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Sample records for la-icp-ms microanalytical workstation

  1. Element Distribution in Allende Determined by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wombacher, F.; Funk, C.; Frick, D. A.; Koch, J.; Günther, D.

    2016-08-01

    A novel LA-ICP-MS method has been developed in order to evaluate elemental distributions of 26 major and trace elements in chondritic meteorites. A reconnaissance study on a section from the Allende chondrite is presented.

  2. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. LIBS and LA-ICP-MS; Old techniques, new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Colucci, M.; Russo, R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade laser ablation in-situ solid sampling for chemical analysis with an ICP-MS analyzer (LA-ICP-MS, single and multi-collector) has become a generally accepted technique across a wide range of disciplines (geochemistry, forensic science, life sciences, etc). More recently, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) has developed into a complementary technique that offers full spectral analysis of the laser plasma without the need for a mass spectrometer. Both techniques provide in-situ solid sample elemental and isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution (<5 microns) with minimal sample preparation. LA-ICP-MS affords the analyst low detection limits (ppb) and the ability to optimize across a specific mass range for high precision element or isotope ratios. LIBS, while providing slightly higher detection limits (ppm), allows for simultaneous and near complete spectral coverage of the laser plasma. Both techniques are capable of producing semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Integration of a LA and LIBS system could be a powerful tool to allow full spectral element and isotope/element ratio data on the same laser plume (plasma and particulates). Although LIBS and LA typically operate under different conditions of pulse length, spot size, and energy, the ability to capture elemental abundance information from the light that is otherwise wasted during LA makes an important complement to the limited number of ions measured in multi-collector ICP-MS analyses. Such an approach would not require the compromises in sampled volume associated with either split-streams (two ICP-MS systems required; diluted aerosol streams) or with peak switching in the MS (magnetic or electrostatic) because extraction of light-based information does not impact the number of ions measured for isotope ratios. We present LIBS experiments with UV-nanosecond lasers at 17mJ energies delivered to spot sizes of <100 μm and light directed to an ICCD detection system on NIST

  4. Petrogenesis of Augite-bearing Ureilites: A LA-ICP-MS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Humayun, M.; Downes, H.; Singletary, S.; van Orman, J. A.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    Major, minor and trace elements have been determined on silicate minerals from ureilites LAR 04315, North Haig and FRO 93008 using LA-ICP-MS. The element compositions in ureilite minerals are consistent with ureilites being melting/smelting restites from a spinel peridotite.

  5. Elemental Analysis and Comparison of Bulk Soil Using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, J.

    2012-04-01

    Elemental analysis methods utilizing Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were developed and used in the characterization of soil samples from the US and Canada as part of a comprehensive forensic evaluation of soils. A LA-ICP-MS method was recently optimized for analysis and comparison between different soil samples in an environmental forensic application [1,2] and LIBS has recently attracted the interest of analytical chemists and forensic laboratories as a simpler, lower cost alternative to the more established analytical methods. In developing a LIBS method, there are many parameters to consider, including laser wavelength, spectral resolution, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The first LIBS method using a 266 nm laser for forensic soil analysis has also been recently reported by our group [3]. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison involving thirteen (13) laboratories conducting bulk elemental analysis by various methods are also reported. The aims of the inter-laboratory tests were: a) to evaluate the inter-laboratory performance of three methods (LA-ICP-MS, µXRF and LIBS) in terms of accuracy (bias), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) and sensitivity using standard reference materials (SRMs); b) to evaluate the newly released NIST SRM 2710a, which supersedes 2710; and c) to evaluate the utility of LIBS as an alternative technique to LA-ICP-MS and µXRF for bulk analysis of soils. Each sample and standard was homogenized in a high-speed ball mill and pressed into pellets. Participants were instructed to measure the following elements: 7Li, 25Mg, 27Al, 42Ca, 45Sc, 47,49Ti, 51V, 55Mn, 88Sr, 137Ba, 206,207,208 Pb (LA-ICP-MS); Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb (µXRF); Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zr (LIBS). For both LIBS and µXRF, the choice of appropriate spectral lines was determined by the user, optimizing for linearity, sensitivity and precision

  6. Geochemical applications of the tandem LA-ICP-MS/LIBS analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitreau, M.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Mukasa, S. B.; Colucci, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Improvements in Laser Ablation for material sampling over the past few decades have led to the emergence of several applications of this in-situ technique to some important geochemical measurements. The technique is commonly used for both elemental [1] and isotopic analyses [2], and has multiple advantages compared to dissolution techniques, notably higher spatial resolution, easier and faster sample preparation, and for many applications a non-destructive method. A significant advantage of this technique in geochemistry is full characterization of a sample (e.g., glass or mineral) using a single spot of limited size (i.e., 20-80 μm) to eliminate or minimize complexities due to potential chemical zonations. Major advancement is being realized in the analysis of volcanic glasses for their elemental and volatile concentrations as well as zircon elemental and U-Pb isotopic compositions using a new approach that combines the capabilities of the two most common laser ablation modalities; LA-ICP-MS/LIBS, which stands for Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. LIBS is based on direct measurement of the optical emission originating from the laser-induced plasma [3] whereas LA-ICP-MS involves transport and excitation of the ablated aerosol to a secondary source (ICP), before entering a mass spectrometer [4]. Analysis by these two techniques can complement each other quite well, as every laser pulse for ablation provides the optical plasma for emission spectroscopy and particles for ICP mass spectrometry. We will present data demonstrating that rare-earth element (REE) concentrations can be determined using LIBS in both zircon and volcanic glasses. In addition, we have promising, provisional hydrogen concentration data measured concurrently with the REE in volcanic glasses, which is not possible using only LA-ICP-MS.

  7. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  8. The Approach to Reducing the Detection Limit for LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Torbotryas, R.

    This work is a part of the RED-100 big project. The aim of the RED-100 experiment is to detect the presently undiscovered coherent neutrino scattering off xenon atomic nuclei. The manufacture of such detectors requires ultrapure materials with very low content of natural radioactive elements. So the pure titanium was selected to assay the uranium and thorium contaminations on 1 ng/g level. In this paper we investigate the possibility of reducing the LOD for LA-ICP-MS analysis by increasing the pulse repetition rate of solid-state laser irradiation up to 4,000 Hz and appropriate adjusting the irradiation power. LODs for U and Th in titanium matrix estimation fell in the sub 10-10 g g- 1 level.

  9. Online Standard Additions Technique for La-ICP-MS Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Asogan, D.; Moody, S.; Clarke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, quantification with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited to the ability to matrix match both standards and samples. This can prove problematic when a particular matrix matched standard is not readily available. Liquid standard addition has been shown1-4 as an alternative technique for quantification that does not require matrix matching; however, further fundamental study is needed especially considering the different mass flow rates delivered to the plasma from traditional pneumatic nebulizers and laser ablation itself. In this work, the authors combine a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system with LA-ICP-MS. This nebulizer system efficiently removes water vapour, thereby significantly reducing oxide based mass spectral interferences. For the instrument setup, the output from the laser is combined with the dried aerosol from the nebulizer system prior to entering the ICP-MS source. By using two sources of dry aerosol, mixing efficiency is improved whilst minimising plasma power lost to solvent (water vapour) processing. The method was applied to both USGS Green River Shale and an Arkansas Womble Shale. The results showed a number of elements that were correctly quantified using the technique as compared to reference values. References Gunther, D., Cousin, H., Magyar, B., Leopold, I., J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 1997, 12, 165 - 170. Leach, J.J., Allen, L. A., Aeschliman, D.B., Houk, R.S., Anal. Chem., 1999, 71, 440 - 445. O'Conner, C.J.P., Sharp, B.L, Evans, P.J., Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2006, 21, 556. Yang, C.K., Chi, P.H., Lin, Y.C., Sun, Y.C., Yang, M.H., Talanta, 2010, 80, 1222 - 1227.

  10. Recent advances in quantitative LA-ICP-MS analysis: challenges and solutions in the life sciences and environmental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Limbeck, Andreas; Galler, Patrick; Bonta, Maximilian; Bauer, Gerald; Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a widely accepted method for direct sampling of solid materials for trace elemental analysis. The number of reported applications is high and the application range is broad; besides geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS is mostly used in environmental chemistry and the life sciences. This review focuses on the application of LA-ICP-MS for quantification of trace elements in environmental, biological, and medical samples. The fundamental problems of LA-ICP-MS, such as sample-dependent ablation behavior and elemental fractionation, can be even more pronounced in environmental and life science applications as a result of the large variety of sample types and conditions. Besides variations in composition, the range of available sample states is highly diverse, including powders (e.g., soil samples, fly ash), hard tissues (e.g., bones, teeth), soft tissues (e.g., plants, tissue thin-cuts), or liquid samples (e.g., whole blood). Within this article, quantification approaches that have been proposed in the past are critically discussed and compared regarding the results obtained in the applications described. Although a large variety of sample types is discussed within this article, the quantification approaches used are similar for many analytical questions and have only been adapted to the specific questions. Nevertheless, none of them has proven to be a universally applicable method.

  11. LA-ICP-MS as Tool for Provenance Analyses in Arctic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildau, Antje; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The hydraulic transport of sediments is a major geological process in terrestrial and marine systems and is responsible for the loss, redistribution and accumulation of minerals. Provenance analyses are a powerful tool for assessing the origin and dispersion of material in ancient and modern fluvial and marine sediments. Provenance-specific heavy minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile, tourmaline) can therefore be used to provide valuable information on the formation of ore deposits (placer deposits), and the reconstruction of paleogeography, hydrology, climate conditions and developments. The application of provenances analyses for the latter reason is of specific interest, since there is need for research on the progressing climate change, and heavy minerals represent good proxies for the evaluation of recent and past changes in the climate. The study of these fine particles provides information about potential regional or long distance transport paths, glacial / ice drift and current flows, freezing and melting events as well as depositional centers for the released sediments. Classic methods applied for provenance analyses are mapping of the presence / absence of diagnostic minerals, their grain size distribution, modal mineralogy and the analysis of variations in ratio of two or more heavy minerals. Electron microprobe has been established to discover changes in mineral chemistry of individual mineral phases, which can indicate fluctuations or differences in the provenance. All these methods bear the potential of high errors that lower the validity of the provenance analyses. These are for example the misclassification of mineral species due to undistinguishable optical properties or the limitations in the detection / variations of trace elements using the election microprobe. For this case study, marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean have been selected to test if LA-ICP-MS can be established as a key technique for precise and reliable provenance analyses. The Laptev

  12. Apatite fission track dating by LA-ICP-MS and External Detector Method: How do they stack up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of trace element compositions by laser ablation ICP-MS has become a widely used tool to determine in-situ ages in geochronology. Although used primarily for U-Pb dating, LA-ICP-MS has been successfully adapted to other dating techniques such as apatite fission track (Hasebe et al., 2004) or (U-Th)/He (Boyce et al., 2006), making it an ideal tool for multi-system thermochronological studies. LA-ICP-MS fission track dating has several important advantages over the traditional external detector method (EDM), particularly in terms of sample turn-around time and the fact that neutron irradiations (and the handling of radioactive materials) are no longer necessary, while providing a similar level of in-situ information. Perhaps the most important benefits of LA-ICP-MS fission track dating is that it could potentially be used as an absolute dating technique with no Zeta-calibration necessary. However, beyond the initial study of Hasebe et al. (2004), little work has been done to compare results obtained by LA-ICP-MS with those from EDM analysis, and it remains unclear whether the two methods yield equivalent results. We present an extensive dataset of fission track results that were analysed using both LA-ICP-MS and EDM dating. The samples were selected to represent a variety of compositions, with single grain ages ranging from a few million to over a billion years. Both techniques were applied on identical grains, thereby eliminating uncertainties associated with natural variability. The comparison shows that, with a few exceptions, single grain fission track ages from LA-ICP-MS and EDM are concordant within analytical uncertainties and scatter symmetrically around the 1:1 correlation line. Although the relative difference in single grain ages varies significantly in either direction (up to 70%), there are no systematic variations between the two methods suggesting that this variation is simply due to random sampling effects. However, we did find systematic

  13. Elemental bioimaging of Cisplatin in Caenorhabditis elegans by LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Barbara; Aschner, Michael; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Karst, Uwe; Bornhorst, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (Cisplatin) is one of the most important and frequently used cytostatic drugs for the treatment of various solid tumors. Herein, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method incorporating a fast and simple sample preparation protocol was developed for the elemental mapping of Cisplatin in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The method allows imaging of the spatially-resolved elemental distribution of platinum in the whole organism with respect to the anatomic structure in L4 stage worms at a lateral resolution of 5 µm. In addition, a dose- and time-dependent Cisplatin uptake was corroborated quantitatively by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) method, and the elemental mapping indicated that Cisplatin is located in the intestine and in the head of the worms. Better understanding of the distribution of Cisplatin in this well-established model organism will be instrumental in deciphering Cisplatin toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Since the cytostatic effect of Cisplatin is based on binding the DNA by forming intra- and interstrand crosslinks, the response of poly(ADP-ribose)metabolism enzyme 1 (pme-1) deletion mutants to Cisplatin was also examined. Loss of pme-1, which is the C. elegans ortholog of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) led to disturbed DNA damage response. With respect to survival and brood size, pme-1 deletion mutants were more sensitive to Cisplatin as compared to wildtype worms, while Cisplatin uptake was indistinguishable. PMID:25996669

  14. LA-ICP-MS for Pu source identification at Mayak PA, the Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Cagno, S; Hellemans, K; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

    2014-02-01

    Information on Pu in environmental samples is traditionally based on the determination of the (240+239)Pu activity via Alpha Spectrometry (AS). A large number of alpha spectrometry sources (planchettes) containing radiochemically separated Pu are therefore stored worldwide and are available for further analyses. These archive samples represent a resource from which valuable information on isotopic composition of alpha emitters including Pu can be obtained. The relative abundances of Pu isotopes can be used to trace specific Pu sources and characterize the relative contributions of different Pu sources in a sample. Thus, in addition to the total (239+240)Pu activity, determination of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio can provide valuable information on the nature of the Pu emitting sources. The Pu isotopic ratios can be determined by mass spectrometry techniques such as Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) or Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) that require dissolution and complete destruction of the material deposited on the planchettes. In this study Laser Ablation (LA)-quadrupole-ICP-MS has been employed for the analysis of (239)Pu/(240)Pu ratios from alpha-planchettes prepared from samples originating from the Mayak PA nuclear facility, Russia. The results are compared with data from AMS and show that the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios obtained by LA-ICP-MS can be utilized to distinguish weapons-grade Pu from civil reprocessing sources. Moreover, isotope ratio mapping can also be performed across the planchettes, allowing e.g. the visualization of possible inhomogeneities in the Pu-isotope distribution on their surface. Thus, this solid sample technique can be applied to extract additional information from existing archives of samples. PMID:24424783

  15. Sorption of Eu(III) on granite: EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, batch and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Maeda, Koushi; Aoi, Yusuke; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Aosai, Daisuke; Mizuno, Takashi

    2013-11-19

    Eu(III) sorption on granite was assessed using combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches in neutral to acidic conditions where the mobility of Eu(III) is generally considered to be high. Polished thin sections of the granite were reacted with solutions containing 10 μM of Eu(III) and were analyzed using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. On most of the biotite grains, Eu enrichment up to 6 wt % was observed. The Eu-enriched parts of biotite commonly lose K, which is the interlayer cation of biotite, indicating that the sorption mode of Eu(III) by the biotite is cation exchange in the interlayer. The distributions of Eu appeared along the original cracks of the biotite. Those occurrences indicate that the prior water-rock interaction along the cracks engendered modification of biotite to possess affinity to the Eu(III). Batch Eu(III) sorption experiments on granite and biotite powders were conducted as functions of pH, Eu(III) loading, and ionic strength. The macroscopic sorption behavior of biotite was consistent with that of granite. At pH > 4, there was little pH dependence but strong ionic strength dependence of Eu(III) sorption. At pH < 4, the sorption of Eu(III) abruptly decreased with decreased pH. The sorption behavior at pH > 4 was reproducible reasonably by the modeling considering single-site cation exchange reactions. The decrease of Eu(III) sorption at pH < 4 was explained by the occupation of exchangeable sites by dissolved cationic species such as Al and Fe from granite and biotite in low-pH conditions. Granites are complex mineral assemblages. However, the combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches revealed that elementary reactions by a single mineral phase can be representative of the bulk sorption reaction in complex mineral assemblages. PMID:24171426

  16. Sorption of Eu(III) on granite: EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, batch and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Maeda, Koushi; Aoi, Yusuke; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Aosai, Daisuke; Mizuno, Takashi

    2013-11-19

    Eu(III) sorption on granite was assessed using combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches in neutral to acidic conditions where the mobility of Eu(III) is generally considered to be high. Polished thin sections of the granite were reacted with solutions containing 10 μM of Eu(III) and were analyzed using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. On most of the biotite grains, Eu enrichment up to 6 wt % was observed. The Eu-enriched parts of biotite commonly lose K, which is the interlayer cation of biotite, indicating that the sorption mode of Eu(III) by the biotite is cation exchange in the interlayer. The distributions of Eu appeared along the original cracks of the biotite. Those occurrences indicate that the prior water-rock interaction along the cracks engendered modification of biotite to possess affinity to the Eu(III). Batch Eu(III) sorption experiments on granite and biotite powders were conducted as functions of pH, Eu(III) loading, and ionic strength. The macroscopic sorption behavior of biotite was consistent with that of granite. At pH > 4, there was little pH dependence but strong ionic strength dependence of Eu(III) sorption. At pH < 4, the sorption of Eu(III) abruptly decreased with decreased pH. The sorption behavior at pH > 4 was reproducible reasonably by the modeling considering single-site cation exchange reactions. The decrease of Eu(III) sorption at pH < 4 was explained by the occupation of exchangeable sites by dissolved cationic species such as Al and Fe from granite and biotite in low-pH conditions. Granites are complex mineral assemblages. However, the combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches revealed that elementary reactions by a single mineral phase can be representative of the bulk sorption reaction in complex mineral assemblages.

  17. LA-ICP-MS for Pu source identification at Mayak PA, the Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Cagno, S; Hellemans, K; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

    2014-02-01

    Information on Pu in environmental samples is traditionally based on the determination of the (240+239)Pu activity via Alpha Spectrometry (AS). A large number of alpha spectrometry sources (planchettes) containing radiochemically separated Pu are therefore stored worldwide and are available for further analyses. These archive samples represent a resource from which valuable information on isotopic composition of alpha emitters including Pu can be obtained. The relative abundances of Pu isotopes can be used to trace specific Pu sources and characterize the relative contributions of different Pu sources in a sample. Thus, in addition to the total (239+240)Pu activity, determination of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio can provide valuable information on the nature of the Pu emitting sources. The Pu isotopic ratios can be determined by mass spectrometry techniques such as Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) or Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) that require dissolution and complete destruction of the material deposited on the planchettes. In this study Laser Ablation (LA)-quadrupole-ICP-MS has been employed for the analysis of (239)Pu/(240)Pu ratios from alpha-planchettes prepared from samples originating from the Mayak PA nuclear facility, Russia. The results are compared with data from AMS and show that the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios obtained by LA-ICP-MS can be utilized to distinguish weapons-grade Pu from civil reprocessing sources. Moreover, isotope ratio mapping can also be performed across the planchettes, allowing e.g. the visualization of possible inhomogeneities in the Pu-isotope distribution on their surface. Thus, this solid sample technique can be applied to extract additional information from existing archives of samples.

  18. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus A G; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g(-1) of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of (13)C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with (13)C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when (13)C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO3 (v v(-1)) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g(-1). Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried aqueous

  19. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus A G; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g(-1) of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of (13)C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with (13)C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when (13)C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO3 (v v(-1)) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g(-1). Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried aqueous

  20. Major to ultra trace element bulk rock analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Daniel; Pettke, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    An efficient, clean procedure for bulk rock major to trace element analysis by 193 nm Excimer LA-ICP-MS analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets (PPPs) employing a binder is presented. Sample powders are milled in water suspension in a planetary ball mill, reducing average grain size by about one order of magnitude compared to common dry milling protocols. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is employed as a binder, improving the mechanical strength of the PPP and the ablation behaviour, because MCC absorbs 193 nm laser light well. Use of MCC binder allows for producing cohesive pellets of materials that cannot be pelletized in their pure forms, such as quartz powder. Rigorous blank quantification was performed on synthetic quartz treated like rock samples, demonstrating that procedural blanks are irrelevant except for a few elements at the 10 ng g-1 concentration level. The LA-ICP-MS PPP analytical procedure was optimised and evaluated using six different SRM powders (JP-1, UB-N, BCR-2, GSP-2, OKUM, and MUH-1). Calibration based on external standardization using SRM 610, SRM 612, BCR-2G, and GSD-1G glasses allows for evaluation of possible matrix effects during LA-ICP-MS analysis. The data accuracy of the PPP LA-ICP-MS analytical procedure compares well to that achieved for liquid ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS glass analysis, except for element concentrations below ˜30 ng g-1, where liquid ICP-MS offers more precise data and in part lower limits of detection. Uncertainties on the external reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS PPP element concentrations are of the order of 0.5 to 2 % (1σ standard deviation) for concentrations exceeding ˜1 μg g-1. For lower element concentrations these uncertainties increase to 5-10% or higher when analyte-depending limits of detection (LOD) are approached, and LODs do not significantly differ from glass analysis. Sample homogeneity is demonstrated by the high analytical precision, except for very few elements where grain size effects can

  1. Ionic gold in calcrete revealed by LA-ICP-MS, SXRF and XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Lintern, Melvyn J.; Hough, Robert M.; Ryan, Chris G.; Watling, John; Verrall, Michael

    2009-04-02

    Highly anomalous Au concentrations in calcrete were discovered in 1987 at the Bounty Gold Deposit, Western Australia. A strong correlation was noted between the Ca, Mg, Sr and Au in soil profiles which have not only attracted the interest of mineral explorers but also chemists, soil scientists, metallurgists and climatologists. Gold has been considered an inert element and so its strong association with the alkaline earth group of relatively mobile elements is both remarkable and intriguing. Despite widespread interest, there have been few published papers on the Au-calcrete phenomenon. Here, we present work conducted on calcareous soil samples from above the Bounty mineralization in Western Australia, prior to mining. Using SXRF (synchrotron X-ray fluorescence) and XANES (micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure), we have shown for the first time the distribution of Au in calcrete and that it occurs in both particulate and ionic form. Much of the ionic Au associated with Br is found in a root tubule. The observations are consistent with an evapotranspiration model for the formation of Au in the calcrete; Au has been mobilized then precipitated as vadose water has been removed from the soil by trees and shrubs. While the association between Au and Ca is very strong in bulk sample analyses down the soil profile, other detailed analyses on sub-samples using wet chemical, LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry) and SXRF techniques show that it is not apparent at the sub-millimeter scale. This suggests that the Au and Ca are behaving similarly but independently and they do not (at the {micro}m scale) co-precipitate with carbonate minerals. These results corroborate other studies that suggest biotic influences can affect the mobilization and distribution of Au in surficial materials. Water-extractable Au in calcrete has been reported previously and the ionic Au described in this study likely represents that soluble component. The presence of

  2. Formation of a magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposit: insights with LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions

    PubMed

    Audetat; Gunther; Heinrich

    1998-03-27

    The physical and chemical mechanism of ore precipitation in the Yankee Lode tin deposit (Mole Granite, Australia) was quantified by direct trace-element microanalysis of fluid inclusions. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure element concentrations in a series of fluid inclusions representing the fluid before, during, and after the deposition of cassiterite (SnO2). Tin precipitation was driven by mixing of hot magmatic brine with cooler meteoric water. At the same time, a separate magmatic vapor phase selectively transported copper and boron into the liquid mixture.

  3. Formation of a magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposit: insights with LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions

    PubMed

    Audetat; Gunther; Heinrich

    1998-03-27

    The physical and chemical mechanism of ore precipitation in the Yankee Lode tin deposit (Mole Granite, Australia) was quantified by direct trace-element microanalysis of fluid inclusions. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure element concentrations in a series of fluid inclusions representing the fluid before, during, and after the deposition of cassiterite (SnO2). Tin precipitation was driven by mixing of hot magmatic brine with cooler meteoric water. At the same time, a separate magmatic vapor phase selectively transported copper and boron into the liquid mixture. PMID:9516106

  4. Detection of transgenerational barium dual-isotope marks in salmon otoliths by means of LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Fernández, Beatriz; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluates the use of an individual-specific transgenerational barium dual-isotope procedure and its application to salmon specimens from the Sella River (Asturias, Spain). For such a purpose, the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in combination with multiple linear regression for the determination of the isotopic mark in the otoliths of the specimens is presented. In this sense, a solution in which two barium-enriched isotopes ((137)Ba and (135)Ba) were mixed at a molar ratio of ca. 1:3 (N Ba137/N Ba135) was administered to eight returning females caught during the spawning period. After injection, these females, as well as their offspring, were reared in a governmental hatchery located in the council of Cangas de Onís (Asturias, Spain). For comparison purposes, as well as for a time-monitoring control, egg and larva data obtained by solution analysis ICP-MS are also given. Otoliths (9-month-old juveniles) of marked offspring were analysed by LA-ICP-MS demonstrating a 100 % marking efficacy of this methodology. The capabilities of the molar fraction approach for 2D imaging of fish otoliths are also addressed.

  5. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  6. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  7. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  8. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Perovskite (CaTiO3) is a common early crystallizing accessory phase in a variety of alkaline rocks, and has been shown to contain enough U and Th for U-Pb dating. U and Pb analysis of perovskite has been primarily carried out using the SHRIMP or ID-TIMS techniques, and the resulting U-Pb dates commonly yield the emplacement age of the host rock. To our knowledge, only one U-Pb study of perovskite has been done using the LA-ICP-MS (Cox and Wilton, 2006). Some of the advantages of this method over the SHRIMP and ID-TIMS techniques include greater speed and lower cost of analysis. In this work, the U-Pb ages of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Russia) were obtained in situ using the LA-ICP-MS. The measured 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios were corrected for time-dependent mass-bias using the well-calibrated zircon standard GJ-1 (608.5 ± 0.4 Ma; Jackson et al., 2004). On a Tera-Wasserburg diagram (Tera and Wasserburg, 1972) the analyses of perovskite from two magmatic phases (clinopyroxenite and carbonatite) plot in separate clusters. Although the variations in the 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios within each group are small, there is enough dispersion between the two clusters to obtain a reasonably precise age of 375 ± 13 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.23), which strongly suggests that the carbonatitic rocks are broadly coeval with the clinopyroxenite. The only other isotopic study on the Afrikanda Complex was done on a clinopyroxenite using the Rb-Sr method and yielded a whole rock-mineral (perovskite, biotite, augite and apatite) isochron age of 364.0 ± 3.1 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.72). This age is within error of our U-Pb date, which demonstrates that LA-ICP-MS-based U-Pb dating of perovskite can serve as a reliable geochronological tool. References Cox, R.A. and Wilton, D.H.C. (2006) U-Pb dating of perovskite by LA-ICP-MS: An example from the Oka carbonatite, Quebec, Canada. Chem. Geol., 235, 21-32. Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., Griffin, W.L. and Belousova, E.A. (2004

  9. Imaging of trace element distribution in zircon by LA-ICP-MS: Insights into ultrahigh-pressure anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Aleksandr; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Olin, Paul; Meffre, Sebastien; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Korsakov, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Zircon is a key accessory mineral in Ultra High Pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks as it is stable during the entire metamorphic evolution and it remains as a restite phase after melt extraction. Zircon contains significant amounts of REE, Th and U, elements which, at the bulk-rock scale, are strongly affected by melting at UHP conditions. Due to its refractory nature, zircon can preserve pre-melting concentrations of such elements. Moreover, zircon growth zones can be precisely dated and the Ti-in-zircon thermometer can provide a temperature record. A LA-ICP-MS imaging technique has been developed at the CODES analytical facilities at the University of Tasmania. The technique uses a set of parallel lines with spacing equaling the laser beam size. Pre-ablation of each line is essential for removing surface deposition from previous ablations. Regular measurements of the background and calibration standards are required for controlling memory effects and instrumental drift. Use of square rather than round beam shape is preferred for this application. LA-ICP-MS imaging provides spatial resolution of about 10 microns and detection limits below 1 ppm. High errors on individual measurements are compensated by large overall statistics. Here we report the successful application of this imaging technique to zircons from the Kokchetav metamorphic complex (Kazakhstan). The UHP metamorphic rocks of the Kokchetav complex experienced partial melting and melt loss at extreme conditions of 45-60 kbar and 950-1000°C. Metamorphism of metasediments produced a specific bulk rock trace element signature with depletion in LREE, Th and U. LA-ICP-MS spots analysis and LA-ICP-MS imaging reveal at least four different compositional types of zircon. Type-1 zircon cores have low Th contents and Th/U ratios and steep REE patterns. The low Th content is attributed to formation in equilibrium with monazite, which hosted a large fraction of the bulk Th. Type-2 zircons are seen as mantles with Th

  10. Trace Elements in Ivory Coast Tektites, Microtektites, and Fallback Particles of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater, Ghana: A LA-ICP-MS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetke, S.; Deutsch, A.; Berndt, J.; Langenhorst, F.

    2008-03-01

    LA-ICP-MS trace element data of Ivory Coast tektites, microtektites, and glassy fallback particles indicate a soil contribution to the precursor materials of the tektites. A variable Ni/Co ratio seems to be characteristic of the fallback particles.

  11. Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine; Sela, Hagit; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Becker, J. Susanne

    2008-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have proved themselves to be powerful and sensitive inorganic mass spectrometric techniques for analysing stable and radioactive isotopes in different application fields because of their high sensitivity, low detection limits, good accuracy and precision. New applications of ICP-MS focus on tracer experiments and the development of isotope dilution techniques together with nanoflow injections for the analysis of small volumes of biological samples. Today, LA-ICP-MS is the method of choice for direct determination of metals, e.g., on protein bands in gels after the gel electrophoresis of protein mixtures. Tracer experiments using highly enriched 65Cu were utilized in order to study the formation of metal-binding bovine serum proteins. A challenging task for LA-ICP-MS is its application as an imaging mass spectrometric technique for the production of isotope images (e.gE, from thin sections of brain tissues stained with neodymium). In this paper, we demonstrate the application of imaging mass spectrometry on single particles (zircon and uranium oxide). Single Precambrian zircon crystals from the Baltic Shield were investigated with respect to isotope ratios using LA-ICP-MS for age dating. The U-Pb age was determined from the isochrone with (1.48 ± 0.14) × 109 a. Using isotope ratio measurements on 10 nuclear uranium oxide single particles the 235U/238U isotope ratio was determined to be 0.032 ± 0.004. This paper describes recent developments and applications of isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles.

  12. Effective LA-ICP-MS dating of common-Pb bearing accessory minerals with new data reduction schemes in Iolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, Balz S.; Chew, David M.; Petrus, Joseph A.

    2014-05-01

    Compared to non-destructive geochemical analyses, LA-ICP-MS consumes ca. 0.1 μm of material per ablation pulse. It is therefore to be expected that the combined analyses of ca. 200 pulses will encounter geochemical and isotopic complexities in all but the most perfect minerals. Experienced LA-ICP-MS analysts spot down-hole complexities and choose signal integration areas accordingly. In U-Pb geochronology, the task of signal integration choice is complex as the analyst wants to avoid areas of common Pb and Pb-loss and separate true (concordant) age complexity. Petrus and Kamber (2012) developed VizualAge as a tool for reducing and visualising, in real time, U-Pb geochronology data obtained by LA-ICP-MS as an add-on for the freely available U-Pb geochronology data reduction scheme of Paton et al. (2010) in Iolite. The most important feature of VizualAge is its ability to display a live concordia diagram, allowing users to inspect the data of a signal on a concordia diagram as the integration area it is being adjusted, thus providing immediate visual feedback regarding discordance, uncertainty, and common lead for different regions of the signal. It can also be used to construct histograms and probability distributions, standard and Tera-Wasserburg style concordia diagrams, as well as 3D U-Th-Pb and total U-Pb concordia diagrams. More recently, Chew et al. (2014) presented a new data reduction scheme (VizualAge_UcomPbine) with much improved common Pb correction functionality. Common Pb is a problem for many U-bearing accessory minerals and an under-appreciated difficulty is the potential presence of (possibly unevenly distributed) common Pb in calibration standards, introducing systematic inaccuracy into entire datasets. One key feature of the new method is that it can correct for variable amounts of common Pb in any U-Pb accessory mineral standard as long as the standard is concordant in the U/Pb (and Th/Pb) systems after common Pb correction. Common Pb correction

  13. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a commonly used proxy to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation history of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REE exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REE and strong depletion in Cerium. Studies of ancient phosphates and carbonates, however, showed that this 'modern' pattern is only rarely present in the geological past. Consequently, the wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry had to have been radically different in the earth's past. A wealth of studies has already shown that both early and late diagenesis can strongly affect REE signatures in phosphates and severely alter primary marine signals. However, no previous research was conducted on how alteration processes occurring prior to final deposition affect marine phosphates. Herein we present a dataset of multiple LA-ICP-MS measurements of REE signatures in isolated phosphate and carbonate grains deposited in a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene "Monterey event". The phosphates are represented by authigenic, biogenic and detrital grains emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones dominated by bryozoan and echinoderm fragments, as well as abundant benthic and planktic foraminifers. The results of 39 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements in three discrete rock samples reveals four markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Considering grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, detrital and biogenic phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our results show that the observed REE patterns in phosphates only broadly reflect

  14. Combining fs LA-ICP-MS, FIB and STXM-NEXAFS Methods for in-situ High-Spatial-Resolution Rock Varnish Analyses at the nm to µm Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Stoll, B.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.; Weis, U.

    2014-12-01

    Since over 200 years a number of studies debate the origin of the black or red, up to 250 µm thick coatings on desert rocks, referred to as rock varnish. The main components of varnish are poorly crystallized Mn and Fe oxides and clay minerals. Both biological and geological processes have been suggested for the genesis. We used a combination of 200 nm-femtosecond LA-ICP-MS, focused ion beam (FIB) slicing and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy - near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) for the high-spatial-resolution analysis of rock varnish from different locations (Negev, Israel; Knersvlakte, South Africa; Death Valley and Mojave Desert, California). Femtosecond LA-ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of major and trace element concentrations. In-situ measurements were conducted on thick sections with the advantages of non-matrix matched calibration, low ablation depth of ~10 µm for laser spot sizes of 10-40 µm and low detection limits of trace elements (< 0.01 - 1 µg g-1). Our results demonstrate that elements, such as Mn, Co, Pb, Ni and Cu, are highly enriched in varnish relative to the upper continental crust (up to a factor of 1000). Differences between varnishes from the various locations can be observed especially for the Mn/Fe (0.4-25.6), Mn/Ba (3-363) and Ni/Co (0.03-1.8) ratios. The REE patterns differ with LaN/YbN = 2-14 and positive Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 1.1 - 9.1). To study the internal structures of varnish, 100 - 200 nm thick FIB slices were prepared to perform mappings of Fe, Mn, O, N, CO3, K, Ca, and C at the nm scale. In addition, the oxidation stages of Mn and Fe were identified. Banded internal structures of Mn and organic C can be observed in some samples, and cavities that are partly filled by C and Mn rich material. Some coatings tend to incorporate bigger dust grains (> 1 µm), while others only show very fine grained material (< 0.1 µm). The results of the combined microanalytical

  15. U-Pb Dating of CA/non-CA Treated Zircons Obtained by LA-ICP-MS and CA-TIMS Techniques: Impact for their Geological Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Quadt, A.; Gallhofer, D.; Guillong, M.; Peytcheva, I.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical Abrasion Isotope-Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) is known as a high precision technique for resolving lead loss and improving the interpretation of U-Pb zircon age data. We argue that combining CA with the widely applied Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) improves the precision and accuracy of zircon dates, while removing the substantial parts with lead loss, reducing data scatter, and providing meaningful geological interpretations. The samples are magmatic rocks chosen from different geological time periods (Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic time). All zircon separates are analysed by LA-ICP-MS before and after CA, and all age data are compared with CA-ID-TIMS 206Pb/238U dates that are considered as the most accurately age. All CA-treated zircon crystals show up to 50% less data scatter compared to the non-CA treated zircon grains and thus a reduction of the calculated uncertainties is apparent. The obtained wt average LA-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U ages of the CA-treated zircon grains are up to 4-6% higher than those of the non-CA treated crystals, exceeding the analytical uncertainties of the LA-ICP-MS dating technique of 1-2%. The damaged crystal parts, caused by U-decay, with lead loss are removed, so that we can exclude younging from the possible geological scenarios. CA-LA-ICP-MS age data are in good agreement with the CA-ID-TIMS dates and suggest advantages of using CA-LA-ICP-MS in order to define accurate ages. The use of the CA technique for very young zircons (~0.2 Ma, Kos rhyolitic tuff, Greece) seems optional; as the obtained mean 206Pb/238U ages of non-CA and CA treated zircons coincide within the uncertainty. The negligible time to produce the lattice damage (based on alpha decay or spontaneous fission) makes lead loss less important for age dating and data interpretation of very young zircons (<1 Ma). Von Quadt, A. et al., 2014, JAAS, doi: 10.1039/c4ja00102h.

  16. Coupling of Uranium and Thorium Series Isotope Systematics for Age Determination of Late Pleistocene Zircons using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, S.; Hirakawa, S.; Iwano, H.; Danhara, T.; Hirata, T.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon U-Th-Pb dating method is one of the most important tools for estimating the duration of magmatism by means of coupling of uranium, actinium and thorium decay series. Using U-Pb dating method, its reliability is principally guaranteed by the concordance between 238U-206Pb and 235U-207Pb ages. In case of dating Quaternary zircons, however, the initial disequilibrium effect on 230Th and 231Pa should be considered. On the other hands, 232Th-208Pb dating method can be a simple but powerful approach for investigating the age of crystallization because of negligible influence from initial disequilibrium effect. We have developed a new correction model for accurate U-Pb dating of the young zircon samples by taking into consideration of initial disequilibrium and a U-Pb vs Th-Pb concordia diagram for reliable age calibration was successfully established. Hence, the U-Th-Pb dating method can be applied to various zircons ranging from Hadean (4,600 Ma) to Quaternary (~50 ka) ages, and this suggests that further detailed information concerning the thermal history of the geological sequences can be made by the coupling of U-Th-Pb, fission track and Ar-Ar ages. In this presentation, we will show an example of U-Th-Pb dating for zircon samples from Sambe Volcano (3 to 100 ka), southwest Japan and the present dating technique using LA-ICP-MS.

  17. Provenance determination of oriental porcelain using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Bartle, Emma K; Watling, R John

    2007-03-01

    The sale of fraudulent oriental ceramics constitutes a large proportion of the illegal artifact and antique trade and threatens to undermine the legitimate international market. The sophistication and skill of forgers has reached a level where, using traditional appraisal by eye and hand, even the most experienced specialist is often unable to distinguish between a genuine and fraudulent piece. In addition, current provenancing techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and thermoluminescence (TL) dating can result in significant damage to the artifact itself. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), a relatively nondestructive analytical technique, has been used for the provenance determination of materials based on geographical origin. The technique requires the production of a laser crater, c. 100 microm in diameter, which is essentially invisible to the naked eye. Debris from this crater is analyzed using ICP-MS, with the results forming the basis of the provenance establishment protocol. Chinese, Japanese, and English porcelain shards have been analyzed using this protocol and generic isotopic distribution patterns have been produced that enable the provenance establishment of porcelain artifacts to their country of production. Minor variations between elemental fingerprints of artifacts produced in the same country also indicate that it may be possible to further provenance oriental ceramics to a specific production region or kiln site.

