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) are two widely used microanalytical techniques for elemental mapping. This article compares the capabilities of the two techniques for imaging the distribution of selected elements in the model organism Daphnia magna in terms of detection power and spatial resolution. Sections with a thickness of 10 and 20 microm of the fresh water crustacean Daphnia magna were subjected to LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF analysis. The elemental distributions obtained for Ca, P, S and Zn allow element-to-tissue correlation. LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF offer similar limits of detection for the elements Ca and P and thus, allow a cross-validation of the imaging results. LA-ICP-MS was particularly sensitive for determining Zn (LOD 20 microg g(-1), 15 microm spot size) in Daphnia magna, while the detection power of micro-XRF was insufficient in this context. However, LA-ICP-MS was inadequate for the measurement of the S distributions, which could be better visualized with micro-XRF (LOD 160 microg g(-1), 5 s live time). Both techniques are thus complementary in providing an exhaustive chemical profiling of tissue samples.

  6. Integrated Design of a Telerobotic Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort that focuses on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multi-functional telerobots. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The exploratory research experiments presented here took an integrated approach and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during the transitions between sub-tasks of two common EVA tasks. Preliminary results show that up to 30% of total task time is spent gaining and maintaining Situation Awareness (SA) of their task space and environment during transitions. Although task performance improves over the two trial days, the percentage of time spent on SA remains the same. This method identifies areas where workstation displays and feedback mechanisms are most needed to increase operator performance and decrease operator workload - areas that previous research methods have not been able to address.

  7. Synchrotron Microanalytical Methods in the Study of Trace and Minor Elements in Apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Rakovan,J.; Luo, Y.; Borkiewicz, O.

    2008-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray facilities have the capability for numerous microanalytical methods with spatial resolutions in the micron to submicron range and sensitivities as low as ppm to ppb. These capabilities are the result of a high X-ray brilliance (many orders of magnitude greater than standard tube and rotating anode sources); a continuous, or white, spectrum through the hard X-ray region; high degrees of X-ray columniation and polarization; and new developments in X-ray focusing methods. The high photon flux and pulsed nature of the source also allow for rapid data collection and high temporal resolution in certain experiments. Of particular interest to geoscientists are X-ray fluorescence microprobes which allow for numerous analytical techniques including X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of trace element concentrations and distributions; X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for chemical speciation, structural and oxidation state information; X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase identification; and fluorescence microtomography (CMT) for mapping the internal structure of porous or composite materials as well as elemental distributions. We have employed several synchrotron based microanalytical methods including XRF, microEXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure), microXANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) and CMT for the study of minor and trace elements in apatite (and other minerals). We have also been conducting time resolved X-ray diffraction to study nucleation of and phase transformations among precursor phases in the formation of apatite from solution at earth surface conditions. Summaries of these studies are given to exemplify the capabilities of synchrotron microanalytical techniques.

  8. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  9. The console password feature for DEC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lehn, A.L.

    1993-10-01

    New VAXstations and all DECstations offer a ``hardware`` password feature that, when enabled, restricts unauthorized access to your system console terminal when turned on or restarted. VAXstation 3100s shipped after July, 1989 offer this feature. A description of this feature should be part of the Hardware User Guide for your workstation; however, some of the early systems did not document this security enhancement. This document is based on the author`s investigation as well as information provided by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

  10. Efficient Parallel Engineering Computing on Linux Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    A C software module has been developed that creates lightweight processes (LWPs) dynamically to achieve parallel computing performance in a variety of engineering simulation and analysis applications to support NASA and DoD project tasks. The required interface between the module and the application it supports is simple, minimal and almost completely transparent to the user applications, and it can achieve nearly ideal computing speed-up on multi-CPU engineering workstations of all operating system platforms. The module can be integrated into an existing application (C, C++, Fortran and others) either as part of a compiled module or as a dynamically linked library (DLL).

  11. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  12. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  13. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  14. Earthbound applications for NASA's physician workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, R.; Yu, F. S.; Li, B.; Iddings, E.; Fiorentino, R.; Shao, S.; Wang, L.; Broughton, H.

    1993-01-01

    The dream of a space probe to Mars or an astronaut colony on the moon persists. Despite years of setbacks and delays, NASA continues to lay the foundation for a new frontier in space. The necessity of a self contained health maintenance facility is an integral part of this stellar venture. As a subsystem of this health maintenance facility, the physician or astronaut workstation was envisioned as the vehicle of interface between the computer resources of the space station and the care provider. Our efforts to define and build this interface have resulted in a series of programs which can now be tested and refined using earth-based applications. The modules which have dual-use application from the NASA workstation include: patient scheduling and master patient index, pharmacy, laboratory, medical library, problem list/progress notes, and digital medical records. Our current plan is to develop these tools as objects that can be assembled in a variety of configurations. This will allow the technology to be used by the private sector where each doctor can select the starting point of his outpatient office system and add modules as he makes progress in system integration and training.

  15. Microanalytical ultracentrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Pavel E.

    1980-09-01

    An ultracentrifuge based on the air turbine of a dental drill attains 400,000-600,000 rpm and a centrifugal force 2 to 3 million ×g. It is used for the examination of cell suspentions and homogenates and can be applied to macromolecular solutions. Microcuvettes with volumes ranging from less than 1 mm3 to 0.001 mm3 (suitable for single cells) are of disk and square capillary form and are made of polycarbonate or glass. A special microscope is used to obtain a stopped image of the rotating cuvette. A new method to preserve the centrifugal state of the contents is tested: deep freezing of a rotating cuvette for subsequent freeze-drying and microscopical examination. Experiments on cells include centrifugal intercellular movement of nuclei and cytoplasmic particles, cell fusion, and homogenization.

  16. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  17. Digital workstation for Venus topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehler, Paul; Haag, Nils N.; Maupin, Jerry A.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Wu, Sherman S.

    1993-10-01

    A digital workstation was developed and is currently at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Flagstaff, Arizona to be used for Venus topographic mapping. The system is based on a mapping and geocoding image correlation (GIS MAGIC) system developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the creation of precisely geocoded imagery data bases for both optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A multitude of data from various sources has been processed, including conventional aerial photographs, airborne and orbital SAR, and Spot. This paper covers the GIS MAGIC development history, hardware/software features and capabilities. Also covered are the types of modifications required to accommodate Venus radar data and results which can be achieved using the GIS MAGIC System.

  18. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  19. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.

    1995-12-01

    An important question for consideration is, {open_quotes}Are office equipment plug loads increasing?{close_quotes} Data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in May 1990 from the Forrestal Building, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters in Washington, DC, are desegregated by end use including: plug loads, lights, HVAC, large dedicated computers, and elevators. This study was repeated in November 1993, and there was a 3.8%/yr increase in plug loads in a building of approximately 1.75 million sq ft. Subsequent to this measurement, the plug loads were measured continuously by PNL over a 10-month period from November 1993 through September 1994, and the results showed another increase of 3.9%, nearly the same increase as in the previous three years. The energy use of personal computers (PCs) was measured by setting up a mobile outlet module (MOM), a replacement for a strip outlet, with current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers. The MOM was connected to a set of dataloggers, allowing for the monitoring of up to four PCs at a time. The PCs were plugged in through the MOM to a C180 datalogger, the data collected to a laptop, and the individual 24-hour profiles were then reduced to a standard profile. About 200 workstations were studied, including the PC, monitor, printer, modem, external disk drives, and CAD systems with their own peripherals. Also monitored were an additional collection of printers, photocopiers, facsimile machines, and monitor controllers. The end result was a set of profiles for energy use during working hours for five different buildings. There was a wide variation in these profiles from daytime to nighttime, since 16 to 35% of the computers remain on at night. Therefore, the needs for computers left on at night vary, along with the attitudes of people. Another area of energy consumption concern is the type of PC, such as IBM- or Macintosh-compatible, and there are many different kinds of workstations.

  20. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  1. Characterization and speciation of depleted uranium in individual soil particles using microanalytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, S.; Osán, J.; Vincze, L.; Kurunczi, S.; Tamborini, G.; Betti, M.

    2004-05-01

    Microanalytical techniques for elemental composition and nuclide-specific analysis have been used to identify the origin and the leachability of depleted uranium particles. The soil particle samples were collected from Kosovo area a few years after the war, the presence of fine particles with depleted uranium as major component was easily identified by EPMA and SIMS. The ultrafine uranium particles were often attached to larger soil particles and contained Ti and Al, being typical components of the penetrator and its cladding. The oxidation state of uranium in the single particles was measured by micro-XANES and found to be in the less soluble form IV while every particle contained a small fraction of mobile uranium VI as well.

  2. Microhomogeneity in reference materials for microanalytical methods - a possible recourse from a blind alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, A. D.; Michalak, P. P.; Munnik, F.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    It is assumed that reference materials for microanalytical methods must be homogeneous, i.e. have the same concentration of the relevant element(s) overall, to ensure that they can be used reliably to get comparison values during the analysis with non absolute methods. With increasing resolution it becomes more and more difficult to ensure such homogeneity, up to the point that it is not possible for several microanalytical methods. Painstaking search for homogeneous natural minerals in gem quality or elaborate expensive methods to produce synthetic minerals provide as obvious solutions to the problem. We propose a way to get reliable reference values with some types of inhomogeneous material, based on multiple probing the reference material. Consider a reference material, which average concentration on the relevant element and its microscale variability has been adequately characterized by a destructive method at a series of grid spots. The minimal number of probing spots required for a certain precision level can be derived from the variance calculations. This procedure is always valid, whenever the heterogeneity value distribution of the reference material has a variance, but at the price that the number of spots will be huge if it is large. However, using adequate models of local heterogeneity can greatly reduce that number. Geostatistics can be used in random, systematic and periodic heterogeneities, while robust methods are useful in cases of nugget heterogeneities. Typical examples of natural and synthetic minerals, analysed by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) for microhomogeneity/microheterogeneity are shown. The distinctions between the two strategies of using these materials as a potential reference material are demonstrated.

  3. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  4. In-situ U/Pb rutile dating by LA-ICP-MS: 208Pb correction and prospects for thermochronological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Luvizotto, G. L.; Barth, M. G.; Wolfe, M. R.; Hinton, R. W.; Berndt-Gerdes, J.; Kooijman, E.

    2009-12-01

    The advent of rutile thermometry brought an increasing interest in understanding rutile formation and its temporal evolution. Here we report progress on several fronts of in situ U-Pb rutile geochronology: (1) Matrix matching, necessary for robust in situ dating is fullfilled by calibrating and testing rutile standards (R10 and R19), including the presentation of new TIMS ages for the rutile standard R19. (2) Common lead correction is routinely applied via 208Pb, which is possible due to extremely low Th/U ratios (usually <0.003) in most rutiles. Employing a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to a quadrupole ICP-MS and using R10 as a primary standard, rutile U/Pb ages for the other rutile standard and four rutile-bearing metamorphic rocks always agree better than 2% with the reported TIMS ages and other dating studies from the same localities. The methods outlined in this contribution should find wide application in thermochronological studies that require age information of single spots, e.g., single-crystal zoning and texturally-controlled dating. With this information we are able to address the effect of shielding of inclusion phases by robust host minerals.

  5. Silurian U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of granitoids from the Zelenodol Cu-porphyry deposit, Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Shardakova, G. Yu.; Azovskova, O. B.; Gerdes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Zelenodol porphyry Cu-(Au, Mo) deposit located about 65 km SSW of the city of Chelyabinsk is confined to the western part of the West Uralian Volcanogenic Megazone. The concordant U-Pb age of zircons from ore-bearing island-arc diorite porphyryis 418.3 Â ± 2.9 Ma.

  6. Trace Element Study of MORB Glasses from 14¡ã-16¡ãN along Mid-Atlantic Ridge by LA-ICP- MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzoi, C. A.; Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.; Lapen, T.

    2007-12-01

    A comparison of 20 MORB glasses from 14°-16° N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using both solution-based and in situ laser ablation-based ICP-MS trace element analyses on the same samples was conducted. Li, Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb,Lu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, and U were analyzed using the Varian 810 quadrupole ICP-MS. The instrument features a 90 degree ion mirror and low noise double-off-axis quadrupole that allows high sensitivity and low backgrounds. Precision in term of relative standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements for both methods based on repeated analyses of USGS BIR-1G and BHVO-2G glass standards and Max Planck KL-2G glass standard is within 5 % for all trace elements with the exception of Pb, which averaged 12 %. Measured trace element abundances are within 2% of recommended standard values using both solution and laser ablation methods. Comparison between the analyte concentrations obtained by solution-based ICP-MS and in situ microanalysis by laser ablation reveals little systematic differences in abundances(<5% for all elements). The two-method correlation and strong repeatability of the results indicate that rapid in situ trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS is likely to become a preferred method of trace element analysis for MORB glasses. Our geochemical results and previous studies of MORB glasses in the region of the MAR between 14°-16°N show that basalts are characterized isotopic and incompatible element enrichment.The nature of the enrichment has been the topic of significant discussion and speculation because a specific mantle plume is not well defined in the region. Likewise the magma supply is probably small in the region as the magmatic crust is interpreted to be very thin in most of the area studied. Integrated studies of major element, trace element, and isotopic variations among basalts, gabbroic rocks and igneous and residual ultramafic rocks in the region indicate that 1) the enriched basalts have positive Ta-Nb anomalies, enriched relative to U, Th, and La 2) basalts have relatively high SiO2 abundances compared to the global average, 3) basalts show a HIMU isotopic signature, and 4) bulk major element abundances and mineral chemistry in mantle rocks indicate that they are among the most depleted,although variably refertilized, residual mantle assemblages sampled to date along MORs.We suggest that much of the regional variation in major and trace element data, as well as isotopic data and the unusual regional geology (multiple core complexes) can be explained by melting of a sub-axial mantle that contains two end members, one highly depleted and the other enriched. These components appear to involve ancient recycled ocean crust and lithospheric mantle.

  7. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  8. New data about structure and time of formation of the Khamar-Daban terrane: U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkol'nik, S. I.; Stanevich, A. M.; Reznitskii, L. Z.; Savelieva, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new data on the age of detrital zircons from metaterrigenous rocks of the Khamardaban Group (Kornilovskaya and Shubutuiskaya formations) which crown the succession of the Khamar-Daban terrain. It was established that the accumulation of the protoliths of both formations occurred in the interval between the Late Riphean and Early Ordovician. In this case, there is a difference between sequences of Shubutuiskaya and Kornilovskaya formations due to a sharp change in a provenance area and depositional conditions, which is a consequence of the change in the paleogeodynamic environment. In addition, this indicates the tectonic juxtaposition of these sequences and probability of accumulation of deposits of the Shubutuiskaya Formation within Dzhida island arc system.

  9. Evaluating the Age of Buried Ice in Antarctica Using Ashfall Deposits: New Insights from Deposit Morphology, Grain Shape, and LA-ICP-MS Trace-Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. R.; Marchant, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Dating of buried ice in the western Dry Valleys region relies on 40Ar/39Ar analysis of ashfall deposits within sublimation tills that rest directly on stagnant glacier ice. The oldest ice so dated is >8.1 Ma. The fundamental assumption is that dated ashes are in-situ and have not been transported from surface deposits elsewhere in the Dry Valleys region. Given that the surface of sublimation tills shows well-developed patterned ground, the presumption of ground stability and long-term preservation of in-situ ashfall is questioned. As a test of ground stability, we examined ash-deposit morphology, grain shape, and glass-shard trace-element geochemistry from several ashfall deposits used to provide limiting ages on buried ice and tills in the western Dry Valleys. Detailed field analyses show that ashfall that collects in sublimation tills over buried ice occurs in one of three morphologic settings: surface troughs that delineate sand-wedge polygons, void spaces in gravel-and-cobble lags that overlie active sand wedges, and 1 to 2-cm-wide thermal contraction cracks. Post-depositional sublimation of underlying ice may distort initial deposit morphology through uneven surface lowering. Microscopic analyses of concentrated ashfall deposits that lack detrital sand grains show highly angular glass shards that preserve delicate hair-like spires and thin bubble-wall vesicles. Grain edges are sharp with no chipped, fractured, or pitted surfaces. In contrast, ash deposits containing detrital sand grains show subangular to subrounded shard morphologies with concave fractures and pits on grain edges, all of which are suggestive of abrasion during transport. In such deposits, grains preserving delicate bubble walls and hair-like spires are conspicuously absent. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry shows that glass shards within each ashfall deposit have uniform trace-element geochemical signatures. If ashfall were eroded and transported after initial deposition, then ashes of different ages and geochemical compositions should be found together in individual deposits. An accurate chronology for buried ice in the western Dry Valleys region of Antarctica has implications for research in atmospheric chemistry (Miocene-aged glacier ice may hold pristine samples of ancient atmosphere), geobiology (ancient microbes are preserved in the ice), and planetary geology (buried ice in Antarctica may serve as an analog for buried ice on Mars).

  10. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  11. Geochemical and Lu/Hf isotopic (LA-ICP-MS) signature of detrital zircons from sandstones of the basal levels of the Riphean stratotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, T. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Maslov, A. V.; Belousova, E. A.; Krupenin, M. T.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Gorozhanin, V. M.; Gorozhanina, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of selective study of trace elements (29 analyses) and the Lu/Hf isotopic system (41 analyses) in preliminarily dated (U-Pb) detrital zircons (dZrs) from sandstones of the Ai Formation of the Burzyan Group of the Bashkirian Anticlinorium, which compose the basal horizons of the typical Riphean section of the Southern Urals. The statistically processed trace-element patterns of dZrs showed that "diorites" were dominant over "syenites" among the source rocks of dZrs. The rock types estimated by trace-element patterns for the cores and rims of two large grains ("diorite" and "syenite") coincided. The analysis of the Lu/Hf isotopic system of dZrs revealed a wide dispersion of the ɛHf value from +7.1 to -20.1 at the T {DM/C} model age of the substrate from 2.25 to 3.95 Ga. Four grains (in one case with the core and rim studied) from the population of the large transparent cherry zircons (TCZ) are characterized by the "syenitic" rock type and extremely ancient T {DM/C} values of 3.22, 3.45, 3.64, 3.66, and 3.75 Ga at ages of zircons of 2486, 2784, 2873, 1977, and 1984 Ma, respectively. Two "dioritic" grains from the TCZ population have significantly distinct parameters: 2.37 and 2.51 Ga at 2049 and 2057 Ma, respectively. It is evident that this specific population of dZrs was formed with a significant contribution of very ancient crustal material, which became active under "syenitic" magmatism and provided the T {DM/C} value of >3.5 Ga. Numerous juvenile dZrs form a compact cluster, which correspond to the rocks of the southern part of the Volga-Sarmatian orogen (age of 2.1-2.0 Ga, T {DM/C} = 2.1-2.4 Ga). The complexes of the entire the Volga-Uralia, the Volga-Sarmatian orogen, and adjacent areas could be the provenance areas for the Ai sandstones in contrast to the northeastern areas of the East-European Platform with dominant "granitic" source rocks and T {DM/C} values lower than 3.5 Ga.

  12. Location and speciation of gadolinium and yttrium in roots of Zea mays by LA-ICP-MS and ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Saatz, Jessica; Stryhanyuk, Hryhoriy; Vetterlein, Doris; Musat, Niculina; Otto, Matthias; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Richnow, Hans H; Daus, Birgit

    2016-09-01

    Increasing production of rare earth elements (REE) might lead to future contamination of the environment. REE have been shown to accumulate in high concentrations in roots of plants. Plant experiments with Zea mays exposed to a nutrient solution containing gadolinium (Gd) or yttrium (Y) with 10 mg L(-1) Gd or Y were carried out to investigate this accumulation behaviour. Total concentrations of 3.17 g kg(-1) and 8.43 g kg(-1) of Gd and Y were measured in treated plant roots. Using a novel combination of laser ablation mass spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, imaging of location and concentration of Gd and Y was carried out in root thin sections of treated roots. Single spots of elevated REE concentration were found at the epidermis, while inside the cortex, weak signals of Gd(+) and Y(+) were aligning with the root cell structures. The composition of Gd-containing secondary ions proves an REE-oxide phase accumulated at the epidermis, limiting REE availability for further uptake.

  13. Graphical workstation capability for reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to computational capabilities, software tools for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant digital computer systems must also provide a means of interfacing with the user. Described here is the new graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP), a software package that implements advanced reliability modeling techniques. The graphics oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault-tree gates, including sequence-dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. By using this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain, which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the graphical kernal system (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing stages.

  14. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  15. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  16. Pc-Based Floating Point Imaging Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzak, Chris J.; Pier, Richard M.; Chinn, Patty; Kim, Yongmin

    1989-07-01

    The medical, military, scientific and industrial communities have come to rely on imaging and computer graphics for solutions to many types of problems. Systems based on imaging technology are used to acquire and process images, and analyze and extract data from images that would otherwise be of little use. Images can be transformed and enhanced to reveal detail and meaning that would go undetected without imaging techniques. The success of imaging has increased the demand for faster and less expensive imaging systems and as these systems become available, more and more applications are discovered and more demands are made. From the designer's perspective the challenge to meet these demands forces him to attack the problem of imaging from a different perspective. The computing demands of imaging algorithms must be balanced against the desire for affordability and flexibility. Systems must be flexible and easy to use, ready for current applications but at the same time anticipating new, unthought of uses. Here at the University of Washington Image Processing Systems Lab (IPSL) we are focusing our attention on imaging and graphics systems that implement imaging algorithms for use in an interactive environment. We have developed a PC-based imaging workstation with the goal to provide powerful and flexible, floating point processing capabilities, along with graphics functions in an affordable package suitable for diverse environments and many applications.

  17. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  18. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-02-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  19. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  1. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  2. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  3. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  4. Microanalytical method development for Fe, Cu and Zn determination in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Polgári, Zsófia; Ajtony, Zsolt; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina; Mihucz, Victor G; Réti, Andrea; Budai, Barna; Kralovánszky, Judit; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Záray, Gyula

    2011-09-30

    Microanalytical methods suitable for the determination of Fe, Cu in HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) cells treated with different iron compounds (Fe(II) sulfate, Fe(III) chloride, Fe(III) citrate and Fe(III) transferrin) and cultured in medium supplemented or not with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and simultaneous graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) were developed. The developed TXRF method was also suitable for Zn determination in the samples. The main advantage of the proposed methods is the execution of all sample preparation steps following incubation and prior to the elemental analysis in the same Eppendorf tubes. Sample preparation was performed at microscale (115 μL sample volume) with 65% nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide. According to scanning electron microscopic measurements, the organic matrix of the cell samples could be eliminated to the extent that accurate results were obtained for Cu and Fe by analyzing the same samples by TXRF and GF-AAS. Concerning the iron uptake, HT-29 cells incubated in FCS-free medium contained Fe in cca. 5-50 times higher amounts compared to cells cultured in FCS supplemented medium. Pronounced differences in the iron uptake compared to the iron supply (inorganic vs. organic chelated as well as iron(II) vs. iron(III)) were observed in the case of cell lines incubated in FCS-free medium.

  5. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate.

  6. Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echard, J.-P.; Cotte, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Bertrand, L.

    2008-07-01

    Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.

  7. Muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage in office workers using a sit-stand workstation versus a sit workstation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cronin, Neil J; Pesola, Arto J; Finni, Taija

    2016-10-01

    Reducing sitting time by means of sit-stand workstations is an emerging trend, but further evidence is needed regarding their health benefits. This cross-sectional study compared work time muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage between office workers (aged 24-62, 58.3% female) who used either a sit-stand workstation (Sit-Stand group, n = 10) or a traditional sit workstation (Sit group, n = 14) for at least the past three months. During one typical workday, muscle inactivity and activity from quadriceps and hamstrings were monitored using electromyography shorts, and spinal shrinkage was measured using stadiometry before and after the workday. Compared with the Sit group, the Sit-Stand group had less muscle inactivity time (66.2 ± 17.1% vs. 80.9 ± 6.4%, p = 0.014) and more light muscle activity time (26.1 ± 12.3% vs. 14.9 ± 6.3%, p = 0.019) with no significant difference in spinal shrinkage (5.62 ± 2.75 mm vs. 6.11 ± 2.44 mm). This study provides evidence that working with sit-stand workstations can promote more light muscle activity time and less inactivity without negative effects on spinal shrinkage. Practitioner Summary: This cross-sectional study compared the effects of using a sit-stand workstation to a sit workstation on muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage in office workers. It provides evidence that working with a sit-stand workstation can promote more light muscle activity time and less inactivity without negative effects on spinal shrinkage.

  8. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  9. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  10. Video display terminal workstation improvement program: I. Baseline associations between musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic features of workstations.

    PubMed

    Demure, B; Luippold, R S; Bigelow, C; Ali, D; Mundt, K A; Liese, B

    2000-08-01

    Associations between selected sites of musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic characteristics of the video display terminal (VDT) workstation were assessed in analyses controlling for demographic, psychosocial stress, and VDT use factors in 273 VDT users from a large administrative department. Significant associations with wrist/hand discomfort were seen for female gender; working 7+ hours at a VDT; low job satisfaction; poor keyboard position; use of new, adjustable furniture; and layout of the workstation. Significantly increased odds ratios for neck/shoulder discomfort were observed for 7+ hours at a VDT, less than complete job control, older age (40 to 49 years), and never/infrequent breaks. Lower back discomfort was related marginally to working 7+ hours at a VDT. These results demonstrate that some characteristics of VDT workstations, after accounting for psychosocial stress, can be correlated with musculoskeletal discomfort.

  11. WorkstationJ: workstation emulation software for medical image perception and technology evaluation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartz, Kevin M.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Caldwell, Robert T.; Madsen, Mark T.