  18. Trace elemental analysis of automotive paints by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Andria L; Almirall, José R

    2003-08-01

    Paints and coatings are frequently encountered as types of materials that are submitted to forensic science laboratories as a result of trace evidence transfers. The aim of this study was to develop a method to complement the commonly used techniques in a forensic laboratory in order to better characterize these samples for forensic purposes. A laser ablation method has been used to simultaneously sample several layers directly prior to introduction into an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer for the detection and quantification of the trace metals present in the layer(s). Time-resolved analysis plots displaying the elemental response and quantification of selected metals are compared to associate/discriminate paint samples. Matrix-matched standards were successfully incorporated into the analysis scheme for quantification of lead in the solid paint samples. Preparation of new matrix-matched standards for quantification of additional elements developed for this study are also presented. A sample set of eighteen (18) survey automotive paint samples have been analyzed with the developed method in order to determine the utility of LA-ICP-MS for trace element analysis of paints.

  19. Genesis of Augite-Bearing Ureilites: Evidence From LA-ICP-MS Analyses of Pyroxenes and Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Lee, C-T. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrites composed primarily of coarse-grained low-Ca pyroxene and olivine with interstitial carbonaceous material, but a number of them contain augite [1]. Ureilites are considered to be restites after partial melting of a chondritic precursor, although at least some augite-bearing ureilites may be partially cumulate [1, 2]. In this scenario, the augite is a cumulus phase derived from a melt that infiltrated a restite composed of typical ureilite material (olivine+low-Ca pyroxene) [2]. To test this hypothesis, we examined the major and trace element compositions of silicate minerals in select augite-bearing ureilites with differing mg#. Polished thick sections of the augite-bearing ureilites ALH 84136 , EET 87511, EET 96293, LEW 88201, and META78008 and augite-free typical ureilite EET 90019 were examined by EPMA for major and minor elements and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for trace elements, REE in particular. Although EET 87511 is reported to contain augite, the polished section that we obtained did not.

  20. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method.

  1. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. PMID:26005744

  2. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  3. High resolution mass spectrometric brain proteomics by MALDI-FTICR-MS combined with determination of P, S, Cu, Zn and Fe by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Susanne; Zoriy, Miroslav; Przybylski, Michael; Becker, J. Sabine

    2007-03-01

    The combination of atomic and molecular mass spectrometric methods was applied for characterization and identification of several human proteins from Alzheimer's diseased brain. A brain protein mixture was separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and the protein spots were fast screened by microlocal analysis using LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in respect to phosphorus, sulfur, copper, zinc and iron content. Five selected protein spots in 2D gel containing these elements were investigated after tryptic digestion by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR-MS). Than element concentrations (P, Cu, Zn and Fe) were determined in three identified human brain proteins by LA-ICP-MS in the 2D gel. Results of structure analysis of human brain proteins by MALDI-FTICR-MS were combined with those of the direct determination of phosphorus, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in protein spots with LA-ICP-MS. From the results of atomic and molecular mass spectrometric techniques the human brain proteins were characterized in respect to their structure, sequence, phosphorylation state and metal content as well.

  4. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron. PMID:27305821

  5. Impact history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite: Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikov, A. V.; Andronikova, I. E.; Hill, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals from two fragments of the LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite were conducted. The fragments are impact breccias, one fragment contains both chondritic and shock vein lithologies, and the other contains shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melts. The chondritic lithology and shock veins display very similar opaque mineral compositions. The mineral compositions in the impact-melt breccias are distinctly different. The brecciated state of the Chelyabinsk meteorite suggests strong involvement of shock-related processes during the evolution of the parent body. Multiple heavy impact events occurred on the parent asteroid and on the Chelyabinsk meteoroid itself over the time period from ca. 4.5 Ga until ca. 1.2 Ma. The shock veins were produced in situ on the parent body. The impact-melt breccias could have formed because of the dramatic impact to the parent LL-chondrite body that could be partly disintegrated. The fragment containing shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melt lithologies preserves a record of melting, volatilization, partial degassing, and quenching of the molten material. The abundance and size (up to 1 mm) of the vesicles suggest that the impact melt must have been buried at some depth after formation. After impact and subsequent melting occurred, the impact-induced pressure on the shallow asteroid interior was released that caused "boiling" of volatiles and generation of S-rich bubbles. Such an impact excavated down to depths of the body generating multiple fragments with complicated histories. These fragments reaccumulated into a gravitational aggregate and formed the parental meteoroid for the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

  6. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  7. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  8. Refining LA-ICP-MS techniques for the exploration of ultra-thin layers in Alpine and Polar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Nicole; Bohleber, Pascal; Mayewski, Paul; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Kurbatov, Andrei; Sneed, Sharon; Handley, Mike; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (LA)-ICP-MS, offers minimally destructive ice core impurity analysis at unsurpassed sub-mm depth resolution. As such it is uniquely suited for exploring the closely spaced layers of ice cores collected in low accumulation sites or in regions of compressed and thinned ice. Here we present an updated characterization of the LA system developed at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute's Keck Laser Ice Facility, as determined through 1) experimentation with sticks of frozen distilled water and 2) exploitation of the exceptionally thin layers within a new ice core drilled at the Alpine glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti (4450m asl, Monte Rosa, Swiss-Italian Alps) and the variety of high-density chemical data collected from it. Colle Gnifetti (CG) is characterized by low net accumulation rates and strong vertical shear, which causes its annual layers to rapidly thin below the cm-resolution of conventional ice core analysis techniques. To best utilize its unique archive, LA measurements of Ca and Na were directly compared to those from continuous flow analysis. Through this comparison, we demonstrate that LA captures low frequency trends similar to traditional melting techniques while also emphasizing the benefits of its increased resolution. The resolution was itself verified through experimental determination of peak decay times, where peaks were created by spiking frozen distilled water at known interval with high concentration riverine water standards. Using ion chromatography and liquid-based ICP-MS measurements of discrete meltwater samples from CG we were also able to explore high-resolution profiles of S as measured by LA. The ability to resolve S at sub-mm resolution (a capability not yet demonstrated for LA analysis of ice cores) may allow more accurate determination of the character and timing of volcanic eruptions. We illustrate this finding using an exemplary S-anomaly, potentially of volcanic

  9. LA-ICP-MS of rare earth elements concentrated in cation-exchange resin particles for origin attribution of uranium ore concentrate.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shiho; Limbeck, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) concentrated on cation-exchange resin particles were measured with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain chondrite-normalized REE plots. The sensitivity of REE increased in ascending order of the atomic number, according to the sensitivity trend in pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS (PN-ICP-MS). The signal intensities of REE were nearly proportional to the concentrations of REE in the immersion solution used for particle-preparation. Minimum measurable concentration calculated from the net signals of REE was approximately 1 ng/g corresponding to 0.1 ng in the particle-preparation solution. In LA analysis, formation of oxide and hydroxide of the light REE and Ba which causes spectral interferences in the heavy REE measurement was effectively attenuated due to the solvent-free measurement capability, compared to conventional PN-ICP-MS. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, the REE-adsorbed particles prepared by immersing them in a U-bearing solution (commercially available U standard solution) were measured with LA-ICP-MS. Aside from the LA analysis, each concentration of REE in the same U standard solution was determined with conventional PN-ICP-MS after separating REE by cation-exchange chromatography. The concentrations of REE were ranging from 0.04 (Pr) to 1.08 (Dy) μg/g-U. The chondrite-normalized plot obtained through LA-ICP-MS analysis of the U standard sample exhibited close agreement with that obtained through the PN-ICP-MS of the REE-separated solution within the uncertainties.

  10. Combination of PAGE and LA-ICP-MS as an analytical workflow in metallomics: state of the art, new quantification strategies, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2011-12-01

    Metallomics (more specifically, metalloproteomics) is an emerging field that encompasses the role, uptake, transport and storage of trace metals, which are essential to preserve the functions of proteins within a biological system. The current strategies for metal-binding and metalloprotein analysis based on the combination of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are discussed in this review. The advantages, limitations and the most recently developed and applied quantification approaches for this methodology are also described.

  11. A new LA-ICP-MS method for Ti-in-Quartz: Implications and application to HP rutile-quartz veins from the Czech Erzgebirge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Feineman, M. D.; Woods, G.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental determination of the pressure and temperature controls on Ti solubility in quartz provide a calibration of the Ti-in-quartz (TitaniQ) geothermometer applicable to geologic conditions up to ~20 kbar (Thomas et al. (2010) Contrib Mineral Petrol 160, 743-759). One of the greatest limitations to analyzing Ti in metamorphic quartz by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is the lack of a suitable matrix-matched reference material. Typically LA-ICP-MS analyses of Ti in minerals use 49Ti as a normalizing mass because of an isobaric interference from 48Ca, which is present in most well characterized reference glasses, on 48Ti. The benefit of using a matrix-matched reference material to analyze Ti in quartz is the opportunity to use 48Ti (73.8 % abundance) as a normalizing mass, which results in an order of magnitude increase in signal strength compared to the less abundant isotope 49Ti (5.5 % abundance), thereby increasing the analytical precision. Here we characterize Ti-bearing SiO2 glasses from Heraeus Quarzglas and natural quartz grains from the Bishop Tuff by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and LA-ICP-MS, in order to determine their viability as reference materials for Ti in quartz. Titanium contents in low-CL rims in the Bishop Tuff quartz grains were determined to be homogenous by EPMA (41 ± 2 µg/g Ti, 2σ), and are a potential natural reference material. We present a new method for determining 48Ti concentrations in quartz by LA-ICP-MS at the 1 µg/g level, relevant to quartz in HP-LT terranes. We suggest that natural quartz such as the homogeneous low-CL rims of the Bishop Tuff quartz are more suitable than NIST reference glasses as an in-house reference material for low Ti concentrations because matrix effects are limited and Ca isobaric interferences are avoided, thus allowing for the use of 48Ti as a normalizing mass. Titanium concentration from 33 analyses of low

  12. LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in glass spherules of the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Leonie; Deutsch, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The 3.58±0.04 Ma old El'gygytgyn impact structure (Central Chukotka, NE Siberia) with a diameter of 18 km (Gurov and Gurova 1979, Layer 2000) is one of only two terrestrial craters with a volcanic target; therefore, analysis of its target and impact lithologies is of basic interest for comparative planetology. Lake El'gygytgyn is a very valuable climate archive in the Arctic as it was neither covered by glaciers (Melles et al. 2007) nor has the lake ever fallen dry. Climate and impact research were the rationale for the ICDP drilling project that finished successfully in spring 2009. Impactites like melt rocks and breccias are rarely found in outcrops yet are present in the 80 m terrace of Lake El'gygytgyn (Gurov and Gurova 1979). Numerous investigations on petrography, shock metamorphism, and geochemistry of impactites from El'gygytgyn have been published so far (e.g. Gurov et al. 2007). We report the first trace element data for seven 30- to 760-μm-sized impact glass spherules that have been collected about10 km off the crater center from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River outside the crater rim. The spherules are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black; they contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments. Major elements were measured with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe, 31 trace elements were analyzed with the Finnigan Element2 LA-ICP-MS with 5 Hz, 8-9 J/cm2 at with Si as internal, and NIST612 as external standard (Institut f. Mineralogie, WWU Münster). The spot size was 60 μm. All spherules show a very homogeneous major and trace element distribution yet clear differences exist between the samples in the SiO2 content (in weight percent) 53-68: four of the glasses are dacitic, two andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic in composition. In addition, MgO (2.1-9.2), K2O (0.6-3.3), and (in ppm) Ni (317-1096), Co (25-79), Zr (100-169), Rb (18-107), and Ba (459-1092) display wide

  13. A Multi-Method Approach to Improving Monazite Geochronology: TIMS, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS and EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Grove, M.; Gehrels, G. E.; Mattinson, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    collected from this material showed that polyatomic interferences incorporating Ce and PO4 have negligible effects on age data. Preliminary EPMA and SIMS data, however, suggests that matrix effects involving REEs may greatly affect age data, particularly if a standard of different composition from the `unknowns' is used. Sample heterogeneity may also account for disparate age data. Analyses of other synthetic REE-phosphates, multi-step dissolution TIMS, and larger populations for LA-ICP-MS and SIMS are underway to elucidate this.

  14. Possibilities of LA-ICP-MS technique for the spatial elemental analysis of the recent fish scales: Line scan vs. depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, Markéta; Kalvoda, Jiří; Nováková, Hana; Škoda, Radek; Kanický, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS in combination with electron microprobe are presented as a method for the determination of the elemental spatial distribution in fish scales which represent an example of a heterogeneous layered bone structure. Two different LA-ICP-MS techniques were tested on recent common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) scales: A line scan through the whole fish scale perpendicular to the growth rings. The ablation crater of 55 μm width and 50 μm depth allowed analysis of the elemental distribution in the external layer. Suitable ablation conditions providing a deeper ablation crater gave average values from the external HAP layer and the collagen basal plate. Depth profiling using spot analysis was tested in fish scales for the first time. Spot analysis allows information to be obtained about the depth profile of the elements at the selected position on the sample. The combination of all mentioned laser ablation techniques provides complete information about the elemental distribution in the fish scale samples. The results were compared with the solution based ICP-MS and EMP analyses. The fact that the results of depth profiling are in a good agreement both with EMP and PIXE results and, with the assumed ways of incorporation of the studied elements in the HAP structure, suggests a very good potential for this method.

  15. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  16. Detection of phosphorylated subunits by combined LA-ICP-MS and MALDI-FTICR-MS analysis in yeast mitochondrial membrane complexes separated by blue native/SDS-PAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Buchholz, Udo; Becker, J. Susanne; Zoriy, Miroslav; Pickhardt, Carola; Przybylski, Michael; Rödel, Gerhard; Becker, J. Sabine

    2006-01-01

    We report on the identification of phosphorylated subunits of yeast mitochondrial ATPase using a novel screening technique in combination with BN/SDS-PAGE. Protein complexes present in yeast mitochondrial membranes were separated in their native state in the first dimension and their subunit composition was resolved by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to rapidly screen for the presence of phosphorus in the subunits. The detection limits of elements investigated in selected protein spots are in the low [mu]g g-1 concentration range. Sulfur was used as the internal standard element for quantification. Phosphorus was detected in two of the proteins, that were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR-MS) as subunits Atp1p and Atp2p of the ATPase. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis using antibodies directed against phosphorylated amino acids. The combination of LA-ICP-MS and MALDI-FTICR-MS with BN/SDS-PAGE provides a fast and sensitive tool for structure analysis of phosphorus and metal-containing subunits of membrane protein complexes.

  17. Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.

    2012-03-01

    Laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure elemental concentrations at the 100 {micro}m scale in a 3-dimensional manner in a basalt sample collected from the Hanford 300 Area in south-central Washington State. A modified calibration method was developed to quantify the LA-ICP-MS signal response using a constant-sum mass fraction of eight major elements; the method produced reasonable concentration measurements for both major and trace elements when compared to a standard basalt sample with known concentrations. 3-dimensional maps (stacked 2-D contour layers, each measuring 2100 {micro}m x 2100 {micro}m) show relatively uniform concentration with depth for intrinsic elements such as Si, Na, and Sr. However, U and Cu accumulation were observed near the rock surface, consistent with the site's release history of these pollutants. U and Cu show substantial heterogeneity in their concentration distributions in horizontal slices, while the intrinsic elements are essentially uniformly distributed. From measured U concentrations of this work and reported mass fractions, cobbles and gravels were estimated to contain from 0.6% to 7.5% of the contaminant U, implicating the coarse fraction as a long-term release source.

  18. Results of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons from Ediacaran-Early Cambrian deposits of the eastern part of the Baltic monoclise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivleva, A. S.; Podkovyrov, V. N.; Ershova, V. B.; Anfinson, O. A.; Khudoley, A. K.; Fedorov, P. V.; Maslov, A. V.; Zdobin, D. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the results of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons from the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian deposits of the eastern part of the Baltic monoclise (Leningrad Region). The obtained age spectra of the detrital zircons suggest that, in the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian, the main clastic material source to the northwest of the Russian Platform was the Baltic Shield. Then in the Early Cambrian along with the Baltic Shield provenance, a clastic source from the Timanian margin of Baltica (northeast in modern coordinates) contributed to the deposits. The obtained data either somewhat set limits of the Timanian orogen formation as older than the previously suggested Middle Cambrian (about 510 Ma), based on the "absence of a Proto-Uralian-Timanian provenance signal" in the Sablino Formation rocks in the south Ladoga, or suggest another rearrangement of detritus transportation paths at the end of Stage 3 (Atdabanian).

  19. Exploring LA-ICP-MS as a quantitative imaging technique to study nanoparticle uptake in Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Steffi; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Kühnel, Dana; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    The extent and the mechanisms by which engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are incorporated into biological tissues are a matter of intensive research. Therefore, laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is presented for the detection and visualization of engineered nanoparticles (Al2O3, Ag, and Au) in ecotoxicological test organisms (Danio rerio and Daphnia magna). While ENPs are not taken up by the zebrafish embryo but attach to its chorion, incorporation into the gut of D. magna is clearly visible by a 50-μm spot ablation of 40-μm-thick organism sections. During laser ablation of the soft organic matrix, the hard ENPs are mobilized without a significant change in their size, leading to decreasing sensitivity with increasing size of ENPs. To compensate for these effects, a matrix-matched calibration with ENPs of the same size embedded in agarose gels is proposed. Based on such a calibration, the mass of ENPs within one organism section was calculated and used to estimate the total mass of ENPs per organism. Compared to the amount determined after acid digestion of the test organisms, recoveries of 20-100% (zebrafish embryo (ZFE)) and of 4-230% (D. magna) were obtained with LODs in the low ppm range. It is likely that these differences are primarily due to an inhomogeneous particle distribution in the organisms and to shifts in the particle size distribution from the initial ENPs to those present in the organism. It appears that quantitative imaging of ENPs with LA-ICP-MS requires knowledge of the particle sizes in the biological tissue under study.

  20. Printing metal-spiked inks for LA-ICP-MS bioimaging internal standardization: comparison of the different nephrotoxic behavior of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Moraleja, Irene; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Neumann, Boris; Tejedor, Alberto; Luz Mena, M; Jakubowski, Norbert; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2016-03-01

    The study of the distribution of the cytostatic drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin along the kidney may help to understand their different nephrotoxic behavior. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allows the acquisition of trace element images in biological tissues. However, results obtained are affected by several variations concerning the sample matrix and instrumental drifts. In this work, an internal standardization method based on printing an Ir-spiked ink onto the surface of the sample has been developed to evaluate the different distributions and accumulation levels of the aforementioned drugs along the kidney of a rat model. A conventional ink-jet printer was used to print fresh sagittal kidney tissue slices of 4 μm. A reproducible and homogenous deposition of the ink along the tissue was observed. The ink was partially absorbed on top of the tissue. Thus, this approach provides a pseudo-internal standardization, due to the fact that the ablation sample and internal standard take place subsequently and not simultaneously. A satisfactory normalization of LA-ICP-MS bioimages and therefore a reliable comparison of the kidney treated with different Pt-based drugs were achieved even for tissues analyzed on different days. Due to the complete ablation of the sample, the transport of the ablated internal standard and tissue to the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is practically taking place at the same time. Pt accumulation in the kidney was observed in accordance to the dosages administered for each drug. Although the accumulation rate of cisplatin and oxaliplatin is high in both cases, their Pt distributions differ. The strong nephrotoxicity observed for cisplatin and the absence of such side effect in the case of oxaliplatin could explain these distribution differences. The homogeneous distribution of oxaliplatin in the cortical and medullar areas could be related with its higher affinity for

  1. Developing a Correction to Remove Systematic Bias in U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Zircon Ages Related to Zircon "Matrix Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Angelo, T. V.; Guest, B.

    2014-12-01

    For more than a decade the occurrence of systematic discrepancies between the U-Pb ages of zircons determined by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS has been acknowledged. Trace element concentrations, crystallographic orientation and damage to the crystal lattice by radioactive decay have all been cited as possible causes for the discrepancy termed the "matrix effect". Recent studies have concluded that differences in Laser Induced Elemental Fractionation (LIEF) between zircon reference materials results from variations in the ablation rate between the primary reference, which is used to build a model for LIEF during data reduction, and the unknowns. These variations are likely related to physical differences in the crystal lattice caused by alpha particle ejection. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the ablation rate for ~200 individual ablation pits in a variety of reference materials using an optical profilometer. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between delta age (the difference between the age calculated by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age, expressed as a percentage) and ablation rate. The relationship between calculated alpha dosage for each ablation and delta age is less clear. This suggests that the zircon's thermal history may play an important role in controlling ablation rate through annealing of crystal lattice defects. However, alpha dosage is readily quantifiable during routine zircon U-Pb analyses and therefore its relationship to delta age may provide a useful first order correction to remove systematic biases from U-Pb ages. Raman spectroscopy could provide a more robust measure of radiation damage in the zircon lattice and could help to refine our understanding of the processes involved.

  2. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  3. Printing metal-spiked inks for LA-ICP-MS bioimaging internal standardization: comparison of the different nephrotoxic behavior of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Moraleja, Irene; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Neumann, Boris; Tejedor, Alberto; Luz Mena, M; Jakubowski, Norbert; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2016-03-01

    The study of the distribution of the cytostatic drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin along the kidney may help to understand their different nephrotoxic behavior. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allows the acquisition of trace element images in biological tissues. However, results obtained are affected by several variations concerning the sample matrix and instrumental drifts. In this work, an internal standardization method based on printing an Ir-spiked ink onto the surface of the sample has been developed to evaluate the different distributions and accumulation levels of the aforementioned drugs along the kidney of a rat model. A conventional ink-jet printer was used to print fresh sagittal kidney tissue slices of 4 μm. A reproducible and homogenous deposition of the ink along the tissue was observed. The ink was partially absorbed on top of the tissue. Thus, this approach provides a pseudo-internal standardization, due to the fact that the ablation sample and internal standard take place subsequently and not simultaneously. A satisfactory normalization of LA-ICP-MS bioimages and therefore a reliable comparison of the kidney treated with different Pt-based drugs were achieved even for tissues analyzed on different days. Due to the complete ablation of the sample, the transport of the ablated internal standard and tissue to the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is practically taking place at the same time. Pt accumulation in the kidney was observed in accordance to the dosages administered for each drug. Although the accumulation rate of cisplatin and oxaliplatin is high in both cases, their Pt distributions differ. The strong nephrotoxicity observed for cisplatin and the absence of such side effect in the case of oxaliplatin could explain these distribution differences. The homogeneous distribution of oxaliplatin in the cortical and medullar areas could be related with its higher affinity for

  4. "Invisible" gold and PGE elements in synthetic crystals of sphalerite and covellite: A EPMA, LA-ICP-MS and XAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkacheev, Dmitry; Chareev, Dmitry; Abramova, Vera; Tagirov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Sphalerite and covellite are widespread minerals in the different genetic types of deposits and forms under the various conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the possible range of concentration and chemical state of Au and PGE (Pt, Pd, Rh) in sphalerite (Zn,Fe) S and covellite (CuS). These minerals were synthesized using gas transport and salt flux techniques. The crystals of ZnS were grown using the gas transport method at 850°C and the salt flux one using NaCl/KCl, CsCl/NaCl/KCl, and LiCl/RbCl eutectic mixtures at 850, 645 and 470°C, respectively. CuS crystals were synthesized using the salt flux method in RbCl/LiCl melt at 470 and 340°C. The trace metal activity was always controlled by the presence of pure metal or its sulfide, and, therefore, the concentration of these elements in synthesized phases represent the maximum possible value for given T/f(S2) synthesis parameters. The LA-ICP-MS and/or EPMA techniques were used to determine the Au concentration in synthesized phases. The concentration of Au in sphalerite, synthesized at 850°C with admixture of Cd, Se, In, Fe, and Mn, reached 0.3wt%, whereas the sphalerite cell parameter extremely increased up to 5.4161Å relatively to 5.4060 Å for pure ZnS. It was found that the observed high Au concentration is caused by the presence of In (2091±46 ppm Au in sample with Fe and In in comparison with 14±7 for Se-bearing ZnS, 94±12 ppm for Fe-Mn-bearing sphalerite, and 96±46 for Fe-bearing sphalerite. The concentration of Au in Fe-bearing sphalerite synthesized at 645°C does not exceed 5 ppm. Therefore, increase of temperature results in the increase of Au concentration in sphalerite. The concentration of Au in another Fe-bearing-sphalerite series synthesized using gas transport method at 850°C various from 200 to 500 ppm and depends on the iron content. This fact could be related to the oxidation state or Fe in ZnS-FeS solid solution series. The concentration of Pt and Pd, Rh in sphalerite is

  5. Improved Accuracy and Precision in LA-ICP-MS U-Th/Pb Dating of Zircon through the Reduction of Crystallinity Related Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W.; McDonald, A.; Hamilton, B.; Guest, B.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of zircon U-Th/Pb ages generated by LA-ICP-MS is limited by systematic bias resulting from differences in crystallinity of the primary reference and that of the unknowns being analyzed. In general, the use of a highly crystalline primary reference will tend to bias analyses of materials of lesser crystallinity toward older ages. When dating igneous rocks, bias can be minimized by matching the crystallinity of the primary reference to that of the unknowns. However, the crystallinity of the unknowns is often not well constrained prior to ablation, as it is a function of U and Th concentration, crystallization age, and thermal history. Likewise, selecting an appropriate primary reference is impossible when dating detrital rocks where zircons with differing ages, protoliths, and thermal histories are analyzed in the same session. We investigate the causes of systematic bias using Raman spectroscopy and measurements of the ablated pit geometry. The crystallinity of five zircon reference materials with ages between 28.2 Ma and 2674 Ma was estimated using Raman spectroscopy. Zircon references varied from being highly crystalline to highly metamict, with individual reference materials plotting as distinct clusters in peak wavelength versus Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) space. A strong positive correlation (R2=0.69) was found between the FWHM for the band at ~1000 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of the zircon and its ablation rate, suggesting the degree of crystallinity is a primary control on ablation rate in zircons. A moderate positive correlation (R2=0.37) was found between ablation rate and the difference between the age determined by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age (ΔAge). We use the measured, intra-sessional relationship between ablation rate and ΔAge of secondary references to reduce systematic bias. Rapid, high-precision measurement of ablated pit geometries using an optical profilometer and custom MatLab algorithm facilitates the implementation

  6. Determination of impurities in thoria (ThO 2) using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamelu, Devanathan; Choudhary, Ashwini Kumar; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Elemental impurities in nuclear grade thoria were determined using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) employing ArF laser (20 ns, 193 nm, 20 Hz). Three certified standards of thoria, prepared in the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India were used for this work. Magnesium was used as an internal standard for quantification in view of its addition during fuel fabrication. The concentrations determined for 16 different elements (Al, B, Cd, Ce, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm and V), spanning four orders of magnitude, were within 20% of the certified values in the standards. The methodology is of interest to reduce the analytical effort with regard to dissolution of thoria samples, avoid the production of radioactive liquid waste streams and relatively simple mass spectrum as compared to complex emission spectra in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The development and validation of analytical methodologies based on independent physico-chemical principles is of great relevance to characterize the in-house prepared working standards for routine applications.

  7. Breakdown of orthopyroxene contributing to melt pockets in mantle peridotite xenoliths from the Western Qinling, central China: constraints from in situ LA-ICP-MS mineral analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Yang, Yue-Heng; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ying, Ji-Feng; Tang, Yan-Jie

    2012-03-01

    Major and trace element compositions of constituent minerals, partly decomposed rims of orthopyroxenes (DRO), `closed' melt pockets (CMP) and open melt pockets (OMP) in some Western Qinling peridotite xenoliths were obtained by LA-ICP-MS. Systematic core-to-rim compositional variations of garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene demonstrate that these minerals underwent variable degrees of subsolidus breakdown or partial melting. Both DROs and CMPs consist of similar mineral assemblages and are characterized by high TiO2, CaO + Na2O and low MgO contents; they are enriched in LREE and LILE compositions, have positive anomalies in Pb, Sr and particularly Ti, negative Th and U, and variable Zr and Hf anomalies. These chemical features are distinct and reflect reactions involving the orthopyroxenes. Compared to the CMPs, the OMPs, which are composed of a complex assemblage of minerals, display lower FeO and MgO contents, larger ranges in SiO2 and Na2O, higher TiO2, Al2O3, CaO and trace element concentrations, slightly negative Zr and Hf anomalies, and apparently negative Ti anomalies. Modeling calculations of partial fusion of orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes suggest that the CMPs most likely originated from the breakdown of orthopyroxenes with variably minor contribution of external melts from the melting of clinopyroxenes, whereas the OMPs were probably formed from the modification of the CMPs through the interaction with large amount of external melts.

  8. Quantitative multi-element mapping of ancient glass using a simple and robust LA-ICP-MS rastering procedure in combination with image analysis.

    PubMed

    Selih, Vid S; van Elteren, Johannes T

    2011-08-01

    The surface of two glass artefacts in mosaic style, probably fragments of conglomerate glass bowls dating back two millennia, was investigated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). By rastering with the laser beam over a selected area of the surface of the glass artefacts, elemental oxide maps were generated. Quantification of the elemental oxides in the maps was achieved using a so-called sum normalization procedure, summating the elements-54 in total-as their oxides to 100% (w/w), without using an internal standard and applying only one external standard (NIST SRM glass 610). This results in a robust mapping procedure which automatically corrects for drift and defocusing issues. Sum normalization was applied to each pixel in the map separately and required a custom source code to process all the data in the tens of thousands of pixels to generate the elemental oxide concentration maps. The digital element maps generated upon rastering of the two glass artefacts are very compelling and are an excellent entry point to gain detailed insight into their fabrication and provenance using image analysis software for retrieval of localized elemental oxide concentrations and correlations.

  9. Investigating Compositional Variation of Ceramic Materials during the Late Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain - Preliminary LA-ICP-MS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Danielle J.; Niziolek, Lisa C.

    2015-10-01

    Investigations have been undertaken to assess the extent to which compositional analysis can be used to determine trade and interaction on the Great Hungarian Plain during the Late Neolithic. Ceramic and clay samples in the Körös and Berettyó River Basins were analyzed at the Elemental Analysis Facilities (EAF) at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL, USA. With the use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the aim of the project was to ascertain if micro-regional or site-specific compositional signatures could be determined in a region that is typically characterized as highly geologically homogenous. Identifying site-specific signatures enables archaeologists to model prehistoric interactions and, in turn, determine the relationship between interaction and various socio-cultural changes. This paper focuses on the preliminary compositional results of materials analyzed from three different sites across the Plain and the methodological implications for future anthropological research in the region.

  10. Rediscovering the palette of Alentejo (Southern Portugal) earth pigments: provenance establishment and characterization by LA-ICP-MS and spectra-colorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Green, R.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2009-09-01

    Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic murals across the Alentejo region since pre-historic times. An integrated methodology incorporating laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and spectra-colorimetric analysis (CIELAB coordinates and reflectance curves), complemented by XRD, WDXRF, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, and granulometric analysis, was used to characterize thirty-one Alentejo colored earths in an effort to correlate provenance with pigments properties. Data obtained from elemental analysis (major and trace) revealed a generic and similar elemental “fingerprint” that unable their distinction according to geographic provenance. Samples of weathered iron ore deposits derived from explored iron, copper, and sulfur mines are more easily discriminated using the chalcophilic (“sulfur-loving“) elements. Color analysis revealed a range of hues; olive-yellow to dark reddish-brown owing mainly to differences in the type and proportion of the color component present, independent of the accessory mineral.

  11. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  12. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2011-02-01

    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  13. LA-ICP-MS heavy metal analyses of fish scales from sediments of the Oxbow Lake Certak of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, M.; Kalvoda, J.; Bábek, O.; Brzobohatý, R.; Holoubek, I.; Kanický, V.; Skoda, R.

    2009-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were studied in the scales of recent and subrecent (2-25 years old) fish buried in the oxbow lake sediments of the Morava River. The samples were taken from two cores up to 4-m deep and analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and an electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The results were compared with heavy metal concentrations of bulk samples of the embedding sediment. The study has revealed substantial differences in heavy metal contents existing between the recent and subrecent fish scales documenting an extreme rapidity of the diagenesis/fossilization processes. The most apparent features of the early fossilization include the quick loss of the mucous envelope, collagen and magnesium and an enormous increase in the heavy metal concentrations in particular iron, which is connected with a colour change. The variations in heavy metal contents in fish scales within a sample are attributed to variations in heavy metal content in the environment and variable amounts of organic matter in the embedding sediment. In contrast to the contamination of the embedding sediment, no general increase in heavy metal concentrations in fish scales was observed down to the cores. It is inferred that the rapid sorption stabilizes the biologic hydroxyapatite of the fish scales, which thus rapidly attain a thermodynamic equilibrium with the embedding water-saturated sediment. The results show that the processes of sorption, fossilization and stabilization of hydroxyapatite can act very quickly over a time scale of several years and represent thus a great advantage in the preservation of the original signals of the ancient environments.

  14. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  15. Quantitative lead determination in coating paint on children's outwear by LA-ICP-MS: a practical calibration strategy for solid samples.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Selda; Ellez, Sevinç Zeynep; Türkmen, Zeynep; Yayla, Murat; Cengiz, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a hazardous compound that affects the central nervous system in people, particularly children, and may cause some reversible and irreversible diseases. Legal regulations try to prevent the exposure from products especially produced for children such as coating paints, jewelry, toys, bed linen, textile, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the lead levels of coating paints on children׳s outwear selling in district bazaar by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and to specify the percent of non-complying samples. Here we described the solid matrix calibration method and confirmed the results with the microwave-assisted acid digestion method. Both comparative methods were validated by analysis of the certified reference materials (NIST SRM-612 glass matrix, NIST SRM-2582 powdered paint and ERM-EC681k) and bias% for accuracy and RSD% for precision were calculated lower than 6.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The recovery ranges of laser ablation and microwave-assisted acid digestion method for Pb were found to be between 88.2-98.1% and 95.3-101.3%, respectively. The limits of detection values were determined as 0.162 mg kg(-1) for direct sampling in the ablation chamber and 0.002 ng mL(-1) for aqueous solutions. Correlation result of 16 samples (r=0.99) examined in both methods was satisfactory. In coating paint samples, 14.65% of 198 (n=29) did not comply with the 90 mg kg(-1) lead limit according to regulation. Validated quantitative laser ablation method may be preferred to quickly and reliably determine the Pb levels in other solid samples as well as coating paints.

  16. Liquid immiscibility between arsenide and sulfide melts: evidence from a LA-ICP-MS study in magmatic deposits at Serranía de Ronda (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Ortega, L.; Lunar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The chromite-Ni arsenide (Cr-Ni-As) and sulfide-graphite (S-G) deposits from the Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, South Spain) contain an arsenide assemblage (nickeline, maucherite and nickeliferous löllingite) that has been interpreted to represent an arsenide melt and a sulfide-graphite assemblage (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and graphite) that has been interpreted to represent a sulfide melt, both of which have been interpreted to have segregated as immiscible liquids from an arsenic-rich sulfide melt. We have determined the platinum-group element (PGE), Au, Ag, Se, Sb, Bi and Te contents of the arsenide and sulfide assemblages using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to establish their partitioning behaviour during the immiscibility of an arsenide melt from a sulfide melt. Previous experimental work has shown that PGE partition more strongly into arsenide melts than into sulfide melts and our results fit with this observation. Arsenide minerals are enriched in all PGE, but especially in elements with the strongest affinity for the arsenide melt, including Ir, Rh and Pt. In contrast and also in agreement with previous studies, Se and Ag partition preferentially into the sulfide assemblage. The PGE-depleted nature of sulfides in the S-G deposits along with the discordant morphologies of the bodies suggest that these sulfides are not mantle sulfides, but that they represent the crystallization product of a PGE-depleted sulfide melt due to the sequestering of PGE by an arsenide melt.

  17. LA-ICP-MS mapping of olivine from the Brahin and Brenham meteorites: Complex elemental distributions in the pallasite olivine precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Mallmann, Guilherme; Halfpenny, Angela

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the early history of olivine from the Main-Group pallasites Brahin and Brenham, we have spatially mapped their trace-element distributions using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Brahin olivine interiors contain ∼100-200 μm patches enriched in Cr, Al, Ti, V, Sc and Ga, separated by linear enrichments of P; these structures bear no relation to current crystal morphologies. Rather, cross-cutting relationships suggest they predate olivine-metal mixing. Brenham olivine also has internal variations for these elements. By contrast, Ni and Co concentrations in olivine from both meteorites decrease near crystal margins, as expected for freezing-in of profiles formed during diffusive re-equilibration with metal during cooling. Brenham olivine also has decreasing Al, Cr and Ti near the margin. Correlations between concentrations of Cr and Al exist for individual Brahin olivine grains, but do not hold over multiple grains, indicating a heterogeneous precursor. Al and Ti are correlated over multiple grains in Brahin, interpreted as Ti cations decorating pre-existing Al-defects. In Brenham olivine, similar geochemical trends exist, but the Cr-Al relationship probably represents both grain margin effects and pre-existing internal heterogeneity. The preservation of structure for elements which are normally fast diffusers in olivine hinges on coupled substitutions involving Al, which along with P diffuses much more slowly than most other elements under some conditions. Al concentrations in olivine are low and variable (3-33 ppm) which is inconsistent with crystallisation from a normal silicate melt; Al-in-olivine thermometers indicate that pallasite olivine was formed in a low-temperature environment. Following its delivery to the magma ocean/core-mantle boundary, Al-P systematics were not substantially modified. Assuming diffusivities for Al and P that are similar to Si (since they reside in the same crystallographic site

  18. Mid-Paleozoic arc granitoids in SW Japan with Neoproterozoic xenocrysts from South China: New zircon U-Pb ages by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazumasa; Isozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Kurosegawa belt in SW Japan preserves fragments of Early-Middle Paleozoic granitoids traditionally called the Mitaki igneous rocks and previously dated ca. 470-435 Ma by several isotope analyses such as Rb-Sr, K-Ar and U-Pb, together with high-grade metamorphic rocks and Silurian strata, in a narrow belt. However, the timing of the oldest arc-related plutonism in Japan is constrained by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages of zircon from Mitaki granitoids in 3 areas in SW Japan; i.e. Kyushu, Shikoku, and Kii Peninsula. Weighted mean U-Pb ages of these zircons are 431.8 ± 3.9 for a granodiorite from the Mt. Mitaki area in Shikoku, 444.1 ± 5.8 Ma for a granodiorite from Kuraoka area in central Kyushu, and 444.5 ± 7.6 Ma for a quartzdiorite from the Nabaenohana area in western Kii peninsula, respectively. These ages confirm that the Mitaki igneous rocks have ca. 445-435 Ma (late Ordovician to mid-Silurian) ages. They are some of the oldest subduction-related plutonic rocks in SW Japan. Particularly noteworthy is a "tonalite" from the Nabaenohana area, which has a unique spectrum of zircon U-Pb ages with distinct 3 clusters; ca. 700-500 Ma (Neoproterozoic-Cambrian), ca. 1350-830 Ma (Meo-Neoproterozoic), and ca. 3230-1560 Ma (Paleoarchean-Mesoproterozoic). Of the 44 dated zircon grains, the youngest (possibly xenocrystic) grains are ca. 500 Ma. Older zircon grains with ages >500 Ma range up to 3230 Ma and are interpreted as inherited xenocrysts in the "tonalite". The Mitaki igneous rocks are interpreted to have been derived by melting of post-500 Ma terrigenous sedimentary rocks that yielded a unique tonalitic S-type granitoid magma. From the presence of abundant 1350-700 Ma (Meso- to Neoproterozoic) zircon grains in the "tonalite" we conclude that during the Early Paleozoic, proto-Japan was located close to the Cathaysian margin of South China.

  19. Did the massive magnetite "lava flows" of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite composition by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-06-01

    The El Laco magnetite deposits consist of more than 98 % magnetite but show field textures remarkably similar to mafic lava flows. Therefore, it has long been suggested that they represent a rare example of an effusive Fe oxide liquid. Field and petrographic evidence, however, suggest that the magnetite deposits represent replacement of andesite flows and that the textures are pseudomorphs. We determined the trace element content of magnetite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from various settings at El Laco and compared them with magnetite from both igneous and hydrothermal environments. This new technique allows us to place constraints on the conditions under which magnetite in these supposed magnetite "lava flows" formed. The trace element content of magnetite from the massive magnetite samples is different to any known magmatic magnetite, including primary magnetite phenocrysts from the unaltered andesite host rocks at El Laco. Instead, the El Laco magnetite is most similar in composition to hydrothermal magnetite from high-temperature environments (>500 °C), such as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry-Cu deposits. The magnetite trace elements from massive magnetite are characterised by (1) depletion in elements considered relatively immobile in hydrothermal fluids (e.g. Ti, Al, Cr, Zr, Hf and Sc); (2) enrichment in elements that are highly incompatible with magmatic magnetite (rare earth elements (REE), Si, Ca, Na and P) and normally present in very low abundance in magmatic magnetite; (3) high Ni/Cr ratios which are typical of magnetite from hydrothermal environments; and (4) oscillatory zoning of Si, Ca, Mg, REE and most high field strength elements, and zoning truncations indicating dissolution, similar to that formed in hydrothermal Fe skarn deposits. In addition, secondary magnetite in altered, brecciated host rock, forming disseminations and veins, has the same composition as magnetite from the massive

  20. Effects of hydrothermal alteration on Pb in the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field, ODP Leg 193, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: A LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick; Scott, Steven D.; Gorton, Michael P.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Halter, Werner

    2007-09-01

    The conventional model of leaching volcanic rocks as a source of metals in a seafloor hydrothermal systems has been tested by examining the behavior of Pb and other trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. ODP Leg 193 drill sites 1188 (Snowcap) and 1189 (Roman Ruins) on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus Basin offshore eastern Papua New Guinea provide a unique three-dimensional window into an active back-arc hydrothermal system. We investigate by means of a LA-ICP-MS microbeam technique the capacity of Pb to be leached from a host volcanic rock exposed to various types and intensities of alteration. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that utilized bulk analytical techniques but provide a more detailed explanation of the processes. Fresh representative dacitic lavas from the Pual Ridge have an average whole rock Pb content of 5.2 ppm, an average interstitial glass Pb content of 5.6 ppm and an average plagioclase Pb content of 1.0 ppm. Altered matrix samples have highly variable Pb values ranging from 0 to 52.4 ppm. High Pb values in altered samples are associated with a low temperature chlorite and clay mineral assemblage, in some cases overprinted by a high temperature (up to 350 °C) silica-rich "bleaching" alteration. Only the most highly altered matrix samples have REE patterns that differ from the fresh Pual Ridge dacite. This may represent either different lava histories or alteration characteristics that have affected normally immobile REEs. Altered samples with the highest Pb values have similar REE patterns to those of the local unaltered lavas. They are compositionally similar to typical Pual Ridge dacites indicating a genetic relationship between the main regional volcanic suite and the subseafloor hydrothermally altered, Pb-enriched material. Relative loss/gain for Pb between the analyzed altered samples and a calculated precursor show a maximum relative gain of 901%. Samples with relative Pb gain from both drill sites are

  1. Detrital zircon geochronology by LA-ICP-MS of the Neoarchean Manjeri Formation in the Archean Zimbabwe craton- the disappearance of Eoarchean crust by 2.7 Ga?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hikaru; Maruyama, Shigenori; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    For the ca. 2.7 Ga (Neoarchean) clastic rocks in the Belingwe greenstone belt (Manjeri Formation), U-Pb age of detrital zircon grains were analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The Manjeri Formation, composed of sandstone, quartzite, and limestone with stromatolites, was deposited in a shallow marine setting along the ancient passive continental margin of the Zimbabwe craton. Nearly 100 detrital zircon grains, for each from two sandstone samples in central Zimbabwe, were separated for U-Pb dating. Age spectra of detrital zircon grains of two analyzed sandstones of the Manjeri Formation show more or less the same multiple age clusters: i.e., ca. 2.9 Ga, ca. 3.15 Ga, ca. 3.3 Ga, and ca. 3.5 Ga. These age spectra reflect nature of the provenance of proto-Zimbabwe, which was considerably different from that of the modern Zimbabwe craton. The age clusters of ca. 2.9 Ga, ca. 3.3 Ga, and ca. 3.5 Ga are correlated with those of extant basement rocks of the present Zimbabwe craton, whereas the ca. 3.15 Ga cluster has no corresponding unit within the craton, except for detrital zircons from the 2.65 Ga Shamvaian Group in a neighboring area of the Zimbabwe craton. The extremely old (3.85 Ga; Eoarchean) detrital zircon grains, previously reported from the ca. 2.9 Ga and ca. 3.4 Ga sandstones elsewhere in the craton, were not detected at all in the present two analyzed samples. As no Eoarchean (>3.8 Ga) basement rocks remain in the Zimbabwe craton at present either, the present study confirmed that the Eoarchean crustal rocks once occurred in the proto-Zimbabwe craton but they had been removed secondarily from the provenance of Neoarchean and younger basins prior to 2.7 Ga. Possible geologic processes for such disappearance of older crusts may include the physiological separation by continental rifting, subduction erosion, and/or other crustal recycling processes.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Fluctuations in Ancestral Northern Cascade Arc Magmatism from New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, I. S.; Mullen, E.; Jean-Louis, P.; Tepper, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Mt. Baker and the adjacent Chilliwack batholith (MBC focus) in NW Washington preserve the longest magmatic record in the Cascade Arc, providing an excellent natural laboratory for examining the spatial, temporal and geochemical evolution of Cascade magmatism and links to tectonic processes. We present new U-Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS ages for 14 samples from MBC and neighboring regions of the north Cascades. The new results are up to 8 Myr different from previous K-Ar ages, illustrating the need for new age determinations in the Cascades. A maximum age of 34.74±0.24 Ma (2σ) (Post Creek stock) is consistent with 35-40 Ma ages for arc inception in the southern Cascades. The most voluminous MBC plutons cluster at 32-29 Ma, consistent with an early flare-up that also coincides with intrusion of the Index batholith farther south (2 samples at 33.26±0.19, 33.53±0.15 Ma). This flare-up is absent in the northernmost Cascades where the oldest pluton (Fall Creek stock) is 6.646±0.046 Ma, 4 Myr younger than previously cited. Earliest Cascade magmatism is progressively younger to the north of MBC, possibly tracing the northerly passage of the slab edge. MBC activity was continuous to 22.75±0.17 Ma (Whatcom Arm), marking the initiation of an 11 Myr hiatus. Magmatism resumed at 11.33±0.08 Ma (Indian Creek) and continued to the modern Mt. Baker cone, defining a pattern of southwesterly migration over ~55 km that may be attributable to slab rollback and arc rotation (e.g. Wells & McCaffrey 2013). Uniformity of the rate and direction of migration implies that rollback and rotation began at least 11 Myr ago. Post-hiatus magmas show distinct geochemical and petrologic characteristics including a major Pb isotopic shift. The 2.430±0.016 Ma Lake Ann stock contains 4.2 Ma zircon antecrysts, recording prolonged activity in that area. The 1.165±0.013 Ma Kulshan caldera ignimbrite contains ~200 Ma inherited zircons that may provide the first direct record of Wrangellian basement beneath

  3. Extreme enrichment of Se, Te, PGE and Au in Cu sulfide microdroplets: evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, David A.; Keays, Reid R.; McDonald, Iain; Williams, Megan R.

    2015-12-01

    The Platinova Reef, in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a magmatic Cu-PGE-Au sulfide deposit formed in the latter stages of magmatic differentiation. As is characteristic with such deposits, it contains a low volume of sulfide, displays peak metal offsets and is Cu rich but Ni poor. However, even for such deposits, the Platinova Reef contains extremely low volumes of sulfide and the highest Pd and Au tenor sulfides of any magmatic ore deposit. Here, we present the first LA-ICP-MS analyses of sulfide microdroplets from the Platinova Reef, which show that they have the highest Se concentrations (up to 1200 ppm) and lowest S/Se ratios (190-700) of any known magmatic sulfide deposit and have significant Te enrichment. In addition, where sulfide volume increases, there is a change from high Pd-tenor microdroplets trapped in situ to larger, low tenor sulfides. The transition between these two sulfide regimes is marked by sharp peaks in Au, and then Te concentration, followed by a wider peak in Se, which gradually decreases with height. Mineralogical evidence implies that there is no significant post-magmatic hydrothermal S loss and that the metal profiles are essentially a function of magmatic processes. We propose that to generate these extreme precious and semimetal contents, the sulfides must have formed from an anomalously metal-rich package of magma, possibly formed via the dissolution of a previously PGE-enriched sulfide. Other processes such as kinetic diffusion may have also occurred alongside this to produce the ultra-high tenors. The characteristic metal offset pattern observed is largely controlled by partitioning effects, producing offset peaks in the order Pt+Pd>Au>Te>Se>Cu that are entirely consistent with published D values. This study confirms that extreme enrichment in sulfide droplets can occur in closed-system layered intrusions in situ, but this will characteristically form ore deposits that are so low in sulfide that they do

  4. Reply to Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on the 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Guillong et al. (2015) mentioned that corrections for abundance sensitivity for 232Th and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon for LA-ICP-MS analyses. There is no denying that more rigorous treatments are necessary to obtain more reliable ages than those in Ito (2014). However, as shown in Fig. 2 in Guillong et al. (2015), the uncorrected (230Th)/(238U) for reference zircons except for Mud Tank are only 5-20% higher than unity. Since U abundance of Toya Tephra zircons that have U-Pb ages < 1 Ma is in-between that of FCT and Plesovice, the overestimation of 230Th by both abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences is expected to be 5-20% for the Toya Tephra. Moreover Ito (2014) obtained U-Th ages of the Toya Tephra by comparison with Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) data. Because both the FCT and the Toya Tephra have similar trends of overestimation of 230Th, the effect of overestimation of 230Th to cause overestimation of U-Th age should be cancelled out or negligible. Therefore the pivotal conclusion in Ito (2014) that simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating using LA-ICP-MS is possible and useful for Quaternary zircons holds true.

  5. Quantification of Al2O3 nanoparticles in human cell lines applying inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (neb-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) and flow cytometry-based methods.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Steffi; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Kühnel, Dana; Busch, Wibke

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantify and compare the uptake of aluminum oxide nanoparticles of three different sizes into two human cell lines (skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and lung epithelial cells (A549)), three analytical methods were applied: digestion followed by nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (neb-ICP-MS), direct laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS), and flow cytometry. Light and electron microscopy revealed an accumulation and agglomeration of all particle types within the cell cytoplasm, whereas no particles were detected in the cell nuclei. The internalized Al2O3 particles exerted no toxicity in the two cell lines after 24 h of exposure. The smallest particles with a primary particle size (x BET) of 14 nm (Alu1) showed the lowest sedimentation velocity within the cell culture media, but were calculated to have settled completely after 20 h. Alu2 (x BET = 111 nm) and Alu3 (x BET = 750 nm) were calculated to reach the cell surface after 7 h and 3 min, respectively. The internal concentrations determined with the different methods lay in a comparable range of 2-8 µg Al2O3/cm(2) cell layer, indicating the suitability of all methods to quantify the nanoparticle uptake. Nevertheless, particle size limitations of analytical methods using optical devices were demonstrated for LA-ICP-MS and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the consideration and comparison of particle properties as parameters for particle internalization revealed the particle size and the exposure concentration as determining factors for particle uptake. PMID:25285033

  6. Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on the 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th zircon dating using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was performed on the ~ 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Hokkaido, Japan. The method employs the concurrent measurement of 206Pb, 230Th, and 238U signals, which enables the determination of 238U-206Pb (U-Pb) and 238U-230Th (U-Th) ages simultaneously. The U-Pb ages revealed that the Toya Tephra contains zircons with ages that cluster at ~ 0.1 Ma (0.11 ± 0.01 Ma: error shown as 95% confidence level) and xenocrysts with ages > 2 Ma. Excluding zircons > 2 Ma, the U-Th method also gave an isochron age of ~ 0.1 Ma (108 ± 19 ka or 0.11 ± 0.02 Ma; error shown as 2σ). Therefore, both U-Pb and U-Th methods result in similar ages of ~ 0.1 Ma for the Toya Tephra, in agreement with the quartz TL age (104 ± 30 to 118 ± 30 ka) of Ganzawa and Ike (2011). It was revealed that the simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th zircon dating technique using LA-ICP-MS is easy to apply and is useful for Quaternary tephras in that it can give age information on the tephra itself and xenocrystic zircons in a quick and cost-effective manner. The double dating technique employed here has the merit that zircons yielding Quaternary U-Pb ages can be immediately cross-checked by the U-Th method. It was also revealed that the Toya Tephra magma crystallized zircons and experienced eruptions instantaneously at ~ 0.1 Ma, which is an important implication to decipher magmatic and eruptive processes for caldera-forming large volcanic systems.

  7. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  8. LA-ICP-MS analyses of minor and trace elements and bulk Ge isotopes in zoned Ge-rich sphalerites from the Noailhac - Saint-Salvy deposit (France): Insights into incorporation mechanisms and ore deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belissont, Rémi; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Luais, Béatrice; Cathelineau, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The increasing worldwide demand in germanium (Ge) is driving renewed research for understanding its geological cycle and the factors controlling its concentration in minerals. The advent of accurate, high-resolution trace element analysis by LA-ICP-MS, as well as the advances in MC-ICP-MS technique for Ge isotopes in sulphides, has enhanced studies in this field. Ge isobaric interferences, standard calibration and data interpretation remain outstanding issues needing to be addressed for more precise and comprehensive LA-ICP-MS analyses. An integrated mineralogical and geochemical study was carried out on typical sphalerite (ZnS) samples from the main Ge deposit in western Europe: the vein-type Zn-Ge-Ag-(Pb-Cd) deposit of Noailhac - Saint-Salvy (Tarn, France). In situ coupled measurements of trace elements and S isotopes were performed using LA-ICP-MS and SIMS, respectively, together with bulk Ge isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. Principal component analyses revealed element clusters antithetically distributed within distinct zoning types in sphalerite: sector zonings are enriched in Cu, Ge, Ga, Sb and As, whereas rhythmic bandings (dark brown bands primarily) are enriched in Fe, Cd, In and Sn. This typical distribution points to crystallographic controls on trace element uptake during sphalerite growth, occurring with concomitant microscale variations in fluid compositions at the fluid-crystal interface. Regardless of the zoning type, in all spots, Cu contents approach the sum of tri- and tetravalent cations (Ge, Ga, In, etc.) so that Cu could provide charge-balance for the entire set of coupled substitution mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of the whole range of trace elements in this sphalerite. Strong binary correlations suggest direct substitutions as Zn2+ ↔ (Fe2+, Cd2+) and coupled substitutions as 2Zn2+ ↔ Cu+ + Sb3+, 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2Ag+, and 3Zn2+ ↔ In3+ + Sn3+ + □ (vacancy) despite no clear evidence for the presence of Sn4+. δ74GeNIST3120a in bulk

  9. Tectonic attribution of the Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Western North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the Langshan basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Bo; Kong, Ling-Jie

    2016-09-01

    The Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia, China, is situated on the conjunction of the Alxa Block in the west, the northern North China Craton (NCC) in the east, and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the north, but its tectonic attribution has long been in debate, because the Alxa Block may be an independent Precambrian block from the NCC and the boundary between the two blocks may lie along the Bayanwulashan, to the west of the Langshan, instead of around the Helanshan area, to the east of the Langshan. In this study, new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of four gneisses, one amphibolite, and three granites, combined with previously published age data from Langshan basement rocks, indicate that the Langshan area may be subdivided into the Main Langshan, to the north of a series of NNW-trending faults, and the Southern Langshan in the south. The Main Langshan basement rocks were mainly formed during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with five major stages of ~ 2.7 Ga (2686 Ma), ~ 2.6 Ga (2619-2563 Ma), ~ 2.5 Ga (2534-2491 Ma), ~ 1.95 Ga (1969-1938 Ma), and ~ 1.7 Ga (1672 Ma). These stages are largely consistent with the major tectonothermal events of the northern NCC during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic but significantly different from the principal formation period (ca. 2.5-1.9 Ga) of Alxa basement rocks. The Southern Langshan is characterized by the presence of late Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.9 Ga) and Neoproterozoic (~ 0.9 Ga) rocks, and the latter is consistent with the Neoproterozoic magmatism in central Alxa Block, which might be formed in a orogenesis-related compressional environment, in contrast to contemporaneous rift-related extensional tectonic setting within the NCC. Therefore, the Main Langshan and the Southern Langshan are most likely closely related to the northern NCC and the Alxa Block, respectively.

  10. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  11. Characterization of depositional age and structure of sedimentary successions by U-Pb TIMS and LA-ICP-MS dating of volcanic horizons and detrital zircons: an example from the western Trondheim Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Grenne, Tor; Corfu, Fernando; Eivind Augland, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Revealing the absolute depositional age of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions represents a long-lasting challenge in Earth Sciences. Lacking age control hampers the correct interpretation of the temporal evolution of depositional systems, and, if deformed, of the architecture of fold-and-thrust belts. Dating of detrital zircons within clastic sedimentary successions has over the past decades become a popular method to approximate the absolute depositional age and to characterize the source areas of such rocks. If combined with other geochronological information, such as dating of contemporaneous volcanic horizons, a much better resolution of the stratigraphy and structure of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions can be achieved. The western Trondheim nappe complex in the central Scandinavian Caledonides is a classical area in this respect. On top of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ophiolitic fragments, various volcanic, volcano-clastic and clastic successions tell a complex story of island-arc formation, ocean closure and continent collision. Several famous fossil horizons indicate deposition during the Middle to Upper Ordovician (ca. 470-445 Ma), but large areas lack an absolute age control and several contrasting stratigraphic schemes and structural interpretations have been presented in the past. In this contribution we present the results of LA-ICP-MS detrital U-Pb zircon dating of clastic horizons as well as U-Pb TIMS zircon dating of volcanic horizons and magmatic clasts in conglomerates in order to characterize the depositional age and structure of the western Trondheim nappe complex in more detail. Together with field observations, including way up criteria, the zircon data enable significant revisions of existing stratigraphic and structural models. At least four (volcano-)sedimentary successions can be distinguished above the ca. 480-485 Ma greenstones: (1) ca. 470-463 Ma shales, limestones and andesitic porphyrites (Hølonda and Fanabekken

  12. The Cadomian Orogeny and the opening of the Rheic Ocean: The diacrony of geotectonic processes constrained by LA-ICP-MS U Pb zircon dating (Ossa-Morena and Saxo-Thuringian Zones, Iberian and Bohemian Massifs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Pereira, Francisco; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Drost, Kerstin; Gerdes, Axel

    2008-12-01

    Cadomian orogenic processes and their continuum to the opening of the Rheic Ocean were modeled by making use of new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages from detrital zircons of sedimentary rocks of Late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) and Cambro-Ordovician sediments of the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberian Massif) compared with those from the Saxo-Thuringian Zones (Bohemian Massif). Presented data constrain a diachrony of Cadomian and related geotectonic processes along the northern realm of the Gondwana Supercontinent. Early stage of Cadomian evolution is characterized by a continental magmatic arc at the periphery of the West African Craton and a related back-arc basin opened at c. 590 to 570 Ma. Diacronic arc-continent collision was caused by oblique vector of subduction and started first in the East of Peri-Gondwana at c. 560-570 Ma and resulted at c. 543 Ma in the formation of a short-lived Cadomian retro-arc basin in the Saxo-Thuringian Zone. In contrast, more to the West in the Ossa-Morena Zone, the Cadomian back-arc basin was longer active, at least until c. 545 Ma. In that region, final magmatic pulse of the Cadomian magmatic arc at c. 550 Ma is documented by new zircon data. Closure of the Cadomian back-arc basin and arc-continent collision in the Ossa-Morena Zone occurred between c. 545 Ma and the overall onset of Cambrian plutonism at c. 540 Ma. A mid-oceanic ridge was subducted underneath the Cadomian orogen accompanied by slab break-off of the subducted oceanic plate. Oblique incision of the oceanic ridge into the continent caused the formation of rift basins during the Lower to Middle Cambrian (c. 530-500 Ma). This process continued and finally caused the opening of the Rheic Ocean documented by thick Lower Ordovician siliciclastic sediments and a final magmatic event at c. 490-485 Ma. Opening of the Cambrian rift basin and of the Rheic Ocean again was diachronic and started from the West of Peri-Gondwana and expanded eastward.

  13. Telescience workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.; Doyle, Dee; Haines, Richard F.; Slocum, Michael

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Telescience Testbed Pilot Program, the Universities Space Research Association/ Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (USRA/RIACS) proposed to support remote communication by providing a network of human/machine interfaces, computer resources, and experimental equipment which allows: remote science, collaboration, technical exchange, and multimedia communication. The telescience workstation is intended to provide a local computing environment for telescience. The purpose of the program are as follows: (1) to provide a suitable environment to integrate existing and new software for a telescience workstation; (2) to provide a suitable environment to develop new software in support of telescience activities; (3) to provide an interoperable environment so that a wide variety of workstations may be used in the telescience program; (4) to provide a supportive infrastructure and a common software base; and (5) to advance, apply, and evaluate the telescience technolgy base. A prototype telescience computing environment designed to bring practicing scientists in domains other than their computer science into a modern style of doing their computing was created and deployed. This environment, the Telescience Windowing Environment, Phase 1 (TeleWEn-1), met some, but not all of the goals stated above. The TeleWEn-1 provided a window-based workstation environment and a set of tools for text editing, document preparation, electronic mail, multimedia mail, raster manipulation, and system management.

  14. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  15. Workstations in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, William; Gage, John

    1985-01-01

    Workstations are microprocessor-based desktop computers with the hardware architecture of superminicomputers, combining virtual memory with sophisticated operating systems, communications protocols, advanced languages, and high-resolution graphics. The development of workstations and their uses in scientific environments are discussed. (JN)

  16. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

  17. Defining clinical 'workstation'.

    PubMed

    Safran, C

    1994-01-01

    Interest in the physician's workstation has increased, yet often seems to focus on technological issues. At Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, the Center for Clinical Computing includes heavily used clinical workstations. Their evolution over the past 20 years suggests design criteria: the workstation must be patient-centered, the interface must be uniform, and data acquisition must be addressed at a system level. However, it is clinical function that really defines a workstation. The workstation should do the following: display patient information rapidly and flexibly; assist with administrative tasks; facilitate communication; and provide four important types of decision support: access to literature, access to databases, clinical calculation, and 'synthetic vision,' or different views of patient data. The solutions to our healthcare problems are not in 'workboxes' we can buy, but in creative approaches we can imagine. We need a patient-centered infrastructure and a reduced workload for the clinician-perhaps a 'worklesstation'. PMID:8125637

  18. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  19. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  20. Get 'smart' about workstations.

    PubMed

    Van Alstin, Chad Michael

    2015-06-01

    The days of accessing patient health records via a clipboard and keeping drugs stored under simple lock and key are unceremoniously coming to a close. As healthcare IT paves the way toward a future run on data and interoperable systems, "smart" workstations are popping up in practices all over the world, streamlining workflow and creating a safer environment for clinician and patient alike. Health Management Technology talks with two of the leading manufacturers of automated systems and mobile workstations to discuss how they are changing the way providers and patients experience healthcare services. PMID:26357759

  1. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  2. Novel calibration for LA-ICP-MS-based fission-track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, C. J.; Guedes, S.; Hadler, J. C.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Iunes, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel age-equation calibration for fission-track age determinations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This new calibration incorporates the efficiency factor of an internal surface, [ ηq]is, which is obtained by measuring the projected fission-track length, allowing the determination of FT ages directly using the recommended spontaneous fission decay constant. Also, the uranium concentrations in apatite samples are determined using a Durango (Dur-2, 7.44 μg/g U) crystal and a Mud Tank (MT-7, 6.88 μg/g U) crystal as uranium reference materials. The use of matrix-matched reference materials allows a reduction in the uncertainty of the uranium measurements to those related to counting statistics, which are ca. 1 % taking into account that no extra source of uncertainty has to be considered. The equations as well as the matrix-matched reference materials are evaluated using well-dated samples from Durango, Fish Canyon Tuff, and Limberg as unknown samples. The results compare well with their respective published ages determined through other dating methods. Additionally, the results agree with traditional fission-track ages using both the zeta approach and the absolute approach, suggesting that the calibration presented in this work can be robustly applied in geological context. Furthermore, considering that fission-track ages can be determined without an age standard sample, the fission-track thermochronology approach presented here is assumed to be a valuable dating tool.

  3. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  4. Efficient analysis of complex natural materials using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.; Loewen, M. W.; Koleszar, A. M.; Miller, J.; Ungerer, C. "

    2011-12-01

    Many natural materials exhibit complex variations in chemical or isotopic composition over relatively short length scales, and these compositional variations often record important information about the environment or nature of the processes that lead to formation. Examples include complexly zoned crystals within volcanic rocks that record magmatic and volcanic signals, otoliths and other biominerals that record life history and environmental information, and speleothems that record climatic variables. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses offer several advantages for quantifying compositional in chemically complex natural materials. These include the speed of analysis, the ability to sample at atmospheric pressures, the wide diversity of possible analytes, and the ability to make measurements in both spot and raster modes. The latter in particular offers advantages for analyses that require efficient acquisition of information over significant length scales, as in raster mode compositional data can be rapidly obtained by translating the laser laterally over a compositional variable material during a single analysis. In this fashion elemental or isotopic composition at a given analysis time corresponds to the lateral spatial dimension. This contrasts with a record obtained by a row of individual spots, which require a large number of discrete analyses, and requires significantly more analysis time. However there are also disadvantages to this style of analysis. Translation of the circular spots typically used for analysis results in significant signal attenuation and production of artifacts that may mirror natural diffusion profiles or other gradual changes. The ability to ablate using non-circular spots significantly reduces this effect, although the degree of attenuation is also increased by slower ablation cell response times. For single volume cells this may result in 50-100% additional attenuation than that produced by the translation of the spot alone, although two-volume and other rapid response cells significantly reduce this effect. Raster analyses are also highly sensitive to the presence of small contaminant phases along the raster trajectory, as the compositional signal from these can become attenuated and difficult to distinguish from natural compositional variations. It can also be difficult to establish exactly where compositional changes occur in materials that are visually homogenous. In this contribution we discuss these issues in more detail and present data acquisition and processing strategies that minimize these difficulties.

  5. An innovative workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    A workstation was developed which uses the operator's eye movements and position to determine the placement of the cursor on a computer screen. A brainwave sensing technology overview and an introduction to the known rhythms or signals generated by the brain are given. This is followed by a descriptive explanation of the Ocular Attention Interface System (OASIS) and its intended integration into the proposed testbed.

  6. Scoping study: Substation design workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, S.F. ); Conroy, M.W. ); Singh, N.M. )

    1993-03-01

    This project conducted a survey, consisting of a written questionaire, a workshop, and site visits to determine what facets of substation engineering would benefit from incorporation into a workstation environment. Based on the needs expressed by the respondents, a program for the staged development of a Substation Workstation is recommended. Six analytical function modules for assisting in substation engineering were identified for potential inclusion in the workstation: Initial Planning Activities; Physical Plant Design; Analytical Functions; Civil/Structural Design; Environmental Design; and Project Management. The initial release of the Substation Workstation is recommended to include the workstation environment (including MENTOR -- a concept for on-line help, tutorials, notepad, a minor spreadsheet, and interfaces to other regular desktop functions) and portions of the first three functional modules listed above. Recommendations for progress beyond this first release of the workstation included the development of additional capabilities within the initial functional modules, as well as the development of the remaining modules. An overlap exists between the analytical requirements for this workstation and those already included in the EPRI TLWorkstation and the ICWorkstation. In some cases, elements of these other workstations are also suggested for incorporation into the Substation Workstation (such as the foundation analyses from the TLWorkstation), and in others, an assimilation of the other workstation into the Substation Workstation is recommended (as with the ICWorkstation). Estimated resources for implementing the recommended program, including both costs and development time, are also provided.

  7. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  8. Microanalytic Coding versus Global Rating of Maternal Parenting Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Basha, Allison; Adamson, Michelle; Winter, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between microanalytic coding and global rating systems when coding maternal parenting behaviour in two contexts. Observational data from 55 mother--child interactions with two- to four-year-old children, in either a mealtime (clinic; N?=?20 or control; N?=?20) or a playtime context (community; N?=?15), were…

  9. Teachers' Perceived Usefulness of Strategy Microanalytic Assessment Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined special education teachers' ratings of the usefulness of strategy microanalytic assessment (SMA) (i.e., self-regulation, strategy use) and standardized norm-referenced assessment information (SNRA) (i.e., cognitive and academic skills). Ninety-six participants separately rated the frequency with which SMA and SNRA are…

  10. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  11. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  12. Firefly: A multiprocessor workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, C.P.; Stewart, L.C.; Satterthwaite, E.H.

    1988-08-01

    Firefly is a shared memory multiprocessor workstation developed at the Digital Equipment Corporation Systems Research Center (SRC). A Firefly system consists of from one to nine VLSI VAX processors, each with a floating point accelerator and a cache. The caches are coherent, so that all processors see a consistent view of main memory. The Firefly runs a software system that emulates the Ultrix system call interface, and in addition provides support for multiprocessing through multiple threads of control in a single address space. Communication is provided uniformly through the use of remote procedure call. The authors describe the goals, hardware, software system, and performance of the Firefly, and discuss the extent to which SRC has been successful in providing software to take advantage of multi-processing.

  13. Zero-G Workstation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.

  14. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  15. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  16. Laparoscopic telesurgical workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, Murat C.; Cohn, Michael B.; Tendick, Frank; Sastry, S. Shankar

    1998-06-01

    Robotic telesurgery is a promising application of robotics to medicine, aiming to enhance the dexterity and sensation of minimally invasive surgery through millimeter-scale manipulators under control of the surgeon. With appropriate communication links, it would also be possible to perform remote surgery for care in rural areas where specialty care is unavailable, or to provide emergency care en route to a hospital. The UC Berkeley/Endorobotics/UCSF Telesurgical Workstation is a master-slave telerobotic system, with two 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robotic manipulators, designed for laparoscopic surgery. The slave robotic has a 2 DOF wrist inside the body to allow high dexterity manipulation in addition to the 4 DOF of motion possible through the entry port, which are actuated by an external gross motion platform. The kinematics and the controller of the system are designed to accommodate the force and movement requirements of complex tasks, including suturing and knot tying. The system has force feedback in 4 axes to improve the sensation of telesurgery. In this paper, the telesurgical system will be introduced with discussion of kinematic and control issues and presentation of in vitro test results.

  17. VAX Professional Workstation goes graphic

    SciTech Connect

    Downward, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The VAX Professional Workstation (VPW) is a collection of programs and procedures designed to provide an integrated work-station environment for the staff at KMS Fusion's research laboratories. During the past year numerous capabilities have been added to VPW, including support for VT125/VT240/4014 graphic workstations, editing windows, and additional desk utilities. Graphics workstation support allows users to create, edit, and modify graph data files, enter the data via a graphic tablet, create simple plots with DATATRIEVE or DECgraph on ReGIS terminals, or elaborate plots with TEKGRAPH on ReGIS or Tektronix terminals. Users may assign display error bars to the data and interactively plot it in a variety of ways. Users also can create and display viewgraphs. Hard copy output for a large network of office terminals is obtained by multiplexing each terminal's video output into a recently developed video multiplexer front ending a single channel video hard copy unit.

  18. Workshop on NASA workstation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    RIACS hosted a workshop which was designed to foster communication among those people within NASA working on workstation related technology, to share technology, and to learn about new developments and futures in the larger university and industrial workstation communities. Herein, the workshop is documented along with its conclusions. It was learned that there is both a large amount of commonality of requirements and a wide variation in the modernness of in-use technology among the represented NASA centers.

  19. Arusha Rover Deployable Medical Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Tyrone; Hopson, Sonya; Marzette, Russell; Monroe, Gilena; Mustafa, Ruqayyah

    2014-01-01

    The NSBE Arusha rover concept offers a means of human transport and habitation during long-term exploration missions on the moon. This conceptual rover calls for the availability of medical supplies and equipment for crew members in order to aid in mission success. This paper addresses the need for a dedicated medical work station aboard the Arusha rover. The project team investigated multiple options for implementing a feasible deployable station to address both the medical and workstation layout needs of the rover and crew. Based on layout specifications and medical workstation requirements, the team has proposed a deployable workstation concept that can be accommodated within the volumetric constraints of the Arusha rover spacecraft

  20. Workstation analysis for nuclear design

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, J.; Cecil, A.; Hardin, D.; Hartwell, D.; Long, J.

    1985-07-02

    This report contains an analysis of workstation needs for code development in the Nuclear Design Program of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The purpose of this analysis was to identify those features of existing workstations that would significantly enhance the effectiveness and productivity of programmers and code developer physicists in their daily interaction with Cray supercomputers located on the Octopus Network at the Laboratory. The analysis took place from March 1985 through June 1985. The analysis report is broken into two parts. Part 1 identifies the end users and their working environment. Definitions are given for terms used throughout the remainder of the report. Part 2 lists the characteristics that an ideal workstation ought to have to be useful for code development in the Nuclear Design Program.

  1. Computational Control Workstation: Users' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Straube, Timothy M.; Tave, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    A Workstation has been designed and constructed for rapidly simulating motions of rigid and elastic multibody systems. We examine the Workstation from the point of view of analysts who use the machine in an industrial setting. Two aspects of the device distinguish it from other simulation programs. First, one uses a series of windows and menus on a computer terminal, together with a keyboard and mouse, to provide a mathematical and geometrical description of the system under consideration. The second hallmark is a facility for animating simulation results. An assessment of the amount of effort required to numerically describe a system to the Workstation is made by comparing the process to that used with other multibody software. The apparatus for displaying results as a motion picture is critiqued as well. In an effort to establish confidence in the algorithms that derive, encode, and solve equations of motion, simulation results from the Workstation are compared to answers obtained with other multibody programs. Our study includes measurements of computational speed.

  2. Fully automated solid weighing workstation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen K-F; Lu, YiFeng; Heineman, William; Palmer, Janice; Courtney, Carter

    2005-08-01

    A fully automated, solid-to-solid weighing workstation (patent pending) is described in this article. The core of this automated process is the use of an electrostatically charged pipette tip to attract solid particles on its outside surface. The particles were then dislodged into a 1.2-mL destination vial in a microbalance by spinning the pipette tip. Textures of solid that could be weighed included powder, crystalline, liquid, and semi-solid substances. The workstation can pick up submilligram quantities of sample (=0.3mg) from source vials containing as little as 1mg. The destination vials containing the samples were stored in a 96-well rack to enable subsequent automated liquid handling. Using bovine serum albumin as test solid, the coefficient of variation of the protein concentration for 48 samples is less than 6%. The workstation was used successfully to weigh out 48 different synthetic compounds. Time required for automated weighing was similar to manual weighing. The use of this workstation reduced 90% hands-on time and thus exposure to potentially toxic compounds. In addition, it minimized sample waste and reduced artifacts due to the poor solubility of compound in solvents. Moreover, it enabled compounds synthesized in milligram quantities to be weighed out and tested in biological assays.

  3. Radiation oncology residents' computer workstation.

    PubMed

    Zusag, T W; McDonald, S; Miller, A; Purdy, J A; Rubin, P

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of using the Macintosh computer as a workstation platform for radiation oncology residents because of its ease of use, graphics capability, and low cost. Hypercard was chosen as the programming environment because it easily mixes graphics, text, and control functions in an integrated screen display. Furthermore, it results in a system that can be relatively easily extended and customized by individual users with varying degrees of computer skills. We have developed several software modules in order to test the ability of this environment to support the demands of such a workstation. Modules created thus far include various clinical physics aids and tutorials, treatment planning guides, oncology databases, and others. The software runs on all Macintosh configurations, but calculation speeds are improved when a 68020 or greater processor is used. In general, we have been pleased with the implementation thus far. Graphics display capability is good, but design and entry of graphics have proved labor-intensive. Searching is fast and text is easily entered and manipulated. Finished modules can be customized with minimal computer training, but implementing complex new functions requires familiarity with Hypercard's programming language. New modules, once developed, are easily integrated into the workstation universe, suggesting that cooperative development of the workstation by multiple contributors is realistically achievable. PMID:1727112

  4. Radiation oncology residents' computer workstation.

    PubMed

    Zusag, T W; McDonald, S; Miller, A; Purdy, J A; Rubin, P

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of using the Macintosh computer as a workstation platform for radiation oncology residents because of its ease of use, graphics capability, and low cost. Hypercard was chosen as the programming environment because it easily mixes graphics, text, and control functions in an integrated screen display. Furthermore, it results in a system that can be relatively easily extended and customized by individual users with varying degrees of computer skills. We have developed several software modules in order to test the ability of this environment to support the demands of such a workstation. Modules created thus far include various clinical physics aids and tutorials, treatment planning guides, oncology databases, and others. The software runs on all Macintosh configurations, but calculation speeds are improved when a 68020 or greater processor is used. In general, we have been pleased with the implementation thus far. Graphics display capability is good, but design and entry of graphics have proved labor-intensive. Searching is fast and text is easily entered and manipulated. Finished modules can be customized with minimal computer training, but implementing complex new functions requires familiarity with Hypercard's programming language. New modules, once developed, are easily integrated into the workstation universe, suggesting that cooperative development of the workstation by multiple contributors is realistically achievable.

  5. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  6. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-26

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  7. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  8. Information workstations in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Spackman, K A

    1991-03-01

    Multitasking operating systems and expanding networks now permit smooth access to remote computers, peripherals, data, and information resources. Graphic user interfaces and productivity-enhancing software packages reduce the need for training and memorization of commands. New models of desktop computers based on "data-centered" software architecture can enhance workstation usefulness even more. Pathologists need to consider how these tools might improve access to and management of information and knowledge.

  9. Scoping study: Substation design workstation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, S.F.; Conroy, M.W.; Singh, N.M.

    1993-03-01

    This project conducted a survey, consisting of a written questionaire, a workshop, and site visits to determine what facets of substation engineering would benefit from incorporation into a workstation environment. Based on the needs expressed by the respondents, a program for the staged development of a Substation Workstation is recommended. Six analytical function modules for assisting in substation engineering were identified for potential inclusion in the workstation: Initial Planning Activities; Physical Plant Design; Analytical Functions; Civil/Structural Design; Environmental Design; and Project Management. The initial release of the Substation Workstation is recommended to include the workstation environment (including MENTOR -- a concept for on-line help, tutorials, notepad, a minor spreadsheet, and interfaces to other regular desktop functions) and portions of the first three functional modules listed above. Recommendations for progress beyond this first release of the workstation included the development of additional capabilities within the initial functional modules, as well as the development of the remaining modules. An overlap exists between the analytical requirements for this workstation and those already included in the EPRI TLWorkstation and the ICWorkstation. In some cases, elements of these other workstations are also suggested for incorporation into the Substation Workstation (such as the foundation analyses from the TLWorkstation), and in others, an assimilation of the other workstation into the Substation Workstation is recommended (as with the ICWorkstation). Estimated resources for implementing the recommended program, including both costs and development time, are also provided.

  10. Design requirements for radiology workstations.

    PubMed

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M Stella

    2004-06-01

    This article stresses the importance of capturing feedback from representative users in the early stages of product development. We present our solution to producing quality requirement specifications for radiology workstations, specifications that remain valid over time because we successfully anticipated the industry trends and the user's needs. We present the results from a user study performed in December 1999 in a radiology clinic equipped with state-of-the-art Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and imaging scanners. The study involved eight radiologists who answered questions and provided comments on three complementary research topics. First, we asked our subjects to enumerate the advantages and the disadvantages for both softcopy and hardcopy reading. We identified the two major factors for productivity improvement through the use of PACS workstations: workflow re-engineering and process automation. Second, we collected radiologist feedback on the use of hanging protocols (HPs). The results indicated the high importance of automatic image organization through HPs, with the potential effect of reducing the interpretation time by 10-20%. Our subjects estimated that 10-15 HPs would cover about 85%-95% of the regular radiological examinations. Third, we investigated the impact of the display devices on the radiologist's workflow. Our results indicated that the number and the properties of the monitors is a modality-specific requirement. The main results from this study on key functional requirements for softcopy interpretation only recently were incorporated in most of the current, successful PACS workstations.