    2007-03-01

    We developed image presentation software that mimics the functionality available in the clinic, but also records time-stamped, observer-display interactions and is readily deployable on diverse workstations making it possible to collect comparable observer data at multiple sites. Commercial image presentation software for clinical use has limited application for research on image perception, ergonomics, computer-aids and informatics because it does not collect observer responses, or other information on observer-display interactions, in real time. It is also very difficult to collect observer data from multiple institutions unless the same commercial software is available at different sites. Our software not only records observer reports of abnormalities and their locations, but also inspection time until report, inspection time for each computed radiograph and for each slice of tomographic studies, window/level, and magnification settings used by the observer. The software is a modified version of the open source ImageJ software available from the National Institutes of Health. Our software involves changes to the base code and extensive new plugin code. Our free software is currently capable of displaying computed tomography and computed radiography images. The software is packaged as Java class files and can be used on Windows, Linux, or Mac systems. By deploying our software together with experiment-specific script files that administer experimental procedures and image file handling, multi-institutional studies can be conducted that increase reader and/or case sample sizes or add experimental conditions.

  12. Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

    1992-07-01

    Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians'' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician''s time to about 5-minutes of physician''s time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

  13. Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is connected to an overhead tube which pulls the sawdust to the machine in photograph CO-172-AF-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Application of usability testing for improving PACS workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Kossack, Merrick F.

    2000-05-01

    User-centered design is a critical step in the product development cycle. It is an iterative process consisting of product design, implementation, and evaluation stages. Industry-standard usability metrics were employed to evaluate two sequential versions of commercial Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) workstation software as part of this process. They were evaluated 6 months apart by five radiologists with varying PACS experience. All radiologists were naive to the specific workstation tested. After a brief workstation overview, they were videotaped as they completed scenarios that closely simulated typical radiological practice. Each scenario consisted of various task categories. The task duration, nature and number of errors, help requests, and operator's manual consultations were recorded. After evaluating the first software version, areas for improvement were identified and the application design modified. An unexpected result was the rewriting of the software manual to be task- and process-based rather than feature-based. Testing of the second version revealed a 22% improvement in performance time and 30% decrease in the number of errors compared to the first. Usability testing objectively identifies areas for improvement in the PACS workstation software. Additionally, it provides quantitative measures that may be used to prioritize and suggest future design efforts. Performing this evaluation as early as possible results in the rapid evolution of an application that will maximize radiologists' productivity and satisfaction.

  16. Underestimated health hazard: proposal for an ergonomic microscope workstation.

    PubMed

    Kreczy, A; Kofler, M; Gschwendtner, A

    1999-11-13

    Working daily for a long time with a standard microscope causes back pain, fibromyalgia, or tension headache in up to 80% of microscopists. These complaints may be prevented by an ergonomic design of the microscope workstation, leading to a beneficial and significant reduction of electromyographical activity in the most strained muscle groups as shown by surface electromyographic recordings.

  17. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  18. Providing Independent Reading Comprehension Strategy Practice through Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an action research project undertaken by a second grade teacher looking for research-based ways to increase his students' reading comprehension. He designed fifteen comprehension workstations and evaluated their effect on his second graders' reading comprehension scores as measured by district Imagination Station…

  19. High Performance Diskless Linux Workstations in AX-Division

    SciTech Connect

    Councell, E; Busby, L

    2003-09-30

    AX Division has recently installed a number of diskless Linux workstations to meet the needs of its scientific staff for classified processing. Results so far are quite positive, although problems do remain. Some unusual requirements were met using a novel, but simple, design: Each diskless client has a dedicated partition on a server disk that contains a complete Linux distribution.

  20. Accessible Microscopy Workstation for Students and Scientists with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerstock, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for…

  1. A Conceptual Exploration of a Bibliographer's Workstation Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Arsdale, William O., III; Leath, Janis Hollingsworth

    Productivity of University of Wyoming (UW) subject bibliographers can be significantly increased by developing a network of microcomputer-based workstations with custom and off-the-shelf software; telecommunications to CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries), OCLC, and other databases; and a network server to provide special services and…

  2. Impact of Workstation Accommodation on Fatigue and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    this study. The present research focuses on the biodynamic impact of anthropometric accommodation of a dual- monitor computer workstation on an...Biometric Response Cognitive Response Good Anthropometric Accommodation Sustainable & Optimal Muscular...Activity, Low Levels of Subjective Discomfort Sustainable & Optimal Levels of Cerebral Oxygenation & Cognitive Performance Poor Anthropometric

  3. Exploring clinical reasoning in novices: a self-regulated learning microanalytic assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Artino, Anthony R; Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to examine the regulatory processes of medical students as they completed a diagnostic reasoning task and to examine whether the strategic quality of these regulatory processes were related to short-term and longer-term medical education outcomes. Methods A self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment was administered to 71 second-year medical students while they read a clinical case and worked to formulate the most probable diagnosis. Verbal responses to open-ended questions targeting forethought and performance phase processes of a cyclical model of SRL were recorded verbatim and subsequently coded using a framework from prior research. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between the SRL processes and several outcomes. Results Most participants (90%) reported focusing on specific diagnostic reasoning strategies during the task (metacognitive monitoring), but only about one-third of students referenced these strategies (e.g. identifying symptoms, integration) in relation to their task goals and plans for completing the task. After accounting for prior undergraduate achievement and verbal reasoning ability, strategic planning explained significant additional variance in course grade (ΔR2 = 0.15, p < 0.01), second-year grade point average (ΔR2 = 0.14, p < 0.01), United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score (ΔR2 = 0.08, p < 0.05) and National Board of Medical Examiner subject examination score in internal medicine (ΔR2 = 0.10, p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that most students in the formative stages of learning diagnostic reasoning skills are aware of and think about at least one key diagnostic reasoning process or strategy while solving a clinical case, but a substantially smaller percentage set goals or develop plans that incorporate such strategies. Given that students who developed more strategic plans

  4. Do Workstations Work Too Well? An Investigation into Library Workstation Popularity and the "Principle of Least Effort."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzastowski, Tina E.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the hypothesis that a shift toward more widely-available, less comprehensive workstation indexes is changing the nature of academic library research (based on statistical data from the chemistry library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Topics include an explanation of Zipf's "Principle of Least Effort" and…

  5. MIT-MANUS: a workstation for manual therapy and training II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Neville; Krebs, Hermano I.; Charnnarong, J.; Srikrishna, P.; Sharon, Andre

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents some recent work on the development of a workstation for teaching and therapy in manual and manipulative skills. The experimental workstation, MANUS, as well as the overall concept are described. State-of-the-art aspects of the workstation under development are introduced.

  6. How Well Do Microanalytic Measures of Academic Self-Regulation Predict Teacher Ratings of Student Self-Regulated Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to establish the validity of microanalytic measures used to assess students' self-regulation of an academic science task, not only in terms of immediate achievement, but also in terms of a well-established "person" measure of self-regulated learning. Person measures are designed to capture enduring…

  7. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  8. GENERALIZATION OF POSTURE TRAINING TO COMPUTER WORKSTATIONS IN AN APPLIED SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Ring, Brandon M; Needham, Mick; Boscoe, James H; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Improving employees' posture may decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The current paper is a systematic replication and extension of Sigurdsson and Austin (2008), who found that an intervention consisting of information, real-time feedback, and self-monitoring improved participant posture at mock workstations. In the current study, participants worked in an applied setting, and posture data were collected at participants' own workstations and a mock workstation. Intervention in the mock setting was associated with consistent improvement in safe posture at the mock workstation, but generalization to the actual workstation was limited. PMID:21541108

  9. An integrated distributed processing interface for supercomputers and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; McGavran, L.

    1989-01-01

    Access to documentation, communication between multiple processes running on heterogeneous computers, and animation of simulations of engineering problems are typically weak in most supercomputer environments. This presentation will describe how we are improving this situation in the Computer Research and Applications group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have developed a tool using UNIX filters and a SunView interface that allows users simple access to documentation via mouse driven menus. We have also developed a distributed application that integrated a two point boundary value problem on one of our Cray Supercomputers. It is controlled and displayed graphically by a window interface running on a workstation screen. Our motivation for this research has been to improve the usual typewriter/static interface using language independent controls to show capabilities of the workstation/supercomputer combination. 8 refs.

  10. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  11. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    PubMed

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory.

  12. Nearest Neighbor Search Applications for the Terasys Massively Parallel Workstation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    ANALYSES Nearest Neighbor Search Applications for the Terasys Massively Parallel Workstation Eric W. Johnson 00 ^«fciasn» ^ «RBOüSQ...thank Harold E. Conn for help with Tera- sys programming and for running the Terasys tests described in this report. The author would like to thank...USING THE TERASYS TO FIND NEAREST NEIGHBORS 9 4.1 Placing Sample Records in the Terasys 9 4.2 Placing Training Records in the Terasys 10 4.3

  13. Let's Use Cognitive Science to Create Collaborative Workstations.

    PubMed

    Reicher, Murray A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    When informed by an understanding of cognitive science, radiologists' workstations could become collaborative to improve radiologists' performance and job satisfaction. The authors review relevant literature and present several promising areas of research, including image toggling, eye tracking, cognitive computing, intelligently restricted messaging, work habit tracking, and innovative input devices. The authors call for more research in "perceptual design," a promising field that can complement advances in computer-aided detection.

  14. Supporting large scale applications on networks of workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    Distributed applications on networks of workstations are an increasingly common way to satisfy computing needs. However, existing mechanisms for distributed programming exhibit poor performance and reliability as application size increases. Extension of the ISIS distributed programming system to support large scale distributed applications by providing hierarchical process groups is discussed. Incorporation of hierarchy in the program structure and exploitation of this to limit the communication and storage required in any one component of the distributed system is examined.

  15. Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.

  16. ARCIMBOLDO_LITE: single-workstation implementation and use.

    PubMed

    Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Frieske, Dawid; Rodríguez-Freire, Eloy; Borges, Rafael J; Usón, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem at resolutions of around 2 Å or better through massive combination of small fragments and density modification. For complex structures, this imposes a need for a powerful grid where calculations can be distributed, but for structures with up to 200 amino acids in the asymmetric unit a single workstation may suffice. The use and performance of the single-workstation implementation, ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, on a pool of test structures with 40-120 amino acids and resolutions between 0.54 and 2.2 Å is described. Inbuilt polyalanine helices and iron cofactors are used as search fragments. ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES can also run on a single workstation to solve structures in this test set using precomputed libraries of local folds. The results of this study have been incorporated into an automated, resolution- and hardware-dependent parameterization. ARCIMBOLDO has been thoroughly rewritten and three binaries are now available: ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, ARCIMBOLDO_SHREDDER and ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES. The programs and libraries can be downloaded from http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE.

  17. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted.

  18. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FKα X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2σ errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI

  19. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  20. Design method for multi-user workstations utilizing anthropometry and preference data.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Kurczewski, Nicolas A; Froede, Erick W

    2015-01-01

    Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared space for adjacent users. We first create a virtual population with the same anthropometric and preference distributions as an intended demographic of college-aged students. Members of the virtual population are randomly paired to test if their extended reaches overlap but their normal reaches do not. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total percentage of groups in the population that will be accommodated for a workstation size. We apply our method to two test cases: in the first, we size polygonal workstations for two populations and, in the second, we dimension circular workstations for different group sizes.

  1. Advanced Terrain Representation for the Microticcit Workstation: System Maintenance Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    controlled by C50, R61 and R62. the VERT PHASE control. C48 couples this pulse into the "box car" one-shot Q25 where the reset pulse is generated at its...indicated for TICCIT to operate properly. Fail- ure to reset the switches as indicated will degrade the perfor- mance of the MicroTICCIT workstation. 19...in case new ones are illegal */ oldx - x; oldy • y; oldz « z; I /* reset flag indicating joystick movement */ sameframe • FALSE; /* calculate

  2. Worksheets for computing recommended notebook computer and workstation adjustments.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Udomratana, Chatkate; Hansawad, Saowalak; Thepkanjana, Jayaporn; Tantasuwan, Wanchalerm

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of worksheets for helping notebook computer (NBC) users to compute NBC and workstation adjustments so as to assume an appropriate seated posture. The worksheets (one for male users, the other for female ones) require the following information: body height, NBC screen size, work surface height, and seat height. The worksheets contain tables for estimating recommended NBC base angle, NBC screen angle, body-NBC distance, work surface height, and seat height. Additionally, they include flow charts to help NBC users to determine necessary adjustment accessories and their settings.

  3. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 2: EVA workstation conceptual designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Several EV workstation concepts were developed and are documented. The workstation concepts were developed following a comprehensive analysis of potential EV missions, functions, and tasks as interpreted from NASA and contractor space shuttle and space station studies, mission models, and related reports. The design of a versatile, portable EVA workstation is aimed at reducing the design and development costs for each mission and aiding in the development of on-orbit serviceable payloads.

  4. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations.

  5. Accessible microscopy workstation for students and scientists with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Duerstock, Bradley S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for undergraduate science courses to graduate-level research. An accessible microscope is necessary for students and scientists with mobility impairments to be able to use a microscope independently to better understand microscopical imaging concepts and cell biology. This knowledge is not always apparent by simply viewing a catalog of histological images. The ability to operate a microscope independently eliminates the need to hire an assistant or rely on a classmate and permits one to take practical laboratory examinations by oneself. Independent microscope handling is also crucial for graduate students and scientists with disabilities to perform scientific research. By making a personal computer as the user interface for controlling AccessScope functions, different upper limb mobility impairments could be accommodated by using various computer input devices and assistive technology software. Participants with a range of upper limb mobility impairments evaluated the prototype microscopy workstation. They were able to control all microscopy functions including loading different slides without assistance.

  6. Development of a reactor engineering workstation at Seabrook station

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, M.A.; Gorski, J.P. ); Gurney, P.V. )

    1992-01-01

    The reactor engineers at Seabrook station are responsible for supporting plant operation with respect to the current reactor core design. Advanced assembly designs, complex reactor core loading patterns, and emphasis on efficient and safe operation puts a greater demand on the reactor engineer. The traditional use of static data constants and coarse core modeling, in light of the more complex fuel and core designs of today, results in less than optimum monitoring and predicting tools for the reactor engineer. The incorporation of an advanced three-dimensional nodal code with thermal feedbacks and detailed spatial modeling along with the ability to follow current operational history on a state-of-the-art workstation provides the reactor engineer with a dynamic core monitoring and predictive tool. This approach allows for more accurate and efficient completion of the reactor engineer's tasks. Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) is currently in the process of providing advanced reactor physics nodal methods to the reactor engineers at Seabrook station. The scope of this project is to supply a reactor engineering workstation with a simplified user interface to an advanced nodal core model as part of an on-line core monitor/predictor for standard reactor engineering calculations. It uses the Studsvik Core Management System (CMS), which primarily consists of the CASMO-3 cross-section generating code and the SIMULATE-3 three-dimensional two-group nodal reactor analysis code.

  7. Scheduling revisited workstations in integrated-circuit fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of building new semiconductor wafer fabrication factories has grown rapidly, and a state-of-the-art fab may cost 250 million dollars or more. Obtaining an acceptable return on this investment requires high productivity from the fabrication facilities. This paper describes the Photo Dispatcher system which was developed to make machine-loading recommendations on a set of key fab machines. Dispatching policies that generally perform well in job shops (e.g., Shortest Remaining Processing Time) perform poorly for workstations such as photolithography which are visited several times by the same lot of silicon wafers. The Photo Dispatcher evaluates the history of workloads throughout the fab and identifies bottleneck areas. The scheduler then assigns priorities to lots depending on where they are headed after photolithography. These priorities are designed to avoid starving bottleneck workstations and to give preference to lots that are headed to areas where they can be processed with minimal waiting. Other factors considered by the scheduler to establish priorities are the nearness of a lot to the end of its process flow and the time that the lot has already been waiting in queue. Simulations that model the equipment and products in one of Texas Instrument's wafer fabs show the Photo Dispatcher can produce a 10 percent improvement in the time required to fabricate integrated circuits.

  8. A microanalytic study of self-regulated learning processes of expert, non-expert, and at-risk science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation sought to examine differences in the self-regulated learning processes and beliefs of students who vary in their level of expertise in science and to investigate if there are gender differences. Participants were 51 ethnically diverse 11th grade students from three parochial high schools consisting of 34 females and 17 males. Students were grouped as either expert, non-expert, or at-risk based on the school's classification. Students were provided with a short passage on tornados to read and study. The two achievement measures obtained were the Tornado Knowledge Test : ten short-answer questions and the Conceptual Model Test : a question which required the students to draw and describe the three sequential images of tornado development from the textual description of the three phases. A microanalytic methodology was used which consists of asking a series of questions aimed at assessing students' psychological behaviors, feelings, and thoughts in each of Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulation: forethought, performance, and reflection. These questions were asked of the students while they were engaged in learning. Two additional measures were obtained: the Rating Student Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes: A Teacher Scale (RSSRL) and the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning (SELF). Analysis of variance, chi square analysis, and post hoc test results showed significant expertise differences, large effect sizes, and positive linear trends on most measures. Regarding gender, there were significant differences on only two measures. Correlational analyses also revealed significant relations among the self-regulatory subprocesses across the three phases. The microanalytic measures were combined across the three phases and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the Tornado Knowledge Test. These self-regulatory processes explained 77% of the variance in the Tornado Knowledge Test, which was a significant and

  9. The Working Postures among Schoolchildren--Controlled Intervention Study on the Effects of Newly Designed Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Lea; Nygrd, Clas-H kan; Rimpel, Arja; Nummi, Tapio; Kaukiainen, Anneli

    2007-01-01

    Background: School workstations are often inappropriate in not offering an optimal sitting posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individually adjustable saddle-type chairs with wheels and desks with comfort curve and arm support on schoolchildren's working postures compared to conventional workstations. Methods:…

  10. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  11. Parallel Simulation of Subsonic Fluid Dynamics on a Cluster of Workstations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    inside wind musical instruments. Typical simulations achieve $80\\%$ parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP-Apollo workstations. Detailed...TERMS AI, MIT, Artificial Intelligence, Distributed Computing, Workstation Cluster, Network, Fluid Dynamics, Musical Instruments 17. SECURITY...for example, the flow of air inside wind musical instruments. Typical simulations achieve 80% parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP

  12. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  13. HiRel - Reliability/availability integrated workstation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    1992-01-01

    The HiRel software tool is described and demonstrated by application to the mission avionics subsystem of the Advanced System Integration Demonstrations (ASID) system that utilizes the PAVE PILLAR approach. HiRel marks another accomplishment toward the goal of producing a totally integrated computer-aided design (CAD) workstation design capability. Since a reliability engineer generally represents a reliability model graphically before it can be solved, the use of a graphical input description language increases productivity and decreases the incidence of error. The graphical postprocessor module HARPO makes it possible for reliability engineers to quickly analyze huge amounts of reliability/availability data to observe trends due to exploratory design changes. The addition of several powerful HARP modeling engines provides the user with a reliability/availability modeling capability for a wide range of system applications all integrated under a common interactive graphical input-output capability.

  14. Braccio di Ferro: a new haptic workstation for neuromotor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Morasso, Pietro G; Arrichiello, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    This technical note describes a new robotic workstation for neurological rehabilitation, shortly named Braccio di Ferro. It has been designed by having in mind the range of forces and the frequency bandwidth that characterize the interaction between a patient and a physical therapist, as well as a number of requirements that we think are essential for allowing a natural haptic interaction: back-driveability, very low friction and inertia, mechanical robustness, the possibility to operate in different planes, and an open software environment, which allows the operator to add new functionalities and design personalized rehabilitation protocols. Braccio di Ferro is an open system and, in the spirit of open source design, is intended to foster the dissemination of robot therapy. Moreover, its combination of features is not present in commercially available systems.

  15. Metals in dust fractions emitted at mechanical workstations.

    PubMed

    Kondej, Dorota; Gawęda, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Workers at metal machining workstations are exposed to airborne dust particles containing metals and their compounds. Their harmful impact on the workers' health depends on both their chemical composition and their distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the content of metals in dust fractions emitted in the process of mechanical machining of products made of brass, steel and cast iron. Samples taken during grinding, turning and drilling were tested. The concentration of metals in dust fractions was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of iron, manganese, chromium, zinc, lead, copper and nickel in the dust fractions was highly differentiated depending on the size of the particles, the material and the processes used.

  16. C3 generic workstation: Performance metrics and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1988-01-01

    The large number of integrated dependent measures available on a command, control, and communications (C3) generic workstation under development are described. In this system, embedded communications tasks will manipulate workload to assess the effects of performance-enhancing drugs (sleep aids and decongestants), work/rest cycles, biocybernetics, and decision support systems on performance. Task performance accuracy and latency will be event coded for correlation with other measures of voice stress and physiological functioning. Sessions will be videotaped to score non-verbal communications. Physiological recordings include spectral analysis of EEG, ECG, vagal tone, and EOG. Subjective measurements include SWAT, fatigue, POMS and specialized self-report scales. The system will be used primarily to evaluate the effects on performance of drugs, work/rest cycles, and biocybernetic concepts. Performance assessment algorithms will also be developed, including those used with small teams. This system provides a tool for integrating and synchronizing behavioral and psychophysiological measures in a complex decision-making environment.

  17. Ergonomic assessment of selected workstations on a merchant ship.

    PubMed

    Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata

    2017-01-23

    This study describes some key ergonomic factors within the engine room, navigation bridge and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. The study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision-making and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship. This study includes analysis of workstations, working methods and the burden of environmental factors as well as a discussion of specific marine environmental conditions such as confined working and leisure spaces, long-term family and sociocultural separation, frequent changes in climate and time zones, and temporary physical overload and long-term psychological burdens.

  18. A workstation based simulator for teaching compressible aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive flow simulator has been developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. By solving the equations found in NACA 1135, the simulator models three basic fluids problems encountered in supersonic flow: flow past a compression corner, flow past two wedges in series, and flow past two opposed wedges. The study can vary the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the results of the flow calculations to the student. The simulator includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use.

  19. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulations, such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The paper reports on the Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components.

  20. Diagnostic workstation for digital hand atlas in bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.; Pietka, Ewa; Gilsanz, Vicente; Ominsky, Steven

    1998-06-01

    Bone age assessment by a radiological examination of a hand and wrist image is a procedure frequently performed in pediatric patients to evaluate growth disorders, determine growth potential in children and monitor therapy effects. The assessment method currently used in radiological diagnosis is based on atlas matching of the diagnosed hand image with the reference set of atlas patterns, which was developed in 1950s and is not fully applicable for children of today. We intent to implement a diagnostic workstation for creating a new reference set of clinically normal images which will serve as a digital atlas and can be used for a computer-assisted bone age assessment. In this paper, we present the initial data- collection and system setup phase of this five-year research program. We describe the system design, user interface implementation and software tool development for collection, visualization, management and processing of clinically normal hand and wrist images.

  1. Performance Comparison of Mainframe, Workstations, Clusters, and Desktop Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a variety of computers frequently found in a scientific or engineering research environment was conducted using a synthetic and application program benchmarks. From a performance perspective, emerging commodity processors have superior performance relative to legacy mainframe computers. In many cases, the PC clusters exhibited comparable performance with traditional mainframe hardware when 8-12 processors were used. The main advantage of the PC clusters was related to their cost. Regardless of whether the clusters were built from new computers or whether they were created from retired computers their performance to cost ratio was superior to the legacy mainframe computers. Finally, the typical annual maintenance cost of legacy mainframe computers is several times the cost of new equipment such as multiprocessor PC workstations. The savings from eliminating the annual maintenance fee on legacy hardware can result in a yearly increase in total computational capability for an organization.

  2. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications. PMID:26651540

  3. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach.

    PubMed

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications.

  4. The role of the host in a cooperating mainframe and workstation environment, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmanoff, Antone; Martin, Nancy L.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, advancements made in computer systems have prompted a move from centralized computing based on timesharing a large mainframe computer to distributed computing based on a connected set of engineering workstations. A major factor in this advancement is the increased performance and lower cost of engineering workstations. The shift to distributed computing from centralized computing has led to challenges associated with the residency of application programs within the system. In a combined system of multiple engineering workstations attached to a mainframe host, the question arises as to how does a system designer assign applications between the larger mainframe host and the smaller, yet powerful, workstation. The concepts related to real time data processing are analyzed and systems are displayed which use a host mainframe and a number of engineering workstations interconnected by a local area network. In most cases, distributed systems can be classified as having a single function or multiple functions and as executing programs in real time or nonreal time. In a system of multiple computers, the degree of autonomy of the computers is important; a system with one master control computer generally differs in reliability, performance, and complexity from a system in which all computers share the control. This research is concerned with generating general criteria principles for software residency decisions (host or workstation) for a diverse yet coupled group of users (the clustered workstations) which may need the use of a shared resource (the mainframe) to perform their functions.

  5. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  6. International space station mobile servicing system robotic workstation displays and overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Susan H.

    1997-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISSP) currently under development is equipped with robotic workstations to perform and provide information on the mobile servicing system robotic functions in use. The workstations include conventional and special developed hardware, software displays, and control software configurations. The robotic activities are critical to the ISSP during assembly and maintenance activities resulting in detailed crew interface requirements. Operational scenarios were used to develop the requirements of the ISSP Robotic activities resulting in the specification and configuration of the Mobile Servicing System Robotic Workstation.

  7. Physiological stress assessment of female workers at kitchen workstation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hema; Sidhu, M K

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the extent of the physiological stresses of female workers at kitchen workstation while performing the various activities. For this a survey of eighty homemakers and experiment on sixteen respondents having similar physical and physiological parameters was done. Five activities in which the respondents faced maximum problems were selected and were standardized. Physiological stresses including cardiovascular, muscular, and energy expenditure during these activities were then assessed. Study revealed that fatigue during the selected five activities i.e. cutting, grating, rolling, kneading, dish washing, was felt mainly at the wrist, fore arm, followed by discomfort in the shoulders, upper arm, lower back and neck. Energy expenditure for these activities ranged from 7.0 to10 kJ\\min, total cardiac cost of work (TCCW) was between 200.81 to 364.30 beats, physiological cost of work (PCW) was 12.82 to 26.26 beats\\min; maximum for grating and minimum for rolling. The percent increase in heart rate was maximum for grating 38.56 and minimum for rolling 16.20. Reduction in grip and pinch strength of right hand was found more as compared to the left hand.