  11. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively.

  12. Age and growth of endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) verified with LA-ICP-MS analysis of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Rachel M; Patterson, William F; Carlson, John K; Poulakis, Gregg R

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n=15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L(∞), 0.219 y(-1)for k, and -0.81 y for t(0). Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae.

  13. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  14. New trends in radiology workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2002-05-01

    In the radiology workstation design, the race for adding more features is now morphing into an iterative user centric design with the focus on ergonomics and usability. The extent of the list of features for the radiology workstation used to be one of the most significant factors for a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendor's ability to sell the radiology workstation. Not anymore is now very much the same between the major players in the PACS market. How these features work together distinguishes different radiology workstations. Integration (with the PACS/Radiology Information System (RIS) systems, with the 3D tool, Reporting Tool etc.), usability (user specific preferences, advanced display protocols, smart activation of tools etc.) and efficiency (what is the output a radiologist can generate with the workstation) are now core factors for selecting a workstation. This paper discusses these new trends in radiology workstation design. We demonstrate the importance of the interaction between the PACS vendor (software engineers) and the customer (radiologists) during the radiology workstation design. We focus on iterative aspects of the workstation development, such as the presentation of early prototypes to as many representative users as possible during the software development cycle and present the results of a survey of 8 radiologists on designing a radiology workstation.

  15. Cochin Pipeline installs workstation scada system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-13

    The Canadian operator of the Cochin Pipeline between Canada and the US has installed a workstation-based supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system that directly links pipeline operations to the company's business accounting computer in Calgary. Amoco says that each remote workstation along the pipeline serves as a mini-scada system, monitoring and controlling devices at its particular location. These workstations collect field data that are sent over the network to the master server computer in Fort Saskatchewan, which automatically updates the data base. The network's distributed data base capability also enables the master controller to redefine parameters for the various field devices, then distribute the information to each workstation.

  16. User's guide for Department 9140 CAE workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information to beginning users of Department 9140's Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) workstations. These workstations are all Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) color VAXstations, and they use the VAX/VMS operating system. This manual shows users how to boot the workstations, login, use the window interface, and use some basic VMS commands. It also discusses some of the CAE software available on the workstations, such as ANVIL-5000. References are given so users can get additional information. 25 refs., 27 figs.

  17. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools. PMID:8947764

  18. The Electronic Library Workstation--Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, James

    1990-01-01

    Describes the components--hardware, software and applications, CD-ROM and online reference resources, and telecommunications links--of an electronic library workstation in use at Clarkson University (Potsdam, New York). Data manipulation, a hypothetical research scenario, and recommended workstation capabilities are also discussed. (MES)

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  20. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested. PMID:17599795

  1. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  2. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  3. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  4. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  5. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  6. EPRI distribution engineering workstation and measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Broadwater, R.; Shaalan, H.; Dolloff, P.

    1994-12-31

    The Electric Power Research Institute Distribution Engineering Workstation is a software package which provides the user with an integrated data and applications environment. Analysis, design, and operation modules access database data and exchange data through common data areas. The workstation has an open architecture that allows external application modules to be added by any user. Furthermore, it allows external measurements such as voltage, current, and temperature to be imported and displayed on the circuit schematic. These imported variables are made available to any application program running within the workstation. Design concepts, user interactions, measurement interfaces, and data structures are presented.

  7. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  8. Teaching Engineering Design Using Computer Workstations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the use of computer workstations in Electronic Engineering and in Control and Computer Engineering. Provides an introduction; initial teaching exercises at the first year, second, and third year design, research and development; and conclusions. (YP)

  9. Conversion of the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riveras, Nykkita L.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I am working in the Educational Programs Office. My task is to convert the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation from a Macintosh (Mac) platform to a Personal Computer (PC) platform. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation is a workstation in the Aerospace Educational Laboratory (AEL), which is one of the three components of the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA). The AEL is a state-of-the-art, electronically enhanced, computerized classroom that puts cutting-edge technology at the fingertips of participating students. It provides a unique learning experience regarding aerospace technology that features activities equipped with aerospace hardware and software that model real-world challenges. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation, in particular, offers a variety of activities pertaining to the history of aeronautics. When the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation was first implemented into the AEL it was designed with Macromedia Director 4 for a Mac. Today it is being converted to Macromedia DirectorMX2004 for a PC. Macromedia Director is the proven multimedia tool for building rich content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks, and the Internet. It handles the widest variety of media and offers powerful features for building rich content that delivers red results, integrating interactive audio, video, bitmaps, vectors, text, fonts, and more. Macromedia Director currently offers two programmingkripting languages: Lingo, which is Director's own programmingkripting language and JavaScript. In the workstation, Lingo is used in the programming/scripting since it was the only language in use when the workstation was created. Since the workstation was created with an older version of Macromedia Director it hosted significantly different programming/scripting protocols. In order to successfully accomplish my task, the final product required correction of Xtra and programming/scripting errors. I also had to convert the Mac platform

  10. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  11. Semiconductor device modeling on a workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1985-09-01

    We choose to move from large mainframe computers to workstations to gain the interactive graphics we need to prepare and to analyze semiconductor device modeling problems. Given this much on a workstation, it is convenient to attempt to solve the entire problem there. We find that a top-of-the-line Apollo 660 workstation, with bit-slice processor, pipelined arithmetic processor, and 4 megabytes of real memory, is surprisingly effective in finding solutions when running the Pisces II device modeling code. In our experiment we find where the workstation bogs down when running these problems. We both analyze the Pisces CPU time log and we sample the executing program to accumulate a histogram of execution time as distributed over the source code. Results suggest how Pisces could be adapted to solve somewhat larger problems entirely on the workstation. Evolution of a trusted derivative of Pisces, to be used on supercomputers without interactivity, is suggested to complement our success with Pisces on workstations. 4 refs.

  12. Relationship between Rock Varnish and Adjacent Mineral Dust Compositions Using Microanalytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Otter, L.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Müller, M.; Kappl, M.; Weber, B.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Weigand, M.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Rock varnishes are up to 250 μm thick, Mn- and Fe-rich, dark black to brownish-orange lustrous rock coatings. Water and aeolian dust (60-70%), in combination with biological oxidation or inorganic precipitation processes, or even a combination of both, induce varnish growth rates of a few μm per 1000 a, indicating that element enrichment and aging processes are of major importance for the varnish formation. A combination of 200 nm-fs laser- and 213 nm-ns laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), focused ion beam (FIB) slicing, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) was chosen for high-spatial-resolution analyses. The aim was to identify provenance, chemistry, and dynamics of the varnishes, and their formation over the millennia. To this end, mineral dust and adjacent varnishes were sampled in six arid to semi-arid deserts, in Israel, South Africa, California, and Saudi Arabia. Dust minerals incorporated in the varnishes were examined by STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopic and element mapping at the nm scale. Varnishes from different locations can be distinguished by element ratio plots of Pb/Ni vs. Mn/Ba. A comparison of dust element ratios of particles <50 μm to ratios of adjacent varnishes reveals much lower values for dust. However, the factors between the element ratios of dust and of varnish are similar for four of six regions (Mn/Ba: 6 ± 2; Pb/Ni: 4 ± 3). Two of the six regions diverge, which are South African (Mn/Ba: 20, Pb/Ni: 0.5) and Californian (Anza Borrego Desert: Mn/Ba: 4.5; Pb/Ni: 16.5) varnishes.The results indicate that the enrichment and degradation processes might be similar for most locations, and that Mn and Pb are preferably incorporated and immobilized in most varnishes compared to Ba and Ni. The Pb/Ni ratios of the South African varnishes are indicators for either a preferred incorporation of Ni compared to Pb from available dust, and

  13. Negotiating Story Entry: A Micro-Analytic Study of Storytelling Projection in English and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a micro-analytic study of the use of language and body during storytelling in American English and Japanese conversations. Specifically, I focus on its beginning and explore how a story is "projected." A beginning of an action or activity is where an incipient speaker negotiates the floor with co-participants; they…

  14. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    A field study directly measured the electric demand of 189 personal computer workstations for 1-week intervals, and a survey recorded the connected equipment at 1,846 workstations in six buildings. Each separate workstation component (e.g., computer, monitor, printer, modem, and other peripheral) was individually monitored to obtain detailed electric demand profiles. Other analyses included comparison of nameplate power rating with measured power consumption and the energy savings potential and cost-effectiveness of a controller that automatically turns off computer workstation equipment during inactivity. An important outcome of the work is the development of a standard workstation demand profile and a technique for estimating a whole-building demand profile. Together, these provide a method for transferring this information to utility energy analysts, design engineers, building energy modelers, and others. A life-cycle cost analysis was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of three energy conservation measures: (1) energy awareness education, (2) retrofit power controller installation, and (3) purchase of energy-efficient PCs.

  15. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  16. Computational Controls Workstation: Algorithms and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopal, R.; Kumar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Computational Controls Workstation provides an integrated environment for the modeling, simulation, and analysis of Space Station dynamics and control. Using highly efficient computational algorithms combined with a fast parallel processing architecture, the workstation makes real-time simulation of flexible body models of the Space Station possible. A consistent, user-friendly interface and state-of-the-art post-processing options are combined with powerful analysis tools and model databases to provide users with a complete environment for Space Station dynamics and control analysis. The software tools available include a solid modeler, graphical data entry tool, O(n) algorithm-based multi-flexible body simulation, and 2D/3D post-processors. This paper describes the architecture of the workstation while a companion paper describes performance and user perspectives.

  17. An automated mobile phase preparation workstation.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Kelly; Young, Benjamin; Jakubik, Matthew E; Clark, Hinton; Troisi, John; Fermier, Adam M

    2007-02-01

    An automated solvent dispensing workstation capable of delivering volumes ranging from 10 mL to 4.5 L for the preparation of solutions/mobile phases was developed and implemented into the industrial R&D laboratory. The workstation was designed to address business, safety, and compliance needs while meeting or exceeding the precision and accuracy of current manual methods of preparation. The system's performance was optimized with respect to liquid transfer tubing inner diameter, pumping pressure, flow characteristics of the valve, and computer control logic. The automated solvent dispensing workstation was shown to exceed the specifications set by the ASTM for Class A graduated cylinders for all dispense volumes (10 mL-4.5 L).

  18. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  19. Comparison of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental imaging in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gholap, Deepti S; Izmer, Andrei; De Samber, Björn; van Elteren, Johannes T; Selih, Vid S; Evens, Roel; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Janssen, Colin; Balcaen, Lieve; Lindemann, Inge; Vincze, Laszlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Visualization of elemental distributions in thin sections of biological tissue is gaining importance in many disciplines of biological and medical research. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) are two widely used microanalytical techniques for elemental mapping. This article compares the capabilities of the two techniques for imaging the distribution of selected elements in the model organism Daphnia magna in terms of detection power and spatial resolution. Sections with a thickness of 10 and 20 microm of the fresh water crustacean Daphnia magna were subjected to LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF analysis. The elemental distributions obtained for Ca, P, S and Zn allow element-to-tissue correlation. LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF offer similar limits of detection for the elements Ca and P and thus, allow a cross-validation of the imaging results. LA-ICP-MS was particularly sensitive for determining Zn (LOD 20 microg g(-1), 15 microm spot size) in Daphnia magna, while the detection power of micro-XRF was insufficient in this context. However, LA-ICP-MS was inadequate for the measurement of the S distributions, which could be better visualized with micro-XRF (LOD 160 microg g(-1), 5 s live time). Both techniques are thus complementary in providing an exhaustive chemical profiling of tissue samples.

  20. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  1. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  2. The Microcomputer as an Educational Laboratory Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciociolo, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory workstations which provide direct connection for monitoring and control of analytical instruments such as pH meters, spectrophotometers, temperature, and chromatographic instruments. This is accomplished through analog/digital and digital/analog converters for analog signals and input/output devices for on/off signals.…

  3. Technical Services Workstations. SPEC Kit 213.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugger, Judith M., Comp.; And Others

    Technical services workstations (TSWs) are personal computers that have been customized for use in technical services departments. To gather information on their use and prevalence in research libraries, the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee on Automation surveyed the 119 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)…

  4. Development of Aspen: A microanalytic simulation model of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.; Basu, N.; Quint, T.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of an agent-based microanalytic simulation model of the US economy. The microsimulation model capitalizes on recent technological advances in evolutionary learning and parallel computing. Results are reported for a test problem that was run using the model. The test results demonstrate the model`s ability to predict business-like cycles in an economy where prices and inventories are allowed to vary. Since most economic forecasting models have difficulty predicting any kind of cyclic behavior. These results show the potential of microanalytic simulation models to improve economic policy analysis and to provide new insights into underlying economic principles. Work already has begun on a more detailed model.

  5. Introduction of a virtual workstation into radiology medical student education.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Colin D; Lowry, Peter A; Petersen, Brian D; Jesse, Mary K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes the creation of a virtual workstation for use by medical students and implementation of that workstation in the reading room. CONCLUSION. A radiology virtual workstation for medical students was created using OsiriX imaging software to authentically simulate the experience of interacting with cases selected to cover important musculoskeletal imaging diagnoses. A workstation that allows the manipulation and interpretation of complete anonymized DICOM images may enhance the educational experience of medical students.

  6. Microcomputers and Workstations in Libraries: Trends and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Erwin K.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes opinions of scholars in various disciplines on workstation history, definition, and functions. Networks and configurations for library workstations, including hardware and software recommendations, are described. The impact of workstations on the workplace resulting in task, process, and institutional transformation, is also considered.…

  7. [Troubleshooting for Carestream GC1.5 Workstation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangning; Zhang, Junjie; Yang, Zhicheng

    2015-11-01

    This paper is maintenance of four kinds of failures of Carestream GC1.5 the workstation used several years to summarize, workstation software, change the host, burn, workstations transmission, and four kinds of failures of the specific case of itemized elimination steps are introduced.

  8. Integrated Design of a Telerobotic Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort that focuses on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multi-functional telerobots. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The exploratory research experiments presented here took an integrated approach and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during the transitions between sub-tasks of two common EVA tasks. Preliminary results show that up to 30% of total task time is spent gaining and maintaining Situation Awareness (SA) of their task space and environment during transitions. Although task performance improves over the two trial days, the percentage of time spent on SA remains the same. This method identifies areas where workstation displays and feedback mechanisms are most needed to increase operator performance and decrease operator workload - areas that previous research methods have not been able to address.

  9. Health care policy reform: a microanalytic model for comparing hospitals in the United States and Germany.

    PubMed

    Parsons, R J; Woller, G M; Neubauer, G; Rothaemel, F T; Zelle, B

    1999-01-01

    Microcomparison, or single-component analysis, of health care systems offers a potentially better basis for reform than traditional macrocomparison analysis of aggregate elements. Using macroanalysis, available evidence shows that Germany provides cheaper but more effective hospital care than the United States. To find the causes for this outcome, we developed a microanalytic model of hospital administrators' perceptions, financial ratios, medical outcomes, and pharmaceutical costs. However, only data on pharmaceutical costs were available, and these were similar in both countries. Our significant outcome was development of a microcomparative model that gives world medical care providers new criteria for analyzing and improving cost to care ratios.

  10. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  11. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  12. Workstation-assisted education at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, George A.

    1992-06-01

    MIT launched a major new initiative called Project Athena in 1983 to improve the quality of education through the introduction of a high-quality computing infrastructure throughout the campus. Implementation of the Project Athena computing environment required eight years, cost about 100 million, and was sponsored by Digital Equipment and IBM in addition to MIT. The Athena computing environment is based almost entirely on workstations from these two vendors using the Unix operating system. Project Athena is now complete. The resulting computer system has been turned over to the campus computing organization for ongoing operation and maintenance. The computing environment available at MIT for education has been significantly improved. Students are graduating today that have never known life at MIT without the ubiquitous availability of high-quality computing. This article provides an overview of the initial objectives and strategies of Project Athena at MIT relative to its educational use. The specific strategies that MIT employed in the use of work-stations in educational are then described. These strategies are contrasted with other available strategies. Specific examples of the use of workstations are presented. An important element in current and future education delivery is multimedia. Athena in conjunction with the MIT Media Lab has one of the largest efforts in multimedia development of any of the universities, and MIT is using multimedia in education on a daily basis. A new laboratory, the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives, has been established with a major focus on multimedia. Finally the lessons learned from Athena relative to its primary objective — that of improving education — are reviewed.

  13. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  14. Efficient Parallel Engineering Computing on Linux Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    A C software module has been developed that creates lightweight processes (LWPs) dynamically to achieve parallel computing performance in a variety of engineering simulation and analysis applications to support NASA and DoD project tasks. The required interface between the module and the application it supports is simple, minimal and almost completely transparent to the user applications, and it can achieve nearly ideal computing speed-up on multi-CPU engineering workstations of all operating system platforms. The module can be integrated into an existing application (C, C++, Fortran and others) either as part of a compiled module or as a dynamically linked library (DLL).

  15. Design of the diagnostic encyclopedia workstation (DEW).

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, A M; Smeulders, A W; Jansen, W; Baak, J P; Brooymans, I

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Encyclopedia Workstation (DEW) contains reference knowledge for diagnostic support in pathology. Illustrations are accessible via a video disc device. DEW can hold more knowledge, pictures and case histories than books, and its information is accessible via several entries. Software for data entry has been written in MUMPS with use of the relational database toolkit AIDA, which is particularly suited for manipulation of free text. The graphical mouse-driven user interface is written in C using MetaWindows. The DEW contains 85 diagnoses in ovarian pathology, covering all frequent cases and many rarities, illustrated by approximately 3000 pictures, divided among 158 cases.

  16. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  17. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  18. An Independent Workstation For CT Image Processing And Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Sewchand, Wilfred

    1988-06-01

    This manuscript describes an independent workstation which consists of a data acquisition and transfer system, a host computer, and a display and record system. The main tasks of the workstation include the collecting and managing of a vast amount of data, creating and processing 2-D and 3-D images, conducting quantitative data analysis, and recording and exchanging information. This workstation not only meets the requirements for routine clinical applications, but it is also used extensively for research purposes. It is stand-alone and works as a physician's workstation; moreover, it can be easily linked into a computer-network and serve as a component of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System).

  19. Telepresence and Space Station Freedom workstation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Adam, Susan C.; Stramler, James H.; Wilmington, Robert P.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom workstation system is a distributed network of computer based workstations that provides the man-machine interfaces for controlling space station systems. This includes control of external manipulator, robotic and free flyer devices by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment. These remotely controlled devices help minimize the requirement for costly crew extravehicular activity (EVA) time for such tasks as station assembly and payload support. Direct window views may be used for controlling some of the systems, but many activities will be remote or require levels of detail not possible by direct observation. Since controlling remote devices becomes more difficult when direct views are inadequate or unavailable, many performance enhancing techniques have been considered for representing information about remote activities to the operator. Described here are the telepresence techniques under consideration to support operations and training. This includes video enhancements (e.g., graphic and text overlays and stereo viewing), machine vision systems, remote activity animation, and force reflection representation.

  20. Earthbound applications for NASA's physician workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, R.; Yu, F. S.; Li, B.; Iddings, E.; Fiorentino, R.; Shao, S.; Wang, L.; Broughton, H.

    1993-01-01

    The dream of a space probe to Mars or an astronaut colony on the moon persists. Despite years of setbacks and delays, NASA continues to lay the foundation for a new frontier in space. The necessity of a self contained health maintenance facility is an integral part of this stellar venture. As a subsystem of this health maintenance facility, the physician or astronaut workstation was envisioned as the vehicle of interface between the computer resources of the space station and the care provider. Our efforts to define and build this interface have resulted in a series of programs which can now be tested and refined using earth-based applications. The modules which have dual-use application from the NASA workstation include: patient scheduling and master patient index, pharmacy, laboratory, medical library, problem list/progress notes, and digital medical records. Our current plan is to develop these tools as objects that can be assembled in a variety of configurations. This will allow the technology to be used by the private sector where each doctor can select the starting point of his outpatient office system and add modules as he makes progress in system integration and training.

  1. Importance of LA-ICP-MS Zircon Geochronology and Geochemistry in Determining the History of Magmatic Systems: Insights from the Graciosa A-type Province, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Gualda, G. A.; Bream, B. R.; Vlach, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Graciosa Province comprises more than 20 A-type granitic and syenitic plutons in southern Brazil. This province was emplaced during a period of tectonic change, with A-type magmatism post-dating syntectonic I- and S-type magmatism to the east. Dating the age of magmatism has proven challenging, with current published results showing a wide range of ages (550-590 Ma), most of which with low analytical resolution (2σ errors >15 Ma). We use Laser Ablation ICP-MS to determine U-Pb ages and trace element compositions of zircon crystals in-situ. We analyzed zircon from ten samples representative of the petrographic diversity observed in the 5 plutons located in the Serra da Graciosa region1, which include monzodiorites, granites, and alkali-feldspar granites and syenites. The graintoids include rocks with aluminous affinity (biotite-bearing), and others with alkaline affinity (sodic amphibole-bearing). Our results show three age populations with concordant ages at ~633±6, 581±3, and 539±4 Ma (all errors 2σ): - The oldest zircon ages come from analyses of zircon cores that display overgrowth and resorption textures. - The majority of zircon grains analyzed yield ages ~581 Ma. Zircons of this age can be found in all but two samples analyzed. Spots yielding these ages come from rim regions free of fractures or inclusions. REE patterns show enrichment in HREE, and pronounced positive Ce anomaly, as typically seen in magmatic zircons. - Strongly altered grains from alkali-feldspar granites with biotite dominate the youngest zircon population. These grains have myriad inclusions of thorite, REE fluorides (fluocerite, CeF3 - confirmed by EBSD), and REE phosphates. A few analyses in other rocks yield similar ages. REE patterns are much less steep for these zircons, and Ce anomalies are much more subdued, as characteristic of hydrothermal zircons. Further, these zircons are enriched in high field-strength elements such as Nb and Hf, as well as in Th and U. Based on textural and geochemical evidence, we interpret these 3 age populations as being representative of inheritance (>620 Ma), magmatism (~581 Ma), and hydrothermal alteration (~540 Ma). In light of these results, it is not surprising that previous age determinations using whole-zircon TIMS U/Pb and whole-rock Rb/Sr found a wide range of ages. Our study highlights the benefits of in-situ LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology as a method to deconvolve the evolution of igneous provinces, and shows that adequate precision (~0.5%) can be achieved in favorable circumstances. 1 GAR Gualda & SRF Vlach (2007) Anais Acad. Bras. Ciências, 79: 405-430

  2. Evaluating the Age of Buried Ice in Antarctica Using Ashfall Deposits: New Insights from Deposit Morphology, Grain Shape, and LA-ICP-MS Trace-Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. R.; Marchant, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Dating of buried ice in the western Dry Valleys region relies on 40Ar/39Ar analysis of ashfall deposits within sublimation tills that rest directly on stagnant glacier ice. The oldest ice so dated is >8.1 Ma. The fundamental assumption is that dated ashes are in-situ and have not been transported from surface deposits elsewhere in the Dry Valleys region. Given that the surface of sublimation tills shows well-developed patterned ground, the presumption of ground stability and long-term preservation of in-situ ashfall is questioned. As a test of ground stability, we examined ash-deposit morphology, grain shape, and glass-shard trace-element geochemistry from several ashfall deposits used to provide limiting ages on buried ice and tills in the western Dry Valleys. Detailed field analyses show that ashfall that collects in sublimation tills over buried ice occurs in one of three morphologic settings: surface troughs that delineate sand-wedge polygons, void spaces in gravel-and-cobble lags that overlie active sand wedges, and 1 to 2-cm-wide thermal contraction cracks. Post-depositional sublimation of underlying ice may distort initial deposit morphology through uneven surface lowering. Microscopic analyses of concentrated ashfall deposits that lack detrital sand grains show highly angular glass shards that preserve delicate hair-like spires and thin bubble-wall vesicles. Grain edges are sharp with no chipped, fractured, or pitted surfaces. In contrast, ash deposits containing detrital sand grains show subangular to subrounded shard morphologies with concave fractures and pits on grain edges, all of which are suggestive of abrasion during transport. In such deposits, grains preserving delicate bubble walls and hair-like spires are conspicuously absent. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry shows that glass shards within each ashfall deposit have uniform trace-element geochemical signatures. If ashfall were eroded and transported after initial deposition, then ashes of different ages and geochemical compositions should be found together in individual deposits. An accurate chronology for buried ice in the western Dry Valleys region of Antarctica has implications for research in atmospheric chemistry (Miocene-aged glacier ice may hold pristine samples of ancient atmosphere), geobiology (ancient microbes are preserved in the ice), and planetary geology (buried ice in Antarctica may serve as an analog for buried ice on Mars).

  3. Relating surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of cells to gold nanoparticle aggregation as determined by LA-ICP-MS micromapping.

    PubMed

    Büchner, Tina; Drescher, Daniela; Traub, Heike; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Jakubowski, Norbert; Kneipp, Janina

    2014-11-01

    The cellular response to nanoparticle exposure is essential in various contexts, especially in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine. Here, 14-nm gold nanoparticles in 3T3 fibroblast cells are investigated in a series of pulse-chase experiments with a 30-min incubation pulse and chase times ranging from 15 min to 48 h. The gold nanoparticles and their aggregates are quantified inside the cellular ultrastructure by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry micromapping and evaluated regarding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. In this way, both information about their localization at the micrometre scale and their molecular nanoenvironment, respectively, is obtained and can be related. Thus, the nanoparticle pathway from endocytotic uptake, intracellular processing, to cell division can be followed. It is shown that the ability of the intracellular nanoparticles and their accumulations and aggregates to support high SERS signals is neither directly related to nanoparticle amount nor to high local nanoparticle densities. The SERS data indicate that aggregate geometry and interparticle distances in the cell must change in the course of endosomal maturation and play a critical role for a specific gold nanoparticle type in order to act as efficient SERS nanoprobe. This finding is supported by TEM images, showing only a minor portion of aggregates that present small interparticle spacing. The SERS spectra obtained after different chase times show a changing composition and/or structure of the biomolecule corona of the gold nanoparticles as a consequence of endosomal processing. PMID:25120183

  4. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  5. Location and speciation of gadolinium and yttrium in roots of Zea mays by LA-ICP-MS and ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Saatz, Jessica; Stryhanyuk, Hryhoriy; Vetterlein, Doris; Musat, Niculina; Otto, Matthias; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Richnow, Hans H; Daus, Birgit

    2016-09-01

    Increasing production of rare earth elements (REE) might lead to future contamination of the environment. REE have been shown to accumulate in high concentrations in roots of plants. Plant experiments with Zea mays exposed to a nutrient solution containing gadolinium (Gd) or yttrium (Y) with 10 mg L(-1) Gd or Y were carried out to investigate this accumulation behaviour. Total concentrations of 3.17 g kg(-1) and 8.43 g kg(-1) of Gd and Y were measured in treated plant roots. Using a novel combination of laser ablation mass spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, imaging of location and concentration of Gd and Y was carried out in root thin sections of treated roots. Single spots of elevated REE concentration were found at the epidermis, while inside the cortex, weak signals of Gd(+) and Y(+) were aligning with the root cell structures. The composition of Gd-containing secondary ions proves an REE-oxide phase accumulated at the epidermis, limiting REE availability for further uptake. PMID:27267740

  6. Geochemical and Lu/Hf isotopic (LA-ICP-MS) signature of detrital zircons from sandstones of the basal levels of the Riphean stratotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, T. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Maslov, A. V.; Belousova, E. A.; Krupenin, M. T.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Gorozhanin, V. M.; Gorozhanina, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of selective study of trace elements (29 analyses) and the Lu/Hf isotopic system (41 analyses) in preliminarily dated (U-Pb) detrital zircons (dZrs) from sandstones of the Ai Formation of the Burzyan Group of the Bashkirian Anticlinorium, which compose the basal horizons of the typical Riphean section of the Southern Urals. The statistically processed trace-element patterns of dZrs showed that "diorites" were dominant over "syenites" among the source rocks of dZrs. The rock types estimated by trace-element patterns for the cores and rims of two large grains ("diorite" and "syenite") coincided. The analysis of the Lu/Hf isotopic system of dZrs revealed a wide dispersion of the ɛHf value from +7.1 to -20.1 at the T {DM/C} model age of the substrate from 2.25 to 3.95 Ga. Four grains (in one case with the core and rim studied) from the population of the large transparent cherry zircons (TCZ) are characterized by the "syenitic" rock type and extremely ancient T {DM/C} values of 3.22, 3.45, 3.64, 3.66, and 3.75 Ga at ages of zircons of 2486, 2784, 2873, 1977, and 1984 Ma, respectively. Two "dioritic" grains from the TCZ population have significantly distinct parameters: 2.37 and 2.51 Ga at 2049 and 2057 Ma, respectively. It is evident that this specific population of dZrs was formed with a significant contribution of very ancient crustal material, which became active under "syenitic" magmatism and provided the T {DM/C} value of >3.5 Ga. Numerous juvenile dZrs form a compact cluster, which correspond to the rocks of the southern part of the Volga-Sarmatian orogen (age of 2.1-2.0 Ga, T {DM/C} = 2.1-2.4 Ga). The complexes of the entire the Volga-Uralia, the Volga-Sarmatian orogen, and adjacent areas could be the provenance areas for the Ai sandstones in contrast to the northeastern areas of the East-European Platform with dominant "granitic" source rocks and T {DM/C} values lower than 3.5 Ga.

  7. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  8. Scheelite geochemical signatures by LA-ICP-MS and potential for rare earth elements from Hutti Gold Mines and fingerprinting ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Sangurmath, P.

    2016-02-01

    Scheelite (CaWO4), with gold and REE enrichments, is found in appreciable concentrations in the world class Hutti Gold deposit, Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), India. We used in situ Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to determine the rare earth elements in scheelite and utilize results to fingerprint the extensions/continuity of auriferous ore shoots/lodes/reefs. The Hutti Gold deposit is briefly compared to southern African gold deposits and corroborates in terms of geochemistry, structural, chemical alterations and REE contents in scheelite etc… The scheelite samples from Hutti are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) up to 11 ppm and depleted in heavy rare earth elements(HREE) up to 6.50 ppm with positive to negative europium anomaly. The total REE (∑ REE + Y) of the scheelite samples is up to 35 ppm. The ratio of LREE/HREE values is 1.80. The results for the REEs indicate: (1) considerable differences in the ΣREEs amongst the sample suite (2) most samples are dominated by a single chondrite-normalized (CN) pattern, but rarely a second pattern is present; 3) although the type of CN REE patterns vary (e.g., convex MREE, LREE enrichment), there is a similarity among deposit types; and 4) both positive and negative 'Eu' anomalies are observed; 5) positive correlations between MREE and HREE suggesting a strong influence of magmatic fluids. These initial results suggest that the minor and trace-element chemistry of scheelite may offer the potential to discriminate and identify deposit types based on its geochemical fingerprinting.

  9. Silurian U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of granitoids from the Zelenodol Cu-porphyry deposit, Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Shardakova, G. Yu.; Azovskova, O. B.; Gerdes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Zelenodol porphyry Cu-(Au, Mo) deposit located about 65 km SSW of the city of Chelyabinsk is confined to the western part of the West Uralian Volcanogenic Megazone. The concordant U-Pb age of zircons from ore-bearing island-arc diorite porphyryis 418.3 Â ± 2.9 Ma.

  10. A Modern Analog to the Depositional Age Problem: Zircon and Apatite Fission Track and U-Pb Age Distributions by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donelick, H. M.; Donelick, M. B.; Donelick, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sand from three river systems in North Idaho (Snake River near Lewiston, Clearwater River near Lewiston and the Salmon River near White Bird) and two regional ash fall events (Mt. Mazama and Mt. St. Helens) were collected for zircon U-Pb detrital age analysis. Up to 120 grains of zircon per sample were ablated using a Resonetics M-50 193 nm ArF Excimer laser ablation (LA) system and the Pb, Th, and U isotopic signals were quantified using an Agilent 7700x quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Isotopic signals for major, minor, and trace elements, including all REEs, were also monitored. The youngest zircon U-Pb ages from the river samples were approximately 44 Ma; Cenozoic Idaho Batholith and Precambrian Belt Supergroup ages were well represented. Significant common Pb contamination of the Clearwater River sample (e.g., placer native Cu was observed in the sample) precluded detailed analysis of the zircon U-Pb ages but no interpretable ages <44 Ma were observed. Interestingly, not one of the river samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages near 0 Ma, despite all three catchment areas having received significant ash from Mt. St. Helens in 1980, and Mount Mazama 7,700 years ago, and no doubt other events during the Quaternary. Work currently in progress seeks to address bias against near 0 Ma ages in the catchment areas due to: a) small, local ash fall grain sizes and b) overwhelming number of older grains relative to the ash fall grains. Data from Mt. St. Helens ash from several localities near the mountain (Toutle River and Maple Flats, WA) and several far from the mountain (Spokane, WA; Princeton, ID; Kalispell, MT) and Mt. Mazama ash fall deposits near Lewiston, ID and Spokane, WA will be presented to address these possibilities. Additionally, fission track and U-Pb ages from apatites collected from these river and ash fall samples will also be shown to help constrain the problem.

  11. "Sands of Pangea"-analysing the supercontinent formation and the Mesozoic sedimentary record using LA ICP MS U Pb zircon dating on samples from Germany-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf; Gerdes, Axel; Voigt, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Elbe Zone at the northern Bohemian Massif (part of the Central European Variscides, Saxony, Germany) contains important structures and outcrops that help to understand the final pulse of the Variscan Orogeny in Europe leading to the formation of supercontinent Pangea. We will present zircon U-Pb data from that area that allow the timing of the final stage of these movements and of related plutonic, volcano-sedimentary and tectonic processes. In addition, we will show U-Pb detrital zircon ages of sandstones from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretatceous of Germany to draw conclusions about the sedimentary record and the source areas (provenance analyses) of these "sands of Pangea". We have analysed detrital zircon grains from the Buntsandstein (Lower Triassic) and the Keuper (Upper Triassic) regarding their U-Pb ages. These analyses indicate different zircon ages with a main peak at ca. 250 Ma to ca. 700 Ma. Distinct zircon grains of Meso- and Paleoproterozoic ages were found. In addition to the Triassic samples we analysed detrital zircon grains from the Middle Jurassic (Dogger) and the Cretaceous. The Cretaceous samples show similar ages as the Triassic ones: the main peak of zircon ages lies between ca. 240 Ma and 700 Ma. Also, there are a few isolated zircon grains with Meso- to Paleoproterozoic ages. A real change shows the Jurassic Sandstone, as the zircons of this sample have main ages at ca. 950 Ma to 1900 Ma. The zircon ages show, that the source areas for the Mesozoic sedimentary record changed clearly. We interpret the Paleozoic to Neoproterozoic ages of all samples as the influx of reworked local material, such as the Avalonian/Armorican basement units and the Variscan Basement. In our interpretation, the enormous amounts of Mesoproterozoic to upper Paleoproterozoic zircon ages in the Jurassic sample originated in the oceanic connection between Middle Europe and Baltica, as these specific zircon ages are typical for Baltica. This oceanic connection was due to the ongoing break-up of Pangea.

  12. Intracellular localization of samarium in the lactating mammary gland cells: ultrastructural and microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Ahlem, Ayadi; Samira, Maghraoui; Jean-Nicolas, Audinot; Mohamed-Habib, Jaafoura; Henri-Noël, Migeon; Ali, El Hili; Leila, Tekaya

    2012-04-01

    The frequent use of some rare earths in the medical and industrial domains make us worry about their intracellular behavior into the body. Reason for which we have investigated the subcellular localization of one of these elements, the samarium, in the mammary gland of lactating female wistar rats using two very sensitive methods of observation and microanalysis, the transmission electron microscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural study showed the presence of electron dense deposits in the lactating mammary glandular epithelial cell lysosomes of the samarium-treated rats, but no loaded lysosomes were observed in those of control rats. The microanalytical study allowed both the identification of the chemical species present in those deposits as samarium isotopes ((152) Sm(+)) and the cartography of its distribution. Our results confirm the previous ones showing that lysosomes of the glandular epithelial cells are the site of the intracellular concentration of foreign elements such as gallium. The intralysosomal deposits observed in the mammary glandular cells of the samarium-treated rats are similar in their form and density to those observed with the same element in other varieties of cells, such as liver, bone marrow, and spleen cells. Our ultrastructural and microanalytical results and those obtained in previous studies allow deducing that the intralysosomal deposits are very probably composed of an insoluble samarium phosphate salt. PMID:22021164

  13. Comparison of the postural and physiological effects of two dynamic workstations to conventional sitting and standing workstations.

    PubMed

    Botter, Juliane; Ellegast, Rolf P; Burford, Eva-Maria; Weber, Britta; Könemann, Reinier; Commissaris, Dianne A C M

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence is being found for the association of health risk factors with work-related physical inactivity. An increasing number of people are being exposed to this form of inactivity, and as a result, various interventions aimed at increasing physical activity during working hours are being developed. This study aims to investigate the differences in postural, muscular and physical activities resulting from two dynamic workstations, namely an elliptical trainer and a treadmill workstation, compared with a conventional sitting and standing workstation. Twelve participants completed five standardised office tasks in a laboratory setting at all workstations. No significant effect was found regarding changes in posture and the muscular activity was only significantly higher for the trapezius muscle (50th percentile: 8.1 %MVC) at the dynamic workstations. For the dynamic workstations, physical activity ranged from 4.0 to 14.9 × 10(-2) g, heart rate from 14.3 to 27.5 %HRR and energy expenditure from 1.8 to 3.1 METs. Practitioner Summary: Work-related physical inactivity is associated with health risk factors. In this study, physiological and postural effects of dynamic workstations were assessed in comparison to conventional workstations. No significant effects were found regarding changes in posture and muscular activity. Physical activity, heart rate and energy expenditure increased for the dynamic workstations.

  14. Personal telepresence: an interactive multimedia workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlman, Mike; Farrell, Renee E.

    1994-04-01

    Personal Telepresence is an interactive multimedia tool that allows individuals or groups to, affordably, meet with remotely located individuals or groups--from their desktop--as if they were all in the same location. A Personal Telepresence workstation would include telephony, computer, desktop videoconferencing, groupware, and graphics capability on a single platform. The user interface presented will allow natural, face-to-face interaction between all those involved in `virtual' meeting, classroom, office or manufacturing problem solving sessions. Files could be opened and placed on a virtual `conference table' where changes could be made interactively by any or all the `meeting' participants. `Copies' of the files can be made, `stapled' together, and given to each of the attendees. The desktop would include a `whiteboard' for brainstorming sessions and a `projector screen' to display movies, video mail, and/or the results of a simulation program. This paper discusses desktop collaboration needs and the Personal Telepresence project at LLNL.

  15. Public Access Workstations in the Library: New Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputer-based workstations that are provided for public access in libraries. Criteria for workstations are discussed, including standard hardware, open-design software, scalable interface, and connectivity options for networking; systems that provide full-text access are described; and the need for standards is…

  16. Implementation of a Medical Workstation for Research Support in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    van Mulligen, Erik M.; Timmers, Teun; Leao, Beatriz de F.

    1990-01-01

    Computer support of medical research is nowadays limited to support of individual packages. This paper describes a prototype medical workstation integrating these individual packages into one research support environment. The design of the workstation will be outlined and the implementation of the prototype will be discussed.

  17. ANL statement of site strategy for computing workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Boxberger, L.M.; Amiot, L.W.; Bretscher, M.E.; Engert, D.E.; Moszur, F.M.; Mueller, C.J.; O'Brien, D.E.; Schlesselman, C.G.; Troyer, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    This Statement of Site Strategy describes the procedure at Argonne National Laboratory for defining, acquiring, using, and evaluating scientific and office workstations and related equipment and software in accord with DOE Order 1360.1A (5-30-85), and Laboratory policy. It is Laboratory policy to promote the installation and use of computing workstations to improve productivity and communications for both programmatic and support personnel, to ensure that computing workstations acquisitions meet the expressed need in a cost-effective manner, and to ensure that acquisitions of computing workstations are in accord with Laboratory and DOE policies. The overall computing site strategy at ANL is to develop a hierarchy of integrated computing system resources to address the current and future computing needs of the laboratory. The major system components of this hierarchical strategy are: Supercomputers, Parallel computers, Centralized general purpose computers, Distributed multipurpose minicomputers, and Computing workstations and office automation support systems. Computing workstations include personal computers, scientific and engineering workstations, computer terminals, microcomputers, word processing and office automation electronic workstations, and associated software and peripheral devices costing less than $25,000 per item.

  18. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  19. Z39.50 and the Scholar's Workstation Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary Lee

    1992-01-01

    Examines the potential application of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Z39.50 library networking protocol as a client/server environment for a scholar's workstation. Computer networking models are described, and linking the workstation to an online public access catalog (OPAC) is…

  20. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  1. Expanding capabilities of the debris analysis workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David B.; Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.; Shubert, Ann J.; Gerhart, Charlotte M.; Yates, Ken W.; Leake, Michael

    1996-10-01

    Determining the hazards from debris-generating events is a design and safety consideration for a number of space systems, both currently operating and planned. To meet these and other requirements, the United States Air Force (USAF) Phillips Laboratory (PL) Space Debris Research Program has developed a simulation software package called the Debris Analysis Workstation (DAW). This software provides an analysis capability for assessing a wide variety of debris hazards. DAW integrates several component debris analysis models and data visualization tools into a single analysis platform that meets the needs for Department of Defense space debris analysis, and is both user friendly and modular. This allows for studies to be performed expeditiously by analysts who are not debris experts. The current version of DAW includes models for spacecraft breakup, debris orbital lifetime, collision hazard risk assessment, and collision dispersion, as well as a satellite catalog database manager, a drag inclusive propagator, a graphical user interface, and data visualization routines. Together they provide capabilities to conduct several types of analyses, ranging from range safety assessments to satellite constellation risk assessment. Work is progressing to add new capabilities with the incorporation of additional models and improved designs. The existing tools are in their initial integrated form, but the 'glue' that will ultimately bring them together into an integrated system is an object oriented language layer scheduled to be added soon. Other candidate component models under consideration for incorporation include additional orbital propagators, error estimation routines, other dispersion models, and other breakup models. At present, DAW resides on a SUNR workstation, although future versions could be tailored for other platforms, depending on the need.

  2. Debris analysis workstation: from concept to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David B.; Maethner, Scott R.; Shubert, Ann J.; Yates, Ken W.

    1995-06-01

    Determining the hazards from debris generating events is a design and safety consideration for a number of space systems, both currently operating and planned. To meet these and other requirements, the US Air Force Phillips Laboratory Space Debris Research Program is developing a simulation platform called the Debris Analysis Workstation (DAW) which provides an analysis capability for assessing a wide variety of debris studies. DAW integrates several component debris analysis models and data visualization tools into a single analysis platform that meets the needs for DoD space debris analysis, and is both user friendly and modular. This allows for studies to be performed expeditiously by analysts that are not debris experts. DAW has gone from concept to reality with the recent deliveries of Versions 0.1 to 0.4 to a number of customers. The current version of DAW incorporates a spacecraft break-up model, drag inclusive propagator, a collision dispersion model, a graphical user interface, and data visualization routines, which together provide capabilities to conduct missile intercept range safety analyses. Work is progressing to add new capabilities with the incorporation of additional models and improved designs. The existing tools are in their initial integrated form, but the 'glue' that will ultimately bring them together into an integrated, user-friendly system, is an object oriented language layer that is scheduled to be added in 1995. Other candidate component models that are under consideration for incorporation include additional orbital propagators, error estimation routines, dispersion models, and other breakup models. At present, DAW resides on a SUN workstation, although future versions could be tailored for other platforms, depending on the need.

  3. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  4. Characterization and speciation of depleted uranium in individual soil particles using microanalytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, S.; Osán, J.; Vincze, L.; Kurunczi, S.; Tamborini, G.; Betti, M.

    2004-05-01

    Microanalytical techniques for elemental composition and nuclide-specific analysis have been used to identify the origin and the leachability of depleted uranium particles. The soil particle samples were collected from Kosovo area a few years after the war, the presence of fine particles with depleted uranium as major component was easily identified by EPMA and SIMS. The ultrafine uranium particles were often attached to larger soil particles and contained Ti and Al, being typical components of the penetrator and its cladding. The oxidation state of uranium in the single particles was measured by micro-XANES and found to be in the less soluble form IV while every particle contained a small fraction of mobile uranium VI as well.

  5. Microhomogeneity in reference materials for microanalytical methods - a possible recourse from a blind alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, A. D.; Michalak, P. P.; Munnik, F.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    It is assumed that reference materials for microanalytical methods must be homogeneous, i.e. have the same concentration of the relevant element(s) overall, to ensure that they can be used reliably to get comparison values during the analysis with non absolute methods. With increasing resolution it becomes more and more difficult to ensure such homogeneity, up to the point that it is not possible for several microanalytical methods. Painstaking search for homogeneous natural minerals in gem quality or elaborate expensive methods to produce synthetic minerals provide as obvious solutions to the problem. We propose a way to get reliable reference values with some types of inhomogeneous material, based on multiple probing the reference material. Consider a reference material, which average concentration on the relevant element and its microscale variability has been adequately characterized by a destructive method at a series of grid spots. The minimal number of probing spots required for a certain precision level can be derived from the variance calculations. This procedure is always valid, whenever the heterogeneity value distribution of the reference material has a variance, but at the price that the number of spots will be huge if it is large. However, using adequate models of local heterogeneity can greatly reduce that number. Geostatistics can be used in random, systematic and periodic heterogeneities, while robust methods are useful in cases of nugget heterogeneities. Typical examples of natural and synthetic minerals, analysed by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) for microhomogeneity/microheterogeneity are shown. The distinctions between the two strategies of using these materials as a potential reference material are demonstrated.

  6. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  7. Computer users' postures and associations with workstation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Marcus, M; Ortiz, D; White, B; Jones, W; Cohen, S; Gentry, E; Edwards, A; Bauer, E

    2000-01-01

    This investigation tested the hypotheses that (1) physical workstation dimensions are important determinants of operator posture, (2) specific workstation characteristics systematically affect worker posture, and (3) computer operators assume "neutral" upper limb postures while keying. Operator head, neck, and upper extremity posture and selected workstation dimensions and characteristics were measured among 379 computer users. Operator postures were measured with manual goniometers, workstation characteristics were evaluated by observation, and workstation dimensions by direct measurement. Considerably greater variability in all postures was observed than was expected from application of basic geometric principles to measured workstation dimensions. Few strong correlations were observed between worker posture and workstation physical dimensions; findings suggest that preference is given to keyboard placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.60 for association between keyboard height and seated elbow height) compared with monitor placement with respect to the eyes (r = 0.18 for association between monitor height and seated eye height). Wrist extension was weakly correlated with keyboard height (r = -0.24) and virtually not at all with keyboard thickness (r = 0.07). Use of a wrist rest was associated with decreased wrist flexion (21.9 versus 25.1 degrees, p < 0.01). Participants who had easily adjustable chairs had essentially the same neck and upper limb postures as did those with nonadjustable chairs. Sixty-one percent of computer operators were observed in nonneutral shoulder postures and 41% in nonneutral wrist postures. Findings suggest that (1) workstation dimensions are not strong determinants of at least several neck and upper extremity postures among computer operators, (2) only some workstation characteristics affect posture, and (3) contrary to common recommendations, a large proportion of computer users do not work in so-called neutral postures.

  8. Electronic controls and displays for a Space Station workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.; Parrish, R. V.; Hogge, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    A workstation to serve as a man/machine interface for one of the test beds used in the NASA-Space Station development effort is described which will also serve as a demonstrator of the advanced technologies anticipated for the Space Station workstation. Thin-film electroluminescent flat-panels may replace the presently used CRTs for image generation, and the development of multifunctional controls, advanced graphic generators, and videodisc technology are considered. A generalized window management algorithm will control the large volume of information required, and conventional office automation tools such as spread sheets and database managers will be applied to workstation image management.

  9. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  10. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  11. Graphical workstation capability for reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to computational capabilities, software tools for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant digital computer systems must also provide a means of interfacing with the user. Described here is the new graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP), a software package that implements advanced reliability modeling techniques. The graphics oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault-tree gates, including sequence-dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. By using this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain, which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the graphical kernal system (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing stages.

  12. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  13. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Finite element adaptive mesh analysis using a cluster of workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. P.; Bruch, J. C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Parallel computation on clusters of workstations is becoming one of the major trends in the study of parallel computations, because of their high computing speed, cost effectiveness and scalability. This paper presents studies of using a cluster of workstations for the finite element adaptive mesh analysis of a free surface seepage problem. A parallel algorithm proven to be simple to implement and efficient is used to perform the analysis. A network of workstations is used as the hardware of a parallel system. Two parallel software packages, P4 and PVM (parallel virtual machine), are used to handle communications among networked workstations. Computational issues to be discussed are domain decomposition, load balancing, and communication time.

  15. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  16. Motivating ergonomic computer workstation setup: sometimes training is not enough.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.

  17. A software engineering approach for medical workstations development.

    PubMed

    Jean, F C; Lavril, M; Lemaitre, D; Sauquet, D; Degoulet, P

    1994-01-01

    Multimedia medical workstations represent the natural tool for accessing the hospital information system environment. They are complex medical systems that have to gather, in a single framework, a large collection of components dealing with multimedia medical objects. To remain current with both medical practice and with advances in the computer science field, they have to allow the iterative addition of new functions to the set of existing ones. In this paper, after a survey of commonly required medical workstation functional components, we shall try to discuss how a software engineering approach can streamline the development of a medical workstation. Different software engineering tools needed to build the functional components of a workstation are described. Their integration in a single dedicated environment is considered through four perspectives: data, presentation, communication and control. Benefits and limitations of an object-oriented approach are discussed.

  18. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  19. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  20. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  1. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. PMID:26546967

  2. Microanalytical method development for Fe, Cu and Zn determination in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Polgári, Zsófia; Ajtony, Zsolt; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina; Mihucz, Victor G; Réti, Andrea; Budai, Barna; Kralovánszky, Judit; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Záray, Gyula

    2011-09-30

    Microanalytical methods suitable for the determination of Fe, Cu in HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) cells treated with different iron compounds (Fe(II) sulfate, Fe(III) chloride, Fe(III) citrate and Fe(III) transferrin) and cultured in medium supplemented or not with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and simultaneous graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) were developed. The developed TXRF method was also suitable for Zn determination in the samples. The main advantage of the proposed methods is the execution of all sample preparation steps following incubation and prior to the elemental analysis in the same Eppendorf tubes. Sample preparation was performed at microscale (115 μL sample volume) with 65% nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide. According to scanning electron microscopic measurements, the organic matrix of the cell samples could be eliminated to the extent that accurate results were obtained for Cu and Fe by analyzing the same samples by TXRF and GF-AAS. Concerning the iron uptake, HT-29 cells incubated in FCS-free medium contained Fe in cca. 5-50 times higher amounts compared to cells cultured in FCS supplemented medium. Pronounced differences in the iron uptake compared to the iron supply (inorganic vs. organic chelated as well as iron(II) vs. iron(III)) were observed in the case of cell lines incubated in FCS-free medium.

  3. Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echard, J.-P.; Cotte, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Bertrand, L.

    2008-07-01

    Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.

  4. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate.

  5. Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Marchuk, Andrey; Romanenko, Alexey; Simonov, Konstantin; Titov, Vasiliy

    2010-05-01

    We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to achieve best performance on hardware platforms in use. The complex is calibrated for selected tsunami source zone(s) and coastal zone(s) to be defended. The number of zones (both source and coastal) is determined, or restricted, by available hardware resources. The presented complex performs monitoring of selected tsunami source zone via the Internet. The authors developed original algorithms, which enable detection of the preparation zone of the strong underwater earthquake automatically. For the so-determined zone the event time, magnitude and spatial location of tsunami source are evaluated by means of energy of the seismic precursors (foreshocks) analysis. All the above parameters are updated after each foreshock. Once preparing event is detected, several scenarios are forecasted for wave amplitude parameters as well as the inundation zone. Estimations include the lowest and the highest wave amplitudes and the least and the most inundation zone. In addition to that, the most probable case is calculated. In case of multiple defended coastal zones, forecasts and estimates can be done in parallel. Each time the simulated model wave reaches deep ocean buoys or tidal gauge, expected values of wave parameters and inundation zones are updated with historical events information and pre-calculated scenarios. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package is used for mathematical simulation. The authors suggest code acceleration for deep water wave propagation. As a result, performance is 15 times faster compared to MOST, original version

  6. Development of a 32-bit UNIX-based ELAS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A.; Pearson, Ronnie W.; Cheng, Thomas D.

    1987-01-01

    A mini/microcomputer UNIX-based image analysis workstation has been designed and is being implemented to use the Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS). The hardware system includes a MASSCOMP 5600 computer, which is a 32-bit UNIX-based system (compatible with AT&T System V and Berkeley 4.2 BSD operating system), a floating point accelerator, a 474-megabyte fixed disk, a tri-density magnetic tape drive, and an 1152 by 910 by 12-plane color graphics/image interface. The software conversion includes reconfiguring the ELAs driver Master Task, recompiling and then testing the converted application modules. This hardware and software configuration is a self-sufficient image analysis workstation which can be used as a stand-alone system, or networked with other compatible workstations.

  7. The transition of GTDS to the Unix workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D.; Metzinger, R.; Proulx, R.; Cefola, P.

    1995-01-01

    Future Flight Dynamics systems should take advantage of the possibilities provided by current and future generations of low-cost, high performance workstation computing environments with Graphical User Interface. The port of the existing mainframe Flight Dynamics systems to the workstation environment offers an economic approach for combining the tremendous engineering heritage that has been encapsulated in these systems with the advantages of the new computing environments. This paper will describe the successful transition of the Draper Laboratory R&D version of GTDS (Goddard Trajectory Determination System) from the IBM Mainframe to the Unix workstation environment. The approach will be a mix of historical timeline notes, descriptions of the technical problems overcome, and descriptions of associated SQA (software quality assurance) issues.

  8. PACS workstation for computer-assisted image diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoba, Minoru; Horino, Masato; Takemura, Kunihiko; Wani, Hidenobu; Hidaka, Akinari; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji

    1990-08-01

    Major two functions that a PACS workstation is considered to be equipped with are 1) efficient retrieval of image data and 2) supporting or consultation of writing reports, as radiologists have to diagnose increasing number of digital images in routine clinical studies. The authors developed a prototype PACS workstation with high speed image retrieving architecture and computer aided diagnosis and reporting function by using an artificial intelligence technology (AIPACS workstation). When physician selects the patient and his studies, the system performs feature extraction and generates diagnostic report by the inference engine with backward reasoning using the knowledge installed as production rules. Clinical application to the system for thyroid diagnosis showed good correlation with the diagnosis done by the physician.

  9. Impact of workstations on criticality analyses at ABB combustion engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, L.B.; Freeman, R.S.; O'Donnell, P.F. )

    1993-01-01

    During 1991, ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB C-E) made the transition from a CDC Cyber 990 mainframe for nuclear criticality safety analyses to Hewlett Packard (HP)/Apollo workstations. The primary motivation for this change was improved economics of the workstation and maintaining state-of-the-art technology. The Cyber 990 utilized the NOS operating system with a 60-bit word size. The CPU memory size was limited to 131 100 words of directly addressable memory with an extended 250000 words available. The Apollo workstation environment at ABB consists of HP/Apollo-9000/400 series desktop units used by most application engineers, networked with HP/Apollo DN10000 platforms that use 32-bit word size and function as the computer servers and network administrative CPUS, providing a virtual memory system.

  10. Rebuilding a clinical workstation with spider's silk of the Web.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, F; Morgenweck, L

    1999-01-01

    The Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH) clinical workstation came into existence in 1993 to provide a simple menu-driven interface to high use information systems that would be easily accessible on the wards and in the intensive care units. Direct Internet access, advances in Web-based software, and greater cooperation between Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale School of Medicine network technology groups have enabled the clinical workstations to become an integral tool for providing clinical care. The workstation provides bedside access to an expanding array of internal and external resources to support patient care and has the potential to become the basis for an interface that will be utilized throughout the multi-location Yale-New Haven Healthcare System. Images PMID:10550023

  11. The Ames Virtual Environment Workstation: Implementation issues and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Jacoby, R.; Bryson, S.; Stone, P.; Mcdowall, I.; Bolas, M.; Dasaro, D.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Coler, C.; Kerr, D.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes recent developments in the implementation of a virtual environment workstation in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA's Ames Research Center. Introductory discussions are presented on the primary research objectives and applications of the system and on the system's current hardware and software configuration. Principle attention is then focused on unique issues and problems encountered in the workstation's development with emphasis on its ability to meet original design specifications for computational graphics performance and for associated human factors requirements necessary to provide compelling sense of presence and efficient interaction in the virtual environment.

  12. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  13. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-07-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail.

  14. Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites.

    PubMed

    Lind, O C; De Nolf, W; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron - mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques. PMID:22421357

  15. Video display terminal workstation improvement program: I. Baseline associations between musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic features of workstations.

    PubMed

    Demure, B; Luippold, R S; Bigelow, C; Ali, D; Mundt, K A; Liese, B

    2000-08-01

    Associations between selected sites of musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic characteristics of the video display terminal (VDT) workstation were assessed in analyses controlling for demographic, psychosocial stress, and VDT use factors in 273 VDT users from a large administrative department. Significant associations with wrist/hand discomfort were seen for female gender; working 7+ hours at a VDT; low job satisfaction; poor keyboard position; use of new, adjustable furniture; and layout of the workstation. Significantly increased odds ratios for neck/shoulder discomfort were observed for 7+ hours at a VDT, less than complete job control, older age (40 to 49 years), and never/infrequent breaks. Lower back discomfort was related marginally to working 7+ hours at a VDT. These results demonstrate that some characteristics of VDT workstations, after accounting for psychosocial stress, can be correlated with musculoskeletal discomfort.

  16. WorkstationJ: workstation emulation software for medical image perception and technology evaluation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartz, Kevin M.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Caldwell, Robert T.; Madsen, Mark T.

    2007-03-01

    We developed image presentation software that mimics the functionality available in the clinic, but also records time-stamped, observer-display interactions and is readily deployable on diverse workstations making it possible to collect comparable observer data at multiple sites. Commercial image presentation software for clinical use has limited application for research on image perception, ergonomics, computer-aids and informatics because it does not collect observer responses, or other information on observer-display interactions, in real time. It is also very difficult to collect observer data from multiple institutions unless the same commercial software is available at different sites. Our software not only records observer reports of abnormalities and their locations, but also inspection time until report, inspection time for each computed radiograph and for each slice of tomographic studies, window/level, and magnification settings used by the observer. The software is a modified version of the open source ImageJ software available from the National Institutes of Health. Our software involves changes to the base code and extensive new plugin code. Our free software is currently capable of displaying computed tomography and computed radiography images. The software is packaged as Java class files and can be used on Windows, Linux, or Mac systems. By deploying our software together with experiment-specific script files that administer experimental procedures and image file handling, multi-institutional studies can be conducted that increase reader and/or case sample sizes or add experimental conditions.

  17. High Performance Diskless Linux Workstations in AX-Division

    SciTech Connect

    Councell, E; Busby, L

    2003-09-30

    AX Division has recently installed a number of diskless Linux workstations to meet the needs of its scientific staff for classified processing. Results so far are quite positive, although problems do remain. Some unusual requirements were met using a novel, but simple, design: Each diskless client has a dedicated partition on a server disk that contains a complete Linux distribution.

  18. Quality of service support for networked multimedia workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Peter J.; Beadle, H. W. Peter

    1996-03-01

    The Communications Resource Manager (CRM) provides communications at a specified Quality of Service (QoS) for networked multimedia workstations in an environment where the network and workstation resources are changing. The CRM enables a consistent application interface and manages all workstation communications resources. It established network connections on behalf of applications, monitors their progress and notifies applications when network QoS events take place. Applications can then modify their behavior (compression rate, number of simultaneous media, media type) to cope with the change. The CRM provides mechanisms to negotiate at call setup time the level of multimedia support provided. If optimal resources are not available, call quality degradation paths allow call establishment at the highest QoS possible. Call admission based on on-going network performance monitoring and application performance feedback from the CRM can be used to prevent further QoS degradation by refusing to attempt connections when insufficient resources are available. The CRM enables existing multimedia workstations to communicate in an environment with known QoS. The CRM flows naturally into emerging QoS techniques for end-to-end ATM services. Because the CRM operates at the application level it is also applicable to the ATM interconnection of LANs whereas current ATM Forum proposals are not.

  19. The Air Force Academy Instructor Workstation (IWS): II. Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gist, Thomas E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of measuring the in-class effectiveness of a computer-controlled instructor workstation (IWS) that was developed at the Air Force Academy. Treatments for the experimental and control groups in an introductory physics course are described, and effects on student performance, student attitudes, and instructor attitudes are…

  20. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  1. Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is connected to an overhead tube which pulls the sawdust to the machine in photograph CO-172-AF-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. MDIS (medical diagnostic imaging support) workstation issues: clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Suzy; Cawthon, Michael A.

    1991-05-01

    A joint DoD effort is in the final stages of contract acquisition to achieve a ''filmless'' hospital environment in the near future. Success of implementation lays to a large degree on an effective image workstation. This paper will discuss soft copy image display (SCID) of the MDIS system including hardware and software.

  3. Accessible Microscopy Workstation for Students and Scientists with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerstock, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for…

  4. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Validation and evaluation of a workstation for monitoring sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Neil; Boardman, Diane; Darwin, David; Sullivan, Ken

    1994-12-01

    Demand for reliable sea ice information comes from many quarters including ship routing and resource exploitation companies, weather forecasting agencies and glaciological research institution. For operational purposes, this information is typically required for local regions on short timescales. To explore this market a prototype sea ice workstation has been developed. The workstation uses data from several current earth observation sensors, combining the advantages of regional survey, all-weather capability and high-resolution imagery. The output from the workstation is an integrated sea ice chart which can be used to display combinations of ice edge, ice type, ice concentrations, ice motion vectors and sea surface temperatures. During the course of its development significant new progress in automated ice classification has been achieved together with the enhancement of existing ice motion algorithms. The quality of the sea ice information from each geophysical algorithm was assessed through validation campaigns which collected independent datasets. The results of this analysis show the ice type classification to be most accurate in identifying multi-year ice; this is probably the most critical ice category for navigational purposes. A program of end-user evaluation has also been started in which sea ice charts are supplied to operational organizations and value-added services. This will continue during 1994 and provide feedback on the use of the workstation in a semi-operational environment.

  6. An open systems architecture for development of a physician's workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.; Annevelink, J.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a physician's workstation consisting of highly integrated information management tools for use by physicians in patient care. We have designed and implemented an open systems, client/server architecture as a development platform which allows new applications to be easily added to the system. Applications cooperate by exchanging messages via a broadcast message server. PMID:1807649

  7. Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

    1992-07-01

    Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians'' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician''s time to about 5-minutes of physician''s time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

  8. Workstation Technology: New Directions for the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Belasco

    1992-01-01

    The shift from limited-capacity personal computers to powerful workstation technology offers an environment for writing instruction that allows networking, simultaneous performance of many tasks, and tools for designing custom lessons and individual applications. At Allegheny College (Pennsylvania), a first-year writing course is supported…

  9. Workstations as Roommates: Project Athena and Student Life at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    A study of Massachusetts Institute of Technology student living groups equipped with powerful computer workstations suggests that the intervention enhances rather than degrades the living groups socially, a few residents benefit substantially while most benefit only modestly, and individual benefits fail to offset potential organizational costs.…

  10. First Year's Experience of the MAClinical Computer Workstations Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stair, Thomas O.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Computerized workstations at a teaching hospital were developed so that physicians in training could integrate and automate some of their information management tasks. The project is part of the National Library of Medicine's Integrated Academic Information Management Systems program at Georgetown University School of Medicine. (Author/MLW)

  11. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-2007 Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and...

  12. Exploring clinical reasoning in novices: a self-regulated learning microanalytic assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Artino, Anthony R; Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to examine the regulatory processes of medical students as they completed a diagnostic reasoning task and to examine whether the strategic quality of these regulatory processes were related to short-term and longer-term medical education outcomes. Methods A self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment was administered to 71 second-year medical students while they read a clinical case and worked to formulate the most probable diagnosis. Verbal responses to open-ended questions targeting forethought and performance phase processes of a cyclical model of SRL were recorded verbatim and subsequently coded using a framework from prior research. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between the SRL processes and several outcomes. Results Most participants (90%) reported focusing on specific diagnostic reasoning strategies during the task (metacognitive monitoring), but only about one-third of students referenced these strategies (e.g. identifying symptoms, integration) in relation to their task goals and plans for completing the task. After accounting for prior undergraduate achievement and verbal reasoning ability, strategic planning explained significant additional variance in course grade (ΔR2 = 0.15, p < 0.01), second-year grade point average (ΔR2 = 0.14, p < 0.01), United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score (ΔR2 = 0.08, p < 0.05) and National Board of Medical Examiner subject examination score in internal medicine (ΔR2 = 0.10, p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that most students in the formative stages of learning diagnostic reasoning skills are aware of and think about at least one key diagnostic reasoning process or strategy while solving a clinical case, but a substantially smaller percentage set goals or develop plans that incorporate such strategies. Given that students who developed more strategic plans

  13. MIT-MANUS: a workstation for manual therapy and training II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Neville; Krebs, Hermano I.; Charnnarong, J.; Srikrishna, P.; Sharon, Andre

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents some recent work on the development of a workstation for teaching and therapy in manual and manipulative skills. The experimental workstation, MANUS, as well as the overall concept are described. State-of-the-art aspects of the workstation under development are introduced.

  14. An Analysis of Computer Workstation and Handwriting Use by ESP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, John

    A study at the University of Aizu (Japan) investigated characteristics of technical writing assignments composed in English as a second language on computer workstations and by hand. The in-class workstation essays and hand-written essays of 24 students revealed that while all were of similar overall quality, the workstation essays were not as…

  15. A Mobile Online/CD-ROM Workstation for Demos and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Carol; Friend, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Describes a mobile workstation that was developed at Penn State University to provide library instruction and demonstrations of online and CD-ROM searching. Use of the workstation for classroom instruction and staff training is discussed; and designing the workstation to include a computer, overhead projector, modem, CD-ROM drive, and printer is…

  16. The Impact of Ergonomically Designed Workstations on Shoulder EMG Activity during Carpet Weaving

    PubMed Central

    Motamedzade, Majid; Afshari, Davood; Soltanian, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies) and workstation B (proposed by the present study). Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1) weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively), and 2) seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively). Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was signifi­cantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001). Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:25650180

  17. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  18. How Well Do Microanalytic Measures of Academic Self-Regulation Predict Teacher Ratings of Student Self-Regulated Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to establish the validity of microanalytic measures used to assess students' self-regulation of an academic science task, not only in terms of immediate achievement, but also in terms of a well-established "person" measure of self-regulated learning. Person measures are designed to capture enduring…

  19. The network management expert system prototype for Sun Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Networking has become one of the fastest growing areas in the computer industry. The emergence of distributed workstations make networking more popular because they need to have connectivity between themselves as well as with other computer systems to share information and system resources. Making the networks more efficient and expandable by selecting network services and devices that fit to one's need is vital to achieve reliability and fast throughput. Networks are dynamically changing and growing at a rate that outpaces the available human resources. Therefore, there is a need to multiply the expertise rapidly rather than employing more network managers. In addition, setting up and maintaining networks by following the manuals can be tedious and cumbersome even for an experienced network manager. This prototype expert system was developed to experiment on Sun Workstations to assist system and network managers in selecting and configurating network services.

  20. ARAC`s site workstation final design and deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Abriam, R.O.; Moore, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Center located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides real-time estimates of the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity or other hazardous materials into the atmosphere anywhere in the world. ARAC`s expertise includes integrating a suite of local, regional and global dispersion models into a highly automated system. Since 1979, on-site computers have provided the link between DOE and DOD facilities around the U.S. and the ARAC Center. Beginning in 1993, these facilities have been replacing their personal computers with UNIX workstations running ARAC`s Site Workstation Systems (SWS) software. The SWS consists of a collection of applications that help sites prepare for and respond to incidents involving an atmospheric release. The SWS can be used either as a real-time emergency-response tool or to make historical or hypothetical assessments of releases.

  1. An integrated distributed processing interface for supercomputers and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; McGavran, L.

    1989-01-01

    Access to documentation, communication between multiple processes running on heterogeneous computers, and animation of simulations of engineering problems are typically weak in most supercomputer environments. This presentation will describe how we are improving this situation in the Computer Research and Applications group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have developed a tool using UNIX filters and a SunView interface that allows users simple access to documentation via mouse driven menus. We have also developed a distributed application that integrated a two point boundary value problem on one of our Cray Supercomputers. It is controlled and displayed graphically by a window interface running on a workstation screen. Our motivation for this research has been to improve the usual typewriter/static interface using language independent controls to show capabilities of the workstation/supercomputer combination. 8 refs.

  2. Physics and detector simulation facility Type O workstation specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, G.; Cormell, L.R.; Hahn, R.; Jacobson, D.; Johnstad, H.; Leibold, P.; Marquez, M.; Ramsey, B.; Roberts, L.; Scipioni, B.; Yost, G.P.

    1990-11-01

    This document specifies the requirements for the front-end network of workstations of a distributed computing facility. This facility will be needed to perform the physics and detector simulations for the design of Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors, and other computations in support of physics and detector needs. A detailed description of the computer simulation facility is given in the overall system specification document. This document provides revised subsystem specifications for the network of monitor-less Type 0 workstations. The requirements specified in this document supersede the requirements given. In Section 2 a brief functional description of the facility and its use are provided. The list of detailed specifications (vendor requirements) is given in Section 3 and the qualifying requirements (benchmarks) are described in Section 4.

  3. Let's Use Cognitive Science to Create Collaborative Workstations.

    PubMed

    Reicher, Murray A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    When informed by an understanding of cognitive science, radiologists' workstations could become collaborative to improve radiologists' performance and job satisfaction. The authors review relevant literature and present several promising areas of research, including image toggling, eye tracking, cognitive computing, intelligently restricted messaging, work habit tracking, and innovative input devices. The authors call for more research in "perceptual design," a promising field that can complement advances in computer-aided detection.

  4. Development of a smart workstation for use in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Doi, Kunio; Yin, Fang-Fang; Vyborny, Carl J.; Schmidt, Robert A.; Metz, Charles E.; Wu, Chris Y.; MacMahon, Heber; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1991-06-01

    We are developing various computer-vision schemes for the detection of masses and microcalcifications in digital mammograms. However, for the effective and efficient implementation of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), appropriate man-machine interfaces must be developed. Thus, our plan is to incorporate our schemes into a dedicated workstation for use as a 'second opinion' in a mammographic screening program. Output from the computer would be displayed as an aid, leaving the final diagnostic decision with the radiologist.

  5. Let's Use Cognitive Science to Create Collaborative Workstations.

    PubMed

    Reicher, Murray A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    When informed by an understanding of cognitive science, radiologists' workstations could become collaborative to improve radiologists' performance and job satisfaction. The authors review relevant literature and present several promising areas of research, including image toggling, eye tracking, cognitive computing, intelligently restricted messaging, work habit tracking, and innovative input devices. The authors call for more research in "perceptual design," a promising field that can complement advances in computer-aided detection. PMID:26873029

  6. Supporting large scale applications on networks of workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    Distributed applications on networks of workstations are an increasingly common way to satisfy computing needs. However, existing mechanisms for distributed programming exhibit poor performance and reliability as application size increases. Extension of the ISIS distributed programming system to support large scale distributed applications by providing hierarchical process groups is discussed. Incorporation of hierarchy in the program structure and exploitation of this to limit the communication and storage required in any one component of the distributed system is examined.

  7. ARCIMBOLDO_LITE: single-workstation implementation and use.

    PubMed

    Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Frieske, Dawid; Rodríguez-Freire, Eloy; Borges, Rafael J; Usón, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem at resolutions of around 2 Å or better through massive combination of small fragments and density modification. For complex structures, this imposes a need for a powerful grid where calculations can be distributed, but for structures with up to 200 amino acids in the asymmetric unit a single workstation may suffice. The use and performance of the single-workstation implementation, ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, on a pool of test structures with 40-120 amino acids and resolutions between 0.54 and 2.2 Å is described. Inbuilt polyalanine helices and iron cofactors are used as search fragments. ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES can also run on a single workstation to solve structures in this test set using precomputed libraries of local folds. The results of this study have been incorporated into an automated, resolution- and hardware-dependent parameterization. ARCIMBOLDO has been thoroughly rewritten and three binaries are now available: ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, ARCIMBOLDO_SHREDDER and ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES. The programs and libraries can be downloaded from http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE. PMID:26327382

  8. ARCIMBOLDO_LITE: single-workstation implementation and use.

    PubMed

    Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Frieske, Dawid; Rodríguez-Freire, Eloy; Borges, Rafael J; Usón, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem at resolutions of around 2 Å or better through massive combination of small fragments and density modification. For complex structures, this imposes a need for a powerful grid where calculations can be distributed, but for structures with up to 200 amino acids in the asymmetric unit a single workstation may suffice. The use and performance of the single-workstation implementation, ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, on a pool of test structures with 40-120 amino acids and resolutions between 0.54 and 2.2 Å is described. Inbuilt polyalanine helices and iron cofactors are used as search fragments. ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES can also run on a single workstation to solve structures in this test set using precomputed libraries of local folds. The results of this study have been incorporated into an automated, resolution- and hardware-dependent parameterization. ARCIMBOLDO has been thoroughly rewritten and three binaries are now available: ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, ARCIMBOLDO_SHREDDER and ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES. The programs and libraries can be downloaded from http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE.

  9. Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.

  10. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    PubMed

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory.

  11. Effects of a standing and three dynamic workstations on computer task performance and cognitive function tests.

    PubMed

    Commissaris, Dianne A C M; Könemann, Reinier; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Suzanne; Burford, Eva-Maria; Botter, Juliane; Douwes, Marjolein; Ellegast, Rolf P

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary work entails health risks. Dynamic (or active) workstations, at which computer tasks can be combined with physical activity, may reduce the risks of sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to evaluate short term task performance while working on three dynamic workstations: a treadmill, an elliptical trainer, a bicycle ergometer and a conventional standing workstation. A standard sitting workstation served as control condition. Fifteen Dutch adults performed five standardised but common office tasks in an office-like laboratory setting. Both objective and perceived work performance were measured. With the exception of high precision mouse tasks, short term work performance was not affected by working on a dynamic or a standing workstation. The participant's perception of decreased performance might complicate the acceptance of dynamic workstations, although most participants indicate that they would use a dynamic workstation if available at the workplace.

  12. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    PubMed

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory. PMID:22904140

  13. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FKα X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2σ errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI

  14. Business establishment mobility behavior in urban areas: a microanalytical model for the City of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-09-01

    We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory results suggest that short distance moves are more common and tend to occur among smaller firms. Econometric modeling results support these assertions and indicate that the willingness to move can be explained by a firm’s internal characteristics (e.g. age, size, growth and industry type) as well as location factors related to the urban environment where the firm is located. The modeling results will serve as input for the development of an agent-based firmographic decision support system that can be used to inform the planning process in the study area.

  15. Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

  16. Specifications for a plant electrical systems and equipment workstation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, T.M.; Bramwell, M.L.; Merkel, A.C.; Tracy, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) authorized Project RP 2960-1 for the development of functional specifications for a Plant Electrical Systems and equipment (PESE) Workstation. The objectives for the PESE Workstation is to enhance a utility's in-house capabilities to attain higher overall equipment and system reliability. The workstation will be a software and data management environment whose purpose is to integrate current and anticipated software and associated databases. Utility needs in the electrical engineering area and the related functions required to support these needs were derived from a survey of EPRI utilities and the experiences of the project team. The workstations scope and information structure are described in terms of the activities and data elements of the EPRI Plant Information Network (PIN). Ten major application software modules are included in the workstation. Appropriate hardware configurations have been determined based on the software, user interface, and database requirements. Important features of the workstations include: (1) a common, consistent interface between the user and the workstation's application software modules, query facility, and telecommunications facility, and (2) a common, shared database as the coordination point for work activities supported by the workstation. Full implementation of the workstation will occur in phases. Utility interest in the workstation concept is expected to increase due to greater NRC and INPO requirements for enhanced data management and maintenance of plant design bases. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. POSTURE ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES FOR CHILDREN WHEN USING ADULT VDT WORKSTATIONS WITH LIMITED ADJUSTABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Boon-anake, Doojchadang; Hongsiri, Kwanchanok; Miliang, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    Children are likely to assume very awkward seated postures when using a desktop computer at workstations with limited adjustability. This also includes the workstations that are not built for them such as adult visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. This paper proposes simple step-by-step procedures for estimating necessary adjustments so that children can sit and maintain an appropriate seated posture at VDT workstations with limited adjustability (i.e., fixed keyboard and monitor heights). From the anthropometric and VDT workstation data, the procedures compute the recommended VDT workstation settings for a concerned child, compare them with the actual workstation adjustment ranges, determine the appropriate settings, and suggest necessary accessories. The posture adjustment procedures are tested on four Thai children seated at two different types of adult VDT workstation. A rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) technique is used to evaluate the children's seated postures both before and after the posture adjustment. Applying the procedures, children need their own VDT workstation that should be fully adjustable. In using an adult workstation, adjustment accessories and the correct settings are required.

  18. Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    The 21(st) century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation) environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs) become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments.

  19. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  20. An Imaging And Graphics Workstation For Image Sequence Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Hassan

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an application-specific engineering workstation designed and developed to analyze imagery sequences from a variety of sources. The system combines the software and hardware environment of the modern graphic-oriented workstations with the digital image acquisition, processing and display techniques. The objective is to achieve automation and high throughput for many data reduction tasks involving metric studies of image sequences. The applications of such an automated data reduction tool include analysis of the trajectory and attitude of aircraft, missile, stores and other flying objects in various flight regimes including launch and separation as well as regular flight maneuvers. The workstation can also be used in an on-line or off-line mode to study three-dimensional motion of aircraft models in simulated flight conditions such as wind tunnels. The system's key features are: 1) Acquisition and storage of image sequences by digitizing real-time video or frames from a film strip; 2) computer-controlled movie loop playback, slow motion and freeze frame display combined with digital image sharpening, noise reduction, contrast enhancement and interactive image magnification; 3) multiple leading edge tracking in addition to object centroids at up to 60 fields per second from both live input video or a stored image sequence; 4) automatic and manual field-of-view and spatial calibration; 5) image sequence data base generation and management, including the measurement data products; 6) off-line analysis software for trajectory plotting and statistical analysis; 7) model-based estimation and tracking of object attitude angles; and 8) interface to a variety of video players and film transport sub-systems.