  8. Intranet and Internet metrological workstation with photonic sensors and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Dybko, Artur

    1999-05-01

    We describe in this paper a part of a telemetric network which consists of a workstation with photonic measurement and communication interfaces, structural fiber optic cabling (10/100BaseFX and CAN-FL), and photonic sensors with fiber optic interfaces. The station is equipped with direct photonic measurement interface and most common measuring standards converter (RS, GPIB) with fiber optic I/O CAN bus, O/E converters, LAN and modem ports. The station was connected to the Intranet (ipx/spx) and Internet (tcp/ip) with separate IP number and DNS, WINS names. Virtual measuring environment system program was written specially for such an Intranet and Internet station. The measurement system program communicated with the user via a Graphical User's Interface (GUI). The user has direct access to all functions of the measuring station system through appropriate layers of GUI: telemetric, transmission, visualization, processing, information, help and steering of the measuring system. We have carried out series of thorough simulation investigations and tests of the station using WWW subsystem of the Internet. We logged into the system through the LAN and via modem. The Internet metrological station works continuously under the address http://nms.ipe.pw.edu.pl/nms. The station and the system hear the short name NMS (from Network Measuring System).

  9. Advisory Algorithm for Scheduling Open Sectors, Operating Positions, and Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Drew, Michael; Lai, Chok Fung; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Air traffic controller supervisors configure available sector, operating position, and work-station resources to safely and efficiently control air traffic in a region of airspace. In this paper, an algorithm for assisting supervisors with this task is described and demonstrated on two sample problem instances. The algorithm produces configuration schedule advisories that minimize a cost. The cost is a weighted sum of two competing costs: one penalizing mismatches between configurations and predicted air traffic demand and another penalizing the effort associated with changing configurations. The problem considered by the algorithm is a shortest path problem that is solved with a dynamic programming value iteration algorithm. The cost function contains numerous parameters. Default values for most of these are suggested based on descriptions of air traffic control procedures and subject-matter expert feedback. The parameter determining the relative importance of the two competing costs is tuned by comparing historical configurations with corresponding algorithm advisories. Two sample problem instances for which appropriate configuration advisories are obvious were designed to illustrate characteristics of the algorithm. Results demonstrate how the algorithm suggests advisories that appropriately utilize changes in airspace configurations and changes in the number of operating positions allocated to each open sector. The results also demonstrate how the advisories suggest appropriate times for configuration changes.

  10. An overview of high-speed networking for workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, K.

    1995-04-01

    The telecommunications industry provides new technologies for GIS (Geographic Information System) workstation upgrades: Fast Ethernet, 100VG-AnyLAN, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These network technologies are based on approved standards and have industry backing (alliance for Fast Ethernet). This paper briefly examines these technologies. Fast Ethernet is an extension to its predecessor 10 Mbps Ethernet, providing a 10x increase in transmission rate. 100VG-AnyLAN offers extensions to Ethernet but embraces the Token Ring technology, allowing internetworking and better performance for networked video. ATM takes a radial approach by simplifying the information quantum to a 53-byte cell, resulting in rapid data handling for telecommunications equipment and allowing efficient transport of data, video, and voice communications. Switched Ethernet and Full Duplexing are among the other technologies competing for this market. The ultimate test of usefulness for any technology lies in how they handle the GIS environment requirements; working demonstration systems will help clarify marketing rhetoric and determine which vendor best implemented the standard.

  11. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  12. The microcomputer workstation - An alternate hardware architecture for remotely sensed image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.; Hofman, L. B.; Donovan, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Difficulties regarding the digital image analysis of remotely sensed imagery can arise in connection with the extensive calculations required. In the past, an expensive large to medium mainframe computer system was needed for performing these calculations. For image-processing applications smaller minicomputer-based systems are now used by many organizations. The costs for such systems are still in the range from $100K to $300K. Recently, as a result of new developments, the use of low-cost microcomputers for image processing and display systems appeared to have become feasible. These developments are related to the advent of the 16-bit microprocessor and the concept of the microcomputer workstation. Earlier 8-bit microcomputer-based image processing systems are briefly examined, and a computer workstation architecture is discussed. Attention is given to a microcomputer workstation developed by Stanford University, and the design and implementation of a workstation network.

  13. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J.; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U.; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees’ physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0–2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations. PMID:24586359

  14. Workstation design in carpet hand-weaving operation: guidelines for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Hosseini, Mostafa; Shahnavaz, Houshang; Jazani, Reza Khani

    2004-01-01

    Carpet weavers suffer from musculoskeletal problems mainly attributed to poor working postures. Their posture is mostly constrained by the design of workstations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 design parameters (weaving height and seat type) on postural variables and subjective experience, and to develop guidelines for workstation adjustments. At an experimental workstation, 30 professional weavers worked in 9 different conditions. Working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. It was shown that head, neck and shoulder postures were influenced by weaving height. Both design parameters influenced trunk and elbows postures. The determinant factor for weavers' perception on the neck, shoulders and elbows was found to be weaving height, and on the back and knees it was seat type. Based on the results, the following guidelines were developed: (a) weaving height should be adjusted to 20 cm above elbow height; (b) a 10 degrees forward-sloping high seat is to be used at weaving workstations.

  15. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    PubMed

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  16. [A particular anthropometric method for the study of accessibility of a workstation].

    PubMed

    Molinaro, V; Del Ferraro, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors which can involve musculo-skeletal disorders is the assumption of awkward postures. These lasts can be caused, in some cases, by a no-suitable collocation of some devices which are indispensable for the work. It is possible to evaluate if the chosen collocation is adequate or not by studying the accessibility of the workstation with a special regard for the accessibility of the devices placed inside the workstation. EN ISO 14738:2002 is a specific standard which has been adopted in Italy as UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. This standard gives some useful requirements, in terms of accessibility, to design a workstation at no-mobile machinery. In this study, the authors have analyzed a check out workstation by following the requirements described in UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. Critical aspects, related to the organization both of the work activities either of the workstation, have been highlighted taking into account standard criteria. Finally the authors make a new design of the check out workstation trying to optimize device collocation in order to reduce awkward postures. The new configuration has been investigated by applying the criteria mentioned in the standard.

  17. Intensive care unit referring physician usage of PACS workstation functions based on disease categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.; Shile, Peter E.; Carey, Bruce; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Feingold, Eric R.

    1994-05-01

    As part of a study of the use of a PACS workstation compared to film in a Medical Intensive Care Unit, logs of workstation activity were maintained. The software for the workstation kept track of the type of user (i.e., intern, resident, fellow, or attending physician) and also of the workstation image manipulation functions used. The functions logged were: no operation, brightness/contrast adjustment, invert video, zoom, and high resolution display (this last function resulted in the display of the full 2 K X 2 K image rather than the usual subsampled 1 K X 1 K image. Associated data collection allows us to obtain the diagnostic category of the examination being viewed (e.g., location of tubes and lines, rule out: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion). The diagnostic categories and user type were then correlated with the use of workstation functions during viewing of images. In general, there was an inverse relationship between the level of training and the number of workstation uses. About two-thirds of the time, there was no image manipulation operation performed. Adjustment of brightness/contrast had the highest percentage of use overall, followed by zoom, video invert, and high resolution display.

  18. Zircon U-Pb Age Distributions in Cogenetic Crystal-Rich Dacitic and Crystal-Poor Rhyolitic Members of Zoned Ignimbrites in the Southern Rocky Mountains by Chemical Abrasion Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (CA-LA-ICP-MS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, J.; Zimmerer, M. J.; Guillong, M.; Bachmann, O.; Lipman, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    The San Juan locus of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) in SW Colorado represents an erosional remnant of a mid-Tertiary (~37-23 Ma) ignimbrite flare up that produced some of the most voluminous ignimbrites on Earth. A key feature of many SRMVF ignimbrites is compositional zonation, with many volcanic units comprising both dacitic and rhyolitic horizons. Geochemical, field and petrographic evidence suggests that dacites and rhyolites are cogenetic. Here, we report U-Pb zircon ages by chemical abrasion inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (CA-LA-ICPMS) for rhyolitic and dacitic components in four units: the Bonanza, Rat Creek, Carpenter Ridge and Nelson Mountain Tuffs. All units show zircon age spectra that are either within analytical uncertainty of Ar/Ar ages or are appreciably older, indicating prolonged magma residence times (~500 ka) prior to eruption. Anomalously young Pb-loss zones in zircon have been largely removed by chemical abrasion. Older, inherited zircons and zircon cores (60-2000 Ma) are rare in all samples, suggesting limited assimilation of upper crustal Precambrian country rock or complete resorption during recharge events and magma chamber growth.

  19. The oldest sediments of Greece revealed by detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating: Cambro-Ordovician sandstones from northern Gondwana in the External Hellenides - implications on the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2013-04-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of a quartzite from the Feneos locality of Peloponnesus, S. Greece, were determined by LA-ICPMS. The rock classifies as a mature quartz arenite and belongs to an original shale-sandstone succession now metamorphosed into a phyllite-quartzite unit. The latter chiefly represents the External Blueschist Belt of the Hellenides widely known as the Arna or Phyllite - Quartzite (PQ) Unit. Zircon age clusters at 0.5-0.75, 0.85, 0.95-1.1, 1.75-2 and 2.4-3 Ga point at the Saharan Metacraton and the Transgondwanan Supermountain as contributing sources; the youngest concordant grain is 522 Ma old. Based on great similarities in lithology, zircon age-distribution patterns and depositional setting between the Feneos quartzite and intact Cambro-Ordovician sandstone-shale sequences of Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins) we propose that the protolith of the former was deposited in an epeiric sea north of Libya during the Cambro-Ordovician. Feneos, as part of the Cimmerian block, had become detached from the NE Gondwanan margin during Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times and drifted northward. In central Crete, similar-looking sequences (Galinos beds) were originally deposited in an accretionary/fore-arc complex outboard of the south Laurussian active margin (Pelagonia) between ~297-230 Ma. The southern Pelagonian margin eventually collided (mild docking) with the northward drifting Cimmerian block signaling the closure of Palaeotethys by early Late Triassic. The Gondwanan affinity of the Feneos quartzite strongly contrasts the European one of the Galinos beds; the suture of Palaeotethys can thus be traced in S. Greece within the pre-Triassic sedimentary sequences of Peloponnesus and Crete. In the eastern Mediterranean realm, rocks with similar age clusters crop out in Greece (Peloponnesus, this study; eastern Crete, Sfaka locality; north-central Macedonia, Vertiskos terrane), NW Turkey (central Sakarya terrane), Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins), Israel (Elat locality) and Jordan (El-Quweira locality). Their zircon age spectra plotted with respect to sediment depositional age indicate a collisional margin setting for all. Evaluating the depositional setting of the arguably similar sedimentary sequences above we demonstrate their common provenance from the Gondwana Super-fan System which draped the northern Gondwanan periphery from ~525 to 460 Ma (Lower Cambrian - Middle Ordovician). Using as anchoring points the non-metamorphosed Early Palaeozoic outcrops of Libya and the Middle East that remained intact at their original deposition sites we have traced, in space and time, the path of the remainder time- and facies-equivalent rocks presently cropping out in the Hellenic and Turkish mountain belts. The fate of the northern Gondwanan margin was multiple rifting and travelling of the fragments thereof throughout the Palaeozoic before their final incorporation into younger orogenic belts.

  20. Digitizing rocks standardizing the geological description process using workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.R. , Windsor, Berkshire ); Shields, J.A. ); Taylor, M.R. )

    1993-09-01

    The preservation of geological knowledge in a standardized digital form presents a challenge. Data sources, inherently fuzzy, range in scale from the macroscopic (e.g., outcrop) through the mesoscopic (e.g., hand-specimen) core and sidewall core, to the microscopic (e.g., drill cuttings, thin sections, and microfossils). Each scale change results in increased heterogeneity and potentially contradictory data and the providers of such data may vary in experience level. To address these issues with respect to cores and drill cuttings, a geological description workstation has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Over 1000 carefully defined geological attributes are currently available within a depth-indexed, relational database. Attributes are stored in digital form, allowing multiple users to select familiar usage (e.g., diabase vs. dolerite). Data can be entered in one language and retrieved in other languages. The database structure allow groupings of similar elements (e.g., rhyolites in acidic, igneous or volcanics subgroups or the igneous rock group) permitting different uses to analyze details appropriate to the scale of the usage. Data entry uses a graphical user interface, allowing the geologist to make quick, logical selections in a standardized or custom-built format with extensive menus, on-screen graphics and help screens available. Description ranges are permissible. Entries for lithology, petrology, structures (sedimentary, organic and deformational), reservoir characteristics (porosity and hydrocarbon shows), and macrofossils are available. Sampling points for thin sections, core analysis, geochemistry, or micropaleontology studies are also recorded. Using digital data storage, geological logs using graphical, alphanumeric and symbolic depictions are possible. Data can be integrated with drilling and mud gas data, MWD and wireline data and off well-site analyses to produced composite formation evaluation logs and interpretational crossplots.

  1. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  2. PC-based workstation for global PACS remote consultation and diagnosis in rural clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Robles, Saul; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    Most rural clinics across the country have limited facilities to provide state-of-the-art medical services. The availability of enabling technologies, such as telecommunication networks, multimedia workstations, and telemedicine systems which provide medical services to patients without requiring them to travel from their cities represents a great step in patient care. In previous work, we have developed a distributed software for remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) in a Global PACS environment over the Internet. The RCD system has been designed and tested on DEC and SUN workstations. In this paper, we present a Unix-PC based platform to implement the RCD over a standard telephone line and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The Unix-PC platform offers an inexpensive option for telemedicine workstations in rural clinics, where no Internet is available. If an Internet connection is available at the rural clinic, full RCD multimedia services are possible. The Unix-PC platform has been developed by using Linux, a Unix-like operating system available from several public sites over the Internet. We call the system PC-PACS. The PC-PACS workstation has been tested from different rural sites by connecting the Unix-PC system to the Internet through SLIP. Once the system is connected, RCD sessions have been performed between the Unix- PC platform and SUN workstations. The tests have included diagnosis on radiology and pathology images. A separate telephone line for voice communications during the RCD session is required. This paper describes performance tests for the PC-based workstation and the RCD system over SLIP and Ethernet interfaces. Results show acceptable performance of the workstation and the RCD software.

  3. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  4. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  5. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  6. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: guidelines for workstation design.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Khani Jazani, Reza; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2007-09-01

    Long hours of static work with awkward posture at traditionally designed looms can cause high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among carpet weavers. A comprehensive study was conducted in this industry with the objectives of determination of MSDs symptoms prevalence; identification of major factors associated with MSDs symptoms in carpet weaving occupation; and development of guidelines for weaving workstation design. In the present paper, this ergonomics study is presented. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, MSDs symptoms in nine Iranian provinces were surveyed by questionnaire among 1439 randomly selected weavers. Working posture and weaving workstations were ergonomically assessed as well. The results of this phase revealed that symptoms from the musculoskeletal system occurred in high rate among weavers with the prevalence significantly higher than that of the general Iranian population (P<0.001). It was found that the majority of ergonomics shortcomings originated from ill-designed weaving workstation. Based on the findings, some general guidelines for workstation design were presented. In the second phase, considering the general guidelines, an adjustable workstation was designed and constructed. To develop quantitative guidelines for optimizing workstation set-up, in the laboratory, nine sets of experimental conditions were tested, and working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. The results of this lab work showed that working posture was acceptable for both the researchers and the weavers when the weaving height was adjusted 20 cm above the elbow height and a high seat with forward slope was used. By combining the results of the two phases, guidelines for weaving workstation design were presented. In this ergonomics-oriented workstation, loom is vertical. Seat, loom and weaving heights are adjustable. There is enough leg room under the loom. The seat with 10 degrees forward slope is adjusted 15 cm above the

  7. The impact of sit-stand office workstations on worker discomfort and productivity: a review.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-05-01

    This review examines the effectiveness of sit-stand workstations at reducing worker discomfort without causing a decrease in productivity. Four databases were searched for studies on sit-stand workstations, and five selection criteria were used to identify appropriate articles. Fourteen articles were identified that met at least three of the five selection criteria. Seven of the identified studies reported either local, whole body or both local and whole body subjective discomfort scores. Six of these studies indicated implementing sit-stand workstations in an office environment led to lower levels of reported subjective discomfort (three of which were statistically significant). Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations are likely effective in reducing perceived discomfort. Eight of the identified studies reported a productivity outcome. Three of these studies reported an increase in productivity during sit-stand work, four reported no affect on productivity, and one reported mixed productivity results. Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations do not cause a decrease in productivity.

  8. Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2009-08-01

    The clinical reading environment for the 21st century pathologist looks very different than it did even a few short years ago. Glass slides are quickly being replaced by digital "virtual slides," and the traditional light microscope is being replaced by the computer display. There are numerous questions that arise however when deciding exactly what this new digital display viewing environment will be like. Choosing a workstation for daily use in the interpretation of digital pathology images can be a very daunting task. Radiology went digital nearly 20 years ago and faced many of the same challenges so there are lessons to be learned from these experiences. One major lesson is that there is no "one size fits all" workstation so users must consider a variety of factors when choosing a workstation. In this article, we summarize some of the potentially critical elements in a pathology workstation and the characteristics one should be aware of and look for in the selection of one. Issues pertaining to both hardware and software aspects of medical workstations will be reviewed particularly as they may impact the interpretation process.

  9. Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology☆

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The clinical reading environment for the 21st century pathologist looks very different than it did even a few short years ago. Glass slides are quickly being replaced by digital “virtual slides,” and the traditional light microscope is being replaced by the computer display. There are numerous questions that arise however when deciding exactly what this new digital display viewing environment will be like. Choosing a workstation for daily use in the interpretation of digital pathology images can be a very daunting task. Radiology went digital nearly 20 years ago and faced many of the same challenges so there are lessons to be learned from these experiences. One major lesson is that there is no “one size fits all” workstation so users must consider a variety of factors when choosing a workstation. In this article, we summarize some of the potentially critical elements in a pathology workstation and the characteristics one should be aware of and look for in the selection of one. Issues pertaining to both hardware and software aspects of medical workstations will be reviewed particularly as they may impact the interpretation process. PMID:19552939

  10. Comparison of three computer office workstations offering forearm support: impact on upper limb posture and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Plamondon, André; Imbeau, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    The aims of the study were: 1) to determine whether resting the forearms on the work surface, as compared to chair armrests, reduces muscular activation; 2) to compare the sensitivity of different electromyographic (EMG) summary parameters. Eighteen healthy subjects performed computer work (with keyboard and mouse alternately) for 20 min while resting their forearms on a work surface adjustable in height (Workstation A), on the chair's armrests with an adjustable workstation (Workstation B) or on their chair's armrests with a non-adjustable workstation (Workstation C). The EMG amplitude of the trapezius and deltoid muscles was little influenced by the workstations, whereas their EMG variability increased with Workstation A, which was interpreted as a positive effect. However, the EMG amplitude of the mouse-side extensor digitorum muscle was higher with Workstation A. Alternating between resting the forearms on the work surface and on the chairs' armrests could solicit different muscles during computer work, and could be considered as a strategy for preventing musculoskeletal disorders. The new exposure variation analysis summary parameters used were sensitive to small workstation changes, thus supporting their use in future studies.

  11. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    human figure in an environment. Integrated into JACK is a set of vision tools that allow predictions about visibility and legibility. The program is capable of displaying environment perspectives corresponding to what the mannequin would see while in the environment, indicating potential problems with occlusion and visibility. It is also possible to display view cones emanating from the figure's eyes, indicating field of view. Another feature projects the environment onto retina coordinates which gives clues regarding visual angles, acuity and occlusion by the biological blind spots. A retina editor makes it possible to draw onto the retina and project that into 3-dimensional space. Another facility, Reach, causes the mannequin to move a specific portion of its anatomy to a chosen point in space. The Reach facility helps in analyzing problems associated with operator size and other constraints. The 17-segment torso makes it possible to set a figure into realistic postures, simulating human postures closely. The JACK application software is written in C-language for Silicon Graphics workstations running IRIX versions 4.0.5 or higher and is available only in executable form. Since JACK is a copyrighted program (copyright 1991 University of Pennsylvania), this executable may not be redistributed. The recommended minimum hardware configuration for running the executable includes a floating-point accelerator, an 8-megabyte program memory, a high resolution (1280 x 1024) graphics card, and at least 50Mb of free disk space. JACK's data files take up millions of bytes of storage space, so additional disk space is highly recommended. The standard distribution medium for JACK is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIX tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. JACK was originally developed in 1988. Jack v4.8 was released for distribution through COSMIC in 1993.

  12. Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Manoj; Santos, Susana I C O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In this work we propose and build a multimodal optical workstation that extends a commercially available confocal microscope (Nikon Confocal C1-Si) to include nonlinear/multiphoton microscopy and optical manipulation/stimulation tools such as nanosurgery. The setup allows both subsystems (confocal and nonlinear) to work independently and simultaneously. The workstation enables, for instance, nanosurgery along with simultaneous confocal and brightfield imaging. The nonlinear microscopy capabilities are added around the commercial confocal microscope by exploiting all the flexibility offered by this microscope and without need for any mechanical or electronic modification of the confocal microscope systems. As an example, the standard differential interference contrast condenser and diascopic detector in the confocal microscope are readily used as a forward detection mount for second harmonic generation imaging. The various capabilities of this workstation, as applied directly to biology, are demonstrated using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.

  13. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  14. Use of model-based qualitative icons and adaptive windows in workstations for supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Saisi, Donna L.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of an operator interface using qualitative icons and dynamic windows designed and controlled by means of an operator function model is demonstrated, and the simulation system, the Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center, is described. Qualitative icons are used to integrate low-level quantitative data into high-level qualitative error detection mechanisms, and window technology is used for the simultaneous display of multiple data sources that reflect different aspects of the system state. Based on eleven experimental measures, the workstation incorporating the model-based qualitative icons and dynamic operator function window sets was found to perform better than the conventional workstation.

  15. General specifications for the development of a USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D distributed workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the development of a PC-based distributed workstation (PCDWS) for an information storage and retrieval systems environment are defined. This research proposes the development of a PCDWS prototype as part of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA/PC R and D project in the PC-based workstation environment.

  16. Validation of COG10 and ENDFB6R7 on the Auk Workstation for General Application to Plutonium Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Percher, Catherine G

    2011-08-08

    The COG 10 code package1 on the Auk workstation is now validated with the ENBFB6R7 neutron cross section library for general application to plutonium (Pu) systems by comparison of the calculated keffective to the expected keffective of several relevant experimental benchmarks. This validation is supplemental to the installation and verification of COG 10 on the Auk workstation2.

  17. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  18. Generalization of Posture Training to Computer Workstations in an Applied Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Ring, Brandon M.; Needham, Mick; Boscoe, James H.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Improving employees' posture may decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The current paper is a systematic replication and extension of Sigurdsson and Austin (2008), who found that an intervention consisting of information, real-time feedback, and self-monitoring improved participant posture at mock workstations. In the current study,…

  19. From Workstation to Teacher Support System: A Tool to Increase Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. Wey

    1989-01-01

    Describes a teacher support system which is a computer-based workstation that provides support for teachers and administrators by integrating teacher utility programs, instructional management software, administrative packages, and office automation tools. Hardware is described and software components are explained, including database managers,…

  20. The Electronic Library: The Student/Scholar Workstation, CD-ROM and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triebwasser, Marc A.

    Predicting that a large component of the library of the not so distant future will be an electronic network of file servers where information is stored for access by personal computer workstations in remote locations as well as the library, this paper discusses innovative computer technologies--particularly CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)…

  1. The Personal Computer as an Analytical Workstation: Interfacing Standard Software Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Jeffery L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the functions that should be included in an analytical workstation. Also discusses the common data file structures and the techniques of data interchange between software modules and presents a brief overview of commercial products and their interfacing characteristics. These software include word processors, spreadsheets, database…

  2. Execution Time Requirements of Petri Net Programs in a Sun Workstation Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-21

    Sun workstation in a reasonable time . The time for the solution of the SIMNET models was measured using two different configurations of the Sun... reasonable time . The degradation in performance with an increasing number of markings is more gradual with larger memory. A number of tables are included

  3. From an automated flight-test management system to a flight-test engineer's workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and evolution is described of a flight engineer's workstation (called TEST-PLAN) from an automated flight test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight test management systems are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.

  4. Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Marras, William S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how different workstations may influence physical behavior in office work through motion and how that may affect spinal loads and discomfort. Twenty subjects performed a typing task in three different workstations (seated, standing, and perching) for one hour each. Measures of postural transitions, spinal loads, discomfort, and task performance were assessed in order to understand the effects of workstation interaction over time. Results indicated that standing had the most amount of motion (6-8 shifts/min), followed by perching (3-7 shifts/min), and then seating (<1 shift/min). Standing had the highest reports of discomfort and seating the least. However, spinal loads were highest in A/P shear during standing (190N posterior shear, 407N anterior shear) compared to perching (65N posterior shear, 288N anterior shear) and seating (106N posterior shear, 287 anterior shear). These loads are below the risk threshold for shear, but may still elicit a cumulative response. Perching may induce motion through supported mobility in the perching stool, whereas standing motion may be due to postural discomfort. Office workstation designs incorporating supported movement may represent a reasonable trade-off in the costs-benefits between seating and standing.

  5. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  6. Analysis of STEM images on a RISC workstation with an APL interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, Oscar H.; Ruan, Shengyang

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a stand-alone image processing system with an interface to an APL interpreter on a second generation RISC workstation to analyze digital images from our scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). The system is UNIX based and utilizes the X-Windows system to display images and to toggle between different environments.

  7. CALL in a Communicative Context: A Study of Students' Conversation at a Multimedia Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miceli, Tiziana; Kennedy, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of Italia Oggi, a videodisc-based system for intermediate and advanced students of Italian at Griffith University in Australia. Attention was focused on students' behavior in pair work, including talk at the workstation and the collaborative strategies they employed. (Author/VWL)

  8. Development and Use of a GIS Workstation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the Department of Energy s (DOE) largest multipurpose science and energy laboratory. As an interdisciplinary research organization, access to information plays a critical part in the success of the many research efforts in progress at the Laboratory. The Research Library, in a supportive role, enables staff to fulfill the Laboratory s mission by making available a myriad of information resources including paper and electronic maps. The Research Library Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation was developed to better serve library customers by providing convenient access to a variety of mapping resources. The GIS workstation functions as a supplement to the paper map collection by providing customers with maps in an electronic format that can easily be inserted into memos, reports, and journal articles. Customer interest, together with the growing availability of low-cost and user-friendly mapping software, led to the development of the GIS workstation, which hosts an array of commercial mapping software that enables customers to produce ready-made topographic maps, current and historical maps, and road maps. Customers may also create customized maps using their own data or data supplied by the software vendor. This article focuses on the development, implementation, and use of the library s GIS workstation by providing a brief description of hardware components, mapping resources, and how these resources are used by Laboratory staff.

  9. Taming the CD-ROM Wilderness: Developing and Managing a Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of development and management of a CD-ROM workstation for library reference services covers: (1) IBM compatibles; (2) computer storage capacity; (3) compact disk drives and printers; (4) file management; (5) protecting the integrity of a hard disk; and (6) backing up software. (three references) (MES)

  10. The CD-ROM Workstation: What It Is and What to Look For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Describes the hardware components of a CD-ROM workstation and offers guidelines for selection decisions. Components discussed include CD-ROM drives; keyboards; monitors, including color and monochrome; graphics; microcomputers, including memory requirements; disk storage, including hard disks and floppy disks; and printers. Turnkey systems are…

  11. 76 FR 21775 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Office Workstations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    .... is the country of origin of the finished article for purposes of U.S. government procurement. Section... seq.), CBP issues country of origin advisory rulings and final determinations as to whether an article... design a workstation architecture best suited to the specific office space. Once a design decision...

  12. The Use of a UNIX-Based Workstation in the Information Systems Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    WORKSTATION IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY by Charlotte V. Smith March 1989 Thesis Advisor: Norman F. Schneidewind Co-Advisor: Magdi Kamel Approved for...5002 3. Dr. Norman F. Schneidewind, Code 54Ss 2 Department of Administrative Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 4. Dr. Magdi

  13. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a high-resolution workstation for diagnostic interpretation of portable radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Huda, Walter; Palmer, Carole K.; Frost, Meryll M.; Moser, Robert; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-04-01

    A cost effectiveness study on the feasibility of using computed radiography (CR) instead of screen-film methods for portable radiographs indicates that we could only justify CR if film were eliminated. Before purchasing CR equipment, we needed to evaluate the use of softcopy to replace film for routine clinical use. The evaluation had to cover image quality, human factors, and efficiency measures. Screen-film radiographs were digitized and used to simulate CR in two studies. The first study evaluated the quality of digitized images and the workstation user interface. Twenty-one radiographs were selected at random from scopes in the radiology department, were digitized, and transferred to a megascan workstation. Five radiologists were asked to assess the quality of the images and the ease of operation of the workstation while an observer recorded their comments and scores. The second study evaluated the feasibility of using the workstation in a clinical environment. Four radiologists read adult and pediatric portable images in film and softcopy format. Reports were evaluated for differences and timing statistics were kept. The results of the first study indicate that image quality may be acceptable for diagnostic purposes and suggests some changes in the user interface. Newborn infant images were the least acceptable in softcopy, largely due to magnification artifacts introduced when viewing very small images. The evaluation was based on a digitizer as a simulator for a CR unit and the digitizer did not exhibit the same resolution characteristics as CR. Films that were unacceptable from the digitizer are expected to be acceptable with CR. The results of the second study indicated that the high resolution diagnostic workstation could be used in a clinical setting, and that the diagnostic readings were not significantly different between film and softcopy displays. The results also indicated that, depending on the radiologist and the type of images, more time was

  15. Implementation of a high-resolution workstation for primary diagnosis of projection radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Walter F.; Herron, John M.; Maitz, Glenn S.; Gur, David; Miller, Stephen L.; Straub, William H.; Fuhrman, Carl R.

    1990-08-01

    We designed and implemented a high-resolution video workstation as the central hardware component in a comprehensive multi-project program comparing the use of digital and film modalities. The workstation utilizes a 1.8 GByte real-time disk (RCI) capable of storing 400 full-resolution images and two Tektronix (GMA251) display controllers with 19" monitors (GMA2O2). The display is configured in a portrait format with a resolution of 1536 x 2048 x 8 bit, and operates at 75 Hz in a noninterlaced mode. Transmission of data through a 12 to 8 bit lookup table into the display controllers occurs at 20 MBytes/second (.35 seconds per image). The workstation allows easy use of brightness (level) and contrast (window) to be manipulated with a trackball, and various processing options can be selected using push buttons. Display of any of the 400 images is also performed at 20MBytes/sec (.35 sec/image). A separate text display provides for the automatic display of patient history data and for a scoring form through which readers can interact with the system by means of a computer mouse. In addition, the workstation provides for the randomization of cases and for the immediate entry of diagnostic responses into a master database. Over the past year this workstation has been used for over 10,000 readings in diagnostic studies related to 1) image resolution; 2) film vs. soft display; 3) incorporation of patient history data into the reading process; and 4) usefulness of image processing.

  16. The relationship between nursing and medical cultures: implications for the design and implementation of a clinicians' workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Turley, J. P.; Connelly, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The culture of different professions is manifest in how members relate to each other and in how they organize and store data and information. For developers of clinical workstations intended to support not only the independent tasks but also the interdependent tasks of multiple health professionals, recognition of cultural differences among groups of health care professionals may be of great importance. Allowance for and adaptation to these differences are likely to be important for both acceptance and effective use of clinical workstations. Examples are drawn from Nursing and Medicine based on a clinician's workstation currently in use and undergoing continuous development. PMID:8130468

  17. Advances in Quantitative Analyses and Reference Materials Related to Laser Ablation ICP-MS: A Look at Methods and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A. E.; Ridley, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    The role of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) continues to expand both in geological sciences and other fields. As the technique continues to gain popularity, so too does the need for good reference materials and methods development and validation. Matrix matched reference materials (RMs) are required for calibration and quality control of LA-ICP-MS analyses. New advances in technology such as <200nm lasers and femtosecond lasers have reduced the dependence on matrix matching to some degree, but general matrix matching is still preferred. Much work has revolved around the available RMs such as the NIST 61x silicate glasses and several series of basaltic composition glasses such as the USGS natural basaltic glasses BCR-2g and synthetic basaltic glasses, the GS series (e.g. GSD-1g). While many quantitative hurdles have been recognized by analogous techniques such as EPMA and SIMS, some of these hurdles have not been fully addressed or validated for some cases of LA-ICP-MS. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS is rapidly becoming more widespread for samples. Here relative differences in raw signal can be easily and rapidly obtained. However as too often is the case the magnitude of the relative differences in raw intensity are a function of different ablation yields, sample density or other factors. Methods of quantification for trace element mapping will be presented. The USGS has been developing microanalytical RMs intended for LA-ICP-MS for several years. The widely popular basaltic rock powders BCR-2, BIR-1 and BHVO-2 have all been successfully converted to homogeneous glasses suitable for LA-ICP-MS and have been in use by many workers. The newer synthetic basaltic glass GS series consists of 4 glasses of basaltic composition artificially doped at nominal concentrations of almost of trace elements at 400, 40, 4 and < 1 ppm. Additional developments in non-silcate or basaltic materials include the previously released MASS-1 Cu, Fe, Zn sulfide calibration RM (Wilson et

  18. Non-destructive micro-analytical system for the study of the manufacturing processes of a group of gold jewels from "El Carambolo" treasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Ager, F. J.; de la Bandera, M. L.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The impressive gold treasure of El Carambolo, representative of the Tartesic culture and dated from the 8th to 6th century BCE, constitutes a typological and stylistic unity unparalleled in the archeological field. Due to the importance of this treasure and the interest in studying it in depth, a new micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) portable system has been developed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain). Eleven jewels of El Carambolo treasure have been analyzed in order to characterize the composition of the employed alloys, to identify the manufacturing processes and to discuss hypothesis about the production workshop of the treasure. Besides, the application of the new micro-XRF instrumentation allowed the analysis of small details like decoration elements and joining areas. This study permits the characterization of the joining methods and manufacturing procedures, thus, the construction stages of these highly complex jewels can be inferred. Many archeological and historical studies of the treasure have been performed during the last years but very few analytical results have been published. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the capability of the new developed portable micro-XRF setup to substitute satisfactorily other micro-analytical techniques, such as micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), when the sample cannot be brought to a laboratory.

  19. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  20. SPREADSHEET-BASED PROGRAM FOR ERGONOMIC ADJUSTMENT OF NOTEBOOK COMPUTER AND WORKSTATION SETTINGS.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Prae-Arporn, Kanlayanee; Chanjirawittaya, Sorajak; Paripoonyo, Satirajit; Rodloy, Somsak

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses a computer program, ErgoNBC, which provides suggestions regarding the ergonomic settings of a notebook computer (NBC), workstation components, and selected accessories in order to help computer users to assume an appropriate work posture during the NBC work. From the users' body height, NBC and workstation component data, ErgoNBC computes the recommended tilt angle of NBC base unit, NBC screen angle, distance between the user and NBC, seat height and work surface height. If necessary, the NBC base support, seat cushion and footrest, including their settings, are recommended. An experiment involving twenty-four university students was conducted to evaluate the recommendations provided by ErgoNBC. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique was used to analyze their work postures both before and after implementing the Ergo NBC's recommendations. The results clearly showed that ErgoNBC could significantly help to improve the subjects' work postures.

  1. Workstation-Based Avionics Simulator to Support Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David; Canham, Timothy; Chang, Johnny T.; McMahon, Elihu

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the WorkStation TestSet (WSTS) to support flight software development. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC. This provides flight software developers with their own virtual avionics testbed and allows device-level and functional software testing when hardware testbeds are either not yet available or have limited availability. The WSTS has successfully off-loaded many flight software development activities from the project testbeds. At the writing of this paper, the WSTS has averaged an order of magnitude more usage than the project's hardware testbeds.

  2. A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Pappas, J. J.; Ford, M.; Zatsman, P.; Tu, J.; Barnett, G. O.

    1996-01-01

    Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces. PMID:8947744

  3. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  4. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  5. Simulation of automatic rotorcraft nap-of-the-earth flight in graphics workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, T.; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) helicopter flight simulation system. The simulation is designed to be a readily available tool for concept verification and tuning of automatic obstacle-avoidance guidance algorithms. The system has been implemented on networked workstations capable of interactive 3D graphics simulation. The simulation uses realistic terrain and obstacle models. The dynamics of the rotorcraft and the functional capabilities of the range sensors are simulated to provide all the components required to evaluate the guidance function. Standard graphics hardware available on the workstation is utilized to accelerate the range-data calculations for sensor simulation at the guidance rate. An example is given to demonstrate the performance of the obstacle-avoidance capability.

  6. Computer modeling and design of diagnostic workstations and radiology reading rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2000-05-01

    We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.

  7. "Virtual" clinical trials: case control experiments utilizing a health services research workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, M. G.; Hillman, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We created an interface to a growing repository of clinical and administrative information to facilitate the design and execution of case-control experiments. The system enables knowledgeable users to generate and test hypotheses regarding associations among diseases and outcomes. The intuitive interface allows the user to specify criteria for selecting cases and defining putative risks. The repository contains comprehensive administrative and selected clinical information on all ambulatory and emergency department visits as well as hospital admissions since 1994. We tested the workstation's ability to determine relationships between outpatient diagnoses including hypertension, osteoarthritis and hypercholesterolemia with the occurrence of admissions for stroke and myocardial infarction and achieved results consistent with published studies. Successful implementation of this Health Services Research Workstation will allow "virtual" clinical trials to validate the results of formal clinical trials on a local population and may provide meaningful analyses of data when formal clinical trials are not feasible. PMID:9929230

  8. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  9. OMEGA System Performance Assessment and Coverage Evaluation (PACE) Workstation Design and Implementation. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-15

    contract number * * DI2~ 3 -89-C-20008, Task Order 90-0001, Task No. 5834, for * * the Omega Navigation System Center (ONSN), Alexardria, VA. * * IJR * * Ts...CG-ONSCEN-02.2-𔄃 1’ OMEGA SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COVERAGE EVALUATION (PACE) WORKSTATION DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION AD- A239 7 24 George R...Springfield, Virginia 22161 Prepared for: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES COAST GUARD OMEGA Navigation System Center Alexandria, Virginia

  10. Test of radiologist performance in interpreting bedside chest examinations on a workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Nelson, Martha C.; Reagan, Kathleen; Horii, Steven C.; Mun, Seong K.

    1992-05-01

    A book cassette containing both a conventional film-screen radiographic system (FR) and a phosphor storage radiographic plate (SR) was used to obtain simultaneous bedside chest images in 22 patients in the Post Operative Cardiac and Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Twenty-five potential findings of normal structures, lung and pleural disease, and life support devices were recorded for each image in a five point rating format. The FR images are all considered of good diagnostic quality. The original FR films, the laser digitized FR images (DF) displayed on a workstation (WS), and the SR images displayed on a WS were compared. The WS viewing was on a 1 K X 1.2 K, 8 bit monitor. Free adjustment of window level, window width, and black-white inversion was allowed. Magnification allowed access to the 2 K data set. ROC analysis supports the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the diagnostic yield of good quality bedside obtained FR, DF made from good quality FR viewed on a workstation, and SR viewed on a workstation. Analysis of the subset of interstitial and airspace edema indicated that readers gave higher scores for interstitial disease on the WS for both false positive and true positive findings.

  11. Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hayden; Dong, Chen Y; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Sutin, Jason D; Kamm, Roger D; So, Peter T C

    2002-01-01

    The ability to apply quantifiable mechanical stresses at the microscopic scale is critical for studying cellular responses to mechanical forces. This necessitates the use of force transducers that can apply precisely controlled forces to cells while monitoring the responses noninvasively. This paper describes the development of a micromanipulation workstation integrating two-photon, three-dimensional imaging with a high-force, uniform-gradient magnetic manipulator. The uniform-gradient magnetic field applies nearly uniform forces to a large cell population, permitting statistical quantification of select molecular responses to mechanical stresses. The magnetic transducer design is capable of exerting over 200 pN of force on 4.5-microm-diameter paramagnetic particles and over 800 pN on 5.0-microm ferromagnetic particles. These forces vary within +/-10% over an area 500 x 500 microm2. The compatibility with the use of high numerical aperture (approximately 1.0) objectives is an integral part of the workstation design allowing submicron-resolution, three-dimensional, two-photon imaging. Three-dimensional analyses of cellular deformation under localized mechanical strain are reported. These measurements indicate that the response of cells to large focal stresses may contain three-dimensional global deformations and show the suitability of this workstation to further studying cellular response to mechanical stresses. PMID:11916876

  12. A representational framework and user-interface for an image understanding workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Joyce D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems in image understanding involve a wide variety of data (e.g., image arrays, edge maps, 3-D shape models) and processes or algorithms (e.g., convolution, feature extraction, rendering). The underlying structure of an Image Understanding Workstation designed to support mulitple levels and types of representations for both data and processes is described, also the user-interface. The Image Understanding Workstation consists of two parts: the Image Understanding (IU) Framework, and the user-interface. The IU Framework is the set of data and process representations. It includes multiple levels of representation for data such as images (2-D), sketches (2-D), surfaces (2 1/2 D), and models (3-D). The representation scheme for processes characterizes their inputs, outputs, and parameters. Data and processes may reside on different classes of machines. The user-interface to the IU Workstation gives the user convenient access for creating, manipulating, transforming, and displaying image data. The user-interface follows the structure of the IU Framework and gives the user control over multiple types of data and processes. Both the IU Framework and user-interface are implemented on a LISP machine.

  13. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, June J.; Baker, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  14. Frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Maryam; Rashid, Sajid; Umar, Bilal; Ahmad, Aqeel; Ehsan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: Neck and shoulder are the most susceptible areas for developing musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users. The modifiable risk factors for these work related musculoskeletal disorders include physical office environment and psychosocial work related factors. Computer workstation layout had been shown to be an important physical aspect of work environment that influences the upper quadrant symptoms. Our objective was to find the frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers of Islamabad/Rawalpindi/Multan Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and 120 participants were questioned. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ) was remodeled and important questions were extracted from its detailed version. The tool was then validated by taking expert opinion. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results: Pain in the neck during working hours was experienced by 71.67% of the respondents and 48.33% of the participants had experienced shoulder pain during working hours. Adjustable keyboards were used by 16.67% of respondents. Back care material was used by 40% bankers. Adjustable chairs were used by 95.83% of the participants. Only 3% of the bankers did not have chairs with adjustable heights. Chairs with adjustable armrests were used by 25% bankers. Conclusion: Neck and shoulder pain are common occurrences among bankers. Most of the components of workstations of bankers were adjustable but some of them still need attention. PMID:27182253

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  16. Low Cost Desktop Image Analysis Workstation With Enhanced Interactive User Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Huang, H. K.

    1989-05-01

    A multimodality picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is in routine clinical use in the UCLA Radiology Department. Several types workstations are currently implemented for this PACS. Among them, the Apple Macintosh II personal computer was recently chosen to serve as a desktop workstation for display and analysis of radiological images. This personal computer was selected mainly because of its extremely friendly user-interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community and its low cost. In comparison to other microcomputer-based systems the Macintosh II offers the following advantages: the extreme standardization of its user interface, file system and networking, and the availability of a very large variety of commercial software packages. In the current configuration the Macintosh II operates as a stand-alone workstation where images are imported from a centralized PACS server through an Ethernet network using a standard TCP-IP protocol, and stored locally on magnetic disk. The use of high resolution screens (1024x768 pixels x 8bits) offer sufficient performance for image display and analysis. We focused our project on the design and implementation of a variety of image analysis algorithms ranging from automated structure and edge detection to sophisticated dynamic analysis of sequential images. Specific analysis programs were developed for ultrasound images, digitized angiograms, MRI and CT tomographic images and scintigraphic images.

  17. Do ergonomically designed school workstations decrease musculoskeletal symptoms in children? A 26-month prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Saarni, Lea A; Rimpelä, Arja H; Nummi, Tapio H; Kaukiainen, Anneli; Salminen, Jouko J; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2009-05-01

    Workstations at school are among several factors that contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms among school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ergonomically designed workstations on schoolchildren's musculoskeletal symptoms as compared to conventional workstations. In the first 14-month phase of the study (2002-2003, two schools), 42 from the intervention and 46 from the control school participated. In the total follow-up of 26 months (2002-2004), 23 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group participated. Anthropometrics and musculoskeletal symptoms were measured. In general, the ergonomically designed school workstations did not decrease present neck-shoulder, upper back, low back and lower limbs strain and pain, compared to conventional ones during follow-ups.

  18. A standardized non-instrumental tool for characterizing workstations concerned with exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu I, Guseva; C, Ducros; S, Ducamp; L, Delabre; S, Audignon-Durand; C, Durand; Y, Iwatsubo; D, Jezewski-Serra; Bihan O, Le; S, Malard; A, Radauceanu; M, Reynier; M, Ricaud; O, Witschger

    2015-05-01

    The French national epidemiological surveillance program EpiNano aims at surveying mid- and long-term health effects possibly related with occupational exposure to either carbon nanotubes or titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2). EpiNano is limited to workers potentially exposed to these nanomaterials including their aggregates and agglomerates. In order to identify those workers during the in-field industrial hygiene visits, a standardized non-instrumental method is necessary especially for epidemiologists and occupational physicians unfamiliar with nanoparticle and nanomaterial exposure metrology. A working group, Quintet ExpoNano, including national experts in nanomaterial metrology and occupational hygiene reviewed available methods, resources and their practice in order to develop a standardized tool for conducting company industrial hygiene visits and collecting necessary information. This tool, entitled “Onsite technical logbook”, includes 3 parts: company, workplace, and workstation allowing a detailed description of each task, process and exposure surrounding conditions. This logbook is intended to be completed during the company industrial hygiene visit. Each visit is conducted jointly by an industrial hygienist and an epidemiologist of the program and lasts one or two days depending on the company size. When all collected information is computerized using friendly-using software, it is possible to classify workstations with respect to their potential direct and/or indirect exposure. Workers appointed to workstations classified as concerned with exposure are considered as eligible for EpiNano program and invited to participate. Since January 2014, the Onsite technical logbook has been used in ten company visits. The companies visited were mostly involved in research and development. A total of 53 workstations with potential exposure to nanomaterials were pre-selected and observed: 5 with TiO2, 16 with single-walled carbon nanotubes, 27 multiwalled

  19. A Real-Time Parallel Application:. The Detection of Gravitational Waves by a Network of Heterogeneous Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Stefano; Medugno, Mario; Longo, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    We deal with the detection of gravitational chirp signals among noisy data, where the reception and the detection are piped and run in parallel. We consider the classical theory of signal detection, which yields a detector with a "bank-of-filters" structure. We investigate distributed network computing in order to implement such a detector by heterogeneous high performance workstations interconnected via an Ethernet network. The goal is to design a distributed detector running on a number of available workstations. The computation is decomposed across the workstations in such a way to minimize communications and to match the acquisition rate. Our approach is general and can be used for networks of workstations different from those used in our experimentation. We point out that the classical performance analysis seems inappropriate if applied to real-time detection by heterogeneous distributed systems, because the execution time requirements are disregarded. To take into account such constraints we characterize the algorithm, evaluate performances on different workstations, and propose a task decomposition strategy assigning the appropriateGrainto each workstation.

  20. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  1. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  2. A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-28

    Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.

  3. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  4. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, A.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator was successfully used to evaluate graphical microbursts alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  5. Touch-typing VDU operation: workstation adjustment, working posture and workers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Delleman, Nico J; Berndsen, Marion B

    2002-06-10

    At a VDU workstation professional touch-typing operators worked at eight different combined adjustments of visual target height and chair backrest inclination. Working posture, workers' perceptions and work performance were measured. Two conclusions were drawn. First, in order to minimize the load on the musculoskeletal system for touch-typing VDU operators, the gaze inclination to a visual target (screen, document) should be 6-9 degrees (range 0-15 degrees ) below the horizontal and, second, the gaze inclination recommended is independent of sitting posture (that is with the backrest between upright and 15 degrees inclined backwards).

  6. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  7. Implementing a Physician's Workstation using client/server technology and the distributed computing environment.

    PubMed

    Pham, T Q; Young, C Y; Tang, P C; Suermondt, H J; Annevelink, J

    1994-01-01

    PWS is a physician's workstation research prototype developed to explore the use of information management tools by physicians in the context of patient care. The original prototype was implemented in a client/server architecture using a broadcast message server. As we expanded the scope of the prototyping activities, we identified the limitations of the broadcast message server in the areas of scalability, security, and interoperability. To address these issues, we reimplemented PWS using the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). We describe the rationale for using DCE, the migration process, and the benefits achieved. Future work and recommendations are discussed.

  8. A computer graphics pilot project - Spacecraft mission support with an interactive graphics workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, John; Ehrner, Marie-Jacqueline; Reese, Jodi; Chang, Kan; Tseng, Irene

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Computer Graphics Pilot Project was undertaken to enhance the quality control, productivity and efficiency of mission support operations at the Goddard Operations Support Computing Facility. The Project evolved into a set of demonstration programs for graphics intensive simulated control room operations, particularly in connection with the complex space missions that began in the 1980s. Complex mission mean more data. Graphic displays are a means to reduce the probabilities of operator errors. Workstations were selected with 1024 x 768 pixel color displays controlled by a custom VLSI chip coupled to an MC68010 chip running UNIX within a shell that permits operations through the medium of mouse-accessed pulldown window menus. The distributed workstations run off a host NAS 8040 computer. Applications of the system for tracking spacecraft orbits and monitoring Shuttle payload handling illustrate the system capabilities, noting the built-in capabilities of shifting the point of view and rotating and zooming in on three-dimensional views of spacecraft.

  9. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  10. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  11. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  12. DICOM structured reporting: Part 2. Problems and challenges in implementation for PACS workstations.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada; Engelmann, Uwe; Schroeter, Andre; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2004-01-01

    Structured reporting (SR) was recently added to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard to provide an efficient mechanism for the generation, distribution, and management of clinical reports. The main advantage of SR is the ability to link clinical documents with the referenced images for simultaneous retrieval and display. A generic SR toolkit that covers the different clinical reports used in today's healthcare enterprises was developed for picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations. The modules of the SR toolkit collaborate to automatically construct the DICOM SR files from the free-text input presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) by using the associated SR trees. The DICOM toolkit is reused for SR encoding and DICOM services. A setup module was required for creating both the standard and private SR templates used in different healthcare specialties. The SR manager transparently converts between the different SR document presentations, that is, DICOM SR files and HTML documents, to provide the end users with an easy-to-use toolkit. To evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the SR toolkit in a pragmatic setting, the toolkit was integrated into PACS workstations.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  14. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  15. Health care professional workstation: software system construction using DSSA scenario-based engineering process.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, S; Harbison, K; Silva, J; Mettala, E

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the evolutionary determination of user requirements and system specifications called scenario-based engineering process (SEP). Health care professional workstations are critical components of large scale health care system architectures. We suggest that domain-specific software architectures (DSSAs) be used to specify standard interfaces and protocols for reusable software components throughout those architectures, including workstations. We encourage the use of engineering principles and abstraction mechanisms. Engineering principles are flexible guidelines, adaptable to particular situations. Abstraction mechanisms are simplifications for management of complexity. We recommend object-oriented design principles, graphical structural specifications, and formal components' behavioral specifications. We give an ambulatory care scenario and associated models to demonstrate SEP. The scenario uses health care terminology and gives patients' and health care providers' system views. Our goal is to have a threefold benefit. (i) Scenario view abstractions provide consistent interdisciplinary communications. (ii) Hierarchical object-oriented structures provide useful abstractions for reuse, understandability, and long term evolution. (iii) SEP and health care DSSA integration into computer aided software engineering (CASE) environments. These environments should support rapid construction and certification of individualized systems, from reuse libraries.