  1. Implementation of a clinical workstation for general practice.

    PubMed

    Lovell, N H; Celler, B G

    1995-01-01

    It is now well recognized that achieving international best practice in the primary health sector will require the development of methods based on a fundamental integration of communications and information technologies with clinical practice. This will have far reaching effects, both on the pattern of medical practice and domiciliary care and on patient outcomes. In the past, information and communications technology has been presented as a tool for management, rather than as a tool for supporting, improving, and making more efficient the professional practice of medicine and the delivery of health care to the patient and the community. In this paper, we propose that an essential element for the achievement of international best practice in the health sector is the development and widespread use of information, measurement, and communications technology targeted towards the clinical practice of medicine, the provision of health services and domiciliary care in the community, and the analysis of morbidity patterns and health care outcomes. A key element of this strategy is the development of an integrated Clinical Workstation specifically designed for the general practitioner, practice nurses, and domiciliary care nurses in their professional tasks of measurement, diagnosis, management, and delivery of health care to the community. We will present our work on the design of an integrated Clinical Workstation for Primary Health Care. The Workstation is Windows based, has a sophisticated user interface, and supports a wide range of computing platforms, from desktop to laptop to hand-held notebook computers. The Workstation will be modular and expandable, both in its software and hardware components, so that users may select only those modules appropriate to their own roles, clinical practice, and levels of expertise. The design will focus on the provision of clinical services and will integrate the following key components: Patient records and basic practice

  2. JPL multipolarization workstation - Hardware, software and examples of data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnette, Fred; Norikane, Lynne

    1987-01-01

    A low-cost stand-alone interactive image processing workstation has been developed for operations on multipolarization JPL aircraft SAR data, as well as data from future spaceborne imaging radars. A recently developed data compression technique is used to reduce the data volume to 10 Mbytes, for a typical data set, so that interactive analysis may be accomplished in a timely and efficient manner on a supermicrocomputer. In addition to presenting a hardware description of the work station, attention is given to the software that has been developed. Three illustrative examples of data analysis are presented.

  3. Designing a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, A.; Zörb, L.; Dudeck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a software architecture for a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units. The development is fully integrated into the information infrastructure of the existing hospital information system (HIS) at the University Hospital of Giessen. It provides cost efficient and reliable access for data entry and review from the HIS database from within patient rooms, even in very space limited environments. The architecture further supports automatical data input from medical devices. First results from three different intensive care units are reported. PMID:8947771

  4. Worksheets for computing recommended notebook computer and workstation adjustments.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Udomratana, Chatkate; Hansawad, Saowalak; Thepkanjana, Jayaporn; Tantasuwan, Wanchalerm

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of worksheets for helping notebook computer (NBC) users to compute NBC and workstation adjustments so as to assume an appropriate seated posture. The worksheets (one for male users, the other for female ones) require the following information: body height, NBC screen size, work surface height, and seat height. The worksheets contain tables for estimating recommended NBC base angle, NBC screen angle, body-NBC distance, work surface height, and seat height. Additionally, they include flow charts to help NBC users to determine necessary adjustment accessories and their settings.

  5. The pathologist's workstation. Issues and an early prototype.

    PubMed

    Shultz, E K; Brown, R W

    1991-04-01

    The role of a pathologist demands the efficient collection, processing and communication of information. Although computerization has been readily adopted in the laboratory to help with specimen processing, educational programs and technological tools for the pathologist's own information handling are at the inception stage. Many pathologists feel their role as a consultant would be enhanced by easy-to-use microcomputer information tools linked to their laboratory databases. This article provides an overview of emerging computer science trends and reviews areas in which a workstation is likely to be useful to the pathologist. A currently operational project embodying some of these concepts is described.

  6. Design method for multi-user workstations utilizing anthropometry and preference data.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Kurczewski, Nicolas A; Froede, Erick W

    2015-01-01

    Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared space for adjacent users. We first create a virtual population with the same anthropometric and preference distributions as an intended demographic of college-aged students. Members of the virtual population are randomly paired to test if their extended reaches overlap but their normal reaches do not. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total percentage of groups in the population that will be accommodated for a workstation size. We apply our method to two test cases: in the first, we size polygonal workstations for two populations and, in the second, we dimension circular workstations for different group sizes.

  7. Power cords on some InterMetro mobile workstations may experience insulation breakdown.

    PubMed

    2010-11-01

    The outer insulation layer of some power cords supplied with certain InterMetro mobile workstations (the Flo 1750, the Flo 1800 computing workstation, and the Flo 2400 medication workstation) may experience degradation along the inner surface of the coiled portion of the cord, which may expose the internal wires and increase the risk of electric shock. The damage is often not evident unless the cord is stretched out. InterMetro will provide free replacements for cords exhibiting this damage.

  8. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations. PMID:25347682

  9. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations.

  10. Improving the performance of a petroleum reservoir model on workstation clusters using MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas, M.A.R.; Zaluska, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    The relatively low-performance of a petroleum reservoir model when it executes on a single workstation is one of the key motivating factors for exploiting high-performance computing on workstation clusters. Workstation clusters, connected through a Local Area Network, are at a stage where their effectiveness as a suitable configuration for high-performance parallel processing has already been established. This paper discusses the improvement in performance of an engineering application on a workstation cluster using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) software environment. The importance of this approach for many engineering and scientific applications is illustrated by the case study, which also provides a recommended porting methodology for similar applications.

  11. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method.

  12. Study of forward sloping seats for VDT workstations.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S A

    1994-06-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify and evaluate various forward seat inclinations (5, 10, 15 degrees) for Video Display Terminal workstation type seating by constructing a fixture to be fitted to a test chair to achieve various seat angles. The discomfort in critical areas i.e. neck and lower back were evaluated by 25 male university students (avg. age 22 years) with no history of musculoskeletal disorders on a subjective scale for comfort. The comfortable or uncomfortable seat inclinations were identified after a statistical analysis. The heart rate and blood pressure were observed every 5 min for validation purposes. It was recommended that, to avoid neck problems, a chair with a forward incline greater than 5 degrees should not be used and to avoid lower back problems a chair with a seat angle of approximately 10 degrees be used. On the overall comfort criteria it is recommended to use a chair with a seat pan which inclines to approximately 15 degrees (forward). The findings and recommendations from this study can enhance the safety and productivity of the people whose jobs require continuous forward bending in a sitting task involving VDT workstations.

  13. Scheduling revisited workstations in integrated-circuit fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of building new semiconductor wafer fabrication factories has grown rapidly, and a state-of-the-art fab may cost 250 million dollars or more. Obtaining an acceptable return on this investment requires high productivity from the fabrication facilities. This paper describes the Photo Dispatcher system which was developed to make machine-loading recommendations on a set of key fab machines. Dispatching policies that generally perform well in job shops (e.g., Shortest Remaining Processing Time) perform poorly for workstations such as photolithography which are visited several times by the same lot of silicon wafers. The Photo Dispatcher evaluates the history of workloads throughout the fab and identifies bottleneck areas. The scheduler then assigns priorities to lots depending on where they are headed after photolithography. These priorities are designed to avoid starving bottleneck workstations and to give preference to lots that are headed to areas where they can be processed with minimal waiting. Other factors considered by the scheduler to establish priorities are the nearness of a lot to the end of its process flow and the time that the lot has already been waiting in queue. Simulations that model the equipment and products in one of Texas Instrument's wafer fabs show the Photo Dispatcher can produce a 10 percent improvement in the time required to fabricate integrated circuits.

  14. A cycling workstation to facilitate physical activity in office settings.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2014-07-01

    Facilitating physical activity during the workday may help desk-bound workers reduce risks associated with sedentary behavior. We 1) evaluated the efficacy of a cycling workstation to increase energy expenditure while performing a typing task and 2) fabricated a power measurement system to determine the accuracy and reliability of an exercise cycle. Ten individuals performed 10 min trials of sitting while typing (SIT type) and pedaling while typing (PED type). Expired gases were recorded and typing performance was assessed. Metabolic cost during PED type was ∼ 2.5 × greater compared to SIT type (255 ± 14 vs. 100 ± 11 kcal h(-1), P < 0.01). Typing time and number of typing errors did not differ between PED type and SIT type (7.7 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 1.6 min, P = 0.51, 3.3 ± 4.6 vs. 3.8 ± 2.7 errors, P = 0.80). The exercise cycle overestimated power by 14-138% compared to actual power but actual power was reliable (r = 0.998, P < 0.01). A cycling workstation can facilitate physical activity without compromising typing performance. The exercise cycle's inaccuracy could be misleading to users. PMID:24681071

  15. Texture analysis software: integration with a radiological workstation.

    PubMed

    Duvauferrier, Régis; Bezy, Joan; Bertaud, Valérie; Toussaint, Grégoire; Morelli, John; Lasbleiz, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Image analysis is the daily task of radiologists. The texture of a structure or imaging finding can be more difficult to describe than other parameters. Image processing can help the radiologist in completing this difficult task. The aim of this article is to explain how we have developed texture analysis software and integrated it into a standard radiological workstation. The texture analysis method has been divided into three steps: definition of primitive elements, counting, and statistical analysis. The software was developed in C++ and integrated into a Siemens workstation with a graphical user interface. The results of analyses may be exported in Excel format. The software allows users to perform texture analyses on any type of radiological image without the need for image transfer by simply placing a region of interest. This tool has already been used to assess the trabecular network of vertebra. The integration of such software into PACS extends the applicability of texture analysis beyond that of a mere research tool and facilitates its use in routine clinical practice.

  16. Image sequence analysis workstation for multipoint motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Hassan

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes an application-specific engineering workstation designed and developed to analyze motion of objects from video sequences. The system combines the software and hardware environment of a modem graphic-oriented workstation with the digital image acquisition, processing and display techniques. In addition to automation and Increase In throughput of data reduction tasks, the objective of the system Is to provide less invasive methods of measurement by offering the ability to track objects that are more complex than reflective markers. Grey level Image processing and spatial/temporal adaptation of the processing parameters is used for location and tracking of more complex features of objects under uncontrolled lighting and background conditions. The applications of such an automated and noninvasive measurement tool include analysis of the trajectory and attitude of rigid bodies such as human limbs, robots, aircraft in flight, etc. The system's key features are: 1) Acquisition and storage of Image sequences by digitizing and storing real-time video; 2) computer-controlled movie loop playback, freeze frame display, and digital Image enhancement; 3) multiple leading edge tracking in addition to object centroids at up to 60 fields per second from both live input video or a stored Image sequence; 4) model-based estimation and tracking of the six degrees of freedom of a rigid body: 5) field-of-view and spatial calibration: 6) Image sequence and measurement data base management; and 7) offline analysis software for trajectory plotting and statistical analysis.

  17. Local Surface Reconstruction from MER images using Stereo Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongjoe; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The authors present a semi-automatic workflow that reconstructs the 3D shape of the martian surface from local stereo images delivered by PnCam or NavCam on systems such as the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission and in the future the ESA-NASA ExoMars rover PanCam. The process is initiated with manually selected tiepoints on a stereo workstation which is then followed by a tiepoint refinement, stereo-matching using region growing and Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA)-based bundle adjustment processing. The stereo workstation, which is being developed by UCL in collaboration with colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) within the EU FP7 ProVisG project, includes a set of practical GUI-based tools that enable an operator to define a visually correct tiepoint via a stereo display. To achieve platform and graphic hardware independence, the stereo application has been implemented using JPL's JADIS graphic library which is written in JAVA and the remaining processing blocks used in the reconstruction workflow have also been developed as a JAVA package to increase the code re-usability, portability and compatibility. Although initial tiepoints from the stereo workstation are reasonably acceptable as true correspondences, it is often required to employ an optional validity check and/or quality enhancing process. To meet this requirement, the workflow has been designed to include a tiepoint refinement process based on the Adaptive Least Square Correlation (ALSC) matching algorithm so that the initial tiepoints can be further enhanced to sub-pixel precision or rejected if they fail to pass the ALSC matching threshold. Apart from the accuracy of reconstruction, it is obvious that the other criterion to assess the quality of reconstruction is the density (or completeness) of reconstruction, which is not attained in the refinement process. Thus, we re-implemented a stereo region growing process, which is a core matching algorithm within the UCL

  18. A microanalytic study of self-regulated learning processes of expert, non-expert, and at-risk science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation sought to examine differences in the self-regulated learning processes and beliefs of students who vary in their level of expertise in science and to investigate if there are gender differences. Participants were 51 ethnically diverse 11th grade students from three parochial high schools consisting of 34 females and 17 males. Students were grouped as either expert, non-expert, or at-risk based on the school's classification. Students were provided with a short passage on tornados to read and study. The two achievement measures obtained were the Tornado Knowledge Test : ten short-answer questions and the Conceptual Model Test : a question which required the students to draw and describe the three sequential images of tornado development from the textual description of the three phases. A microanalytic methodology was used which consists of asking a series of questions aimed at assessing students' psychological behaviors, feelings, and thoughts in each of Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulation: forethought, performance, and reflection. These questions were asked of the students while they were engaged in learning. Two additional measures were obtained: the Rating Student Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes: A Teacher Scale (RSSRL) and the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning (SELF). Analysis of variance, chi square analysis, and post hoc test results showed significant expertise differences, large effect sizes, and positive linear trends on most measures. Regarding gender, there were significant differences on only two measures. Correlational analyses also revealed significant relations among the self-regulatory subprocesses across the three phases. The microanalytic measures were combined across the three phases and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the Tornado Knowledge Test. These self-regulatory processes explained 77% of the variance in the Tornado Knowledge Test, which was a significant and

  19. Application of Microanalytical Techniques to an Extremely Slow Growing Speleothem: a Pilot Study Covering the Last Glacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrick, E.; Drysdale, R.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Greig, A.; Ireland, T. R.; Holden, P.; Rivard, C.; Chalmin, E.; Zanchetta, G.

    2014-12-01

    Speleothems have emerged as one of the best sources of terrestrial palaeoclimate information. They have the potential to preserve long and continuous records, contain multiple climate-sensitive properties and can be accurately and precisely dated. These characteristics ideally position speleothems to refine the chronology of climate events recorded in ice and marine sediment. In recent years we have seen a dramatic improvement in analytical instrumentation available for high-resolution, in situ stable isotope and trace element analysis. These techniques present the opportunity to obtain palaeoclimate reconstructions from slow-growing speleothems, such as subaqueous deposits, which have largely been overlooked for palaeoclimate research. Here, we present the use of microanalytical techniques to obtain a 'high-resolution' palaeoclimate reconstruction from an exceptionally slow growing (~0.3 mm kyr-1) subaqueous calcite mound from Corchia Cave, NW Italy. A 23-cm-long core through this speleothem provides a ~continuous climatic record extending back almost 1 Ma. In this pilot investigation, we use microanalytical techniques to obtain a palaeoclimate reconstruction from the top ~2 cm of the core, which represents the last ~120 kyr. Micron-scale trace element analyses were performed by X-ray micro-fluorescence at the ESRF (Grenoble, France), with complementary analyses using laser ablation ICPMS at the University of Melbourne (Australia). Stable oxygen isotope microanalysis was performed using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe Stable Isotope (SHRIMP SI) at the ANU (Canberra, Australia). This is the first time that this suite of techniques has been applied to a single specimen of speleothem calcite. High-resolution uranium-thorium dating has been undertaken to provide age constraints. This research demonstrates the potential application of multiple high-resolution analytical techniques to complex speleothems, and presents exciting opportunities to analyse slow

  20. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  1. A workstation based simulator for teaching compressible aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive flow simulator has been developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. By solving the equations found in NACA 1135, the simulator models three basic fluids problems encountered in supersonic flow: flow past a compression corner, flow past two wedges in series, and flow past two opposed wedges. The study can vary the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the results of the flow calculations to the student. The simulator includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use.

  2. Metals in dust fractions emitted at mechanical workstations.

    PubMed

    Kondej, Dorota; Gawęda, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Workers at metal machining workstations are exposed to airborne dust particles containing metals and their compounds. Their harmful impact on the workers' health depends on both their chemical composition and their distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the content of metals in dust fractions emitted in the process of mechanical machining of products made of brass, steel and cast iron. Samples taken during grinding, turning and drilling were tested. The concentration of metals in dust fractions was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of iron, manganese, chromium, zinc, lead, copper and nickel in the dust fractions was highly differentiated depending on the size of the particles, the material and the processes used.

  3. C3 generic workstation: Performance metrics and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1988-01-01

    The large number of integrated dependent measures available on a command, control, and communications (C3) generic workstation under development are described. In this system, embedded communications tasks will manipulate workload to assess the effects of performance-enhancing drugs (sleep aids and decongestants), work/rest cycles, biocybernetics, and decision support systems on performance. Task performance accuracy and latency will be event coded for correlation with other measures of voice stress and physiological functioning. Sessions will be videotaped to score non-verbal communications. Physiological recordings include spectral analysis of EEG, ECG, vagal tone, and EOG. Subjective measurements include SWAT, fatigue, POMS and specialized self-report scales. The system will be used primarily to evaluate the effects on performance of drugs, work/rest cycles, and biocybernetic concepts. Performance assessment algorithms will also be developed, including those used with small teams. This system provides a tool for integrating and synchronizing behavioral and psychophysiological measures in a complex decision-making environment.

  4. Performance Comparison of Mainframe, Workstations, Clusters, and Desktop Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a variety of computers frequently found in a scientific or engineering research environment was conducted using a synthetic and application program benchmarks. From a performance perspective, emerging commodity processors have superior performance relative to legacy mainframe computers. In many cases, the PC clusters exhibited comparable performance with traditional mainframe hardware when 8-12 processors were used. The main advantage of the PC clusters was related to their cost. Regardless of whether the clusters were built from new computers or whether they were created from retired computers their performance to cost ratio was superior to the legacy mainframe computers. Finally, the typical annual maintenance cost of legacy mainframe computers is several times the cost of new equipment such as multiprocessor PC workstations. The savings from eliminating the annual maintenance fee on legacy hardware can result in a yearly increase in total computational capability for an organization.

  5. HiRel - Reliability/availability integrated workstation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    1992-01-01

    The HiRel software tool is described and demonstrated by application to the mission avionics subsystem of the Advanced System Integration Demonstrations (ASID) system that utilizes the PAVE PILLAR approach. HiRel marks another accomplishment toward the goal of producing a totally integrated computer-aided design (CAD) workstation design capability. Since a reliability engineer generally represents a reliability model graphically before it can be solved, the use of a graphical input description language increases productivity and decreases the incidence of error. The graphical postprocessor module HARPO makes it possible for reliability engineers to quickly analyze huge amounts of reliability/availability data to observe trends due to exploratory design changes. The addition of several powerful HARP modeling engines provides the user with a reliability/availability modeling capability for a wide range of system applications all integrated under a common interactive graphical input-output capability.

  6. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  7. Glass Box: Capturing, Archiving, and Retrieving Workstation Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, Paula J.; Haack, Jereme N.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Hampson, Ernest

    2006-10-27

    The Glass Box is a computer-based environment that unobtrusively captures workstation activity data from analysts engaged in real intelligence analysis activities, with the aim of supporting research leading to the development of more effective tools for the intelligence community. The Glass Box provides automated data capture, analyst annotations, data review/retrieval functions, and an application programming interface enabling applications to integrate, communicate, retrieve, store, and share Glass Box data. Over 100 gigabytes of data representing eight staff years of analysts working in the Glass Box is regularly distributed to the Glass Box community where it is used for research, testing, and product evaluation. The user community can also use the Glass Box to capture data from its own experiments.

  8. The importance of an ergonomic workstation to practicing sonographers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joan P; Coffin, Carolyn T

    2013-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders have been described in a number of professions over the years. They are defined as injuries that are caused by or aggravated by workplace activities, and they account for up to 60% of all workplace illnesses. They are known by different names, such as musculoskeletal disorder, repetitive strain injury, cumulative trauma disorder, and repetitive motion injury. Musculoskeletal disorders have only been identified in sonographers since 1997 but are increasing in incidence. Surveys done among American and Canadian sonographers in 1997 showed an 84% incidence; however, this incidence had increased to 90% by 2008. Understanding the importance of optimal body mechanics and how to maintain neutral postures will enable sonographers to reduce the risk factors associated with their profession. Even with the most advanced equipment, an ergonomic workstation is only as effective as the person using it.

  9. Design Considerations for an OPAC Workstation: An Introduction to Specifications and a Model Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron G.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guidelines for an online public access catalog (OPAC) workstation that will support the terminal, printer, and other peripherals. Workstation dimensions, lighting, wire management, printer and paper, acoustical treatment, seating, storage for books and coats, wastebasket, and interior decoration are addressed. Flexibility and simplicity…

  10. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  11. 76 FR 10403 - Hewlett Packard (HP), Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Workstation Refresh Team, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised... Development Team, the Engineering Application Support Team, and the Engineering Workstation Refresh Team. On... Hewlett Packard, Global Product Development, Non-Information Technology Business Development Team...

  12. The Working Postures among Schoolchildren--Controlled Intervention Study on the Effects of Newly Designed Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Lea; Nygrd, Clas-H kan; Rimpel, Arja; Nummi, Tapio; Kaukiainen, Anneli

    2007-01-01

    Background: School workstations are often inappropriate in not offering an optimal sitting posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individually adjustable saddle-type chairs with wheels and desks with comfort curve and arm support on schoolchildren's working postures compared to conventional workstations. Methods:…

  13. The Benefits of Using a Computer Workstation for Information-Intensive Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Walter; Vockell, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    Computer workstations can enhance instruction in information-intensive courses if they have the necessary hardware and software to enable users to gather, analyze, integrate, and display information. A reliable workstation has a multimedia computer, large-screen projection system, laserdisc and VCR player, scanner, printer, copier, computer modem,…

  14. H/Z-90 Personal Computer Workstation for the Prime 550.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturday, Lisa L.; Green, David G.

    1985-01-01

    A Heath/Zenith H/Z-90 personal workstation for a PRIME 550 host computer has been developed. The personal computer-based workstation has local editing capability with automatic upload and download of PRIME files, supports a local printer, and provides backup of files on local floppy disk. (Author)

  15. Radiologist's clinical information review workstation interfaced with digital dictation system.

    PubMed

    McEnery, K W; Suitor, C T; Hildebrand, S; Downs, R L

    2000-05-01

    Efficient access to information systems integrated into the radiologist's interpretation workflow will result in a more informed radiologist, with an enhanced capability to render an accurate interpretation. We describe our implementation of radStation, a radiologist's clinical information review workstation that combines a digital dictation station with a clinical information display. radStation uses client software distributed to the radiologist's workstation and central server software, both running Windows NT (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). The client system has integrated digital dictation software. The bar-code microphone (Boomerang, Dictaphone Corp, Stratford, CT) also serves as a computer input device forwarding the procedure's accession number to the server software. This initiates multiple queries to available legacy databases, including the radiology information system (RIS), laboratory information system, clinic notes, hospital discharge, and operative report system. The three-tier architecture then returns the clinical results to the radStation client for display. At the conclusion of the dictation, the digital voice file is transferred to the dictation server and the client notifies the RIS to update the examination status. The system is efficient in its information retrieval, with queries displayed in about 1 second. The radStation client requires less than 5 minutes of radiologist training in its operation, given that its control interface integrates with the well-learned dictation process. The telephone-based dictation system, which this new system replaced, remains available as a back-up system in the event of an unexpected digital dictation system failure. This system is well accepted and valued by the radiologists. The system interface is quickly mastered. The system does not interrupt dictation workflow with the display of all information initiated with examination bar-coding. This system's features could become an accepted model as a standard tool

  16. Multi-agent data fusion workstation (MADFW) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Elisa; Bosse, Eloi; Valin, Pierre

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes an on-going effort to build a Multi- Agent Data Fusion Workstation (MADFW) based on a Knowledge- Based System (KBS) BlackBoard (BB) architecture to offer a range of innovative techniques for Data Fusion (DF), applicable to various domains. The initial application to be demonstrated is in the area of airborne maritime surveillance where several multi-agent concepts and algorithms have already been studied and demonstrated. The end result will offer the user a flexible and modular environment providing capability for: (1) addition of user defined sensor simulation models and fusion algorithms; (2) integration with existing models and algorithms; and (3) evaluation of performance to derive requirement specifications and help in the design phase towards fielding a real DF system. The workstation is being designed to accommodate modular interchangeable algorithm implementation and performance evaluation of: (1) fusion of positional data from imaging and non-imaging sensors; (2) fusion of attribute information obtained from imaging and non-imaging sensors and other sources such as communication systems, satellites, etc.; and (3) Object Recognition in imaging data. The design allows algorithms for sensor simulators and measures of performance to reside ether on the KBS BB shell or be separate from it, thus facilitating integration with other testbed designs. This architecture also allows the future introduction of fusion management capabilities. The real-time KBS BB shell developed by Lockheed Martin Canada, in collaboration with DREV, is the basis of the MADFW infrastructure. This system is totally generic, and could be used to implement any system comprising of components which can be numeric or AI based. It has been implemented in C++ rather than in a higher-level language (such as LISP, Smalltalk, ...) to satisfy the real-time requirement.

  17. Comparison of two micro-analytical methods for detecting the spatial distribution of sorbed Pu on geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. C.; Hunter, D. B.; Triay, I. R.; Bertsch, P. M.; Kitten, J.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2001-02-01

    Subsurface transport of groundwater contaminants is greatly influenced by chemical speciation, precipitation and sorption processes at the mineral-water interface. The retardation of contaminants is often greatest at boundaries between minerals and in fractures and pore spaces. The investigation of the spatial distribution of sorbed contaminants along these boundaries requires micro-analytical techniques. The sorption of dissolved Pu(V) on a natural zeolitic tuff from Yucca Mountain (NV, USA) was examined using microautoradiography (MAR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EM) techniques, and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-SXRF). The tuff contained a heterogeneous distribution of zeolites and trace quantities of smectites, Fe oxides (hematite), and Mn oxides (rancieite), which are present as fracture fill and pore space materials. Micro-SXRF studies showed that Pu is mostly associated with bodies of smectite plus Mn oxides, which were typically elevated in Ce, Ga, Nb, Pb, Y, Ca, Ti, and Zn. Sorbed Pu was not associated with Fe-rich bodies, which were enriched in Cl and Rb. Results of the MAR studies were complementary to that of the micro-SXRF studies in that Pu was associated with similar elements in the tuff. Indirect detection of Pu by EM or micro-SXRF (by analyzing Ag developed on the MAR photoemulsion) was a more sensitive method for detecting lower levels of sorbed Pu than the direct detection of sorbed Pu via micro-SXRF in the absence of the photoemulsion.

  18. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach.

    PubMed

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications.

  19. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach.

    PubMed

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications. PMID:26651540

  20. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications. PMID:26651540

  1. Comparison Of Digital Workstations And Conventional Reading For Evaluation Of User Interfaces In Digital Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Seeley, George W.; Maloney, Kris; Fajardo, Laurie; Kozik, Mark

    1988-06-01

    The User Interface Study Group at the University of Arizona is investigating the interaction of Radiologists with digital workstations. Using the Arizona Viewing Console we have conducted an experiment to compare a digital workstation with a particular conventional reading process used for cases from a local Health Maintenance Organization. A model consisting of three distinct phases of activity was developed to describe conventional reading process. From this model software was developed for the Arizona Viewing Console to approximate the process. Radiologists were then video taped reading similar sets of cases at each workstation and the tapes were analyzed for frequency of hand movements and time required for each phase of the process. This study provides a comparison between conventional reading and a digital workstation. This paper describes the reading process, the model and its approximation on the digital workstation, as well as the analysis of the video tapes.

  2. What do we need to advance PACS workstations: a critical review with suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.; Feingold, Eric R.; Grevera, George J.; Nodine, Calvin F.; Langlotz, Curtis P.; Mezrich, Reuben S.; Redfern, Regina O.; Muck, Jill

    1997-05-01

    The technology for building workstations suitable for the display of most medical images has existed for almost a decade. Yet the diagnostic interpretation process has not shifted form film to such workstations in early as large numbers as had been predicted. While, in a large part, this is due to the high costs for acquisition of picture archiving and communications system equipment, there is also the aspect of physician acceptance. Since the workstation serves as the primary system-to-person interface, an examination of the way in which workstations are designed and the way in which radiologists actually work yields some insight into the relative lack of penetration of workstations into the diagnostic image interpretation task.

  3. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (319-473 °C), and several Fe-rich garnets contain inclusion groups indicative of boiling. The Grt II are associated with high-temperature, hypersaline fluids that were segregated from magma at a depth of at least 5.6 km and reacted with carbonates at depths shallower than 2.0 km. (3) Al-rich garnet veins (Adr14-60Grs86-40) contain allotriomorphic crystals, have lower HFSE (high field strength element) and REE concentrations than the other garnets, and have HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns with small Eu anomalies that are typical of the majority of garnets. The Grt III most likely formed from residual metasomatic fluids.

  4. Zircon U-Pb Age Distributions in Cogenetic Crystal-Rich Dacitic and Crystal-Poor Rhyolitic Members of Zoned Ignimbrites in the Southern Rocky Mountains by Chemical Abrasion Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (CA-LA-ICP-MS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, J.; Zimmerer, M. J.; Guillong, M.; Bachmann, O.; Lipman, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    The San Juan locus of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) in SW Colorado represents an erosional remnant of a mid-Tertiary (~37-23 Ma) ignimbrite flare up that produced some of the most voluminous ignimbrites on Earth. A key feature of many SRMVF ignimbrites is compositional zonation, with many volcanic units comprising both dacitic and rhyolitic horizons. Geochemical, field and petrographic evidence suggests that dacites and rhyolites are cogenetic. Here, we report U-Pb zircon ages by chemical abrasion inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (CA-LA-ICPMS) for rhyolitic and dacitic components in four units: the Bonanza, Rat Creek, Carpenter Ridge and Nelson Mountain Tuffs. All units show zircon age spectra that are either within analytical uncertainty of Ar/Ar ages or are appreciably older, indicating prolonged magma residence times (~500 ka) prior to eruption. Anomalously young Pb-loss zones in zircon have been largely removed by chemical abrasion. Older, inherited zircons and zircon cores (60-2000 Ma) are rare in all samples, suggesting limited assimilation of upper crustal Precambrian country rock or complete resorption during recharge events and magma chamber growth.

  5. The evolution of the neoproterozoic São Gabriel juvenile terrane, southern Brazil based on SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and ?18O data on detrital zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, L. O.; Pimentel, M. M.; Philipp, R. P.; Armstrong, R. A.; Sato, K.

    2013-12-01

    The São Gabriel terrane is a segment of juvenile crust exposed in the western part of the Dom Feliciano Belt in the southern Mantiqueira Province, southern Brazil. In this study, SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronological data for 171 detrital zircons of the Cambaizinho Complex are used to investigate the tectonic evolution of this juvenile terrain. Eighty-one grains were later selected for SIMS δ18O analyses. Ages ranged from 840 to 660 Ma, with a strong concentration between ca. 750 and 700 Ma. The age spectrum of the detrital zircon grains from this meta-sedimentary succession suggests that the original sediments were derived from the erosion of the arc, most likely in a short-lived syn-orogentic basin. Th/U ratios and internal structures of the zircon grains reveal that they were mostly eroded from the arc magmatic rocks, without any relevant contribution from their metamorphic counterparts, or from any other older source. The δ18O values varied from 3.2 to 9.6‰, indicating the coeval crystallization of both unaltered, pristine mantle magmas alongside altered mantle magmas, and strongly contaminated continental crustal magmas generated in both continental and oceanic arc setting. Three periods in the progressive evolution of the terrane were recognized: Period I is represented by the installation of an island-arc subduction zone. The data set suggest that this period started at ca. 840 Ma and went on until 750 Ma. In this period δ18O values varied between 3.2 to 5.5 ‰, suggesting the crystallization of normal mantle-derived magmas, and juvenile magmas with assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust. Period II took place between ca. 750-690 Ma, which represents the peak of magmatic activity suggested by the large abundance of detrital zircons in the probability density diagrams. Here, δ18O values ranged from 4.0 to 9.4 ‰. The wide range of δ18O values reveals the coexistence of magmas with continental, mantle, and altered mantle isotopic signatures. This is explained by the installation of a continental magmatic arc along the western margin of the Rio de La Plata Craton. Period III took place between ca. 690-650 represented by the accretion of the arc system to the Rio de La Plata Craton. In this timeframe only continental crust-derived magmas are recognized and no mantle δ18O values are observed. In summary, our data provides an insight into the progressive evolution of the São Gabriel terrane from an intra-oceanic subduction zone at ca. 879-750 Ma to a continental arc setting (ages < 690 Ma) into three distinct periods, which preceded ocean closure and continental collision at the end of the Neoproterozoic.

  6. Structural characteristics and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology of the deformed granitic rocks from the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Genser, Johann; Li, Weimin; Li, Wei; Han, Guoqing; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli; Cai, Libin

    2015-05-01

    We describe the recently detected ENE-trending Xingcheng-Taili ductile strike-slip shear zone, which is an important Mesozoic low- to middle-grade tectonic element formed during the reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) at the eastern termination of the Yanshanian orogenic belt. Within the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, the degree of deformation weakens gradually from NW to SE. Three main types of banded granitic gneisses represent low- to middle-grade metamorphic tectonites. New U-Pb zircon dating gives a wide range of protolith ages. Neoarchean granitic rocks with an emplacement age of 2498.4 ± 6.3 Ma have obvious E-W trending banded structures. Upper Triassic granitic rocks with U-Pb zircon ages of 219.7 ± 1.1 Ma, 218.74 ± 0.61 Ma, 212.1 ± 1.6 Ma and 212.3 ± 1.9 Ma are considered to relate to the collision of the NCC and Yangtze craton in early Mesozoic times. The emplacement of biotite adamellite bodies with ages of 159.0 ± 0.8 Ma and 152.4 ± 1.9 Ma is related to the thinning of the NCC's continental crust. An ENE-trending sinistral ductile shear zone developed within these granites. The strongly deformed biotite adamellite bodies bear a gneissosity with S-C fabrics, ENE-trending sinistral shear zones and show the deformation characteristics of a shallow crustal level, reflecting decratonization of the NCC. Crystal lattice preferred orientations (LPO) of quartz, determined by electron back-scatter diffraction, suggest sinistral strike-slip shear and a deformation temperature at about 400 to 500 °C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with a dominant {0001}-slip system similar to the temperature estimated by the micro-structural characteristics of quartz and feldspar. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times and is related to the lithospheric thinning and extension of the North China Craton triggered by an ongoing roll-back of the Pacific Plate beneath the eastern North China Craton.

  7. Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by μ-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 μg g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the μ-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 μg g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods.

  8. The oldest sediments of Greece revealed by detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating: Cambro-Ordovician sandstones from northern Gondwana in the External Hellenides - implications on the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2013-04-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of a quartzite from the Feneos locality of Peloponnesus, S. Greece, were determined by LA-ICPMS. The rock classifies as a mature quartz arenite and belongs to an original shale-sandstone succession now metamorphosed into a phyllite-quartzite unit. The latter chiefly represents the External Blueschist Belt of the Hellenides widely known as the Arna or Phyllite - Quartzite (PQ) Unit. Zircon age clusters at 0.5-0.75, 0.85, 0.95-1.1, 1.75-2 and 2.4-3 Ga point at the Saharan Metacraton and the Transgondwanan Supermountain as contributing sources; the youngest concordant grain is 522 Ma old. Based on great similarities in lithology, zircon age-distribution patterns and depositional setting between the Feneos quartzite and intact Cambro-Ordovician sandstone-shale sequences of Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins) we propose that the protolith of the former was deposited in an epeiric sea north of Libya during the Cambro-Ordovician. Feneos, as part of the Cimmerian block, had become detached from the NE Gondwanan margin during Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times and drifted northward. In central Crete, similar-looking sequences (Galinos beds) were originally deposited in an accretionary/fore-arc complex outboard of the south Laurussian active margin (Pelagonia) between ~297-230 Ma. The southern Pelagonian margin eventually collided (mild docking) with the northward drifting Cimmerian block signaling the closure of Palaeotethys by early Late Triassic. The Gondwanan affinity of the Feneos quartzite strongly contrasts the European one of the Galinos beds; the suture of Palaeotethys can thus be traced in S. Greece within the pre-Triassic sedimentary sequences of Peloponnesus and Crete. In the eastern Mediterranean realm, rocks with similar age clusters crop out in Greece (Peloponnesus, this study; eastern Crete, Sfaka locality; north-central Macedonia, Vertiskos terrane), NW Turkey (central Sakarya terrane), Libya (Murzuq and Kufrah basins), Israel (Elat locality) and Jordan (El-Quweira locality). Their zircon age spectra plotted with respect to sediment depositional age indicate a collisional margin setting for all. Evaluating the depositional setting of the arguably similar sedimentary sequences above we demonstrate their common provenance from the Gondwana Super-fan System which draped the northern Gondwanan periphery from ~525 to 460 Ma (Lower Cambrian - Middle Ordovician). Using as anchoring points the non-metamorphosed Early Palaeozoic outcrops of Libya and the Middle East that remained intact at their original deposition sites we have traced, in space and time, the path of the remainder time- and facies-equivalent rocks presently cropping out in the Hellenic and Turkish mountain belts. The fate of the northern Gondwanan margin was multiple rifting and travelling of the fragments thereof throughout the Palaeozoic before their final incorporation into younger orogenic belts.

  9. From Electronic Library to a Learning Center in the Academic Library: Integrating Traditional and New Uses in the Library Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith; Roitberg N.

    2005-01-01

    Questionnaires and computerized observations were used to measure purposes for visiting the academic library and uses made on its workstations. The research was done among 1004 users in Israel. The findings show that non-library uses are the major activity on academic library workstations and that libraries with large number of workstations are…

  10. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  11. The role of the host in a cooperating mainframe and workstation environment, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmanoff, Antone; Martin, Nancy L.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, advancements made in computer systems have prompted a move from centralized computing based on timesharing a large mainframe computer to distributed computing based on a connected set of engineering workstations. A major factor in this advancement is the increased performance and lower cost of engineering workstations. The shift to distributed computing from centralized computing has led to challenges associated with the residency of application programs within the system. In a combined system of multiple engineering workstations attached to a mainframe host, the question arises as to how does a system designer assign applications between the larger mainframe host and the smaller, yet powerful, workstation. The concepts related to real time data processing are analyzed and systems are displayed which use a host mainframe and a number of engineering workstations interconnected by a local area network. In most cases, distributed systems can be classified as having a single function or multiple functions and as executing programs in real time or nonreal time. In a system of multiple computers, the degree of autonomy of the computers is important; a system with one master control computer generally differs in reliability, performance, and complexity from a system in which all computers share the control. This research is concerned with generating general criteria principles for software residency decisions (host or workstation) for a diverse yet coupled group of users (the clustered workstations) which may need the use of a shared resource (the mainframe) to perform their functions.

  12. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, C; Schuna, J M; Frensham, L J; Proenca, M

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports the feasibility of raising daily energy expenditure (EE) by replacing office work-related sedentary behavior with low-intensity non-exercise physical activity (PA) via workstation alternatives to the traditional office chair and desktop computer-based combinations. The purpose of this review article is to introduce a simple taxonomy to facilitate classification and study of workstation alternatives, catalog the diversity of research undertaken to date related to energy balance, and present and summarize the gaps and opportunities for a research agenda for workstation alternatives moving forward. A PubMed search elicited 57 English language articles published since 2000; additional articles were identified by reviewing reference sections and contacting authors. Selection criteria ultimately focused on use of workstation alternatives during simulated or real work tasks. The EE of sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks is comparable to the traditional seated condition (≅1.2 kcal min(-1)). The treadmill and pedal desks (active workstation alternatives) offer the greatest promise in terms of EE (≅2-4 kcal min(-1)). Sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks does not impair task performance relative to the traditional seated condition. Some evidence of typing impairment is inconsistently reported with active workstation alternatives; the finer motor skills required for mouse-related tasks may be more affected. Little is known about learning or adaptation with practice. Users are generally accepting of workstation alternatives; however, there is evidence of less than optimal use. Active workstations (that is, treadmill desks and pedal desks) in particular represent a potential strategy for mitigating the diminished EE inherent to contemporary office-based workplaces, but only if they are scalable. The science supporting active workstations is young and heterogeneous; however, this means that

  13. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, C; Schuna, J M; Frensham, L J; Proenca, M

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports the feasibility of raising daily energy expenditure (EE) by replacing office work-related sedentary behavior with low-intensity non-exercise physical activity (PA) via workstation alternatives to the traditional office chair and desktop computer-based combinations. The purpose of this review article is to introduce a simple taxonomy to facilitate classification and study of workstation alternatives, catalog the diversity of research undertaken to date related to energy balance, and present and summarize the gaps and opportunities for a research agenda for workstation alternatives moving forward. A PubMed search elicited 57 English language articles published since 2000; additional articles were identified by reviewing reference sections and contacting authors. Selection criteria ultimately focused on use of workstation alternatives during simulated or real work tasks. The EE of sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks is comparable to the traditional seated condition (≅1.2 kcal min(-1)). The treadmill and pedal desks (active workstation alternatives) offer the greatest promise in terms of EE (≅2-4 kcal min(-1)). Sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks does not impair task performance relative to the traditional seated condition. Some evidence of typing impairment is inconsistently reported with active workstation alternatives; the finer motor skills required for mouse-related tasks may be more affected. Little is known about learning or adaptation with practice. Users are generally accepting of workstation alternatives; however, there is evidence of less than optimal use. Active workstations (that is, treadmill desks and pedal desks) in particular represent a potential strategy for mitigating the diminished EE inherent to contemporary office-based workplaces, but only if they are scalable. The science supporting active workstations is young and heterogeneous; however, this means that

  14. Rapid Uptake of Aluminum into Cells of Intact Soybean Root Tips (A Microanalytical Study Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry).