  16. International Space Station alpha remote manipulator system workstation controls test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenstrom, William A.; Swaney, Colin; Forrester, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Previous development testing for the space station remote manipulator system workstation controls determined the need for hardware controls for the emergency stop, brakes on/off, and some camera functions. This report documents the results of an evaluation to further determine control implementation requirements, requested by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), to close outstanding review item discrepancies. This test was conducted at the Johnson Space Center's Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility in Houston, Texas, with nine NASA astronauts and one CSA astronaut as operators. This test evaluated camera iris and focus, back-up drive, latching end effector release, and autosequence controls using several types of hardware and software implementations. Recommendations resulting from the testing included providing guarded hardware buttons to prevent accidental actuation, providing autosequence controls and back-up drive controls on a dedicated hardware control panel, and that 'latch on/latch off', or on-screen software, controls not be considered. Generally, the operators preferred hardware controls although other control implementations were acceptable. The results of this evaluation will be used along with further testing to define specific requirements for the workstation design.

  17. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients.

    PubMed

    Bilmen, J G; Gillies, R I

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening condition caused by exposure of susceptible individuals to volatile anaesthetics or suxamethonium. MH-susceptible individuals must avoid exposure to these drugs, so accurate and reproducible processes to remove residual anaesthetic agents from anaesthetic workstations are required. Activated charcoal filters (ACFs) have been used for this purpose. ACFs can reduce the time for preparing an anaesthetic workstation for MH patients. Currently, the only commercially available ACFs are the Vapor-Clean$trade; (Dynasthetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) filters which retail at approximately AUD$130 per set of two, both of which are to be used in a single anaesthetic. Anaesthetic workstations were saturated with anaesthetic vapours and connected to a Miran ambient air analyser (SapphRe XL, ThermoScientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to measure vapour concentration. Various scenarios were tested in order to determine the most economical configurations of machine flushing, component change and activated charcoal filter use. We found that placement of filters in an unprepared, saturated circuit was insufficient to safely prepare an anaesthetic workstation. Following flushing of the anaesthetic workstation with high-flow oxygen for 90 seconds, a circuit and soda lime canister change and the placement of an ACF on the inspiratory limb, we were able to safely prepare a workstation in less than three minutes. A single filter on the inspiratory limb was able to maintain a clean circuit for 12 hours, with gas flows dropped from 10 lpm to 3 lpm after 90 minutes or removal of the filter after 90 minutes if high gas flows were maintained.

  18. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  19. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  20. Parallel computations using a cluster of workstations to simulate elasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, J. B. B.; Mungkasi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Computational physics has played important roles in real world problems. This paper is within the applied computational physics area. The aim of this study is to observe the performance of parallel computations using a cluster of workstations (COW) to simulate elasticity problems. Parallel computations with the COW configuration are conducted using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. In parallel computations with COW, we consider five scenarios with twenty simulations. In addition to the execution time, efficiency is used to evaluate programming algorithm scenarios. Sequential and parallel programming performances are evaluated based on their execution time and efficiency. Results show that the one-dimensional elasticity equations are not appropriate to be solved in parallel with MPI_Send and MPI_Recv technique in the MPI standard, because the total amount of time to exchange data is considered more dominant compared with the total amount of time to conduct the basic elasticity computation.

  1. An intelligent control and virtual display system for evolutionary space station workstation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xin; Niederjohn, Russell J.; Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development of the Advanced Display and Computer Augmented Control System (ADCACS) for the space station Body-Ported Cupola Virtual Workstation (BP/VCWS) were pursued. The potential applications were explored of body ported virtual display and intelligent control technology for the human-system interfacing applications is space station environment. The new system is designed to enable crew members to control and monitor a variety of space operations with greater flexibility and efficiency than existing fixed consoles. The technologies being studied include helmet mounted virtual displays, voice and special command input devices, and microprocessor based intelligent controllers. Several research topics, such as human factors, decision support expert systems, and wide field of view, color displays are being addressed. The study showed the significant advantages of this uniquely integrated display and control system, and its feasibility for human-system interfacing applications in the space station command and control environment.

  2. Using a Cray Y-MP as an array processor for a RISC Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.

    1992-01-01

    As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.

  3. The robotized workstation "MASTER" for users with tetraplegia: description and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Busnel, M; Cammoun, R; Coulon-Lauture, F; Détriché, J M; Le Claire, G; Lesigne, B

    1999-07-01

    The rehabilitation robotics MASTER program was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and evaluated by the APPROCHE Rehabilitation centers. The aim of this program is to increase the autonomy and quality of life of persons with tetraplegia in domestic and vocational environments. Taking advantage of its experience in nuclear robotics, the CEA has supported studies dealing with the use of such technical aids in the medical area since 1975 with the SPARTACUS project, followed by MASTER 10 years later, and its European extension in the framework of the TIDE/RAID program. The present system is composed of a fixed robotized workstation that includes a six-axis SCARA robot mounted on a rail to allow horizontal movement and is equipped with tools for various tasks. The Operator Interface (OI) has been carefully adapted to the most severe tetraplegia. Results are given following a 2-year evaluation in real-life situations.

  4. Iterative solution of general sparse linear systems on clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Gen-Ching; Saad, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Solving sparse irregularly structured linear systems on parallel platforms poses several challenges. First, sparsity makes it difficult to exploit data locality, whether in a distributed or shared memory environment. A second, perhaps more serious challenge, is to find efficient ways to precondition the system. Preconditioning techniques which have a large degree of parallelism, such as multicolor SSOR, often have a slower rate of convergence than their sequential counterparts. Finally, a number of other computational kernels such as inner products could ruin any gains gained from parallel speed-ups, and this is especially true on workstation clusters where start-up times may be high. In this paper we discuss these issues and report on our experience with PSPARSLIB, an on-going project for building a library of parallel iterative sparse matrix solvers.

  5. The NASA performance assessment workstation: Cognitive performance during head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehab, Randa L.; Schlegel, Robert E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Eddy, Douglas R.

    The NASA Performance Assessment Workstation was used to assess cognitive performance changes in eight males subjected to seventeen days of 6 ° head-down bed rest. PAWS uses six performance tasks to assess directed and divided attention, spatial, mathematical, and memory skills, and tracking ability. Subjective scales assess overall fatigue and mood state. Subjects completed training trials, practice trials, bed rest trials, and recovery trials. The last eight practice trials and all bed rest trials were performed with subjects lying face-down on a gurney. In general, there was no apparent cumulative effect of bed rest. Following a short period of performance stabilization, a slight but steady trend of performance improvement was observed across all trials. For most tasks, this trend of performance improvement was enhanced during recovery. No statistically significant differences in performance were observed when comparing bed rest with the control period. Additionally, fatigue scores showed little change across all periods.

  6. Seeing the forest for the trees: Networked workstations as a parallel processing computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breen, J. O.; Meleedy, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike traditional 'serial' processing computers in which one central processing unit performs one instruction at a time, parallel processing computers contain several processing units, thereby, performing several instructions at once. Many of today's fastest supercomputers achieve their speed by employing thousands of processing elements working in parallel. Few institutions can afford these state-of-the-art parallel processors, but many already have the makings of a modest parallel processing system. Workstations on existing high-speed networks can be harnessed as nodes in a parallel processing environment, bringing the benefits of parallel processing to many. While such a system can not rival the industry's latest machines, many common tasks can be accelerated greatly by spreading the processing burden and exploiting idle network resources. We study several aspects of this approach, from algorithms to select nodes to speed gains in specific tasks. With ever-increasing volumes of astronomical data, it becomes all the more necessary to utilize our computing resources fully.

  7. Developing a workstation-based, real-time simulation for rapid handling qualities evaluations during design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Frederick; Biezad, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Rapid Aircraft DynamIcs AssessmeNt (RADIAN) project - an integration of the Aircraft SYNThesis (ACSTNT) design code with the USAD DATCOM code that estimates stability derivatives. Both of these codes are available to universities. These programs are then linked to flight simulation and flight controller synthesis tools and resulting design is evaluated on a graphics workstation. The entire process reduces the preliminary design time by an order of magnitude and provides an initial handling qualities evaluation of the design coupled to a control law. The integrated design process is applicable to both conventional aircraft taken from current textbooks and to unconventional designs emphasizing agility and propulsive control of attitude. The interactive and concurrent nature of the design process has been well received by industry and by design engineers at NASA. The process is being implemented into the design curriculum and is being used by students who view it as a significant advance over prior methods.

  8. Automation of plasma protein binding assay using rapid equilibrium dialysis device and Tecan workstation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhengqi; Zetterberg, Craig; Gao, Hong

    2017-03-14

    Binding of drug molecules to plasma proteins is an important parameter in assessing drug ADME properties. Plasma protein binding (PPB) assays are routinely performed during drug discovery and development. A fully automated PPB assay was developed using rapid equilibrium dialysis (RED) device and Tecan workstation coupled to an automated incubator. The PPB assay was carried out in unsealed RED plates which allowed the assay to be fully automated. The plasma pH was maintained at 7.4 during the 6-h dialysis under 2% CO2 condition. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The percent bound results of 10 commercial drugs in plasma protein binding were very similar between the automated and manual assays, and were comparable to literature values. The automated assay increases laboratory productivity and is applicable to high-throughput screening of drug protein binding in drug discovery.

  9. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  10. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  11. LG based decision aid for naval tactical action officer's (TAO) workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the increasingly NetCentric battlespace of the 21st century, Stilman Advanced Strategies Linguistic Geometry software has the potential to revolutionize the way that the Navy fights in two key areas: as a Tactical Decision Aid and for creating a relevant Common Operating Picture. Incorporating STILMAN's software into a prototype Tactical Action Officers (TAO) workstation as a Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) will allow warfighters to manage their assets more intelligently and effectively. This prototype workstation will be developed using human-centered design principles and will be an open, component-based architecture for combat control systems for future small surface combatants. It will integrate both uninhabited vehicles and onboard sensors and weapon systems across a squadron of small surface combatants. In addition, the hypergame representation of complex operations provides a paradigm for the presentation of a common operating picture to operators and personnel throughout the command hierarchy. In the hypergame technology there are game levels that span the range from the tactical to the global strategy level, with each level informing the others. This same principle will be applied to presenting the relevant common operating picture to operators. Each operator will receive a common operating picture that is appropriate for their level in the command hierarchy. The area covered by this operating picture and the level of detail contained within it will be dependent upon the specific tasks the operator is performing (supervisory vice tactical control) and the level of the operator (or command personnel) within the command hierarchy. Each level will inform the others to keep the picture concurrent and up-to-date.

  12. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  13. CBT Pilot Program Instructional Guide. Basic Drafting Skills Curriculum Delivered through CAD Workstations and Artificial Intelligence Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard J.; Sauer, Mardelle A.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in using computer-aided design (CAD) workstations and artificial intelligence software to teach basic drafting skills. The guide outlines a 7-unit shell program that may also be used as a generic authoring system capable of supporting computer-based training (CBT) in other subject areas. The first section…

  14. Measurements of the perceived dynamic range of a medical imaging workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Robert S.; Channin, David S.; Prior, Fred W.

    1996-03-01

    Murch and Weiman have demonstrated that greater than 11 bits of contrast information are perceivable by a human observer. Digital display controllers with 10 or 12 bit digital to analog converters are becoming available. Before attempting to determine if these technologies improve the clinical effectiveness of medical imaging workstations it is first necessary to determine if measurable differences can be produced in the perceived dynamic range (PDR) of the displays. A set of experiments have been performed to determine a baseline PDR for an 8- bit per pixel display. This data will be used as the control for future measurements at 10 bits per pixel. The experimental design includes all psychovisual factors that affect an observer's perception of contrast. Stimulus display duration, physical size of the stimulus and training factors were all studied and controlled in the experiments. Simple images are used to avoid complicating the observer's task and display time is kept short to prevent adaptation and boredom effects. Data was collected using four non-radiologists and four radiologists. Each subject had at least normal corrected vision and wore his corrective lenses during each session. All experiments were conducted on a SUN SPARC workstation using an Image Systems (M21P-47SO1-2KHB) portrait monitor driven by a modified DOME Imaging Systems (Md2/SUN) 10-bit, grayscale, video board initially configured to run in 8-bit mode. Specially developed software was used to control the experiments and to gather and analyze the data. Pizer and Chan's methodology for computing PDR was adapted for the above hardware and software environment. A rating experiment was used to determine the just noticeable difference in contrast for a given reference intensity. Integration over the range of the monitor provides the PDR for that display for one observer. This data is then averaged with all other observations to determine a baseline PDR. These experiments allow for the determination

  15. The use of a global index of acoustic assessment for predicting noise in industrial rooms and optimizing the location of machinery and workstations.

    PubMed

    Pleban, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at developing a tool for optimizing the location of machinery and workstations. A global index of acoustic assessment of machines was developed for this purpose. This index and a genetic algorithm were used in a computer tool for predicting noise emission of machines as well as optimizing the location of machines and workstations in industrial rooms. The results of laboratory and simulation tests demonstrate that the developed global index and the genetic algorithm support measures aimed at noise reduction at workstations.

  16. Development of a low-cost virtual reality workstation for training and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) it involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) it includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) it must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, but the high cost of VR technology has limited its practical application to fields with big budgets, such as military combat simulation, commercial pilot training, and certain projects within the space program. However, in the last year there has been a revolution in the cost of VR technology. The speed of inexpensive personal computers has increased dramatically, especially with the introduction of the Pentium processor and the PCI bus for IBM-compatibles, and the cost of high-quality virtual reality peripherals has plummeted. The result is that many public schools, colleges, and universities can afford a PC-based workstation capable of running immersive virtual reality applications. My goal this summer was to assemble and evaluate such a system.

  17. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  18. Teaching tone and intonation with the Prosody Workstation using schematic versus veridical contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George D.; Eulenberg, John B.

    2004-05-01

    Prosodic features of speech (e.g., intonation and rhythm) are often challenging for adults to learn. Most computerized teaching tools, developed to help learners mimic model prosodic patterns, display lines representing the veridical (actual) acoustic fundamental frequency and intensity of the model speech. However, a veridical display may not be optimal for this task. Instead, stereotypical representations (e.g., simplified level or slanting lines) may help by reducing the amount of potentially distracting information. The Prosody Workstation (PW) permits the prosodic contours of both models and users' responses to be displayed using either veridical or stereotypical contours. Users are informed by both visual displays and scores representing the degree of match of their utterance to the model. American English-speaking undergraduates are being studied learning the tone contours and rhythm of Chinese and Hausa utterances ranging in length from two to six syllables. Data include (a) accuracy of mimicking of the models' prosodic contours, measured by the PW; (b) quality of tonal and rhythmic production, judged by native speaker listeners; and (c) learners' perceptions of the ease of the task, measured by a questionnaire at the end of each session.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2005-04-01

    Mass screening based on helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router. This electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system were developed so as not to loosen the communication among staffs of hospital. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  1. Integration of a computerized two-finger gripper for robot workstation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneckenberger, John E.; Yoshikata, Kazuki

    1988-01-01

    A microprocessor-based controller has been developed that continuously monitors and adjusts the gripping force applied by a special two-finger gripper. This computerized force sensing gripper system enables the endeffector gripping action to be independently detected and corrected. The gripping force applied to a manipulated object is real-time monitored for problem situations, situations which can occur during both planned and errant robot arm manipulation. When unspecified force conditions occur at the gripper, the gripping force controller initiates specific reactions to cause dynamic corrections to the continuously variable gripping action. The force controller for this intelligent gripper has been interfaced to the controller of an industrial robot. The gripper and robot controllers communicate to accomplish the successful completion of normal gripper operations as well as unexpected hazardous situations. An example of an unexpected gripping condition would be the sudden deformation of the object being manipulated by the robot. The capabilities of the interfaced gripper-robot system to apply workstation safety measures (e.g., stop the robot) when these unexpected gripping effects occur have been assessed.

  2. Color postprocessing for 3-dimensional finite element mesh quality evaluation and evolving graphical workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panthaki, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Three general tasks on general-purpose, interactive color graphics postprocessing for three-dimensional computational mechanics were accomplished. First, the existing program (POSTPRO3D) is ported to a high-resolution device. In the course of this transfer, numerous enhancements are implemented in the program. The performance of the hardware was evaluated from the point of view of engineering postprocessing, and the characteristics of future hardware were discussed. Second, interactive graphical tools implemented to facilitate qualitative mesh evaluation from a single analysis. The literature was surveyed and a bibliography compiled. Qualitative mesh sensors were examined, and the use of two-dimensional plots of unaveraged responses on the surface of three-dimensional continua was emphasized in an interactive color raster graphics environment. Finally, a postprocessing environment was designed for state-of-the-art workstation technology. Modularity, personalization of the environment, integration of the engineering design processes, and the development and use of high-level graphics tools are some of the features of the intended environment.

  3. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beam lines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical change with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP, and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are imbedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed these application programs for a fourth time. This time, however, the programs we are developing are generic so that we will not have to do it again. We have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  4. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model-based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beamlines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical changes with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are embedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Genetic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  5. Optimizing 10-Gigabit Ethernet for Networks of Workstations, Clusters, and Grids: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents a case study of the 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) adapter from Intel(reg sign). Specifically, with appropriate optimizations to the configurations of the 10GbE adapter and TCP, we demonstrate that the 10GbE adapter can perform well in local-area, storage-area, system-area, and wide-area networks. For local-area, storage-area, and system-area networks in support of networks of workstations, network-attached storage, and clusters, respectively, we can achieve over 7-Gb/s end-to-end throughput and 12-{micro}s end-to-end latency between applications running on Linux-based PCs. For the wide-area network in support of grids, we broke the recently-set Internet2 Land Speed Record by 2.5 times by sustaining an end-to-end TCP/IP throughput of 2.38 Gb/s between Sunnyvale, California and Geneva, Switzerland (i.e., 10,037 kilometers) to move over a terabyte of data in less than an hour. Thus, the above results indicate that 10GbE may be a cost-effective solution across a multitude of computing environments.

  6. Teaching tone and intonation with the Prosody Workstation using schematic versus veridical contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George D.; Eulenberg, John B.

    2001-05-01

    Prosodic features of speech (e.g., intonation and rhythm) are often challenging for adults to learn. Most computerized teaching tools, developed to help learners mimic model prosodic patterns, display lines representing the veridical (actual) acoustic fundamental frequency and intensity of the model speech. However, a veridical display may not be optimal for this task. Instead, stereotypical representations (e.g., simplified level or slanting lines) may help by reducing the amount of potentially distracting information. The Prosody Workstation (PW) permits the prosodic contours of both models and users' responses to be displayed using either veridical or stereotypical contours. Users are informed by both visual displays and scores representing the degree of match of their utterance to the model. American English-speaking undergraduates are being studied learning the tone contours and rhythm of Chinese and Hausa utterances ranging in length from two to six syllables. Data include (a) accuracy of mimicking of the models' prosodic contours, measured by the PW; (b) quality of tonal and rhythmic production, judged by native speaker listeners; and (c) learners' perceptions of the ease of the task, measured by a questionnaire at the end of each session.

  7. Long-Term file activity patterns in a UNIX workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Timothy J.; Miller, Ethan L.

    1998-01-01

    As mass storage technology becomes more affordable for sites smaller than supercomputer centers, understanding their file access patterns becomes crucial for developing systems to store rarely used data on tertiary storage devices such as tapes and optical disks. This paper presents a new way to collect and analyze file system statistics for UNIX-based file systems. The collection system runs in user-space and requires no modification of the operating system kernel. The statistics package provides details about file system operations at the file level: creations, deletions, modifications, etc. The paper analyzes four months of file system activity on a university file system. The results confirm previously published results gathered from supercomputer file systems, but differ in several important areas. Files in this study were considerably smaller than those at supercomputer centers, and they were accessed less frequently. Additionally, the long-term creation rate on workstation file systems is sufficiently low so that all data more than a day old could be cheaply saved on a mass storage device, allowing the integration of time travel into every file system.

  8. Asynchrony Between Ventilator Flow and Pressure Waveforms and the Capnograph on Dräger Anesthesia Workstations: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Tripathi, Nilay; Pandey, Mamta

    2017-03-01

    Modern anesthesia workstations display capnography, flow-time, and pressure-time waveforms in real time. We observed that at certain ventilator settings (10 breaths/min) on Dräger workstations, the expiratory phase of the capnograph overlaps both the inspiratory and the expiratory phases of ventilation. This discrepancy disappears at respiratory rates of 16 breaths/min. This synchronous respiratory monitoring display at respiratory rates 16 breaths/min is not physiologically correct, because it implies a synchronization of waveforms that is not actually present. This again becomes asynchronous once the respiratory rate is increased to >18 breaths/min. Such an artifact may not affect the patient's safety in most cases but may mislead clinicians when synchrony between flow/pressure and capnography is needed for diagnostic purposes. We wish to share this discrepancy with clinicians and notify the manufacturer so that potential solutions may be found.

  9. Compiling and editing agricultural strata boundaries with remotely sensed imagery and map attribute data using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1991-01-01

    The USDA presently uses labor-intensive photographic interpretation procedures to delineate large geographical areas into manageable size sampling units for the estimation of domestic crop and livestock production. Computer software to automate the boundary delineation procedure, called the computer-assisted stratification and sampling (CASS) system, was developed using a Hewlett Packard color-graphics workstation. The CASS procedures display Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite digital imagery on a graphics display workstation as the backdrop for the onscreen delineation of sampling units. USGS Digital Line Graph (DLG) data for roads and waterways are displayed over the TM imagery to aid in identifying potential sample unit boundaries. Initial analysis conducted with three Missouri counties indicated that CASS was six times faster than the manual techniques in delineating sampling units.

  10. Simplifying the construction of domain-specific automatic programming systems: The NASA automated software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.; Holtzman, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Automated Software Development Workstation Project, an effort to explore knowledge-based approaches to increasing software productivity. The project focuses on applying the concept of domain specific automatic programming systems (D-SAPSs) to application domains at NASA's Johnson Space Center. A version of a D-SAPS developed in Phase 1 of the project for the domain of space station momentum management is described. How problems encountered during its implementation led researchers to concentrate on simplifying the process of building and extending such systems is discussed. Researchers propose to do this by attacking three observed bottlenecks in the D-SAPS development process through the increased automation of the acquisition of programming knowledge and the use of an object oriented development methodology at all stages of the program design. How these ideas are being implemented in the Bauhaus, a prototype workstation for D-SAPS development is discussed.

  11. Simplifying the construction of domain-specific automatic programming systems: The NASA automated software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.; Holtzman, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Automated Software Development Workstation Project, an effort to explore knowledge-based approaches to increasing software productivity. The project focuses on applying the concept of domain specific automatic programming systems (D-SAPSs) to application domains at NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center. A version of a D-SAPS developed in Phase 1 of the project for the domain of space station momentum management is described. How problems encountered during its implementation led researchers to concentrate on simplifying the process of building and extending such systems is discussed. Researchers propose to do this by attacking three observed bottlenecks in the D-SAPS development process through the increased automation of the acquisition of programming knowledge and the use of an object oriented development methodology at all stages of the program design. How these ideas are being implemented in the Bauhaus, a prototype workstation for D-SAPS development is discussed.

  12. Functional Specifications for Selected Staff Workstations Within the Close Combat Test Bed’s Automated Battalion Tactical Operations Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    COL, AR Commanding Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army Micro Analysis & Design Inc. Technical review by Michael J...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Micro Analysis & Design Inc. REPORT NUMBER 3300 Mitchell Lane, Suite 175 Boulder, CO 80301 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Staff Workstations Within the Close Combat Test Bed’s Automated Battalion Tactical Operations Center Nils D. LaVine Micro Analysis & Design Inc. Field

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  14. Picture Archiving And Communications Systems (PACS) And Radiation Therapy Planning: Data And Workstation Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavis, R. J.; Zielonka, Jason S.

    1986-06-01

    Radiology and the National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (ACR-NEMA). In addition, such standardization efforts must also incorporate the necessary calibration and coordinate data. This paper will examine some of the unique requirements for PACS (and PACS workstations)optimized for RTP. The assumption is made here that these are not independent, self-sufficient devices; rather, they are subsystems of a PACS network, capable of sharing certain resources.

  15. Instrument workstation for the EGSE of the Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Franceschi, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Zoli, A.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Corcione, L.; Debei, S.; De Rosa, A.; Dusini, S.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Ligori, S.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Morgante, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sortino, F.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The NISP instrument on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at different levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. The NISP Instrument Workstation (NI-IWS) will be part of the EGSE configuration that will support the NISP AIV/AIT activities from the NISP Warm Electronics level up to the launch of Euclid. One workstation is required for the NISP EQM/AVM, and a second one for the NISP FM. Each workstation will follow the respective NISP model after delivery to ESA for Payload and Satellite AIV/AIT and launch. At these levels the NI-IWS shall be configured as part of the Payload EGSE, the System EGSE, and the Launch EGSE, respectively. After launch, the NI-IWS will be also re-used in the Euclid Ground Segment in order to support the Commissioning and Performance Verification (CPV) phase, and for troubleshooting purposes during the operational phase. The NI-IWS is mainly aimed at the local storage in a suitable format of the NISP instrument data and metadata, at local retrieval, processing and display of the stored data for on-line instrument assessment, and at the remote retrieval of the stored data for off-line analysis on other computers. We describe the design of the IWS software that will create a suitable interface to the external systems in each of the various configurations envisaged at the different levels, and provide the capabilities required to monitor and verify the instrument functionalities and performance throughout all phases of the NISP lifetime.

  16. The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle.

  17. Computer animation of NASTRAN displacements on IRIS 4D-series workstations: CANDI/ANIMATE postprocessing of NASHUA results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Janine L.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of the postprocessing program CANDI (Color Animation of Nastran DIsplacements) were expanded to accept results from axisymmetric analysis. An auxiliary program, ANIMATE, was developed to allow color display of CANDI output on the IRIS 4D-series workstations. The user can interactively manipulate the graphics display by three-dimensional rotations, translations, and scaling through the use of the keyboard and/or dials box. The user can also specify what portion of the model is displayed. These developments are limited to the display of complex displacements calculated with the NASHUA/NASTRAN procedure for structural acoustics analysis.