    PubMed Central

    Lazof, D. B.; Goldsmith, J. G.; Rufty, T. W.; Linton, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of physiological disorders has been reported within the first few hours of exposing intact plant roots to moderate levels of Al3+. Past microanalytic studies, largely limited to electron probe x-ray microanalysis, have been unable to detect intracellular Al in this time frame. This has led to the suggestion that Al exerts its effect solely from extracellular or remote tissue sites. Here, freeze-dried cryosections (10 [mu]m thick) collected from the soybean (Glycine max) primary root tip (0.3-0.8 mm from the apex) were analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high sensitivity of SIMS for Al permitted the first direct evidence of early entry of Al into root cells. Al was found in cells of the root tip after a 30-min exposure of intact roots to 38 [mu]M Al3+. The accumulation of Al was greatest in the first 30 [mu]m, i.e. two to three cell layers, but elevated Al levels extended at least 150 [mu]m inward from the root edge. Intracellular Al concentrations at the root periphery were estimated to be about 70 nmol g-1 fresh weight. After 18 h of exposure, Al was evident throughout the root cross-section, although the rate of accumulation had slowed considerably from that during the initial 30 min. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that early effects of Al toxicity at the root apex, such as those on cell division, cell extension, or nutrient transport, involve the direct intervention of Al on cell function. PMID:12232392

  15. Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles ); Poet, Torka S. ); Lin, Yuehe ); Weitz, Karl K. ); Zhao, Rui; Thrall, Karla D. )

    2000-12-01

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.

  16. Advisory Algorithm for Scheduling Open Sectors, Operating Positions, and Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Drew, Michael; Lai, Chok Fung; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Air traffic controller supervisors configure available sector, operating position, and work-station resources to safely and efficiently control air traffic in a region of airspace. In this paper, an algorithm for assisting supervisors with this task is described and demonstrated on two sample problem instances. The algorithm produces configuration schedule advisories that minimize a cost. The cost is a weighted sum of two competing costs: one penalizing mismatches between configurations and predicted air traffic demand and another penalizing the effort associated with changing configurations. The problem considered by the algorithm is a shortest path problem that is solved with a dynamic programming value iteration algorithm. The cost function contains numerous parameters. Default values for most of these are suggested based on descriptions of air traffic control procedures and subject-matter expert feedback. The parameter determining the relative importance of the two competing costs is tuned by comparing historical configurations with corresponding algorithm advisories. Two sample problem instances for which appropriate configuration advisories are obvious were designed to illustrate characteristics of the algorithm. Results demonstrate how the algorithm suggests advisories that appropriately utilize changes in airspace configurations and changes in the number of operating positions allocated to each open sector. The results also demonstrate how the advisories suggest appropriate times for configuration changes.

  17. Stereotactic Neurosurgery Planning On A PC Based Workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Terence M.; Clark, John A.; Pike, Gordon; Henri, Christopher J.; Collins, D. L.; Leksell, Dan; Jeppsson, Ola

    1989-05-01

    Stereotactic surgery requires knowledge of cerebral structures derived from more than one image source. We have developed a PC-AT based workstation which accepts patient images, made with the stereotactic frame in place, from CT, MRI and DSA modalities. Reference markers on the frame are identified in the images to establish the coordinate geometry for each modality. Target points may be identified on each image type and trajectories of probe paths to these points defined. Targets identified on one set of images may be transferred automatically to other images of the same patient, in order, for example, to guarantee a vascular free path of approach to a target point deep within the brain. To date several hundred patients have had stereotactic surgery performed on the basis of plans using this system. Procedures included biopsy and aspiration of lesions, implantation of electrodes for the recording of deep EEG signals, and radiosurgical techniques based on the use of a high energy linear accelerator. We present clinical examples of the use of this system in typical stereotactic neurosurgery procedures, address stereoscopic applications, and discuss the results of inter-modality tests to establish the accuracy of the technique.

  18. An overview of high-speed networking for workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, K.

    1995-04-01

    The telecommunications industry provides new technologies for GIS (Geographic Information System) workstation upgrades: Fast Ethernet, 100VG-AnyLAN, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These network technologies are based on approved standards and have industry backing (alliance for Fast Ethernet). This paper briefly examines these technologies. Fast Ethernet is an extension to its predecessor 10 Mbps Ethernet, providing a 10x increase in transmission rate. 100VG-AnyLAN offers extensions to Ethernet but embraces the Token Ring technology, allowing internetworking and better performance for networked video. ATM takes a radial approach by simplifying the information quantum to a 53-byte cell, resulting in rapid data handling for telecommunications equipment and allowing efficient transport of data, video, and voice communications. Switched Ethernet and Full Duplexing are among the other technologies competing for this market. The ultimate test of usefulness for any technology lies in how they handle the GIS environment requirements; working demonstration systems will help clarify marketing rhetoric and determine which vendor best implemented the standard.

  19. Evaluation of a Diagnostic Encyclopedia Workstation for ovarian pathology.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, A M; Baak, J P; Jansen, W; Smeulders, A W

    1990-10-01

    The Diagnostic Encyclopedia Workstation (DEW) is a computer system that provides completely integrated pictorial and textual information as reference knowledge in the field of ovarian pathology. The textual component comprises information per diagnosis such as descriptions of macroscopic and microscopic images, clinical signs, and prognosis. In addition, the system offers lists of differential diagnoses and criteria to differentiate among lists of differential diagnoses and criteria to differentiate among them. The present study evaluates to what extent the system influences the diagnostic process in efficiency and outcome. Therefore, two groups of six pathologists each, covering a wide spectrum of experience in ovarian pathology, participated in the evaluation of the DEW. The quality of the resulting diagnoses was statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank sum test with respect to five different viewpoints: classification, morphology, clinical consequences, duration of diagnostic process, and consensus among the participants. The results are discussed and it is concluded that classification and morphology showed better results when books were used. The evaluation experiment was, however, very rigid and negatively biased with respect to the DEW system. Positive aspects of the encyclopedia are the easy access to diagnostic and differential diagnostic information and the large set of illustrations. Insight is acquired with respect to existing bottlenecks and how they may be overcome.

  20. Interaction techniques for radiology workstations: impact on users' productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2004-04-01

    As radiologists progress from reading images presented on film to modern computer systems with images presented on high-resolution displays, many new problems arise. Although the digital medium has many advantages, the radiologist"s job becomes cluttered with many new tasks related to image manipulation. This paper presents our solution for supporting radiologists" interpretation of digital images by automating image presentation during sequential interpretation steps. Our method supports scenario based interpretation, which group data temporally, according to the mental paradigm of the physician. We extended current hanging protocols with support for "stages". A stage reflects the presentation of digital information required to complete a single step within a complex task. We demonstrated the benefits of staging in a user study with 20 lay subjects involved in a visual conjunctive search for targets, similar to a radiology task of identifying anatomical abnormalities. We designed a task and a set of stimuli which allowed us to simulate the interpretation workflow from a typical radiology scenario - reading a chest computed radiography exam when a prior study is also available. The simulation was possible by abstracting the radiologist"s task and the basic workstation navigation functionality. We introduced "Stages," an interaction technique attuned to the radiologist"s interpretation task. Compared to the traditional user interface, Stages generated a 14% reduction in the average interpretation.

  1. Converting multiple OC-3c ATM streams to HIPPI to drive an HDTV frame buffer from a workstation cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.; Dornhoff, A.G.; DuBois, A.J.

    1994-12-01

    A group of eight Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha workstations is interconnected with ATM to form a cluster with supercomputer power. For output, each workstation drives a single ``tile`` on an 8-tile high-resolution frame buffer. A special purpose adapter is used to convert the workstation`s ATM format to the frame buffer`s HIPPI format. This paper discusses the rationale behind the workstation farm, and then describes the visualization output path in detail. To provide the system quickly, special emphasis was placed on making the design as simple as possible. The design choices are examined, and the resultant system is described.

  2. Real time data acquisition for expert systems in Unix workstations at Space Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Gnabasik, Mark; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Bailey, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    A distributed system of proprietary engineering-class workstations is incorporated into NASA's Space Shuttle Mission-Control Center to increase the automation of mission control. The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) allows the operator to utilize expert knowledge in the display program for system modeling and evaluation. RTDS applications are reviewed including: (1) telemetry-animated communications schematics; (2) workstation displays of systems such as the Space Shuttle remote manipulator; and (3) a workstation emulation of shuttle flight instrumentation. The hard and soft real-time constraints are described including computer data acquisition, and the support techniques for the real-time expert systems include major frame buffers for logging and distribution as well as noise filtering. The incorporation of the workstations allows smaller programming teams to implement real-time telemetry systems that can improve operations and flight testing.

  3. A Practical Performance Comparison of Parallel Matrix Multiplication Algorithms on Network of Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Kalim; Rashid, Haroon

    In this paper we practically compared the performance of three blocked based parallel multiplication algorithms with simple fixed size runtime task scheduling strategy on homogeneous cluster of workstations. Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) was used for this study.

  4. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainfram to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration-controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHK, ICE, KENO IV, KENO V.a, MODIFY, NITAWL, SCALE, SUBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper discusses the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  5. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainframe to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHY, ICE, KENO IV, KENO Va, MODIIFY, NITAWL SCALE, SLTBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-Group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-Group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper will discuss the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  6. A process migration subsystem for a workstation-based distributed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Tawil, K.; Bozyigit, M.; Naseer, S.

    1996-12-31

    Workstation-based distributed computing environments are getting popular in both academic and commercial communities due to the continuing trend of decreasing cost/performance ratio and rapid development of networking technology. However, the work load on these workstations is usually much lower than their computing capacity, especially with the ever-increasing computing power of new hardware. As a result, the resources of such workstations are often under-utilized and many of them are frequently idle. A preemptive process migration facility can be provided, in such a distributed system, to dynamically relocate running processes among the component machines. Such relocation can help cope with dynamic fluctuations in loads and service needs, improve the systems fault tolerance, meet real-time scheduling deadlines, or bring a process to a special device. This paper presents a process migration subsystem for tolerating process and node failures on a workstation based environment. The design and implementation of the subsystem are also discussed.

  7. Novel method for quantitative assessment of physical workload of healthcare workers by a tetherless ergonomics workstation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Warren D; Alharbi, Kamal A; Dixon, Jeremy B; Reggad, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers are at risk of physical injury. Our laboratory has developed a tetherless ergonomics workstation that is suitable for studying physicians' and nurses' physical workloads in clinical settings. The workstation uses wearable sensors to record multiple channels of body orientation and muscle activity and wirelessly transmits them to a base station laptop computer for display, storage, and analysis. The ergonomics workstation generates long records of multi-channel data, so it is desired that the workstation automatically process these records and provide graphical and quantitative summaries of the physical workloads experienced by the healthcare workers. This paper describes a novel method of automated quantitative assessment of physical workload, termed joint cumulative amplitude-duration (JCAD) analysis, that has advantages over previous methods and illustrates its use in a comparison of the physical workloads of robotically-assisted surgery versus manual video-endoscopic surgery.

  8. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    PubMed

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  9. Simulation Technology Research Division assessment of the IBM RISC SYSTEM/6000 Model 530 workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, G.D. ); Halbleib, J.A.; Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J. )

    1990-11-01

    A workstation manufactured by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was loaned to the Simulation Technology Research Division for evaluation. We have found that these new UNIX workstations from IBM have superior cost to performance ratios compared to the CRAY supercomputers and Digital's VAX machines. Our appraisal of this workstation included floating-point performance, system and environment functionality, and cost effectiveness. Our assessment was based on a suite of radiation transport codes developed at Sandia that constitute the bulk of our division's computing workload. In this report, we also discuss our experience with features that are unique to this machine such as the AIX operating system and the XLF Fortran Compiler. The interoperability of the RS/6000 workstation with Sandia's network of CRAYs and VAXs was also assessed.

  10. Medical data capture and display: the importance of clinicians' workstation design.

    PubMed Central

    Dayhoff, R.; Kirin, G.; Pollock, S.; Miller, C.; Todd, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs is developing, testing and evaluating the benefits of physicians' workstations as an aid to medical data capture in an outpatient clinic setting. The physician's workstation uses a graphical user interface to aid the clinician in recording encounter data. Various input devices including keyboard, mouse, pen, voice, barcode reader, and tablet are available on the workstations, and user preferences will be examined. Access to general services such as electronic mail and reference databases is also available. The workstation provides a wide variety of patient specific data from the hospital information system, including image data. The single data collection process by the clinician will also provide data for the cost recovery process. Images Figure 2 PMID:7949987

  11. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  12. Digitizing rocks standardizing the geological description process using workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.R. , Windsor, Berkshire ); Shields, J.A. ); Taylor, M.R. )

    1993-09-01

    The preservation of geological knowledge in a standardized digital form presents a challenge. Data sources, inherently fuzzy, range in scale from the macroscopic (e.g., outcrop) through the mesoscopic (e.g., hand-specimen) core and sidewall core, to the microscopic (e.g., drill cuttings, thin sections, and microfossils). Each scale change results in increased heterogeneity and potentially contradictory data and the providers of such data may vary in experience level. To address these issues with respect to cores and drill cuttings, a geological description workstation has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Over 1000 carefully defined geological attributes are currently available within a depth-indexed, relational database. Attributes are stored in digital form, allowing multiple users to select familiar usage (e.g., diabase vs. dolerite). Data can be entered in one language and retrieved in other languages. The database structure allow groupings of similar elements (e.g., rhyolites in acidic, igneous or volcanics subgroups or the igneous rock group) permitting different uses to analyze details appropriate to the scale of the usage. Data entry uses a graphical user interface, allowing the geologist to make quick, logical selections in a standardized or custom-built format with extensive menus, on-screen graphics and help screens available. Description ranges are permissible. Entries for lithology, petrology, structures (sedimentary, organic and deformational), reservoir characteristics (porosity and hydrocarbon shows), and macrofossils are available. Sampling points for thin sections, core analysis, geochemistry, or micropaleontology studies are also recorded. Using digital data storage, geological logs using graphical, alphanumeric and symbolic depictions are possible. Data can be integrated with drilling and mud gas data, MWD and wireline data and off well-site analyses to produced composite formation evaluation logs and interpretational crossplots.

  13. Use of invisible windows for PACS workstation menus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowberg, Alan H.; Ramey, Judith A.; Heyano, Scott L.

    1992-05-01

    Workstations are becoming more commonly used in medical environments, and are being used increasingly for viewing medical images. In most clinical environments, counter and wall space is not readily available, and there is a strong motivation to make the equipment small, while making the displayed images as large as possible to preserve image detail. This precludes the use of a separate text monitor for user interaction, and any menus or displays on the image monitor use valuable space -- pixels backed up with 256-shade grayscale capability. We have developed a method for user interaction which requires essentially no screen area for permanent menus, but uses much of the image screen for `invisible' menus -- menus which are in windows which are always open (active) but only obscure the underlying image for the small portion of time that they are actually in use. These invisible menus respond to movements of the mouse, and become visible when the mouse is moved into the window which holds the menu. The menu becomes invisible again after a period of mouse inactivity. Because these windows are always active, a given item may be selected multiple times by simply pressing the mouse button repeatedly. This `type-ahead' capability is not normally available on systems which do not include a keyboard, and may be easily used for common repetitive functions, analogous to pressing the NEXT IMAGE key multiple times. This invisible window concept can also be used to display analysis results, so that the results do not cover any of the active image area, but are immediately available for on-screen viewing.

  14. Intensive care unit referring physician usage of PACS workstation functions based on disease categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.; Shile, Peter E.; Carey, Bruce; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Feingold, Eric R.

    1994-05-01

    As part of a study of the use of a PACS workstation compared to film in a Medical Intensive Care Unit, logs of workstation activity were maintained. The software for the workstation kept track of the type of user (i.e., intern, resident, fellow, or attending physician) and also of the workstation image manipulation functions used. The functions logged were: no operation, brightness/contrast adjustment, invert video, zoom, and high resolution display (this last function resulted in the display of the full 2 K X 2 K image rather than the usual subsampled 1 K X 1 K image. Associated data collection allows us to obtain the diagnostic category of the examination being viewed (e.g., location of tubes and lines, rule out: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion). The diagnostic categories and user type were then correlated with the use of workstation functions during viewing of images. In general, there was an inverse relationship between the level of training and the number of workstation uses. About two-thirds of the time, there was no image manipulation operation performed. Adjustment of brightness/contrast had the highest percentage of use overall, followed by zoom, video invert, and high resolution display.

  15. The gap between exposure and implementation of computer workstation ergonomics in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Berner, Kevin; Jacobs, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The population of people using computers is increasing in home, school and work environments [20,21]. Research suggests that more computer usage may lead to increased incidence of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorder (UECTD) and other work related musculoskeletal injuries [8]. Yet, proper computer workstation ergonomics training is not readily available. This pilot study attempts to better understand the gap between ergonomic interventions and the initiation of work-practice change. The pilot study used self-report through an anonymous Internet survey to explore university faculty and staff training in computer workstation ergonomics, assess UECTD and other computer-use related symptoms, and learn about the respondents' success implementing their knowledge of computer workstation ergonomics. The 55 respondents ranged in age from 21 to 65, and spent an average of 5.3 hours at the computer during a typical workday. Over 70% of respondents experienced symptoms associated with excessive computer use. Although 60% of respondents had exposure to computer workstation ergonomics information, less than 10% reported implementing their knowledge of computer workstation ergonomics in their tasks. This paper looks at organizational and individual issues preventing the implementation of computer workstation ergonomics in the workplace. The Transtheoretical Model for Health Behavior Change [25,27] is used to further evaluate effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. Recommendations for interventions and future evaluations are presented.

  16. UWGSP7: a real-time optical imaging workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John E.; Kim, Yongmin; Pennington, Stan D.; Alleman, Andrew P.

    1995-04-01

    With the development of UWGSP7, the University of Washington Image Computing Systems Laboratory has a real-time workstation for continuous-wave (cw) optical reflectance imaging. Recent discoveries in optical science and imaging research have suggested potential practical use of the technology as a medical imaging modality and identified the need for a machine to support these applications in real time. The UWGSP7 system was developed to provide researchers with a high-performance, versatile tool for use in optical imaging experiments with the eventual goal of bringing the technology into clinical use. One of several major applications of cw optical reflectance imaging is tumor imaging which uses a light-absorbing dye that preferentially sequesters in tumor tissue. This property could be used to locate tumors and to identify tumor margins intraoperatively. Cw optical reflectance imaging consists of illumination of a target with a band-limited light source and monitoring the light transmitted by or reflected from the target. While continuously illuminating the target, a control image is acquired and stored. A dye is injected into a subject and a sequence of data images are acquired and processed. The data images are aligned with the control image and then subtracted to obtain a signal representing the change in optical reflectance over time. This signal can be enhanced by digital image processing and displayed in pseudo-color. This type of emerging imaging technique requires a computer system that is versatile and adaptable. The UWGSP7 utilizes a VESA local bus PC as a host computer running the Windows NT operating system and includes ICSL developed add-on boards for image acquisition and processing. The image acquisition board is used to digitize and format the analog signal from the input device into digital frames and to the average frames into images. To accommodate different input devices, the camera interface circuitry is designed in a small mezzanine board

  17. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  18. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  19. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: guidelines for workstation design.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Khani Jazani, Reza; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2007-09-01

    Long hours of static work with awkward posture at traditionally designed looms can cause high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among carpet weavers. A comprehensive study was conducted in this industry with the objectives of determination of MSDs symptoms prevalence; identification of major factors associated with MSDs symptoms in carpet weaving occupation; and development of guidelines for weaving workstation design. In the present paper, this ergonomics study is presented. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, MSDs symptoms in nine Iranian provinces were surveyed by questionnaire among 1439 randomly selected weavers. Working posture and weaving workstations were ergonomically assessed as well. The results of this phase revealed that symptoms from the musculoskeletal system occurred in high rate among weavers with the prevalence significantly higher than that of the general Iranian population (P<0.001). It was found that the majority of ergonomics shortcomings originated from ill-designed weaving workstation. Based on the findings, some general guidelines for workstation design were presented. In the second phase, considering the general guidelines, an adjustable workstation was designed and constructed. To develop quantitative guidelines for optimizing workstation set-up, in the laboratory, nine sets of experimental conditions were tested, and working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. The results of this lab work showed that working posture was acceptable for both the researchers and the weavers when the weaving height was adjusted 20 cm above the elbow height and a high seat with forward slope was used. By combining the results of the two phases, guidelines for weaving workstation design were presented. In this ergonomics-oriented workstation, loom is vertical. Seat, loom and weaving heights are adjustable. There is enough leg room under the loom. The seat with 10 degrees forward slope is adjusted 15 cm above the

  20. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  1. Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology☆

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The clinical reading environment for the 21st century pathologist looks very different than it did even a few short years ago. Glass slides are quickly being replaced by digital “virtual slides,” and the traditional light microscope is being replaced by the computer display. There are numerous questions that arise however when deciding exactly what this new digital display viewing environment will be like. Choosing a workstation for daily use in the interpretation of digital pathology images can be a very daunting task. Radiology went digital nearly 20 years ago and faced many of the same challenges so there are lessons to be learned from these experiences. One major lesson is that there is no “one size fits all” workstation so users must consider a variety of factors when choosing a workstation. In this article, we summarize some of the potentially critical elements in a pathology workstation and the characteristics one should be aware of and look for in the selection of one. Issues pertaining to both hardware and software aspects of medical workstations will be reviewed particularly as they may impact the interpretation process. PMID:19552939

  2. The impact of sit-stand office workstations on worker discomfort and productivity: a review.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-05-01

    This review examines the effectiveness of sit-stand workstations at reducing worker discomfort without causing a decrease in productivity. Four databases were searched for studies on sit-stand workstations, and five selection criteria were used to identify appropriate articles. Fourteen articles were identified that met at least three of the five selection criteria. Seven of the identified studies reported either local, whole body or both local and whole body subjective discomfort scores. Six of these studies indicated implementing sit-stand workstations in an office environment led to lower levels of reported subjective discomfort (three of which were statistically significant). Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations are likely effective in reducing perceived discomfort. Eight of the identified studies reported a productivity outcome. Three of these studies reported an increase in productivity during sit-stand work, four reported no affect on productivity, and one reported mixed productivity results. Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations do not cause a decrease in productivity.

  3. A PC/workstation cluster computing environment for reservoir engineering/simulation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, C.E.; Koo, J.

    1994-12-31

    Like the rest of the petroleum industry, Texaco has been migrating its applications and databases from mainframes to PC`s and workstations. This transition has been very positive from the standpoint that it provides an environment for integrating applications, increases end user productivity, and in general reduces overall computing costs. On the downside, the transition typically results in a dramatic increase in workstation purchases and raises concerns with regards to the cost and effective management of computing resources in this new environment. The workstation transition also places the user in a UNIX computing environment which, to say the least, can be quite frustrating to learn and use. This paper describes the approach, philosophy, architecture, and current status of the new reservoir engineering/reservoir simulation computing environment developed at Texaco`s Exploration and Production Technology Department in Houston, Texas. The environment is representative of that under development at several other large oil companies and is based upon a cluster of IBM and Silicon Graphics workstations connected by a fiber optics communications network and engineering PC`s connected to LAN`s or Ethernets. Since computing resources and software licenses are shared among a group of users, the new environment enables us to get more out of our investments in workstation hardware and software.

  4. Optimization of image transfer from the central archive to workstations in a PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Lugin, Jay J.; Boehme, Johannes M.; Choplin, Robert H.; Maynard, C. D.; Wolfman, Neil T.

    1990-08-01

    Despite the much-discussed advantages of the all-digital radiology department, the speed of electronic display continues to be a major obstacle to its acceptance; physicians generally agree that sophisticated workstation functionality cannot compensate for an interpretation environment that delays diagnosis. Two design schemes have been devised and discussed at length at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine (BGSM) that will improve the efficiency of image transmission significantly. The first of these is image routing and pre-loading. The central archive can use information associated with each exam and a set of rules to predict which workstations will be used to read the exam. The images can thus be sent automatically before the physician arrives at the workstation to interpret a series of exams. The second scheme, which is intimately associated with the first, allows a workstation to manage its own local disk to remove copies of exams so that new ones may be pre-loaded. This disk management algorithm assigns priorities to the exams based on their status in the acquisition/interpretation cycle and performs automatic deletion as the workstation's disk reaches its capacity. The effect is a virtually limitless disk that eliminates the time-consuming task of manual deletion and retrieval of images.

  5. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    human figure in an environment. Integrated into JACK is a set of vision tools that allow predictions about visibility and legibility. The program is capable of displaying environment perspectives corresponding to what the mannequin would see while in the environment, indicating potential problems with occlusion and visibility. It is also possible to display view cones emanating from the figure's eyes, indicating field of view. Another feature projects the environment onto retina coordinates which gives clues regarding visual angles, acuity and occlusion by the biological blind spots. A retina editor makes it possible to draw onto the retina and project that into 3-dimensional space. Another facility, Reach, causes the mannequin to move a specific portion of its anatomy to a chosen point in space. The Reach facility helps in analyzing problems associated with operator size and other constraints. The 17-segment torso makes it possible to set a figure into realistic postures, simulating human postures closely. The JACK application software is written in C-language for Silicon Graphics workstations running IRIX versions 4.0.5 or higher and is available only in executable form. Since JACK is a copyrighted program (copyright 1991 University of Pennsylvania), this executable may not be redistributed. The recommended minimum hardware configuration for running the executable includes a floating-point accelerator, an 8-megabyte program memory, a high resolution (1280 x 1024) graphics card, and at least 50Mb of free disk space. JACK's data files take up millions of bytes of storage space, so additional disk space is highly recommended. The standard distribution medium for JACK is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIX tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. JACK was originally developed in 1988. Jack v4.8 was released for distribution through COSMIC in 1993.

  6. A study of workstation computational performance for real-time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1995-01-01

    With recent advances in microprocessor technology, some have suggested that modern workstations provide enough computational power to properly operate a real-time simulation. This paper presents the results of a computational benchmark, based on actual real-time flight simulation code used at Langley Research Center, which was executed on various workstation-class machines. The benchmark was executed on different machines from several companies including: CONVEX Computer Corporation, Cray Research, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, International Business Machines, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems. The machines are compared by their execution speed, computational accuracy, and porting effort. The results of this study show that the raw computational power needed for real-time simulation is now offered by workstations.

  7. Real-Time Interactive Facilities Associated With A 3-D Medical Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldwasser, S. M.; Reynolds, R. A.; Talton, D.; Walsh, E.

    1986-06-01

    Biomedical workstations of the future will incorporate three-dimensional interactive capabilities which provide real-time response to most common operator requests. Such systems will find application in many areas of medicine including clinical diagnosis, surgical and radiation therapy planning, biomedical research based on functional imaging, and medical education. This paper considers the requirements of these future systems in terms of image quality, performance, and the interactive environment, and examines the relationship of workstation capabilities to specific medical applications. We describe a prototype physician's workstation that we have designed and built to meet many of these requirements (using conventional graphics technology in conjunction with a custom real-time 3-D processor), and give an account of the remaining issues and challenges that future designers of such systems will have to address.

  8. The effects of workstation changes and behavioral interventions on safe typing postures in an office.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Nicole; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of an ergonomic and behavioral safety intervention for improving participants' safe typing postures in a library office setting. A single-subject multiple baseline design across five participants was employed to evaluate the effects of the four independent variables (workstation adjustment, equipment trial (rollermouse mouse alternative), peer observations, and graphic feedback). Six participant postures were observed repeatedly while participants worked at their workstations throughout the study. Each of the interventions resulted in improvements in safety for more than one posture compared to the previous phase. Results of the study indicate that a comprehensive ergonomic program that includes a workstation adjustment and a behavioral safety approach may be helpful to produce maximum improvements in employees' safe ergonomic postures.

  9. Development of a non-destructive micro-analytical method for stable carbon isotope analysis of transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, Tomas; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael; Hugo, Richard C.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2009-10-01

    The biogenicity of ancient morphological microfossil-like objects can be established by linking morphological (e.g. cell remnants and extracellular polymeric matrix) and chemical (e.g. isotopes, biomarkers and biominerals) evidence indicative of microorganisms or microbial activity. We have developed a non-destructive micro-analytical ion beam system capable of measuring with high spatial resolution the stable carbon isotope ratios of thin samples used for transmission electron microscopy. The technique is based on elastic scattering of alpha particles with an energy of 2.751 MeV. At this energy the 13C cross section is enhanced relative to the pure Rutherford cross section for 13C, whereas the 12C cross section is reduced relative to its pure Rutherford cross section. Here we report the initial results of this experimental approach used to characterize ultramicrotomed sections of sulfur-embedded graphite and microbial cells.

  10. Adaptive image workstation based on explicit models of diagnostic information requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Thomas; Grewer, R.; Moennich, K. J.; Schmidt, J.; Svensson, H.

    1992-05-01

    A medical image workstation has been conceived and prototyped which is designed to act as a cooperative dialogue partner in a number of routinely performed tasks in diagnostic radiology. The system can automatically select relevant information (e.g., current and previous examinations, images, image sequences) and generate a meaningful and appropriate image arrangement on the display screen. This is shown to be an effective feature to simplify and speed up radiological image access and presentation. For many cases in diagnostic image reading, the users' interaction may be as simple as switching from one patient to the next. Furthermore, the installed mechanisms offer a solution for the automatic pre-fetching of images to avoid transmission delays in the course of diagnostic work sessions. The cooperative system response is based on explicit (formalized and computer-accessible) models of diagnostic information requirements. These models are context-dependent and take into account that diagnostic information needs vary with radiological work procedures, workstation users, and patient cases. Initial information requirement models have been acquired from expert radiologists in two European hospitals and were integrated in a cooperative workstation prototype. For the representation of models, rule-based and object-oriented techniques were applied. The rule base was designed with a distinct modular structure, separating between rule sets for general, task- and user-dependent information requirements. The paper reviews the objectives for the design of cooperative workstation user interfaces and describes the acquisition, structuring, formalization, and representation of context-dependent information requirement models. The rule-base is explained by examples. A layered workstation architecture consisting of model-, object-, and realtime-layer is presented. Difficulties in the implementation of cooperative workstations are discussed which point to future research topics and

  11. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  12. Use of model-based qualitative icons and adaptive windows in workstations for supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Saisi, Donna L.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of an operator interface using qualitative icons and dynamic windows designed and controlled by means of an operator function model is demonstrated, and the simulation system, the Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center, is described. Qualitative icons are used to integrate low-level quantitative data into high-level qualitative error detection mechanisms, and window technology is used for the simultaneous display of multiple data sources that reflect different aspects of the system state. Based on eleven experimental measures, the workstation incorporating the model-based qualitative icons and dynamic operator function window sets was found to perform better than the conventional workstation.

  13. General specifications for the development of a USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D distributed workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the development of a PC-based distributed workstation (PCDWS) for an information storage and retrieval systems environment are defined. This research proposes the development of a PCDWS prototype as part of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA/PC R and D project in the PC-based workstation environment.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for filter buoyancy in air. For the uncorrected tare weight of a filter, this calculated value is the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for filter buoyancy in air. For the uncorrected tare weight of a filter, this calculated value is the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling...

  16. Development and Use of a GIS Workstation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the Department of Energy s (DOE) largest multipurpose science and energy laboratory. As an interdisciplinary research organization, access to information plays a critical part in the success of the many research efforts in progress at the Laboratory. The Research Library, in a supportive role, enables staff to fulfill the Laboratory s mission by making available a myriad of information resources including paper and electronic maps. The Research Library Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation was developed to better serve library customers by providing convenient access to a variety of mapping resources. The GIS workstation functions as a supplement to the paper map collection by providing customers with maps in an electronic format that can easily be inserted into memos, reports, and journal articles. Customer interest, together with the growing availability of low-cost and user-friendly mapping software, led to the development of the GIS workstation, which hosts an array of commercial mapping software that enables customers to produce ready-made topographic maps, current and historical maps, and road maps. Customers may also create customized maps using their own data or data supplied by the software vendor. This article focuses on the development, implementation, and use of the library s GIS workstation by providing a brief description of hardware components, mapping resources, and how these resources are used by Laboratory staff.

  17. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  18. From an automated flight-test management system to a flight-test engineer's workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and evolution is described of a flight engineer's workstation (called TEST-PLAN) from an automated flight test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight test management systems are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.

  19. IBIS integrated biological imaging system: electron micrograph image-processing software running on Unix workstations.

    PubMed

    Flifla, M J; Garreau, M; Rolland, J P; Coatrieux, J L; Thomas, D

    1992-12-01

    'IBIS' is a set of computer programs concerned with the processing of electron micrographs, with particular emphasis on the requirements for structural analyses of biological macromolecules. The software is written in FORTRAN 77 and runs on Unix workstations. A description of the various functions and the implementation mode is given. Some examples illustrate the user interface.

  20. Sequence comparison on a cluster of workstations using the PVM system

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, X.; Mural, R.J.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    We have implemented a distributed sequence comparison algorithm on a cluster of workstations using the PVM paradigm. This implementation has achieved similar performance to the intel iPSC/860 Hypercube, a massively parallel computer. The distributed sequence comparison algorithm serves as a search tool for two Internet servers GRAIL and GENQUEST. This paper describes the implementation and the performance of the algorithm.

  1. A Workstation Farm Optimized for Monte Carlo Shell Model Calculations : Alphleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Haruyama, S.; Honma, M.; Mizusaki, T.; Taketani, A.; Utsuno, Y.; Otsuka, T.

    We have built a workstation farm named ``Alphleet" which consists of 140 COMPAQ's Alpha 21264 CPUs, for Monte Carlo Shell Model (MCSM) calculations. It has achieved more than 90 % scalable performance with 140 CPUs when the MCSM calculation with PVM and 61.2 Gflops of LINPACK.

  2. Mammography workstation design: effect on mammographer behaviour and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Wallis, M. G.; Gale, A. G.

    2008-03-01

    In the UK Breast Screening Programme there is a growing transition from film to digital mammography, and consequently a change in mammography workstation ergonomics. This paper investigates the effect of the change for radiologists including their comfort, likelihood of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD's), and work practices. Three workstations types were investigated: one with all film mammograms; one with digital mammograms alongside film mammograms from the previous screening round, and one with digital mammograms alongside digitised film mammograms from the previous screening round. Mammographers were video-taped whilst conducting work sessions at each of the workstations. Event based Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) postural analysis showed no overall increase in MSD risk level in the switch from the film to digital workstation. Average number of visual glances at the prior mammograms per case measured by analysis of recorded video footage showed an increase if the prior mammograms were digitised, rather than displayed on a multi-viewer (p<.05). This finding has potential implications for mammographer performance in the transition to digital mammography in the UK.

  3. Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Marras, William S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how different workstations may influence physical behavior in office work through motion and how that may affect spinal loads and discomfort. Twenty subjects performed a typing task in three different workstations (seated, standing, and perching) for one hour each. Measures of postural transitions, spinal loads, discomfort, and task performance were assessed in order to understand the effects of workstation interaction over time. Results indicated that standing had the most amount of motion (6-8 shifts/min), followed by perching (3-7 shifts/min), and then seating (<1 shift/min). Standing had the highest reports of discomfort and seating the least. However, spinal loads were highest in A/P shear during standing (190N posterior shear, 407N anterior shear) compared to perching (65N posterior shear, 288N anterior shear) and seating (106N posterior shear, 287 anterior shear). These loads are below the risk threshold for shear, but may still elicit a cumulative response. Perching may induce motion through supported mobility in the perching stool, whereas standing motion may be due to postural discomfort. Office workstation designs incorporating supported movement may represent a reasonable trade-off in the costs-benefits between seating and standing. PMID:27184325

  4. Design of a test director's workstation for ROC studies in a PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Frank, Mark S.; Smith, Donald V.; Nyland, Burnette

    1994-05-01

    A Test Director's Workstation has been developed to collect radiological exams in a PACS for studies. While the efficacy of PACS systems is being accepted in the radiological community, there remain many questions about the performance of a PACS to be answered. Some of the answers can be supplied by studies comparing the performance of radiologists using the PACS under different circumstances. A workstation that is useful in collecting images from the PACS at Madigan Army Medical Center for studies has been developed. The workstation retrieves the exam from the PACS, writes the exam to a local optical disk for permanent retention, and collects information about the exam in a Test Director's master exam file. In the process of collecting the exam the patient identification is stripped from the images to preserve the patient's privacy. The identification of the patient is retained in the Test Director's master file in order to follow the progress of the patient and determine the `truth' of any diagnosis. The Test Director's Workstation completes its task by helping the test director organize selected exams for reader's disks and by setting up a reader's worklist of exams to be read.

  5. Generalization of Posture Training to Computer Workstations in an Applied Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Ring, Brandon M.; Needham, Mick; Boscoe, James H.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Improving employees' posture may decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The current paper is a systematic replication and extension of Sigurdsson and Austin (2008), who found that an intervention consisting of information, real-time feedback, and self-monitoring improved participant posture at mock workstations. In the current study,…

  6. The CD-ROM Workstation: What It Is and What to Look For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Describes the hardware components of a CD-ROM workstation and offers guidelines for selection decisions. Components discussed include CD-ROM drives; keyboards; monitors, including color and monochrome; graphics; microcomputers, including memory requirements; disk storage, including hard disks and floppy disks; and printers. Turnkey systems are…

  7. The Electronic Library: The Student/Scholar Workstation, CD-ROM and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triebwasser, Marc A.

    Predicting that a large component of the library of the not so distant future will be an electronic network of file servers where information is stored for access by personal computer workstations in remote locations as well as the library, this paper discusses innovative computer technologies--particularly CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)…

  8. Taming the CD-ROM Wilderness: Developing and Managing a Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of development and management of a CD-ROM workstation for library reference services covers: (1) IBM compatibles; (2) computer storage capacity; (3) compact disk drives and printers; (4) file management; (5) protecting the integrity of a hard disk; and (6) backing up software. (three references) (MES)

  9. From Workstation to Teacher Support System: A Tool to Increase Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. Wey

    1989-01-01

    Describes a teacher support system which is a computer-based workstation that provides support for teachers and administrators by integrating teacher utility programs, instructional management software, administrative packages, and office automation tools. Hardware is described and software components are explained, including database managers,…

  10. Using Real-Time Visual Feedback to Improve Posture at Computer Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a multicomponent intervention that included discrimination training, real-time visual feedback, and self-monitoring on postural behavior at a computer workstation in a simulated office environment. Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across 8 participants, the study assessed…

  11. Estimating the Number of PAC Terminals and Workstations for Library Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses factors to consider when estimating the number of public access terminals (PACs) or workstations needed in public and academic libraries for online catalogs, including building size and layout, physical facilities, resources available through the system, peripheral equipment, graphical user interfaces, remote users, system capacity, and…

  12. MIDAS-W: a workstation-based incoherent scatter radar data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Gorczyca, A. M.; Grydeland, T.