  18. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-07

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  19. Office ergonomics training and a sit-stand workstation: effects on musculoskeletal and visual symptoms and performance of office workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Ciriello, Vincent M; Garabet, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) among office workers with intensive computer use is widespread and the prevalence of symptoms is growing. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an office ergonomics training combined with a sit-stand workstation on musculoskeletal and visual discomfort, behaviors and performance. Participants performed a lab-based customer service job for 8 h per day, over 15 days and were assigned to: Ergonomics Trained (n = 11) or Minimally Trained (n = 11). The training consisted of: a 1.5-h interactive instruction, a sit/stand practice period, and ergonomic reminders. Ergonomics Trained participants experienced minimal musculoskeletal and visual discomfort across the 15 days, varied their postures, with significantly higher performance compared to the Minimally Trained group who had a significantly higher number of symptoms, suggesting that training plays a critical role. The ability to mitigate symptoms, change behaviors and enhance performance through training combined with a sit-stand workstation has implications for preventing discomforts in office workers.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  1. Development of a mobile HIS/PACS workstation to assist critical cardiac patients in an intensive care unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Cestari, Idagene A.; Hamamoto, Gina; Bacht, Simão; Rebelo, Marina S.; Silva, João E. M. M.; Lage, Silvia G.

    2008-03-01

    The current study describes the experience in the implementation of a mobile HIS/PACS workstation to assist critical cardiac patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Recently, mobile devices connected to a WiFi network were incorporated to the Hospital information System, providing the same functionalities of common desktop counterpart. However, the use of commercially devices like PDAs and Pocket PCs presented a series of problems that are more emphasized in the ICUs 1) low autonomy of the batteries, which need constant recharges; 2) low robustness of the devices; 3) insufficient display area to show medical images and vital signals; 4) data entry remains a major problem and imposes an extra time consumption to the staff; 5) high cost when fully equipped with WiFi connection, optical reader to access bar codes and memory. To address theses problems we developed a mobile workstation (MedKart) that provides access the HIS and PACS systems, with all resources and an ergonomic and practical design to be used by physicians and nurses inside the ICU. The system fulfills the requirements to assist, in the point-of-care, critical cardiac patients in Intensive Care Units.

  2. Manual for a workstation-based generic flight simulation program (LaRCsim), version 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    LaRCsim is a set of ANSI C routines that implement a full set of equations of motion for a rigid-body aircraft in atmospheric and low-earth orbital flight, suitable for pilot-in-the-loop simulations on a workstation-class computer. All six rigid-body degrees of freedom are modeled. The modules provided include calculations of the typical aircraft rigid-body simulation variables, earth geodesy, gravity and atmospheric models, and support several data recording options. Features/limitations of the current version include English units of measure, a 1962 atmosphere model in cubic spline function lookup form, ranging from sea level to 75,000 feet, rotating oblate spheroidal earth model, with aircraft C.G. coordinates in both geocentric and geodetic axes. Angular integrations are done using quaternion state variables Vehicle X-Z symmetry is assumed.

  3. Development of flight experiment work performance and workstation interface requirements, part 1. Technical report and appendices A through G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatterick, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A skill requirement definition method was applied to the problem of determining, at an early stage in system/mission definition, the skills required of on-orbit crew personnel whose activities will be related to the conduct or support of earth-orbital research. The experiment data base was selected from proposed experiments in NASA's earth orbital research and application investigation program as related to space shuttle missions, specifically those being considered for Sortie Lab. Concepts for two integrated workstation consoles for Sortie Lab experiment operations were developed, one each for earth observations and materials sciences payloads, utilizing a common supporting subsystems core console. A comprehensive data base of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, task-skills and occupational skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments is presented. All data has been coded alphanumerically to permit efficient, low cost exercise and application of the data through automatic data processing in the future.

  4. The integration of electromyography (SEMG) at the workstation: assessment, treatment, and prevention of repetitive strain injury (RSI).

    PubMed

    Peper, Erik; Wilson, Vietta S; Gibney, Katherine H; Huber, Kate; Harvey, Richard; Shumay, Dianne M

    2003-06-01

    This paper reviews the ergonomic and psychosocial factors that affect musculoskeletal disorders at the workstation. First is a model of a physiological assessment protocol that incorporated SEMG monitoring while working at the computer. Next is a study that showed that participants lack awareness of their muscle tension as compared to the actual SEMG levels. The final study illustrated how an intervention program can reduce RSI symptoms, decrease respiration rate, and lower SEMG activity. Recommendations include suggestions that successful safety and prevention programs need multiple components and that participants should to be trained to control physiological responses with respiration and SEMG biofeedback. All participants should master these physiological skills just as they learn how to use the computer.

  5. A Systems Engineering Framework for Implementing a Security and Critical Patch Management Process in Diverse Environments (Academic Departments' Workstations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi

    Use of the Patch Vulnerability Management (PVM) process should be seriously considered for any networked computing system. The PVM process prevents the operating system (OS) and software applications from being attacked due to security vulnerabilities, which lead to system failures and critical data leakage. The purpose of this research is to create and design a Security and Critical Patch Management Process (SCPMP) framework based on Systems Engineering (SE) principles. This framework will assist Information Technology Department Staff (ITDS) to reduce IT operating time and costs and mitigate the risk of security and vulnerability attacks. Further, this study evaluates implementation of the SCPMP in the networked computing systems of an academic environment in order to: 1. Meet patch management requirements by applying SE principles. 2. Reduce the cost of IT operations and PVM cycles. 3. Improve the current PVM methodologies to prevent networked computing systems from becoming the targets of security vulnerability attacks. 4. Embed a Maintenance Optimization Tool (MOT) in the proposed framework. The MOT allows IT managers to make the most practicable choice of methods for deploying and installing released patches and vulnerability remediation. In recent years, there has been a variety of frameworks for security practices in every networked computing system to protect computer workstations from becoming compromised or vulnerable to security attacks, which can expose important information and critical data. I have developed a new mechanism for implementing PVM for maximizing security-vulnerability maintenance, protecting OS and software packages, and minimizing SCPMP cost. To increase computing system security in any diverse environment, particularly in academia, one must apply SCPMP. I propose an optimal maintenance policy that will allow ITDS to measure and estimate the variation of PVM cycles based on their department's requirements. My results demonstrate that

  6. Problem Solving with Workstations. Program Description, Teacher Materials, and Student Information. Teacher Developed Technology Education for the Nineties (TD-TEN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garey, Robert W.

    The Randolph, New Jersey Intermediate School updated its industrial arts program to reflect the challenges and work force of the Twentieth Century in which students apply a design/problem-solving process to solve real-world problems. In the laboratory portion of the program, students circulate between workstations to define problems, complete…

  7. Effects of body height, notebook computer size, and workstation height on recommended adjustments for proper work posture when operating a notebook computer.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Jalil, Sakib; Ammarapala, Veeris

    2008-12-01

    Factors which are likely to affect recommended workstation and notebook computer (NBC) adjustments to obtain ergonomic work posture during NBC operation are investigated. They are: (1) body height, (2) NBC size, and (3) workstation height (i.e., seat and work surface heights). Six recommended adjustments which are evaluated include: (1) footrest height, (2) seat support height, (3) NBC base support height, (4) distance between the user's body and NBC (or user-NBC distance), (5) tilt angle of NBC base, and (6) screen angle. It is found that body height has a significant effect on footrest height and user-NBC distance while NBC size has a significant effect on user-NBC distance, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle. Workstation height, on the other hand, does not show any effect on the six recommended adjustments. However, the results suggest that there are interactions between body height and NBC size, and between body height and workstation height when evaluating their effects on footrest height, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle.

  8. Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from metamorphosed sulphide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockington, Julian A.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2014-12-01

    Sphalerite is a common sulphide and is the dominant ore mineral in Zn-Pb sulphide deposits. Precise determination of minor and trace element concentrations in sulphides, including sphalerite, by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a potentially valuable petrogenetic tool. In this study, LA-ICP-MS is used to analyse 19 sphalerite samples from metamorphosed, sphalerite-bearing volcanic-associated and sedimentary exhalative massive sulphide deposits in Norway and Australia. The distributions of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ga, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi are addressed with emphasis on how concentrations of these elements vary with metamorphic grade of the deposit and the extent of sulphide recrystallization. Results show that the concentrations of a group of trace elements which are believed to be present in sphalerite as micro- to nano-scale inclusions (Pb, Bi, and to some degree Cu and Ag) diminish with increasing metamorphic grade. This is interpreted as due to release of these elements during sphalerite recrystallization and subsequent remobilization to form discrete minerals elsewhere. The concentrations of lattice-bound elements (Mn, Fe, Cd, In and Hg) show no correlation with metamorphic grade. Primary metal sources, physico-chemical conditions during initial deposition, and element partitioning between sphalerite and co-existing sulphides are dominant in defining the concentrations of these elements and they appear to be readily re-incorporated into recrystallized sphalerite, offering potential insights into ore genesis. Given that sphalerite accommodates a variety of trace elements that can be precisely determined by contemporary microanalytical techniques, the mineral has considerable potential as a geothermometer, providing that element partitioning between sphalerite and coexisting minerals (galena, chalcopyrite etc.) can be quantified in samples for which the crystallization temperature can be independently

  9. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  10. Comparative visualization of digital mammograms on clinical 2K monitor workstations and hardcopy: a contrast detail analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbica, Pavle; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Bernathova, M.; Mallouhi, Ammar; Peer, Siegfried; Bosmans, Hilde; Faulkner, Keith

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiologist`s performance in detecting small low-contrast objects with hardcopy and softcopy reading of digital mammograms. 12 images of a contrast-detail (CD) phantom without and with 25.4 mm, 50.8 mm, and 76.2 mm additional polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) attenuation were acquired with a caesium iodid/amorphous silicon flat panel detector under standard exposure conditions. The phantom images were read by three independent observers, by conducting a four-alternative forced-choice experiment. Reading of the hardcopy was done on a mammography viewbox under standardized reading conditions. For soft copy reading, a dedicated workstation with two 2K monitors was used. CD-curves and image quality figure (IQF) values were calculated from the correct detection rates of randomly located gold disks in the phantom. The figures were compared for both reading conditions and for different PMMA layers. For all types of exposures, soft copy reading resulted in significantly better contrast-detail characteristics and IQF values, as compared to hard copy reading of laser printouts. (p< 0.01). The authors conclude that the threshold contrast characteristics of digital mammograms displayed on high-resolution monitors are sufficient to make soft copy reading of digital mammograms feasible.

  11. An assessment of the performance and quality control procedures of PACS workstation monitors used in Irish radiology departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Cherrie; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mc Entee, Mark F.

    2005-04-01

    Diagnostic efficacy in soft-copy reporting relies heavily on the quality of workstation monitors and an investigation performed in 2002 demonstrated that CRT monitors in Dublin imaging departments were not operating at optimal levels. The current work examines the performance of CRTs being used in Dublin and other parts of Ireland to establish if problems reported in the earlier work have been rectified. All hospitals performing soft-copy reporting for general radiology using CRTs were included in the work. Examination of ambient lighting, calibration of monitors and analysis of CRT performance using the SMPTE test pattern and a selection of the AAPM test images was performed. Maximum luminance, spatial uniformity of luminance, temporal luminance stability, gamma, geometry, sharpness, veiling glare and spatial resolution of each monitor was evaluated. Ambient lighting in all reporting areas was within recommended levels. All the monitors were calibrated appropriately and were performing at acceptable levels for maximum luminance and temporal stability and only one of the thirty-three investigated failed to reach the standard for spatial uniformity. In contrast a number of the CRTs investigated showed poor adherence to acceptable levels for geometrical distortions, veiling glare and spatial resolution all of which are important influencers of image quality. Gamma values also appeared to be low for a number of monitors but this interpretation is provisional and subject to the establishment of ratified guideline values. The results demonstrate that although some improvement on the previous situation is evident, greater adherence to acceptable levels is required for certain parameters.

  12. Simulation of reaction diffusion processes over biologically relevant size and time scales using multi-GPU workstations.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Michael J; Stone, John E; Roberts, Elijah; Fry, Corey; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2014-05-01

    Simulation of in vivo cellular processes with the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a computationally expensive task. Our previous software enabled simulation of inhomogeneous biochemical systems for small bacteria over long time scales using the MPD-RDME method on a single GPU. Simulations of larger eukaryotic systems exceed the on-board memory capacity of individual GPUs, and long time simulations of modest-sized cells such as yeast are impractical on a single GPU. We present a new multi-GPU parallel implementation of the MPD-RDME method based on a spatial decomposition approach that supports dynamic load balancing for workstations containing GPUs of varying performance and memory capacity. We take advantage of high-performance features of CUDA for peer-to-peer GPU memory transfers and evaluate the performance of our algorithms on state-of-the-art GPU devices. We present parallel e ciency and performance results for simulations using multiple GPUs as system size, particle counts, and number of reactions grow. We also demonstrate multi-GPU performance in simulations of the Min protein system in E. coli. Moreover, our multi-GPU decomposition and load balancing approach can be generalized to other lattice-based problems.

  13. Validation of a DNA IQ-based extraction method for TECAN robotic liquid handling workstations for processing casework.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Fourney, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    A semi-automated DNA extraction process for casework samples based on the Promega DNA IQ™ system was optimized and validated on TECAN Genesis 150/8 and Freedom EVO robotic liquid handling stations configured with fixed tips and a TECAN TE-Shake™ unit. The use of an orbital shaker during the extraction process promoted efficiency with respect to DNA capture, magnetic bead/DNA complex washes and DNA elution. Validation studies determined the reliability and limitations of this shaker-based process. Reproducibility with regards to DNA yields for the tested robotic workstations proved to be excellent and not significantly different than that offered by the manual phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA extraction of animal:human blood mixtures contaminated with soil demonstrated that a human profile was detectable even in the presence of abundant animal blood. For exhibits containing small amounts of biological material, concordance studies confirmed that DNA yields for this shaker-based extraction process are equivalent or greater to those observed with phenol/chloroform extraction as well as our original validated automated magnetic bead percolation-based extraction process. Our data further supports the increasing use of robotics for the processing of casework samples.

  14. Simulation of reaction diffusion processes over biologically relevant size and time scales using multi-GPU workstations

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Michael J.; Stone, John E.; Roberts, Elijah; Fry, Corey; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of in vivo cellular processes with the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a computationally expensive task. Our previous software enabled simulation of inhomogeneous biochemical systems for small bacteria over long time scales using the MPD-RDME method on a single GPU. Simulations of larger eukaryotic systems exceed the on-board memory capacity of individual GPUs, and long time simulations of modest-sized cells such as yeast are impractical on a single GPU. We present a new multi-GPU parallel implementation of the MPD-RDME method based on a spatial decomposition approach that supports dynamic load balancing for workstations containing GPUs of varying performance and memory capacity. We take advantage of high-performance features of CUDA for peer-to-peer GPU memory transfers and evaluate the performance of our algorithms on state-of-the-art GPU devices. We present parallel e ciency and performance results for simulations using multiple GPUs as system size, particle counts, and number of reactions grow. We also demonstrate multi-GPU performance in simulations of the Min protein system in E. coli. Moreover, our multi-GPU decomposition and load balancing approach can be generalized to other lattice-based problems. PMID:24882911

  15. Configuring the EPRI plant monitoring workstation for boiler section cleanliness at Texas Utilities`s Martin Lake Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cona, C.; Ulvog, P.

    1995-06-01

    T.U. Electric`s Martin Lake plant has a history of boiler slagging which is characteristic of the Texas lignite used as fuel. Using the capabilities of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW) and enhanced performance monitoring instrumentation, Martin Lake has developed an on-line boiler cleanliness model that can be used to manage sootblowing. Testing of the model has been very positive, showing good correlation between blowers operated and cleanliness obtained. potential applications of this model are for (1) testing the effectiveness of revised combustion strategies and (2) development of an automatic sootblowing system. These two areas could result in heat rate improvements. This paper discusses how the PMW models were configured to represent Martin Lake`s boilers and the results of on-line tests. Critical to this technique is the calculation of boiler gas flow. A somewhat unique feature of Martin Lake`s model is the calculation of boiler gas flow based on the induction draft (ID) fan horsepower. Most boiler gas flow calculations are based on stack gas flow which would have been inaccurate because of the wet scrubbers and stack gas reheat on this unit. Using the ID fan horsepower to derive boiler gas flow has application in boiler efficiency calculations as well.

  16. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

  17. Automated liquid-liquid extraction workstation for library synthesis and its use in the parallel and chromatography-free synthesis of 2-alkyl-3-alkyl-4-(3H)-quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Marta; Ferritto, Rafael; Haro, Rubén; Toledo, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    An automated liquid-liquid extraction workstation has been developed. This module processes up to 96 samples in an automated and parallel mode avoiding the time-consuming and intensive sample manipulation during the workup process. To validate the workstation, a highly automated and chromatography-free synthesis of differentially substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones with two diversity points has been carried out using isatoic anhydride as starting material.

  18. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p < .05) e.g. time for maze navigation (Novice – 166 s, Beginner – 135.5 s, Intermediate – 100 s, Advance – 97.5 s) and the similar results for all tasks. Majority (>85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. PMID:27801643

  19. FAST Workstation Project Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    manipulation of technical and logistica ! information. Examples of such tools include mail systems, calendar and scheduling sy.:!,ems, advisory expert systems...Electronics Supply Center (DESC) in Dayton and Defense Industrial Supply Center (DISC) in Philadelphia, and both Defense 4 Construction Supply Center (DCSC

  20. Computer Workstations: Desks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  1. Computer Workstations: Keyboards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  2. Communication System Simulation Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-30

    MLUSBICAYCR AO L)FLIVEPTZ 2 WEEK~S NEWT 30 days pp ’. HAMMfl P’AiJA1.C CU T Ii 2 Brix 1000-V Block Oriented Syutert $ 200.00 $ 400.00 SAiulator (OUSS) for VAX...rIA~ff (.011 A(;,:A 1aitoflance TOTAL A \\ (.I(Fr) WITH tnvr ?I pps -V ID I 1A Y OILIGARSI. 4.0O * 80 FECHA UE CARTA CON ESTAGION COMEN tAIIIOS FECIIA DE...LLAMADA PERSONA CON OUIF 14 HAfTLO0) NUM DC TELFFONI) Modelo 105/ Rev Julio I 9J UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO RUM 1. Unidad Instilucional Clr -3 32 91

  3. The effects of FreeSurfer version, workstation type, and Macintosh operating system version on anatomical volume and cortical thickness measurements.

    PubMed

    Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Habets, Petra; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Mengelers, Ron; Rozendaal, Nico; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2012-01-01

    FreeSurfer is a popular software package to measure cortical thickness and volume of neuroanatomical structures. However, little if any is known about measurement reliability across various data processing conditions. Using a set of 30 anatomical T1-weighted 3T MRI scans, we investigated the effects of data processing variables such as FreeSurfer version (v4.3.1, v4.5.0, and v5.0.0), workstation (Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard), and Macintosh operating system version (OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6). Significant differences were revealed between FreeSurfer version v5.0.0 and the two earlier versions. These differences were on average 8.8 ± 6.6% (range 1.3-64.0%) (volume) and 2.8 ± 1.3% (1.1-7.7%) (cortical thickness). About a factor two smaller differences were detected between Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard workstations and between OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6. The observed differences are similar in magnitude as effect sizes reported in accuracy evaluations and neurodegenerative studies.The main conclusion is that in the context of an ongoing study, users are discouraged to update to a new major release of either FreeSurfer or operating system or to switch to a different type of workstation without repeating the analysis; results thus give a quantitative support to successive recommendations stated by FreeSurfer developers over the years. Moreover, in view of the large and significant cross-version differences, it is concluded that formal assessment of the accuracy of FreeSurfer is desirable.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  5. The Effects of FreeSurfer Version, Workstation Type, and Macintosh Operating System Version on Anatomical Volume and Cortical Thickness Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Habets, Petra; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Mengelers, Ron; Rozendaal, Nico; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2012-01-01

    FreeSurfer is a popular software package to measure cortical thickness and volume of neuroanatomical structures. However, little if any is known about measurement reliability across various data processing conditions. Using a set of 30 anatomical T1-weighted 3T MRI scans, we investigated the effects of data processing variables such as FreeSurfer version (v4.3.1, v4.5.0, and v5.0.0), workstation (Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard), and Macintosh operating system version (OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6). Significant differences were revealed between FreeSurfer version v5.0.0 and the two earlier versions. These differences were on average 8.8±6.6% (range 1.3–64.0%) (volume) and 2.8±1.3% (1.1–7.7%) (cortical thickness). About a factor two smaller differences were detected between Macintosh and Hewlett-Packard workstations and between OSX 10.5 and OSX 10.6. The observed differences are similar in magnitude as effect sizes reported in accuracy evaluations and neurodegenerative studies. The main conclusion is that in the context of an ongoing study, users are discouraged to update to a new major release of either FreeSurfer or operating system or to switch to a different type of workstation without repeating the analysis; results thus give a quantitative support to successive recommendations stated by FreeSurfer developers over the years. Moreover, in view of the large and significant cross-version differences, it is concluded that formal assessment of the accuracy of FreeSurfer is desirable. PMID:22675527

  6. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  7. Evaluation of radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution clients for a PACS project in hands-on workshops.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Thomas; Handgraetinger, Oliver; Link, Juergen; Ploner, Ricardo; Voellmy, Daniel R; Marincek, Borut; Wildermuth, Simon

    2004-05-01

    The methodology and outcome of a hands-on workshop for the evaluation of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) software for a multihospital PACS project are described. The following radiological workstations and web-browser-based image distribution software clients were evaluated as part of a multistep evaluation of PACS vendors in March 2001: Impax DS 3000 V 4.1/Impax Web1000 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium); PathSpeed V 8.0/PathSpeed Web (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis., USA); ID Report/ID Web (Image Devices, Idstein, Germany); EasyVision DX/EasyWeb (Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, Netherlands); and MagicView 1000 VB33a/MagicWeb (Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany). A set of anonymized DICOM test data was provided to enable direct image comparison. Radiologists ( n=44) evaluated the radiological workstations and nonradiologists ( n=53) evaluated the image distribution software clients using different questionnaires. One vendor was not able to import the provided DICOM data set. Another vendor had problems in displaying imported cross-sectional studies in the correct stack order. Three vendors (Agfa-Gevaert, GE, Philips) presented server-client solutions with web access. Two (Siemens, Image Devices) presented stand-alone solutions. The highest scores in the class of radiological workstations were achieved by ID Report from Image Devices ( p<0.005). In the class of image distribution clients, the differences were statistically not significant. Questionnaire-based evaluation was shown to be useful for guaranteeing systematic assessment. The workshop was a great success in raising interest in the PACS project in a large group of future clinical users. The methodology used in the present study may be useful for other hospitals evaluating PACS.

  8. [Efficiency of three commercial kits dedicated to DNA and RNA isolation from various clinical and forensic materials using the Janus automated workstation].

    PubMed

    Małodobra, Małgorzata; Jonkisz, Anna; Kowalczyk, Elzbieta; Lebioda, Arleta; Bartnik, Beata; Swiatek, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of genetic material is a crucial stage in molecular biology. Increasing needs for DNA analysis cause continuous improving of genetic material isolation methods toward higher accuracy and output. Automatization in molecular biology is widely seen, especially in clinical and forensic medicine. The objective of this research was optimization of methods for automatic nucleic acid isolation using the Janus automated workstation, Perkin Elmer. The efficiency and purity of isolated DNA was satisfactory. Despite numerous attempts at achieving automatic RNA isolation, we did not succeed in obtaining RNA working in other applications, such as RT-PCR or Real-Time PCR.

  9. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  10. Evaluation of New Geological Reference Materials for U-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Nunn, A. J.; Ui Chearnaigh, K.; Amato, R.; Murrell, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium-series analytical measurements are widely used in geochemistry, geochronology, paleoclimatology, volcanology, environmental risk assessment and other fields. Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques e.g. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS present numerous opportunities for the geoanalytical community. As with other analytical techniques, the quality of the elemental concentration and isotopic data obtained through microanalytical techniques is dependent on the accurate characterization of suitable reference materials. Even for the case of fs-laser ablation applications, a range of well-characterized standards are required for high precision U-series work. Advances have been made in evaluating existing standard reference materials for U-series isotopic analysis, but this work is ongoing as more reference materials become available. In this study we present MC-TIMS and MC-ICP-MS results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of chemical compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite and a soil. U concentrations for these glasses range from ≈2 to 14 μg/g and [Th]/[U] ratios range from ≈4 to 6. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data will also be presented for rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru, which can be used as a rhyolitic reference material. These high-precision and high-accuracy ratios, from a suite of standards that exhibit a range of natural, non-basaltic compositions, will complement data from existing standards and expand the catalogue of reference materials that are appropriate for in situ U-series work. These results can be used to assess the performance of microanalytical techniques and will facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of data within the broader geoscience community.

  11. A flexible system for vital signs monitoring in hospital general care wards based on the integration of UNIX-based workstations, standard networks and portable vital signs monitors.

    PubMed

    Welch, J P; Sims, N; Ford-Carlton, P; Moon, J B; West, K; Honore, G; Colquitt, N

    1991-01-01

    The article describes a study conducted on general surgical and thoracic surgical floors of a 1000-bed hospital to assess the impact of a new network for portable patient care devices. This network was developed to address the needs of hospital patients who need constant, multi-parameter, vital signs surveillance, but do not require intensive nursing care. Bedside wall jacks were linked to UNIX-based workstations using standard digital network hardware, creating a flexible system (for general care floors of the hospital) that allowed the number of monitored locations to increase and decrease as patient census and acuity levels varied. It also allowed the general care floors to provide immediate, centralized vital signs monitoring for patients who unexpectedly became unstable, and permitted portable monitors to travel with patients as they were transferred between hospital departments. A disk-based log within the workstation automatically collected performance data, including patient demographics, monitor alarms, and network status for analysis. The log has allowed the developers to evaluate the use and performance of the system.

  12. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  13. Beyond the CM-5: A case study in performance analysis for the CM-5, T3D, and high performance RISC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1995-03-22

    We present a comprehensive performance evaluation of our molecular dynamics code SPaSM on the CM-5 in order to devise optimization strategies for the CM-5, T3D, and RISC workstations. In this analysis, we focus on the effective use of the SPARC microprocessor by performing measurements of instruction set utilization, cache effects, memory access patterns, and pipeline stall cycles. We then show that we can account for more than 99% of observed execution time of our program. Optimization strategies are devised and we show that our highly optimized ANSI C program running only on the SPARC microprocessor of the CM-5 is only twice as slow as our Gordon-Bell prize winning code that utilized the CM-5 vector units. On the CM-5E, we show that this optimized code run faster than the vector unit version. We then apply these techniques to the Cray T3D and measure resulting speedups. Finally, we show that simple optimization strategies are effective on a wide variety of high performance RISC workstations.