    2000-09-01

    The Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is based on an abstract model of an incoherent scatter radar. This model is implemented in a hierarchical software system, which serves to isolate hardware and low-level software implementation details from higher levels of the system. Inherent in this is the idea that implementation details can easily be changed in response to technological advances. MIDAS is an evolutionary system, and the MIDAS hardware has, in fact, evolved while the basic software model has remained unchanged. From the earliest days of MIDAS, it was realized that some functions implemented in specialized hardware might eventually be implemented by software in a general-purpose computer. MIDAS-W is the realization of this concept. The core component of MIDAS-W is a Sun Microsystems UltraSparc 10 workstation equipped with an Ultrarad 1280 PCI bus analog to digital (A/D) converter board. In the current implementation, a 2.25 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) is bandpass sampled at 1 µs intervals and these samples are multicast over a high-speed Ethernet which serves as a raw data bus. A second workstation receives the samples, converts them to filtered, decimated, complex baseband samples and computes the lag-profile matrix of the decimated samples. Overall performance is approximately ten times better than the previous MIDAS system, which utilizes a custom digital filtering module and array processor based correlator. A major advantage of MIDAS-W is its flexibility. A portable, single-workstation data acquisition system can be implemented by moving the software receiver and correlator programs to the workstation with the A/D converter. When the data samples are multicast, additional data processing systems, for example for raw data recording, can be implemented simply by adding another workstation with suitable software to the high-speed network. Testing of new data processing software is also greatly simplified, because a

  13. Comparison of full-field digital mammography workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication system in image quality and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Byung Gil

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study was to compare of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in image quality and diagnostic performance. We assembled 80 masses and 80 microcalcifications. Images were displayed on workstation, 5M, and 3M PACS monitors. The image quality for mammograms on workstation was significantly better than that for mammograms on PACS monitors. The sensitivity and NPV for microcalcifications on workstation were higher than those on PACS monitors. The conventional PACS cannot substitute for a FFDM workstation for mammographic evaluation.

  14. Computer modeling and design of diagnostic workstations and radiology reading rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2000-05-01

    We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.

  15. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  16. SPREADSHEET-BASED PROGRAM FOR ERGONOMIC ADJUSTMENT OF NOTEBOOK COMPUTER AND WORKSTATION SETTINGS.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Prae-Arporn, Kanlayanee; Chanjirawittaya, Sorajak; Paripoonyo, Satirajit; Rodloy, Somsak

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses a computer program, ErgoNBC, which provides suggestions regarding the ergonomic settings of a notebook computer (NBC), workstation components, and selected accessories in order to help computer users to assume an appropriate work posture during the NBC work. From the users' body height, NBC and workstation component data, ErgoNBC computes the recommended tilt angle of NBC base unit, NBC screen angle, distance between the user and NBC, seat height and work surface height. If necessary, the NBC base support, seat cushion and footrest, including their settings, are recommended. An experiment involving twenty-four university students was conducted to evaluate the recommendations provided by ErgoNBC. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique was used to analyze their work postures both before and after implementing the Ergo NBC's recommendations. The results clearly showed that ErgoNBC could significantly help to improve the subjects' work postures.

  17. Utilization of a multimedia PACS workstation for surgical planning of epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Rowley, Howard A.

    1997-05-01

    Surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy requires the localization of the epileptogenic zone for surgical resection. Currently, clinicians utilize electroencephalography, various neuroimaging modalities, and psychological tests together to determine the location of this zone. We investigate how a multimedia neuroimaging workstation built on top of the UCSF Picture Archiving and Communication System can be used to aid surgical planning of epilepsy and related brain diseases. This usage demonstrates the ability of the workstation to retrieve image and textural data from PACS and other image sources, register multimodality images, visualize and render 3D data sets, analyze images, generate new image and text data from the analysis, and organize all data in a relational database management system.

  18. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  19. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  20. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  1. Workstation-Based Avionics Simulator to Support Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David; Canham, Timothy; Chang, Johnny T.; McMahon, Elihu

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the WorkStation TestSet (WSTS) to support flight software development. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC. This provides flight software developers with their own virtual avionics testbed and allows device-level and functional software testing when hardware testbeds are either not yet available or have limited availability. The WSTS has successfully off-loaded many flight software development activities from the project testbeds. At the writing of this paper, the WSTS has averaged an order of magnitude more usage than the project's hardware testbeds.

  2. SPREADSHEET-BASED PROGRAM FOR ERGONOMIC ADJUSTMENT OF NOTEBOOK COMPUTER AND WORKSTATION SETTINGS.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Prae-Arporn, Kanlayanee; Chanjirawittaya, Sorajak; Paripoonyo, Satirajit; Rodloy, Somsak

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses a computer program, ErgoNBC, which provides suggestions regarding the ergonomic settings of a notebook computer (NBC), workstation components, and selected accessories in order to help computer users to assume an appropriate work posture during the NBC work. From the users' body height, NBC and workstation component data, ErgoNBC computes the recommended tilt angle of NBC base unit, NBC screen angle, distance between the user and NBC, seat height and work surface height. If necessary, the NBC base support, seat cushion and footrest, including their settings, are recommended. An experiment involving twenty-four university students was conducted to evaluate the recommendations provided by ErgoNBC. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique was used to analyze their work postures both before and after implementing the Ergo NBC's recommendations. The results clearly showed that ErgoNBC could significantly help to improve the subjects' work postures. PMID:27281918

  3. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  4. Realization of sub-micron radius of curvature measurement in vertical interferometer workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Erlong; Wang, Rudong; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Shijun

    2014-09-01

    Radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the key parameters for optical elements and it is especially important for high quality optical system, in which the computer-aided integration is wildly used. ROC is one of the main input parameters and its measurement accuracy is a premise for high quality integration. In this paper, sub-micron ROC measurements are realized in a vertical interference workstation based on Fizeau interferometer. The error sources and uncertainty of the system are analyzed. Experiment results based on samples with difference ROC are presented and in accordance with the analysis. At last, a ROC comparing tests between the system and a three-coordinates measuring machine (CMM) are performed on a SiC ball to certify the workstation's measurement uncertainty.

  5. A Workstation-Based Inpatient Clinical System in the Johns Hopkins Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Marvin; Tolchin, Stephen G.; Kahane, Stephen N.; Goldberg, Howard S.; Barta, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Hospital has initiated an ambitious program to apply modern technologies to the development of a new, comprehensive clinical information system. This system integrates many distinct functional subsystems using a local area network. One component of this system is a distributed inpatient clinical management system. This paper discusses a workstation-based design with minicomputer support. User interface requirements, system architecture, project plans and alternative approaches are discussed.

  6. How one engineer and computer workstation design a surface mine. [New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1984-04-01

    Engineers at the new Lee Ranch coal mine near Grants, New Mexico, decided to use an interactive computer and workstation, and a mine-planning programme capable of handling day-to-day production. Scheduling and producing necessary plans, maps, and other graphics: the programme called MINEMAP can deal also with drill-hole data and stripping ratios. Teamed with MINEMAP is a computerized drafting and plotting system called DISSPLA.

  7. Micro-machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high-brightness laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleijhorst, R. A.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Bant, P.

    1998-05-01

    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are given. With this setup we demonstrate the possibility of machining within a few microns with a Nd:YAG laser.

  8. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  10. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, June J.; Baker, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  11. A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project.

  12. Frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Maryam; Rashid, Sajid; Umar, Bilal; Ahmad, Aqeel; Ehsan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: Neck and shoulder are the most susceptible areas for developing musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users. The modifiable risk factors for these work related musculoskeletal disorders include physical office environment and psychosocial work related factors. Computer workstation layout had been shown to be an important physical aspect of work environment that influences the upper quadrant symptoms. Our objective was to find the frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers of Islamabad/Rawalpindi/Multan Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and 120 participants were questioned. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ) was remodeled and important questions were extracted from its detailed version. The tool was then validated by taking expert opinion. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results: Pain in the neck during working hours was experienced by 71.67% of the respondents and 48.33% of the participants had experienced shoulder pain during working hours. Adjustable keyboards were used by 16.67% of respondents. Back care material was used by 40% bankers. Adjustable chairs were used by 95.83% of the participants. Only 3% of the bankers did not have chairs with adjustable heights. Chairs with adjustable armrests were used by 25% bankers. Conclusion: Neck and shoulder pain are common occurrences among bankers. Most of the components of workstations of bankers were adjustable but some of them still need attention. PMID:27182253

  13. Test of radiologist performance in interpreting bedside chest examinations on a workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Nelson, Martha C.; Reagan, Kathleen; Horii, Steven C.; Mun, Seong K.

    1992-05-01

    A book cassette containing both a conventional film-screen radiographic system (FR) and a phosphor storage radiographic plate (SR) was used to obtain simultaneous bedside chest images in 22 patients in the Post Operative Cardiac and Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Twenty-five potential findings of normal structures, lung and pleural disease, and life support devices were recorded for each image in a five point rating format. The FR images are all considered of good diagnostic quality. The original FR films, the laser digitized FR images (DF) displayed on a workstation (WS), and the SR images displayed on a WS were compared. The WS viewing was on a 1 K X 1.2 K, 8 bit monitor. Free adjustment of window level, window width, and black-white inversion was allowed. Magnification allowed access to the 2 K data set. ROC analysis supports the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the diagnostic yield of good quality bedside obtained FR, DF made from good quality FR viewed on a workstation, and SR viewed on a workstation. Analysis of the subset of interstitial and airspace edema indicated that readers gave higher scores for interstitial disease on the WS for both false positive and true positive findings.

  14. Parallel reservoir automatic history matching using a network of workstations and PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Ouenes, A.; Weiss, W.; Sultan, A.J.; Anwar, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a new computing environment for reservoir automatic history matching. A parallel simulated annealing algorithm is used to estimate geologic and reservoir engineering parameters by automatically ,aching production history of an actual oil reservoir. A complex computer set-up using two networks of workstations simultaneously, located at the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is used to test the concept of distributed optimization. A heterogeneous cluster of two workstations (HP and SUN) is used at the PRRC and a homogeneous cluster of six IBM RISC 6000 workstations is used at LANL. At each site (PRCC and LANL), a Parallel Virtual Machine is created by using the message passing software, PVM. Communication between the two parallel virtual machines located at the PRRC and LANL is achieved with a simple e-mail protocol. In this new environment, the total time required to complete a 22 well oil reservoir study lead to the following observation: two-thirds of the time was devoted to geologic, core, and well log analyses, and one-third of the time to history matching.

  15. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Baker, Victoria C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  16. Comparison of the forward head angle and the lumbar flexion and rotation angles of computer workers using routine and individually fixed computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the forward head angle and the lumbar flexion and rotation angles of computer workers using routine and fixed computer workstations. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] A 3-D motion analysis system was used to measure the angles of the forward head and lumbar flexion. All subjects performed computer work for 30 minutes using both types of workstation. [Results] When working at the fixed workstation, the forward head angle was less than that observed when the routine workstation was used. At the fixed workstation, the lumbar flexion and rotation angles were less than that at the routine workstation. [Conclusion] The computer workstation individually fixed for standard posture may have prevented poor sitting posture.

  17. A standardized non-instrumental tool for characterizing workstations concerned with exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu I, Guseva; C, Ducros; S, Ducamp; L, Delabre; S, Audignon-Durand; C, Durand; Y, Iwatsubo; D, Jezewski-Serra; Bihan O, Le; S, Malard; A, Radauceanu; M, Reynier; M, Ricaud; O, Witschger

    2015-05-01

    The French national epidemiological surveillance program EpiNano aims at surveying mid- and long-term health effects possibly related with occupational exposure to either carbon nanotubes or titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2). EpiNano is limited to workers potentially exposed to these nanomaterials including their aggregates and agglomerates. In order to identify those workers during the in-field industrial hygiene visits, a standardized non-instrumental method is necessary especially for epidemiologists and occupational physicians unfamiliar with nanoparticle and nanomaterial exposure metrology. A working group, Quintet ExpoNano, including national experts in nanomaterial metrology and occupational hygiene reviewed available methods, resources and their practice in order to develop a standardized tool for conducting company industrial hygiene visits and collecting necessary information. This tool, entitled “Onsite technical logbook”, includes 3 parts: company, workplace, and workstation allowing a detailed description of each task, process and exposure surrounding conditions. This logbook is intended to be completed during the company industrial hygiene visit. Each visit is conducted jointly by an industrial hygienist and an epidemiologist of the program and lasts one or two days depending on the company size. When all collected information is computerized using friendly-using software, it is possible to classify workstations with respect to their potential direct and/or indirect exposure. Workers appointed to workstations classified as concerned with exposure are considered as eligible for EpiNano program and invited to participate. Since January 2014, the Onsite technical logbook has been used in ten company visits. The companies visited were mostly involved in research and development. A total of 53 workstations with potential exposure to nanomaterials were pre-selected and observed: 5 with TiO2, 16 with single-walled carbon nanotubes, 27 multiwalled

  18. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  19. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  20. The integrated workstation: A common, consistent link between nuclear plant personnel and plant information and computerized resources

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.T.; Knee, H.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Munro, J.K. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Tapp, P.A.

    1993-05-01

    The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. Data concerning a power plant`s design, configuration, operational and maintenance histories, and current status, and the information that can be derived from them, provide the link between the plant and plant staff. It is through this information bridge that operations, maintenance and engineering personnel understand and manage plant performance. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of data available from various computer systems and across communications networks into clear, concise, and coherent information. In addition, it is important to organize this information into a consolidated, structured form within an integrated environment so that various users throughout the plant have ready access at their local station to knowledge necessary for their tasks. Thus, integrated workstations are needed to provide the inquired information and proper software tools, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. An effort is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address this need by developing Integrated Workstation functional requirements and implementing a limited-scale prototype demonstration. The integrated Workstation requirements will define a flexible, expandable computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades to add enhanced applications. The functionality to be supported by the integrated workstation and inherent capabilities to be provided by the workstation environment win be described. In addition, general technology areas which are to be addressed in the Integrated Workstation functional requirements will be discussed.

  1. The integrated workstation: A common, consistent link between nuclear plant personnel and plant information and computerized resources

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.T.; Knee, H.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Munro, J.K. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Tapp, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. Data concerning a power plant's design, configuration, operational and maintenance histories, and current status, and the information that can be derived from them, provide the link between the plant and plant staff. It is through this information bridge that operations, maintenance and engineering personnel understand and manage plant performance. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of data available from various computer systems and across communications networks into clear, concise, and coherent information. In addition, it is important to organize this information into a consolidated, structured form within an integrated environment so that various users throughout the plant have ready access at their local station to knowledge necessary for their tasks. Thus, integrated workstations are needed to provide the inquired information and proper software tools, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. An effort is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address this need by developing Integrated Workstation functional requirements and implementing a limited-scale prototype demonstration. The integrated Workstation requirements will define a flexible, expandable computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades to add enhanced applications. The functionality to be supported by the integrated workstation and inherent capabilities to be provided by the workstation environment win be described. In addition, general technology areas which are to be addressed in the Integrated Workstation functional requirements will be discussed.

  2. Optimization of a low-cost truly preemptive multitasking PC diagnostic workstation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E; Arenson, R L

    1997-08-01

    The Windows 95/NT operating systems (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) currently provide the only low-cost truly preemptive multitasking environment and as such become an attractive diagnostic workstation platform. The purpose of this project is to test and optimize display station graphical user interface (GUI) actions previously designed on the pseudomultitasking Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) platform, and image data transmission using time slicing/ dynamic prioritization assignment capabilities of the new Windows platform. A diagnostic workstation in the clinical environment must process two categories of events: user interaction with the GUI through keyboard/mouse input, and transmission of incoming data files. These processes contend for central processing units (CPU) time resulting in GUI "lockout" during image transmission or delay in transmission until GUI "quiet time." WinSockets and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocal (TCP/IP) communication protocol software (Microsoft) are implemented using dynamic priority timeslicing to ensure that GUI delays at the time of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) file transfer do not exceed 1/10 second. Assignment of thread priority does not translate into an absolute fixed percentage of CPU time. Therefore, the relationship between dynamic priority assignment by the processor, and the GUI and communication application threads will be more fully investigated to optimize CPU resource allocation. These issues will be tested using 10 MB/sec Ethernet and 100 MB/sec fast and wide Ethernet transmission. Preliminary results of typical clinical files (10 to 30 MB) over Ethernet show no visually perceptible interruption of the GUI, suggesting that the new Windows PC platform may be a viable diagnostic workstation option.

  3. A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-28

    Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.

  4. Optimization of a low-cost truly preemptive multitasking PC diagnostic workstation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E; Arenson, R L

    1997-08-01

    The Windows 95/NT operating systems (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) currently provide the only low-cost truly preemptive multitasking environment and as such become an attractive diagnostic workstation platform. The purpose of this project is to test and optimize display station graphical user interface (GUI) actions previously designed on the pseudomultitasking Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) platform, and image data transmission using time slicing/ dynamic prioritization assignment capabilities of the new Windows platform. A diagnostic workstation in the clinical environment must process two categories of events: user interaction with the GUI through keyboard/mouse input, and transmission of incoming data files. These processes contend for central processing units (CPU) time resulting in GUI "lockout" during image transmission or delay in transmission until GUI "quiet time." WinSockets and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocal (TCP/IP) communication protocol software (Microsoft) are implemented using dynamic priority timeslicing to ensure that GUI delays at the time of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) file transfer do not exceed 1/10 second. Assignment of thread priority does not translate into an absolute fixed percentage of CPU time. Therefore, the relationship between dynamic priority assignment by the processor, and the GUI and communication application threads will be more fully investigated to optimize CPU resource allocation. These issues will be tested using 10 MB/sec Ethernet and 100 MB/sec fast and wide Ethernet transmission. Preliminary results of typical clinical files (10 to 30 MB) over Ethernet show no visually perceptible interruption of the GUI, suggesting that the new Windows PC platform may be a viable diagnostic workstation option. PMID:9268871

  5. Implementing a Physician's Workstation using client/server technology and the distributed computing environment.

    PubMed Central

    Pham, T. Q.; Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.; Suermondt, H. J.; Annevelink, J.

    1994-01-01

    PWS is a physician's workstation research prototype developed to explore the use of information management tools by physicians in the context of patient care. The original prototype was implemented in a client/server architecture using a broadcast message server. As we expanded the scope of the prototyping activities, we identified the limitations of the broadcast message server in the areas of scalability, security, and interoperability. To address these issues, we reimplemented PWS using the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). We describe the rationale for using DCE, the migration process, and the benefits achieved. Future work and recommendations are discussed. PMID:7950003

  6. A medical workstation for the display and analysis of multi-frame digital cineradiographic data.

    PubMed

    Mueller, K; LaPresto, E L; Poweli, K A; Hirsch, J L; Cornhill, J F

    1996-09-01

    A medical workstation has been developed for the efficient display and analysis of large sets of digital cineradiographic images. Various features aid the clinician in quickly identifying and extracting the image information relevant for diagnosis: animated viewing of image frames, a digital magnifying glass for local image enlargement and enhancement, a special review queue for critical image frames, and task-oriented image processing. Double frame buffering and direct memory addressing ensure fast, artifact-free image display and transfer. Much freedom is provided for adapting the system to one's own preferences. A statistical analysis of extensive tests conducted by eight clinical expert reviewers is given.

  7. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  8. A VME multiprocessor data acquisition system combining a UNIX workstation and real-time microprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Barome, N.; Bossu, Y.; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Tran-Khanh, T. )

    1990-08-01

    A data acquisition system combining a UNIX workstation and one or several real-time microprocessors has been designed and built for the Tandem accelerator at IPN. The hardware and software options chosen for reading, processing, storing, and displaying real-time experimental data are detailed. The fixed components of the hardware architecture are the VME bus for data processing and the CMAC system for transferring digital data. A multitask multiprocessor software based on shared memory and message passing has been developed around a mixed UNIX/pSOS kernel.

  9. The MAMS Quick View System-2 (QVS2) - A workstation for NASA aircraft scanner data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a ground-based data-evaluation workstation named Quick View System-2 (QVS2) developed to support postflight evaluation of data supplied by the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), one of the four spectrometers that can be used with the Daedalus scanner flown on the ER-2 aircraft. The QVS2 provides advanced analysis capabilities and can be applied to other airborne scanners used throughout NASA for earth-system-science investigations, because of the commonality in the data stream and in the generalized data structure.

  10. Development of a computer workstation for famine early warning and food security.

    PubMed

    Marsh, S E; Hutchinson, C F; Pfirman, E E; Des Rosiers, S A; van der Harten, C

    1994-06-01

    Beginning in 1990, the University of Arizona, Arizona Remote Sensing Center (ARSC) has been involved in a collaborative effort with the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Remote Sensing Center of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in designing and developing an integrated computer workstation for famine early warning. The goal of the project is to provide food security analysts with a set of computer tools to manage a very large and diverse set of data for predicting the onset of food security emergencies for every country on Earth. The initial stage of the project involved the conceptual definition of system elements and the development of overall system architecture. We are now developing an open, flexible, and portable system designed to significantly assist the work of the analysts. System architecture provides a task-specific and user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) within a Windows environment that will link image processing, geographic information system (GIS), spreadsheet, text, and graphics software packages into a single operational environment. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is serving as the back-end of the workstation to facilitate data storage and retrieval and as a means to preserve analysis methodologies.

  11. International Space Station alpha remote manipulator system workstation controls test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenstrom, William A.; Swaney, Colin; Forrester, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Previous development testing for the space station remote manipulator system workstation controls determined the need for hardware controls for the emergency stop, brakes on/off, and some camera functions. This report documents the results of an evaluation to further determine control implementation requirements, requested by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), to close outstanding review item discrepancies. This test was conducted at the Johnson Space Center's Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility in Houston, Texas, with nine NASA astronauts and one CSA astronaut as operators. This test evaluated camera iris and focus, back-up drive, latching end effector release, and autosequence controls using several types of hardware and software implementations. Recommendations resulting from the testing included providing guarded hardware buttons to prevent accidental actuation, providing autosequence controls and back-up drive controls on a dedicated hardware control panel, and that 'latch on/latch off', or on-screen software, controls not be considered. Generally, the operators preferred hardware controls although other control implementations were acceptable. The results of this evaluation will be used along with further testing to define specific requirements for the workstation design.

  12. DICOM structured reporting: Part 2. Problems and challenges in implementation for PACS workstations.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada; Engelmann, Uwe; Schroeter, Andre; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2004-01-01

    Structured reporting (SR) was recently added to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard to provide an efficient mechanism for the generation, distribution, and management of clinical reports. The main advantage of SR is the ability to link clinical documents with the referenced images for simultaneous retrieval and display. A generic SR toolkit that covers the different clinical reports used in today's healthcare enterprises was developed for picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations. The modules of the SR toolkit collaborate to automatically construct the DICOM SR files from the free-text input presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) by using the associated SR trees. The DICOM toolkit is reused for SR encoding and DICOM services. A setup module was required for creating both the standard and private SR templates used in different healthcare specialties. The SR manager transparently converts between the different SR document presentations, that is, DICOM SR files and HTML documents, to provide the end users with an easy-to-use toolkit. To evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the SR toolkit in a pragmatic setting, the toolkit was integrated into PACS workstations.

  13. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  14. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  15. Integrating UNIX workstation into existing online data acquisition systems for Fermilab experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.

    1991-03-01

    With the availability of cost effective computing prior from multiple vendors of UNIX workstations, experiments at Fermilab are adding such computers to their VMS based online data acquisition systems. In anticipation of this trend, we have extended the software products available in our widely used VAXONLINE and PANDA data acquisition software systems, to provide support for integrating these workstations into existing distributed online systems. The software packages we are providing pave the way for the smooth migration of applications from the current Data Acquisition Host and Monitoring computers running the VMS operating systems, to UNIX based computers of various flavors. We report on software for Online Event Distribution from VAXONLINE and PANDA, integration of Message Reporting Facilities, and a framework under UNIX for experiments to monitor and view the raw event data produced at any level in their DA system. We have developed software that allows host UNIX computers to communicate with intelligent front-end embedded read-out controllers and processor boards running the pSOS operating system. Both RS-232 and Ethernet control paths are supported. This enables calibration and hardware monitoring applications to be migrated to these platforms. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  16. A computer graphics pilot project - Spacecraft mission support with an interactive graphics workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, John; Ehrner, Marie-Jacqueline; Reese, Jodi; Chang, Kan; Tseng, Irene

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Computer Graphics Pilot Project was undertaken to enhance the quality control, productivity and efficiency of mission support operations at the Goddard Operations Support Computing Facility. The Project evolved into a set of demonstration programs for graphics intensive simulated control room operations, particularly in connection with the complex space missions that began in the 1980s. Complex mission mean more data. Graphic displays are a means to reduce the probabilities of operator errors. Workstations were selected with 1024 x 768 pixel color displays controlled by a custom VLSI chip coupled to an MC68010 chip running UNIX within a shell that permits operations through the medium of mouse-accessed pulldown window menus. The distributed workstations run off a host NAS 8040 computer. Applications of the system for tracking spacecraft orbits and monitoring Shuttle payload handling illustrate the system capabilities, noting the built-in capabilities of shifting the point of view and rotating and zooming in on three-dimensional views of spacecraft.

  17. Graphic simualtion test bed for robotics applications in a workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springfield, J.; Mutammara, A.; Karsai, G.; Cook, G. E.; Sztipanovits, J.; Fernandez, K.

    1988-01-01

    Graphical simulation is a cost-effective solution for developing and testing robots and their control systems. The availability of various high-performance workstations makes these systems feasible. Simulation offers preliminary testing of systems before their actual realizations, and it provides a framework for developing new control and planning algorithms. On the other hand, these simulation systems have to have the capability of incorporating various knowledge-based system components, e.g., task planners, representation formalisms, etc. They also should have an appropriate user interface, which makes possible the creation and control of simulation models. ROBOSIM was developed jointly by MSFC and Vanderbilt University, first in a VAX environment. Recently, the system has been ported to an HP-9000 workstation equipped with an SRX graphics accelerator. The user interface of the system now contains a menu- and icon-based facility, as well as the original ROBOSIM language. The system is also coupled to a symbolic computing system based on Common Lisp, where knowledge-based functionalities are implemented. The knowledge-based layer uses various representation and reasoning facilities for programming and testing the control systems of robots.

  18. tomoRecon: High-speed tomography reconstruction on workstations using multi-threading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2012-10-01

    Computers have changed remarkably in just the last 2-3 years. Memory is now very inexpensive, as little as 10/GB, or less than 1000 for 96GB. Computers with 8 or 12 cores are now inexpensive, starting at less than $3,000. This means that affordable workstations are in principle now capable of processing large tomography datasets. But for the most part tomography reconstruction software has not changed to take advantage of these new capabilities. Most installations use clusters of Linux machines, spreading the work over computers running multiple processes. It is significantly simpler and cheaper to run a single process that spreads the job over multiple threads running on multiple cores. tomoRecon is a new multi-threaded library for such tomography data reconstruction. It consists of only 545 lines of C++ code, on top of the 800 lines in the Gridrec reconstruction code. The performance on a single modern workstation significantly exceeds dedicated clusters currently in use at synchrotron beamlines.

  19. Remote consultation with a multiple-screen FilmPlane radiology workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, David V.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Brown, P.; Perry, R. N.; Thompson, Bob G.

    1992-05-01

    As hospitals geographically spread and radiologic services are required in remote locations, the radiologist increasingly must conduct a remote practice. Rapid image transmission from the remote site to the radiologist is important but only half the problem. First, the radiologist may need to view and discuss the images with the technologist to verify image quality or to specify the location of follow-up images. Second, the radiologist may need to discuss the case with another radiologist for a second opinion or for the advice of a sub-specialist. Third, and most importantly, the radiologist may need to discuss the case with the referring physician to better understand the text data, clinical history, and referring physician's clinical questions and concerns, and to better convey the location and extent of the clinical findings. In this paper we detail the requirements for a remote consultation workstation, present previous work on remote computer interaction, and describe the FilmPlane remote consultation workstation in detail. We then discuss the MICA medical communications project in which FilmPlane will be used for a remote consultation study between the UNC family medicine clinic and the main hospital 1/2 mile away.

  20. Optical workstation with concurrent, independent multiphoton imaging and experimental laser microbeam capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wokosin, David L.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; White, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental laser microbeam techniques have become established tools for studying living specimens. A steerable, focused laser beam may be used for a variety of experimental manipulations such as laser microsurgery, optical trapping, localized photolysis of caged bioactive probes, and patterned photobleaching. Typically, purpose-designed experimental systems have been constructed for each of these applications. In order to assess the consequences of such experimental optical interventions, long-term, microscopic observation of the specimen is often required. Multiphoton excitation, because of its ability to obtain high-contrast images from deep within a specimen with minimal phototoxic effects, is a preferred technique for in vivo imaging. An optical workstation is described that combines the functionality of an experimental optical microbeam apparatus with a sensitive multiphoton imaging system designed for use with living specimens. Design considerations are discussed and examples of ongoing biological applications are presented. The integrated optical workstation concept offers advantages in terms of flexibility and versatility relative to systems implemented with separate imaging and experimental components. PMID:18607511

  1. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  2. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients.

    PubMed

    Bilmen, J G; Gillies, R I

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening condition caused by exposure of susceptible individuals to volatile anaesthetics or suxamethonium. MH-susceptible individuals must avoid exposure to these drugs, so accurate and reproducible processes to remove residual anaesthetic agents from anaesthetic workstations are required. Activated charcoal filters (ACFs) have been used for this purpose. ACFs can reduce the time for preparing an anaesthetic workstation for MH patients. Currently, the only commercially available ACFs are the Vapor-Clean$trade; (Dynasthetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) filters which retail at approximately AUD$130 per set of two, both of which are to be used in a single anaesthetic. Anaesthetic workstations were saturated with anaesthetic vapours and connected to a Miran ambient air analyser (SapphRe XL, ThermoScientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to measure vapour concentration. Various scenarios were tested in order to determine the most economical configurations of machine flushing, component change and activated charcoal filter use. We found that placement of filters in an unprepared, saturated circuit was insufficient to safely prepare an anaesthetic workstation. Following flushing of the anaesthetic workstation with high-flow oxygen for 90 seconds, a circuit and soda lime canister change and the placement of an ACF on the inspiratory limb, we were able to safely prepare a workstation in less than three minutes. A single filter on the inspiratory limb was able to maintain a clean circuit for 12 hours, with gas flows dropped from 10 lpm to 3 lpm after 90 minutes or removal of the filter after 90 minutes if high gas flows were maintained.

  3. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  4. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  5. The NASA performance assessment workstation: Cognitive performance during head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehab, Randa L.; Schlegel, Robert E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Eddy, Douglas R.

    The NASA Performance Assessment Workstation was used to assess cognitive performance changes in eight males subjected to seventeen days of 6 ° head-down bed rest. PAWS uses six performance tasks to assess directed and divided attention, spatial, mathematical, and memory skills, and tracking ability. Subjective scales assess overall fatigue and mood state. Subjects completed training trials, practice trials, bed rest trials, and recovery trials. The last eight practice trials and all bed rest trials were performed with subjects lying face-down on a gurney. In general, there was no apparent cumulative effect of bed rest. Following a short period of performance stabilization, a slight but steady trend of performance improvement was observed across all trials. For most tasks, this trend of performance improvement was enhanced during recovery. No statistically significant differences in performance were observed when comparing bed rest with the control period. Additionally, fatigue scores showed little change across all periods.

  6. Surface shape control of the workpiece in a double-spindle triple-workstation wafer grinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianglong, Zhu; Renke, Kang; Zhigang, Dong; Guang, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Double-spindle triple-workstation (DSTW) ultra precision grinders are mainly used in production lines for manufacturing and back thinning large diameter (>= 300 mm) silicon wafers for integrated circuits. It is important, but insufficiently studied, to control the wafer shape ground on a DSTW grinder by adjusting the inclination angles of the spindles and work tables. In this paper, the requirements of the inclination angle adjustment of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are analyzed. A reasonable configuration of the grinding spindles and work tables in DSTW wafer grinders are proposed. Based on the proposed configuration, an adjustment method of the inclination angle of grinding spindles and work tables for DSTW wafer grinders is put forward. The mathematical models of wafer shape with the adjustment amount of inclination angles for both fine and rough grinding spindles are derived. The proposed grinder configuration and adjustment method will provide helpful instruction for DSTW wafer grinder design.

  7. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  8. Using a Cray Y-MP as an array processor for a RISC Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.

    1992-01-01

    As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.

  9. An intelligent control and virtual display system for evolutionary space station workstation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xin; Niederjohn, Russell J.; Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development of the Advanced Display and Computer Augmented Control System (ADCACS) for the space station Body-Ported Cupola Virtual Workstation (BP/VCWS) were pursued. The potential applications were explored of body ported virtual display and intelligent control technology for the human-system interfacing applications is space station environment. The new system is designed to enable crew members to control and monitor a variety of space operations with greater flexibility and efficiency than existing fixed consoles. The technologies being studied include helmet mounted virtual displays, voice and special command input devices, and microprocessor based intelligent controllers. Several research topics, such as human factors, decision support expert systems, and wide field of view, color displays are being addressed. The study showed the significant advantages of this uniquely integrated display and control system, and its feasibility for human-system interfacing applications in the space station command and control environment.

  10. Optimization of a Distributed Genetic Algorithm on a Cluster of Workstations for the Detection of Microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.

    We have developed a method for the detection of clusters of microcalcifications in digital mammograms. Here, we present a genetic algorithm used to optimize the choice of the parameters in the detection scheme. The optimization has allowed the improvement of the performance, the detailed study of the influence of the various parameters on the performance and an accurate investigation of the behavior of the detection method on unknown cases. We reach a sensitivity of 96.2% with 0.7 false positive clusters per image on the Nijmegen database; we are also able to identify the most significant parameters. In addition, we have examined the feasibility of a distributed genetic algorithm implemented on a non-dedicated Cluster Of Workstations. We get very good results both in terms of quality and efficiency.

  11. Iterative solution of general sparse linear systems on clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Gen-Ching; Saad, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Solving sparse irregularly structured linear systems on parallel platforms poses several challenges. First, sparsity makes it difficult to exploit data locality, whether in a distributed or shared memory environment. A second, perhaps more serious challenge, is to find efficient ways to precondition the system. Preconditioning techniques which have a large degree of parallelism, such as multicolor SSOR, often have a slower rate of convergence than their sequential counterparts. Finally, a number of other computational kernels such as inner products could ruin any gains gained from parallel speed-ups, and this is especially true on workstation clusters where start-up times may be high. In this paper we discuss these issues and report on our experience with PSPARSLIB, an on-going project for building a library of parallel iterative sparse matrix solvers.

  12. Developing a workstation-based, real-time simulation for rapid handling qualities evaluations during design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Frederick; Biezad, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Rapid Aircraft DynamIcs AssessmeNt (RADIAN) project - an integration of the Aircraft SYNThesis (ACSTNT) design code with the USAD DATCOM code that estimates stability derivatives. Both of these codes are available to universities. These programs are then linked to flight simulation and flight controller synthesis tools and resulting design is evaluated on a graphics workstation. The entire process reduces the preliminary design time by an order of magnitude and provides an initial handling qualities evaluation of the design coupled to a control law. The integrated design process is applicable to both conventional aircraft taken from current textbooks and to unconventional designs emphasizing agility and propulsive control of attitude. The interactive and concurrent nature of the design process has been well received by industry and by design engineers at NASA. The process is being implemented into the design curriculum and is being used by students who view it as a significant advance over prior methods.

  13. Correlative Microscopy Techniques for the Analysis of Particles in Safeguards Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzigal, N.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental particle analysis for safeguards by means of a combination of micro-analytical techniques. It includes the tandem utilization of two separate light microscopes, a scanning electron microscope and a femtosecond laser-ablation ICP-MS. These are: a light microscopy automated particle relocation device (Zeiss Z2m); an optical-microscopy-based laser micro-dissection system (IX83 MMI+Olympus); a focussed ion beam scanning electron microscope equipped with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer extension (Tescan Lyra3) and a fs LA-ICP-MS (J200 from Applied Spectra Inc. and Thermofisher Scientific iCap Q). The samples examined in this contribution are analysed for their nuclear material signatures, in particular the presence of uranium isotopes.

  14. Feasibility of an Integrated Expert Video Authoring Workstation for Low-Cost Teacher Produced CBI. SBIR Phase I: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IntelliSys, Inc., Syracuse, NY.

    This was Phase I of a three-phased project. This phase of the project investigated the feasibility of a computer-based instruction (CBI) workstation, designed for use by teachers of handicapped students within a school structure. This station is to have as a major feature the ability to produce in-house full-motion video using one of the…

  15. CBT Pilot Program Instructional Guide. Basic Drafting Skills Curriculum Delivered through CAD Workstations and Artificial Intelligence Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard J.; Sauer, Mardelle A.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in using computer-aided design (CAD) workstations and artificial intelligence software to teach basic drafting skills. The guide outlines a 7-unit shell program that may also be used as a generic authoring system capable of supporting computer-based training (CBT) in other subject areas. The first section…

  16. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  17. Acoustical study on the impact of sound absorptions, distances of workstations, and height of partitions in open plan offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya; Al Rochmadi, Nurwachid; Sarwono, R. Sugeng Joko

    2015-09-01

    Low partitions are commonly found in open-plan offices as the boundaries of workstation islands or groups of workstations. This room layout often cause excessive speech intelligibility, which creates work distraction and reduce the quality of speech privacy. Sound absorption, distance between workstations, and height of partitions are factors that were investigated on their impact to the room acoustics condition, referred to ISO 3382-3:2012. Observed room acoustics conditions were speech intelligibility, speech privacy, and distraction to concentrate in work using parameters of T30, C50, and RASTI. Parameters of T30, C50, and RASTI were used to evaluate the speech intelligibility. The level of speech privacy was indicated by parameter of privacy distance (rP). Distraction to concentrate in work was indicated by distraction distance (rD). The results from 2 experimental setups show that sound absorption, distance between workstations, and partitions influenced the level of speech intelligibility, speech privacy, and distraction to concentration at work. The value of C50 decline, by 76.9% and 77.4%, each for scenario A and B. RASTI decline, by 18.7% and 14.8%. Difference in percentage of speech privacy, by 6% and 11%. Difference in percentage of distraction to concentration at work, by 79% and 70%.

  18. The FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and FGD Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) workstation for integrating pre- and postprocessing functions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, L.J.; Kemner, M.L.; Erikson, R.L.; Hostetler, C.J.; Morrey, J.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1989-04-01

    The FASTCHEM/trademark/ (Fly Ash and FGD Sludge Transport and Geochemistry) package provides an interim computational capability that a utility manager can use to assess the effects of a waste-disposal site on the local groundwater system. The FASTCHEM/trademark/ package consists of six codes that combine current mechanistic and empirical understanding of factors influencing the migration of inorganic chemicals from utility waste-disposal facilities. The FASTCHEM/trademark/ workstation provides the main user interface to the package through a communications link to the mainframe computer. The workstation allows the user to create conceptual models of flow, transport, and geochemical processes. In addition, the workstation includes a postprocessor for preparing graphic output from the coupled geohydrochemical calculation. This document describes the organization of the workstation and its relation to the other codes in FASTCHEM/trademark/. Use of the workstation for developing conceptual models for hydrologic, geochemical, and transport processes is discussed. The workstation requires the use of an IBM/reg sign/ personal computer; installation of the workstation on the computer is performed by an IBM-DOS batch file, which is also described in this document. 23 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. The use of a global index of acoustic assessment for predicting noise in industrial rooms and optimizing the location of machinery and workstations.

    PubMed

    Pleban, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at developing a tool for optimizing the location of machinery and workstations. A global index of acoustic assessment of machines was developed for this purpose. This index and a genetic algorithm were used in a computer tool for predicting noise emission of machines as well as optimizing the location of machines and workstations in industrial rooms. The results of laboratory and simulation tests demonstrate that the developed global index and the genetic algorithm support measures aimed at noise reduction at workstations.

  20. Development of a low-cost virtual reality workstation for training and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) it involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) it includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