  14. An informatics model for guiding assembly of telemicrobiology workstations for malaria collaborative diagnostics using commodity products and open-source software

    PubMed Central

    Suhanic, West; Crandall, Ian; Pennefather, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Deficits in clinical microbiology infrastructure exacerbate global infectious disease burdens. This paper examines how commodity computation, communication, and measurement products combined with open-source analysis and communication applications can be incorporated into laboratory medicine microbiology protocols. Those commodity components are all now sourceable globally. An informatics model is presented for guiding the use of low-cost commodity components and free software in the assembly of clinically useful and usable telemicrobiology workstations. Methods The model incorporates two general principles: 1) collaborative diagnostics, where free and open communication and networking applications are used to link distributed collaborators for reciprocal assistance in organizing and interpreting digital diagnostic data; and 2) commodity engineering, which leverages globally available consumer electronics and open-source informatics applications, to build generic open systems that measure needed information in ways substantially equivalent to more complex proprietary systems. Routine microscopic examination of Giemsa and fluorescently stained blood smears for diagnosing malaria is used as an example to validate the model. Results The model is used as a constraint-based guide for the design, assembly, and testing of a functioning, open, and commoditized telemicroscopy system that supports distributed acquisition, exploration, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of digital microscopy images of stained malarial blood smears while also supporting remote diagnostic tracking, quality assessment and diagnostic process development. Conclusion The open telemicroscopy workstation design and use-process described here can address clinical microbiology infrastructure deficits in an economically sound and sustainable manner. It can boost capacity to deal with comprehensive measurement of disease and care outcomes in individuals and groups in a distributed and

  15. Laser spectroscopies for elemental and molecular analysis in art and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Austin; Spoto, Giuseppe; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Spectroscopic methods using laser sources have significantly improved our capacity to unravel the chemical composition of works of art and archaeological remains. Lasers enhance the performance of spectroscopic techniques which require intense light sources and specific analytical protocols assuring a microanalytical approach for analysis has been established. This review focuses on laser spectroscopic methods used in the field of cultural heritage diagnostics. Emphasis in this work is given to the analytical capabilities of laser-based techniques for elemental and/or molecular analysis and in-situ use, spatial resolution and microanalysis. Analytical methods are classified according to the elemental (LIBS, LA-ICP-MS) and molecular (LIF/LIDAR, time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) information they yield. For non-destructive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF/LIDAR) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, imaging applications are described. The advantages provided by combined complementary techniques including but not limited to LIBS-LIF-Raman and LIBS-XRF are presented, as are recent improvements in terms of chemical imaging. Advances and applications of THz spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and imaging are outlined. Finally, laser spectroscopies are described for investigations of different materials and works of art which include Bronze Age ceramics, Minoan archaeological remains, Ancient Roman buildings, Renaissance wall paintings and sculptures, and manuscripts containing iron gall inks and colorants.

  16. Managing ergonomics in the development of rotation between workstations in the automotive industry. A balance between health and traceability of tasks.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Partel, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract When the subject rotation between workstations (job rotation) is inside the organizations it's seemed that technically there are lots of restrictions to the development of an adequate system of rotation. We went from the need for an advanced ergonomic study and even possible restrictions of versatility and training of employees. The implementation of the ideal system of rotation passes through stages of development and research ergonomic study of the level of employee versatility, awareness and discussion with employees, implementation of the proposed system, feedback and audits for maintenance of the ideal sequence and time of rotation. For the success of the project there is a need for multidisciplinary involvement in the areas of manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering, human resources, medical services and manufacturing. Rotation between the tasks may mean that a worker should conduct two or more different activities in different parts of the day (ie. change between activity A and activity B "between 1 hours and 2 hours interval). An important consideration is to ensure that different activities do not present the same ergonomic risk for the same body part. The tracing of the execution of the activity is an important factor for production processes. Thus it is possible to conduct appropriate levels of training for employees and ensure safe and sustainable processes in terms of workers' health, productivity and quality.

  17. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  18. Collaboration system for radiology workstations.

    PubMed

    Eng, John; Leal, Jeffrey P; Shu, Wei; Liang Yang, Guo

    2002-01-01

    Consultation between radiologists and referring physicians is part of routine medical practice. Nevertheless, a typical picture archiving and communication system contains no provision that will allow this critical interaction to occur on-line. The authors describe an image viewing system designed for real-time interactive consultation over the Internet. The system has two main components: an image viewer and a collaboration server. The image viewer connects to the collaboration server over an Internet-compatible network. Once the image viewer is connected, its display can be synchronized with that of another connected image viewer, so that radiologists can point out image findings and diagnoses in real time to remotely located physicians. The image viewer can retrieve images from any DICOM-compatible archive. In addition to standard image manipulation functions, the image viewer contains a new user interface for image annotation. Developed specifically for medical imaging, this user interface is activated by mouse actions instead of conventional on-screen controls, greatly improving the ease with which annotations can be created. The collaboration system is based on a simple yet flexible programming interface that can be readily generalized to other types of collaborative applications. The system was developed with the Java programming language because of Java's integrated support of Internet-compatible networking capabilities.

  19. Computer Workstations: Good Working Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  20. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  1. Taxonomic Workstation System User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    any notes you may want to make about a record. 7he notes are "localized" to this template and will not show up on screan or paper printouts. - Wen done...files which then allow "one touch " access. Details are provided in Appendix I, ACSS= EXT 5 APP2ICATIaS PRAS. 52 Enterin N-B ENTERIMI NE ’TAN34CHI:ES

  2. Second-order M{umlt o}ller-Plesset and Epstein-Nesbet corrections to the molecular charge density: distributed computing on a cluster of heterogeneous workstations with the PVM system

    SciTech Connect

    Bendrider, M.; Leclercq, J.

    1995-04-01

    We perform distributed calculations of the MP2 and EN2 corrections to the charge density of a lot of molecules. A heterogeneous cluster of IBM RS/600 and Silicon Graphics workstations is used. These network-based distributed concurrent calculations are developed with the {bold P}arallel {bold V}irtual {bold M}achine system of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the ETHERNET IP mode and, for the RS/6000s, the SOCC IP mode. (AIP) {copyright}{ital 1995 American Institute of Physics}

  3. Using Microanalytical Simulation Methods in Educational Evaluation: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Beltyukova, Svetlana A.; Fox, Christine M.; Stone, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientifically based research used to inform evidence based school reform efforts has been required by the federal government in order to receive grant funding since the reenactment of No Child Left Behind (2002). Educational evaluators are thus faced with the challenge to use rigorous research designs to establish causal relationships. However,…

  4. Structural, chemical, and isotopic microanalytical investigations of graphite from supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. Kevin; Bernatowicz, Thomas; Amari, Sachiko; Messenger, Scott; Stadermann, Frank J.

    2003-12-01

    We report the results of coordinated ion microprobe and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of presolar graphites from the KE3 separate (1.65-1.72 g/cm 3) of the Murchison CM2 meteorite. Isotopic analysis of individual graphites (1-12 μm) with the ion microprobe shows many to have large 18O excesses combined with large silicon isotopic anomalies, indicative of a supernova (SN) origin. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of ultramicrotome slices of these SN graphites revealed a high abundance (25-2400 ppm) of internal titanium carbides (TiCs), with a single graphite in some cases containing hundreds of TiCs. Isotopic compositions of individual TiCs by nanoscale resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed their presolar origin. In addition to TiCs, composite TiC/Fe grains (TiCs with attached iron-nickel subgrains) and solitary kamacite internal grains were found. In the composite grains, the attached iron phase (kamacite [0-24 at. % Ni] or taenite [up to 60 at. % Ni]) was epitaxially grown onto one or more TiC faces. In contrast to the denser Murchison KFC1 graphites, no Zr-Ti-Mo carbides were observed. The average TiC diameters were quite variable among the SN graphites, from 30 to 232 nm, and were generally independent of the host graphite size. TiC grain morphologies ranged from euhedral to anhedral, with the grain surfaces exhibiting variable degrees of corrosion, and sometimes partially amorphous rims (3 to 15 nm thick). Partially amorphous rims of similar thickness were also observed on some solitary kamacite grains. We speculate that the rims on the internal grains are most plausibly the result of atom bombardment caused by drift of grains with respect to the ambient gas, requiring relative outflow speeds ˜100 km/s (i.e., a few percent of the SN mass outflow speed). Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) of TiCs revealed significant V in solid solution, with an average V/Ti ratio over all TiCs of ˜83% of the solar value of 0.122. Significant variations about the mean V/Ti ratio were also seen among TiCs in the same graphite, likely indicating chemical equilibration with the surrounding gas over a range of temperatures. In general, the diversity in internal TiC properties suggests that TiCs formed first and had substantially diverse histories before incorporation into the graphite, implying some degree of turbulent mixing in the SN outflows. In most graphites, there is a decrease in the number density of TiCs as a function of increasing radial dis- tance, caused by either preferential depletion of TiCs from the gas or an acceleration of graphite growth with decreasing ambient temperature. In several graphites, TiCs showed a trend of larger V/Ti ratios with increasing distance from the graphite center, an indication of progressive equilibration with the surrounding gas before they were sequestered in the graphites. In all but one graphite, no trend was seen in the TiC size vs. distance from the graphite center, implying that appreciable TiC growth had effectively stopped before the graphites formed, or else that graphite growth was rapid compared to TiC growth. Taken together, the chemical variations among internal grains as well as the presence of partially amorphous rims and epitaxial Fe phases on some TiCs clearly indicate that the phase condensation sequence was TiC, followed by the iron phases (only found in some graphites) and finally graphite. Since graphite typically condenses at a higher temperature than iron at low pressures (<10 -3 bars) in a gas with C > O and otherwise solar composition, the observed condensation sequence implies a relative iron enrichment in the gas or greater supersaturation of graphite relative to iron. The TEM observations allow inferences to be made about the physical conditions in the gas from which the grains condensed. Given the TiC sizes and abundances, the gas was evidently quite dusty. From the observed TiC size range of ˜20 nm to ˜500 nm (assuming ˜1 yr growth time and T ˜ 1800°K), we infer minimum Ti number densities in t

  5. [Rare pulmonary occupational diseases--importance of microanalytical examination].

    PubMed

    Brasch, Fank; Müller, Klaus-Michael

    2004-01-01

    In legal proceedings on the subject of occupational diseases concerning comparatively rare pneumoconioses, additional analyses such as energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) offer decisive information for the pathologist in establishing causal connections between occupational exposure to hazardous substances, foreign particle deposits in lung tissue and pulmonary reaction patterns. Using the example of silver finisher's lung, dental technician's lung and talcosis, the connections between foreign particle deposits in lung tissue and granulomatous and fibrosing pulmonary changes are shown.

  6. Some applications of microanalytical electron microscopy in materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1985-10-01

    Electron microscopy has made extraordinary progress over the past 30 years and has become an indispensible tool for research in materials science. In this paper a review is given of some applications of microdiffraction and microanalysis in our current materials science research projects at the University of California, Berkeley. The topics discussed include: (1) The problem of solute atom partitioning in steels; this includes the difficulties of measuring carbon contents and methods of utilizing diffraction, lattice imaging, energy dispersive x-ray (EDXS) and electron energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies and atom probe analysis will be illustrated. (2) Utilization of CBED and EDXS techniques in zirconia ceramics research. (3) Applications of CBED to the study of el-Fe2O3 particles used in magnetic recording systems. (4) Applications of CBED and EDXS to rare earth permanent magnets. (5) Channelling enhanced microanalysis. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  7. Validation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Brucella abortus in cattle sera using an automated ELISA workstation.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Potts, A D; Harris, H J; Smith, S J; Viljoen, G J; Dungu, B; Brett, O L; Bubb, M; Prozesky, L

    2002-03-01

    that for the CFT (0.833). Analysis of distribution of PP values in sera from vaccinated and naturally infected cattle shows that in vaccinated animals all readings were below 31 PP where in infected ones these values represented 43%. Therefore, it appears that I-ELISA could be of use in identifying some naturally infected animals (with values > 31 PP), but more sera from reference vaccinated and infected animals need to be tested to further substantiate this statistically. Of 834 sera positive by RBT, SAT and CFT, 825 (98.9%) were positive in the I-ELISA. Compared to C-ELISA the relative diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 94% and of the CFT 88% when testing 100 Canadian cattle sera. Of 258 South African cattle sera, of which 183 (70.9 %) were positive by the I-ELISA and 148 (57.4 %) by the CFT, 197 (76.4%) were positive by C-ELISA when re-tested in Canada. One has to stress, however, that Canadian C-ELISA has not been optimised locally. Thus, the C-ELISA was probably not used at the best diagnostic threshold for testing South African cattle sera. This study shows that the I-ELISA performed on an automated ELISA workstation provides a rapid, simple, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic system for large-scale detection of antibodies against B. abortus. Based on the diagnostic accuracy of this assay reported here, the authors suggest that it could replace not only the currently used confirmatory CFT test, but also the two in-use screening tests, namely the RBT and SAT.

  8. The Humidity in a Low-Flow Dräger Fabius Anesthesia Workstation with or without Thermal Insulation or a Heat and Moisture Exchanger: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sergius A. R.; Lucio, Lorena M. C.; Modolo, Norma S. P.; Hayashi, Yoko; Braz, Mariana G.; de Carvalho, Lídia R.; Braz, Leandro G.; Braz, José Reinaldo C.

    2017-01-01

    Background During anesthesia, as compared with intensive care, the time of the tracheal intubation is much shorter. An inhaled gas minimum humidity of 20 mgH2O.L-1 is recommended to reduce the deleterious effects of dry gas on the airways during anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The Fabius GS Premium® anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat gases in the breathing circuit. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is used to further heat and humidify the inhaled gas. The humidity of the gases in the breathing circuit is influenced by the ambient temperature. We compared the humidity of the inhaled gases from a low-flow Fabius anesthesia workstation with or without thermal insulation (TI) of the breathing circuit and with or without an HME. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized trial in 41 adult female patients who underwent elective abdominal surgery. The patients were allocated into four groups according to the devices used to ventilate their lungs using a Dräger Fabius anesthesia workstation with a low gas flow (1 L.min-1): control, with TI, with an HME or with TI and an HME (TIHME). The mean temperature and humidity of the inhaled gases were measured during 2-h after connecting the patients to the breathing circuit. Results The mean inhaled gas temperature and absolute humidity were higher in the HME (29.2±1.3°C; 28.1±2.3 mgH2O·L-1) and TIHME (30.1±1.2°C; 29.4±2.0 mgH2O·L-1) groups compared with the control (27.5±1.0°C; 25.0±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) and TI (27.2±1.1°C; 24.9±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) groups (P = 0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The low-flow Fabius GS Premium breathing circuit provides the minimum humidity level of inhaled gases to avoid damage to the tracheobronchial epithelia during anesthesia. TI of the breathing circuit does not increase the humidity of the inhaled gases, whereas inserting an HME increases the moisture of the inhaled gases closer to physiological values. PMID

  9. Parallel solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations and other experiences using BlockComm-Chameleon and PCN on the IBM SP, Intel iPSC/860, and clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Coskun, E.; Kwong, M.K.

    1995-09-01

    Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are considered for modeling a thin-film finite size superconductor placed under magnetic field. The problem then leads to the use of so-called natural boundary conditions. Computational domain is partitioned into subdomains and bond variables are used in obtaining the corresponding discrete system of equations. An efficient time-differencing method based on the Forward Euler method is developed. Finally, a variable strength magnetic field resulting in a vortex motion in Type II High {Tc} superconducting films is introduced. The authors tackled the problem using two different state-of-the-art parallel computing tools: BlockComm/Chameleon and PCN. They had access to two high-performance distributed memory supercomputers: the Intel iPSC/860 and IBM SP1. They also tested the codes using, as a parallel computing environment, a cluster of Sun Sparc workstations.

  10. The DART dispersion analysis research tool: A mechanistic model for predicting fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels. User`s guide for mainframe, workstation, and personal computer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the primary physical models that form the basis of the DART mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels; the calculated results are compared with test data. In addition, DART calculates irradiation-induced changes in the thermal conductivity of the dispersion fuel, as well as fuel restructuring due to aluminum fuel reaction, amorphization, and recrystallization. Input instructions for execution on mainframe, workstation, and personal computers are provided, as is a description of DART output. The theory of fission gas behavior and its effect on fuel swelling is discussed. The behavior of these fission products in both crystalline and amorphous fuel and in the presence of irradiation-induced recrystallization and crystalline-to-amorphous-phase change phenomena is presented, as are models for these irradiation-induced processes.

  11. Field-Based High Resolution P-T-t Mapping Shows Recrystallization to BE Highly Localized, Even at HP and Uhp Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassley, W. E.; Korstgård, J.; Sorensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing tectonic histories relies on the ability to establish P-T-t paths from samples and data collected in the field. Efforts to establish detailed P-T-t pathways have benefitted recently from dramatically improved ability to resolve mineral chemical and isotopic properties at the micron scale. We present here a new interpretation of the HP and UHP metamorphic history of a 1.8 Gya terrain in West Greenland (Glassley et al., 2014) that is based on these new analytical capabilities, coupled with sampling at high spatial density. The terrain consists of a tectonic assemblage of metasomatically altered pillow basalts, ultramafic bodies, exhalative and chemical oceanic metasediments, pelites, and quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, that are the preserved remnants of a subduction channel. Using LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses on zircons, we time-correlated recrystallization events that could be well-documented using micro-analytical techniques (EBMA; Raman; LA-ICP-MS). More than 700 207Pb/206Pb dates and more than 1,000 electron microprobe mineral analyses were used in this correlation effort. The results demonstrate that: 1) Recrystallization is highly localized, often restricted to tectonic domains of less than a few 10s of km2. Few tectonic lenses preserve evidence of the most extreme P-T conditions (5 GPa at temperatures of approximately 1,000 C); 2) The extent of area involved in a recrystallization "event" is mainly a reflection of local rock chemistry/mineralogy and fluid activity; 3) Since individual crystals preserve multiple parts of a P-T-t path in compositional zoning, isotopic dates must be very carefully correlated with corresponding mineral compositions in order to establish t at P & T; 4) Preservation of the prograde P-T-t path during subduction is rare.

  12. The world-class Howard's Pass SEDEX Zn-Pb district, Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Part I: trace element compositions of pyrite record input of hydrothermal, diagenetic, and metamorphic fluids to mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, Michael G.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Peter, Jan M.; Paradis, Suzanne J.

    2016-03-01

    The Howard's Pass district, located in Yukon Territory, comprises 14 Zn-Pb sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits that collectively contain approximately 400.7 Mt grading at 4.5 % Zn and 1.5 % Pb. Sulfide mineralization is hosted in carbonaceous and calcareous to siliceous mudstones. Pyrite is a minor but ubiquitous component. Detailed petrographic analyses reveal that pyrite has a complex and protracted growth history, and multiple generations of pyrite are preserved in single grains. Combined electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled mass plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of paragenetically complex pyrite reveal minor and trace element zonation that mimic textural features. These data provide information on the relative timing and cation content of depositional (i.e., ambient marine), hydrothermal, and metamorphic fluids. These data also identify a suite of nonore elements (Mn, As, Ag, Sb, and Tl) associated with the Zn-Pb mineralizing hydrothermal fluids. Lithogeochemical data and statistical results corroborate the microanalytical findings. These elements are associated with both syngenetic to earliest diagenetic pyrite and later diagenetic pyrite overgrowths, suggesting that SEDEX mineralization was not only the product of hydrothermal precipitates that settled on the seafloor, but also dense metalliferous brine also settled on, and percolated through, unconsolidated carbonaceous muds and precipitated metals. This genetic model is similar to that proposed for the Paleoproterozoic HYC Zn-Pb-Ag SEDEX deposit in northern Australia, and it is likely that common processes and ambient conditions led to the formation and preservation of both of these large SEDEX districts.

  13. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  14. Optimizing Hybrid Occlusion in Face-Jaw-Teeth Transplantation: A Preliminary Assessment of Real-Time Cephalometry as Part of the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Basafa, Ehsan; Hashemi, Sepehr; Grant, Gerald T.; Liacouras, Peter; Susarla, Srinivas M.; Otake, Yoshito; Santiago, Gabriel; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aesthetic and functional outcomes surrounding Le Fort–based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation have been suboptimal, often leading to posttransplant class II/III skeletal profiles, palatal defects, and “hybrid malocclusion.” Therefore, a novel technology—real-time cephalometry—was developed to provide the surgical team instantaneous, intraoperative knowledge of three-dimensional dentoskeletal parameters. Methods Mock face-jaw-teeth transplantation operations were performed on plastic and cadaveric human donor/recipient pairs (n = 2). Preoperatively, cephalometric landmarks were identified on donor/recipient skeletons using segmented computed tomographic scans. The computer-assisted planning and execution workstation tracked the position of the donor face-jaw-teeth segment in real time during the placement/inset onto recipient, reporting pertinent hybrid cephalometric parameters from any movement of donor tissue. The intraoperative data measured through real-time cephalometry were compared to posttransplant measurements for accuracy assessment. In addition, posttransplant cephalometric relationships were compared to planned outcomes to determine face-jaw-teeth transplantation success. Results Compared with postoperative data, the real-time cephalometry–calculated intraoperative measurement errors were 1.37 ± 1.11 mm and 0.45 ± 0.28 degrees for the plastic skull and 2.99 ± 2.24 mm and 2.63 ± 1.33 degrees for the human cadaver experiments. These results were comparable to the posttransplant relations to planned outcome (human cadaver experiment, 1.39 ± 1.81 mm and 2.18 ± 1.88 degrees; plastic skull experiment, 1.06 ± 0.63 mm and 0.53 ± 0.39 degrees). Conclusion Based on this preliminary testing, real-time cephalometry may be a valuable adjunct for adjusting and measuring “hybrid occlusion” in face-jaw-teeth transplantation and other orthognathic surgical procedures. PMID:26218382

  15. Open-system behaviour of magmatic fluid phase and transport of copper in arc magmas at Krakatau and Batur volcanoes, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, Steven M.

    2016-11-01

    The Sunda arc of Indonesia is an excellent example of how volcanic processes at convergent plate margins affect the distribution of metals and control the distribution of ore deposits. In this paper, we report microtextural observations and microanalytical data (SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS) of silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from fresh samples of volcanic rocks from the 2008 eruption of Mt. Krakatau and 1963 eruption of Mt. Batur, Sunda arc, Indonesia that bear implications on the concentration and transport of Cu and other chalcophile elements in mafic-intermediate magmas in arc settings. These multi-phase inclusions contain glass, amphibole and plagioclase, together with co-trapped apatite, magnetite, sulfides and lobed, drop-like Fe-oxide. We observed two stages of sulfide formation: 1) early-formed sulfide globules (pyrrhotite and intermediate solid solution), which derived from an immiscible sulfide melt and only occur as inclusions in phenocrysts; and 2) late-formed, irregular Cu-rich sulfides (intermediate solid solution to bornite), which were deposited in the presence of an aqueous fluid, and are contained as fluid phase precipitates in vapour bubbles of melt inclusions and in vesicles, as well as finely dispersed grains in the groundmass. Microtextural observations and X-ray elemental maps show that interaction between sulfide globules and aqueous fluid resulted in partial oxidation and transfer of Cu between the fluid and the sulfide phase. A compilation of whole-rock analyses from the Sunda arc indicates that Cu reaches 250-300 ppm in mafic samples (SiO2 ≤ 52 wt.%), and then suddenly drops with progressive fractionation to < 50 ppm in intermediate-felsic samples. This behaviour can be explained by sulfide melt exsolution or degassing and scavenging of Cu occurring at various stages of magma fractionation (at MgO 8-2.5 wt.%). These trends can be effectively modelled by sulfide saturation during fractional crystallisation at oxygen fugacities varying

  16. Multivariate classification of edible salts: Simultaneous Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghoon; Nam, Sang-Ho; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Oropeza, Dayana; Quarles, Derrick; Yoo, Jonghyun; Russo, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), both based on laser ablation sampling, can be employed simultaneously to obtain different chemical fingerprints from a sample. We demonstrated that this analysis approach can provide complementary information for improved classification of edible salts. LIBS could detect several of the minor metallic elements along with Na and Cl, while LA-ICP-MS spectra were used to measure non-metallic and trace heavy metal elements. Principal component analysis using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS spectra showed that their major spectral variations classified the sample salts in different ways. Three classification models were developed by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis based on the LIBS, LA-ICP-MS, and their fused data. From the cross-validation performances and confusion matrices of these models, the minor metallic elements (Mg, Ca, and K) detected by LIBS and the non-metallic (I) and trace heavy metal (Ba, W, and Pb) elements detected by LA-ICP-MS provided complementary chemical information to distinguish particular salt samples.

  17. Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...or Office and Business Automaions. Research Report 35086. IBM. January, 1980. gIuuTE

  18. 3D Engineering Workstation and Connected Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    is shown in figure (19), ( Shende et al. 1994). This Global Design Methodology was implemented using the KI-Shell, which is frequently called...Pishko, R. (1996), "New Quenchant for Muminum," Advanced Materials and Processes, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, April. Shende , V., Samonds

  19. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    ACCESS provides a generic capability to develop software information system applications which are explicitly intended to facilitate software reuse. In addition, it provides the capability to retrofit existing large applications with a user friendly front end for preparation of input streams in a way that will reduce required training time, improve the productivity even of experienced users, and increase accuracy. Current and past work shows that ACCESS will be scalable to much larger object bases.

  20. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  1. Computer Workstations: Wrist/Palm Supports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server. The Department of Labor does not endorse, ... the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the ...

  2. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  3. Design criteria for payload workstation accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, H. H.; Stokes, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated shuttle sortie payload man-system design criteria needs are investigated. Man-system interactions for the scientific disciplines are listed and the extent is assessed to which documented Skylab experience is expected to provide system design guidance for each of the identified interactions. Where the analysis revealed that the reduced Skylab data does not answer the anticipated needs candidate criteria, based on unreduced Skylab data, available prior research, original analysis, or related requirements derived from previous space programs, are provided.

  4. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  5. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  6. Personal Computer and Workstation Operating Systems Tutorial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    their: history of development, process management , file system, input and output system, user interface, network capabilities, and advantages and...degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author: ._- Cjy.- Charles E. Frame Jr...their: history of development, process management , file system, input and output system, user interface, network capabilities, and advantages and

  7. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  8. An evaluation of programmer/analyst workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, K.; Mital, R.; Card, D.; Maione, A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few automated tools were available to support software requirements analysis and design even though improvements in quality during these phases appear to offer the greatest leverage for improving the quality and productivity of the overall software development process. Recently, however, some such tools have appeared on the market. An industry survey, and an in-house evaluation of two commercial products by programmers and analysts was undertaken to determine which tool is the best to support programmers and analysts through life cycle development. A tool was selected for full implementation on a project, where complete analysis of software statistics over the system life cycle will determine whether or not quality and productivity improvements have actually occurred. The results of the industry survey and in-house evaluation are summarized.

  9. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Examinations of the origins of polyatomic ions and advances in the sampling of particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provides a general introduction to Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) sampling, with an examination of analytical challenges in the employment of this technique. It discusses the origin of metal oxide ions (MO+) in LA-ICP-MS, as well as the effect of introducing helium and nitrogen to the aerosol gas flow on the formation of these polyatomic interferences. It extends the study of polyatomic ions in LA-ICP-MS to metal argide (MAr+) species, an additional source of possible significant interferences in the spectrum. It describes the application of fs-LA-ICP-MS to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in particulate samples.

  10. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Červenka, R.; Reale, L.; Novotný, J.; Liška, M.; Samek, O.; Kanický, V.; Hrdlička, A.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 μm in a up to cm × cm area of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  11. Trace-Based Microanalytic Measurement of Self-Regulated Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siadaty, Melody; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To keep pace with today's rapidly growing knowledge-driven society, productive self-regulation of one's learning processes are essential. We introduce and discuss a trace-based measurement protocol to measure the effects of scaffolding interventions on self-regulated learning (SRL) processes. It guides tracing of learners' actions in a learning…

  12. Microanalytical X-ray imaging of depleted uranium speciation in environmentally aged munitions residues.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions has resulted in contamination of the near-surface environment with penetrator residues. Uncertainty in the long-term environmental fate of particles produced by impact of DU penetrators with hard targets is a specific concern. In this study DU particles produced in this way and exposed to the surface terrestrial environment for longer than 30 years at a U.K. firing range were characterized using synchrotron X-ray chemical imaging. Two sites were sampled: a surface soil and a disposal area for DU-contaminated wood, and the U speciation was different between the two areas. Surface soil particles showed little extent of alteration, with U speciated as oxides U3O7 and U3O8. Uranium oxidation state and crystalline phase mapping revealed these oxides occur as separate particles, reflecting heterogeneous formation conditions. Particles recovered from the disposal area were substantially weathered, and U(VI) phosphate phases such as meta-ankoleite (K(UO2)(PO4) · 3H2O) were dominant. Chemical imaging revealed domains of contrasting U oxidation state linked to the presence of both U3O7 and meta-ankoleite, indicating growth of a particle alteration layer. This study demonstrates that substantial alteration of DU residues can occur, which directly influences the health and environmental hazards posed by this contamination.

  13. [Lanthanides and microanalysis. Effects of oral administration of two lanthanides: ultrastructural and microanalytical study].

    PubMed

    Fehri, E; Ayadi, A; Boubaker, S; Karray, S; Jaafoura, H; El Hili, A; Galle, P; Tekaya, L

    2005-01-01

    The subcellular localization of cerium and lanthanum in the intestinal mucosa was studied after oral administration of cerium chloride or lanthanum chloride or lanthanum chloride followed 30 minutes after of cerium chloride to young adults Wistar rats. Two methods of observation and microanalysis were used. The transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of dense electron granulations in the lysosmes of the duodenum enterocyte, when these elements were administrated simultaneously. The ion mass microanalysis permits to detect the presence of La and Ce as bright points outlining the intestinal villi. These points correspond to the lysosomes containing the granulations previously described. These granulations are formed by the cerium and the lanthanum associated to the phosphor and forming probably insoluble salts of Ce/La phosphate.

  14. Microanalytical characterization of slagging deposits in a pilot-scale combustor

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.; Harb, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this work was to characterize a set of deposit samples with respect to their compositions, phases present, and morphology. An understanding of how these properties change as a deposit grows is essential to developing a physical picture of deposit behavior, especially transitions in behavior from heterogeneous agglomerations of particles to highly sintered particles, or even a completely homogeneous molten phase that assimilates all impacting particles. Indeed, these deposit properties are of primary importance in determining the effect of deposition on heat transfer through the water wall, and on the removability of the deposit. These properties must be understood and quantified in order to predict deposition behavior.

  15. Microanalytical characterization of slagging deposits in a pilot-scale combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Harb, J.N.; West, J.

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to provide insight into the mechanisms by which phase transformations occur in slogging deposits. An important consideration in such studies is the relevance of the samples to large-scale boiler behavior. Samples for this study were collected in ABB-CE`s Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF), a pilot-scale facility which operates at conditions representative of those found in full-scale units. Samples were cross-sectioned and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy Point Count (SEMPC) techniques. The SEMPC data were combined with image analysis to characterize composition and morphology as a function of position in the deposit. Results show the transition from a particulate inner layer dominated by individual particle chemistry to a more homogeneous and less porous outer layer. This information was combined with FPTF operating conditions to determine the dominant factors in the transition between inner and outer deposit layers, particularly for deposits with molten outer layers. Insight into these issues will assist in the development of deposition models that efficiently and accurately describe the deposition process.

  16. Effects of Lead Pollution on Ammonia Parkinsoniana (Foraminifera): Ultrastructural and Microanalytical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Frontalini, F.; Curzi, D.; Giordano, F.M.; Bernhard, J.M.; Falcieri, E.; Coccioni, R.

    2015-01-01

    The responses of Ammonia parkinsoniana (Foraminifera) exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) were evaluated at the cytological level. Foraminifera-bearing sediments were placed in mesocosms that were housed in aquaria each with seawater of a different lead concentration. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer analyses, it was possible to recognize numerous morphological differences between untreated (i.e., control) and treated (i.e., lead enrichment) specimens. In particular, higher concentrations of this pollutant led to numerical increase of lipid droplets characterized by a more electron-dense core, proliferation of residual bodies, a thickening of the organic lining, mitochondrial degeneration, autophagosome proliferation and the development of inorganic aggregates. All these cytological modifications might be related to the pollutant-induced stress and some of them such as the thickening of organic lining might suggest a potential mechanism of protection adopted by foraminifera. PMID:25820561

  17. Characterization of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Bentonite using Micro-analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, K.; Rowe, R; Jamieson, H; Flemming, R; Lanzirotti, A

    2010-01-01

    In barrier design, familiarity of the structure and composition of the soil material at the micron scale is necessary for delineating the retention mechanisms of introduced metals, such as the formation of new mineral phases. In this study, the mineralogical and chemical makeup of the bentonite from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was extensively characterized using a combination of conventional benchtop X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) with synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) elemental mapping and {mu}XRD (S-{mu}XRD). These methods allow for the non-destructive, in situ investigation of a sample, with {micro}m spatial resolution. Synchrotron-based hard X-ray microprobes are specifically advantageous to the study of trace metals due to higher spatial resolution (<10 {micro}m) and higher analytical sensitivity (femtogram detection) than is possible using normal laboratory-based instruments. Minerals comprising less than 5% of the total bentonite sample such as gypsum, goethite and pyrite were identified that were not accessible by other conventional methods for the same GCL bentonite. Two dimensional General Area Diffraction Detector System (GADDS) images proved to be particularly advantageous in differentiating between the microcrystalline clay, which appeared as homogeneous Debye rings, and the 'spotty' or 'grainy' appearance of primary, more-coarsely-crystalline, accessory minerals. For S-{mu}XRD, the tunability of the synchrotron X-rays allowed for efficient distinction of both clay minerals at low scattering angles and in identifying varying Fe oxide minerals at higher angles. GCL samples permeated with metal-bearing mining solutions were also examined in order to consider how mechanisms of metal attenuation may be identified using the same techniques. In addition to the cation exchange capacity from the montmorillonite clay, tests showed how minerals comprising only 1-2% of the bentonite such as goethite could potentially play a significant role in sequestering a range of metals, specifically Ni, Zn and Cu.

  18. Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: epidemiology and electron probe microanalytical identification of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, M.J.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Shofer, F.S.; Wang, Y.Y.; Somlyo, A.P. )

    1992-10-01

    An increase in fibrosarcomas in a biopsy population of cats in the Pennsylvania area appears to be related to the increased vaccination of cats following enactment of a mandatory rabies vaccination law. The majority of fibrosarcomas arose in sites routinely used by veterinarians for vaccination, and 42 of 198 tumors were surrounded by lymphocytes and macrophages containing foreign material identical to that previously described in postvaccinal inflammatory injection site reactions. Some of the vaccines used have aluminum-based adjuvants, and macrophages surrounding three tumors contained aluminum oxide identified by electron probe microanalysis and imaged by energy-filtered electron microscopy. Persistence of inflammatory and immunological reactions associated with aluminum may predispose the cat to a derangement of its fibrous connective tissue repair response, leading to neoplasia.

  19. Surface microanalytical study on the tribological interface between the sputtered fluoropolymer film and a sliding ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Miyake, Shojiro

    1989-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of high-performance, lubricating sputtered fluoropolymer films rubbed with a stainless-steel ball is investigated using surface analytical methods such as micro-X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Auger-electron spectroscopy, micro-Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, and laser Raman spectroscopy. The perfluorocarbon groups in the sputtered film are increased by introducing oxygen into the plasma. This technique lowers the friction coefficient of the lubricating characteristics. The film is decomposed into amorphous carbon and poorly fluorinated carbon, producing the C■C-rich wear particles. After the decomposed film is worn from the trace, abrasion between the film substrate metals and the sliding ball occurs, and the interface loses its lubricative characteristics owing to the adhesion of the fresh metals. These fresh metals react with the reactive carbon, which is a result of the mechanochemical decomposition of the film, and are oxidized in air.

  20. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  1. Possible site of calcium regulation in rat exocrine pancreas cells: an X-ray microanalytical study

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, N.

    1988-03-01

    We analysed four subcellular compartments in rat exocrine pancreas cells, zymogen granules, cytoplasm surrounding the zymogen granules, mitochondria and cytoplasm in the basal part of the cells for sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium content, using ultrathin frozen-dried cryosections. The highest concentrations of calcium were measured in the zymogen granules and the surrounding apical part of the cell containing Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and condensing vacuoles. Calcium concentrations in the basal part of the cells (mostly rough endoplasmic reticulum) were 60% lower than in the apical part of the cells. The lowest calcium concentrations were measured in mitochondria. The results suggest that other subcellular compartments than the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria might be involved in the intracellular Ca2+ regulation.

  2. Formation of hydrogen peroxide in the silver reductor: A micro-analytical method for iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryling, C.F.; Tooley, F.V.

    1936-01-01

    1. An attempt to determine small quantities of iron by reduction with silver followed by titration with eerie sulfate revealed an error attributable to the formation of hydrogen peroxide in the reductor. 2. By conducting the reduction in an atmosphere of hydrogen, thereby decreasing the reductor correction, and applying a correction for the indicator, it was possible to determine quantities of iron of the order of 1.5 mg. with a high degree of accuracy. 3. The method was found to be relatively rapid and not to require the use of large platinum dishes, thus possessing advantages of practical value.

  3. Measurement of volatile concentrations in volcanic glasses using thermogravimetric analysis: comparison with micro-analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; Owen, J.; Applegarth, L. J.

    2012-04-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) is potentially a powerful tool for measurement of multi-species volatile concentrations in volcanic rock samples and characterisation of degassing patterns that relate to volatile speciation. Simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provides information on thermal transformations such as crystallisation or melting. However no study has addressed whether the TGA technique can be used to quantify water speciation or separate water from other volatile species such as halogens. We have carried out TGA-DSC-MS experiments on a suite of compositionally homogeneous, variably-degassed rhyolitic obsidian samples from Blahnukur, Torfajökull, Iceland[1]. Sample water contents, as measured by infra-red spectroscopy, range from 0.19-0.81 wt %; F and Cl concentrations, measured using electron microprobe, range from 0.26-0.35 and 0.18-0.22 wt % respectively. Other volatile species concentrations (e.g. CO2, S) were beneath detection limits. The TGA results show an excellent correlation between the total volatile content measured using TGA (TVCTGA) and the total volatile content (H2OT + F + Cl) measured by other techniques (TVCTGA = 0.992TVCFTIR,EPMA, with R2 = 0.94). This shows that both water and halogen species are degassed during TGA measurements, even though halogen species are not detected through MS analyses. Patterns of volatile release indicate a link between water speciation, as measured using FTIR, and the temperature of degassing, and allow identification of hydrated samples. There are strong correlations between TGA weight loss over the 250-550 ° C interval and [H2Om] concentration, and between weight loss >550 ° C and the -OH content. The total volatile loss above 550 ° C far exceeds -OH concentrations alone (TGA>550 = 1.9126 [-OH] + 0.1693), but closely matches the sum of -OH, F and Cl in glasses, with TGA>550= 1.02 [-OH+F+Cl]. This indicates that halogen release occurs at high temperatures and accompanies -OH degassing. Simple models of diffusive degassing of powdered TGA samples corroborate the measured dTG profiles and illustrate that high-T temperature degassing (>1000 ° C) cannot be dominated by water species. The temperature of maximum degassing rate (dTGA peak) consistently occurs ~10 ° C higher than the onset of an endotherm attributed to melting. This indicates that melting and the onset of volatile advection play an important role in controlling the rate of volatile release, together with temperature-dependent diffusivity. The results show that TGA indeed provides useful quantitative and qualitative information about the concentration and speciation of volatiles in volcanic glasses. However independent measurement of halogen concentrations is essential, especially for degassed samples, where the concentration of halogen species may greatly exceed that of water. [1] Owen, J. et al, Bull. Volcanol., in revision.

  4. Exploring Clinical Reasoning in Novices: A Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-05

    5(3257𔃼&80(17$7,213$*( )RUP$SSURYHG 20%1R 5(3257’$7( ’󈧄<<<< 5(32577ɛ( 7,7/($1󈨈%7,7/( D &2175$&7180%(5...180%(5 2) 3$*(6 D 1$0(2)5(63216,%/(3(5621 D 5(3257 E$%675$&7 F7+,63$*( /,0,7$7,212) $%675$&7 6WDQGDUG)RUP...RWKHUSURYLVLRQRIODZQRSHUVRQVKDOOEH VXEMHFWWRDQ\\SHQDOW\\IRUIDLOLQJWRFRPSO\\ZLWK D FROOHFWLRQRILQIRUPDWLRQLILWGRHVQRWGLVSOD\\ D

  5. Histopathological and microanalytical study of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in bone cement.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, C. E.; Philip, G.; Brady, K.; Spencer, J. D.; Levison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To report the appearances of zirconium dioxide and barium sulphate in interface membranes, synovium, and other tissues around joint prostheses. METHODS: Histological sections from 23 specimens were reviewed by light microscopy and polarisation. Scanning electron microscopy and x ray microanalysis were performed on routinely processed paraffin wax sections. RESULTS: Polyethylene, metals, and polymethylmethacrylate cement debris were easily recognisable. Almost all the cement remnants contained either zirconium dioxide or barium sulphate, confirmed by microanalysis. The contrast media had characteristic light microscopic appearances. Zirconium was identified in macrophages away from cement remnants. CONCLUSION: The presence of radiographic contrast media in tissues around prosthetic joints is common but not widely recognised. Images PMID:1452794

  6. Microanalytical identification of barium sulphate crystals in statoliths of Chara Rhizoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeter, K.; Lauchli, A.; Sievers, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, Chara rhizoids contain statolith vacuoles filled with biocrystallites of BaS04 in the form of rods composed of globular subunits ca. 7 nm in diameter. The revelation of the crystallites under electron microscopy is dependent on the fixative; best structural preservation was observed after fixation in a buffered glutaraldehyde + acrolein solution; 0s04 and KMnO4 partially dissolved both the biocrystallites and synthetic BaS04.

  7. Unmasking the measles-like parchment discoloration: molecular and microanalytical approach

    PubMed Central

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Many ancient parchments are defaced by red or purple maculae associated with localized destruction of collagen fibres. Although the main characteristics of this damage were present in most of the manuscripts analysed by many authors, no common microbial or fungal denominator has been found so far, and little or no correspondence between the microbial or fungal species isolated from materials could be addressed. In this study, culture-independent molecular methods and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to identify fungal and bacterial communities on parchments affected by the purple stains. Protocols for c extraction and nucleic-acid-based strategies were selected for assays examining the community structure of fungi and bacteria on biodeteriorated parchment. Both SEM and molecular analysis detected the presence of bacterial and fungal cells in the damaged areas. Halophilic, halotolerant proteolytic bacterial species were selected by the saline environment provided by the parchment samples. As common microbial denominators, members of the Actinobacteria, mainly Saccharopolyspora spp. and species of Aspergillus, were detected in all investigated cases. It is proposed that a relationship exists between the phenomenon of purple spots on ancient parchments and that of the ‘red heat’ phenomenon, known to be present in some products manufactured with marine salt. PMID:24684276

  8. Photochemically patterned poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces used in the fabrication of microanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Wei, Suying; Vaidya, Bikas; Patel, Ami B; Soper, Steven A; McCarley, Robin L

    2005-09-08

    We report here the photochemical surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, microfluidic devices by UV light to yield pendant carboxylic acid surface moieties. Patterns of carboxylic acid sites can be formed from the micrometer to millimeter scale by exposure of PMMA through a contact mask, and the chemical patterns allow for further functionalization of PMMA microdevice surfaces to yield arrays or other structured architectures. Demonstrated here is the relationship between UV exposure time and PMMA surface wettability, topography, surface functional group density, and electroosmotic flow (EOF) of aqueous buffer solutions in microchannels made of PMMA. It is found that the water contact angle on PMMA surfaces decreases from 70 degrees to 24 degrees after exposure to UV light as the result of the formation of carboxylic acid sites. However, upon rinsing with 2-propanol, the water contact angle increases to approximately 80 degrees , and this increase is attributed to changes in surface roughness resulting from removal of low molecular weight PMMA formed from scission events. In addition, the surface roughness and surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups exhibit a characteristic trend with UV exposure time. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in PMMA microchannels increases upon UV modification and is pH dependent. The possible photolysis mechanism for formation of carboxylic acid groups on PMMA surfaces under the conditions outlined in this work is discussed.

  9. Micro-analytical evidence of origin and degradation of copper pigments found in Bohemian Gothic murals.

    PubMed

    Svarcová, Silvie; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Kocí, Eva; Bezdicka, Petr

    2009-12-01

    Correct identification of pigments and all accompanying phases found in colour layers of historical paintings are relevant for searching their origin and pigment preparation pathways and for specification of their further degradation processes. We successfully applied the analytical route combining non-destructive in situ X-ray fluorescence analyses with subsequent laboratory investigation of micro-samples by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray powder micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) to obtain efficiently all the data relevant for mineralogical interpretations of the copper pigments origin. Cu salts (carbonates, chlorides, sulphates, etc.) used as pigments exist in a range of polymorphs with similar or identical composition. The efficiency of the micro-XRD for direct identification of such crystal phases present in micro-samples of colour layers was demonstrated in the presented paper. A new, until now unpublished, type of copper pigment--cumengeite, Pb(21)Cu(20)Cl(42)(OH)(40)--used as a blue pigment on a sacral wall painting in the Czech Republic was found by means of micro-XRD. Furthermore, azurite, malachite, paratacamite, atacamite and posnjakite were identified in fragments of colour layers of selected Gothic wall paintings. We found Cu-Zn arsenates indicating the natural origin of azurite and malachite; artificial malachite was distinguishable according to its typical spherulitic crystals. The corrosion of blue azurite to green basic Cu chloride was clearly evidenced on some places exposed to the action of salts and moisture-in a good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments, which also show that oxalic acid accelerates the corrosion of Cu pigments.

  10. Imaging of uranium on rat brain sections using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a new tool for the study of critical substructures affined to heavy metals in tissues.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    The specific toxicity of trace metals and compounds largely depends on their bioavailability in different organs or compartments of the organism considered. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with a spatial resolution in the 100 microm range was developed and employed to study heavy metal distribution in brain tissues for toxicological screening. Rat brain post-mortem tissues were stained in an aqueous solution of either uranium or neodymium (metal concentration 100 microg g(-1)) for 3 h. The incubation of heavy metal in thin slices of brain tissue is followed by an imaging mass spectrometric LA-ICP-MS technique. Stained rat brain tissue (thickness 30 microm) were scanned with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 100 microm and laser power density 3 x 10(9) W cm(-2)). The ion intensities of (235)U(+), (238)U(+), (145)Nd(+) and (146)Nd(+) were measured by LA-ICP-MS within the ablated area. For quantification purposes, matrix-matched laboratory standards were prepared by dosing each analyte to the pieces of homogenized brain tissue. Imaging LA-ICP-MS allows structures of interest to be identified and the relevant dose range to be estimated.

  11. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  12. [Progress in combination of gel electrophoresis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for trace elements determination in proteins].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Yan-li; Yuan, Hong-lin; Wei, Yong-feng; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Hui-hui

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become a very efficient and sensitive trace, ultratrace, and surface analytical technique for the in situ study of the concentration and distribution of the elements in life sciences with high spatial resolution. It is being used more and more frequently in biological, medical materials and protein research, which will lead to a better understanding of physiology and pathology process in cells and tissues. The present review mainly introduces the strategies of combination of gel electrophoresis (GE) with LA-ICP-MS for the quantification of trace elements in proteins, including the proteins separation, elements detection and calibration methods. The paper emphasizes the basic conditions of the proteins separation, focusing on the stability of proteins during GE and the treatment methods of staining and drying of the gel to enable successful detection of the elements by LA-ICP-MS. In addition, the application of GE-LA-ICP-MS in phosphoproteins, selenoproteins and metal-binding proteins is introduced in detail. The prospects and challenge for this technique are discussed as well for further study.

  13. The source of Witwatersrand gold: evidence from uraninite chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Emsbo, Poul; Koenig, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study of different generations of uraninite from the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand gold palaeoplacer deposits revealed unusually high Au concentrations in rounded, detrital uraninite grains but no detectable Au in secondary, hydrothermally mobilised uraninite. A Au-enriched uraninite-bearing magmatic host is suggested as a significant source for detrital gold in the Witwatersrand sediments.

  14. DURIP - Acquisition of an Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer with Laser Ablation Source for Surface Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-24

    allows low interference which reduces common polyatomic interferences on As, Se, Cr, V and Fe, thus achieving lower detection limits in the plasma...Formerly Varian) 820 ICP-MS Ion Optics Soft Landed Hf on Si SEM Image of ablation track 178Hf LA-ICP-MS transient signals showing spatially resolved Hf on surface (left) and in defects (right)

  15. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-02

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented.

  16. Fluid inclusion chemistry of adularia-sericite epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the southern Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Mark P.; Strmic Palinkas, Sabina; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS analyses show that in some cases different fluid inclusion assemblages (FIAs) within a single sample trapped fluids with variable chemistries. These differences likely reflect modification of a single parent fluid through mineral dissolution and precipitation, water/rock interactions, boiling and vapor loss, conductive cooling, and mixing.

  17. Trace Element Abundances in Extraterrestrial Apatite and Merrillite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Bischoff, A.; Roszjar, J.; Berndt, J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The trace element abundances (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, as well as the REE) of 133 apatite and 163 merrillite grains from 24 meteorites, covering 9 different classes were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS.

  18. Trace Element Data help Understanding the Origin of Lake Bosumtwi Crater Related Glass (Ivory Coast Tektites, Microtektites, Fall-Back Particles, Suevite Glass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Berndt, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report for the four internally rather homogeneous groups of glass (IVC, IVC-MT, BOT 12 [suevite], FBG) concentrations of major and 42 minor elements (in-situ data with LA-ICP-MS) as well as Sr-Nd, and DEGAS data.

  19. Biomonitoring of essential and toxic metals in single hair using on-line solution-based calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Valderi L; Pozebon, Dirce; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Matusch, Andreas; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, B; Sabine Becker, J

    2010-10-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful and sensitive surface analytical technique for the determination of concentration and distribution of trace metals within biological systems at micrometer spatial resolution. LA-ICP-MS allows easy quantification procedures if suitable standard references materials (SRM) are available. In this work a new SRM-free approach of solution-based calibration method in LA-ICP-MS for element quantification in hair is described. A dual argon flow of the carrier gas and nebulizer gas is used. A dry aerosol produced by laser ablation (LA) of biological sample and a desolvated aerosol generated by pneumatic nebulization (PN) of standard solutions are carried by two different flows of argon as carrier or nebulizer gas, respectively and introduced separately in the injector tube of a special ICP torch, through two separated apertures. Both argon flows are mixed directly in the ICP torch. External calibration via defined standard solutions before analysis of single hair was employed as calibration strategy. A correction factor, calculated using hair with known analyte concentration (measured by ICP-MS), is applied to correct the different elemental sensitivities of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS. Calibration curves are obtained by plotting the ratio of analyte ion M(+)/(34)S(+) ion intensities measured using LA-ICP-MS in dependence of analyte concentration in calibration solutions. Matrix-matched on-line calibration in LA-ICP-MS is carried out by ablating of human hair strands (mounted on a sticky tape in the LA chamber) using a focused laser beam in parallel with conventional nebulization of calibration solutions. Calibrations curves of Li, Na, Mg, Al, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Tl, Bi and U are presented. The linear correlation coefficients (R) of calibration curves for analytes were typically between 0.97 and 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of

  20. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ.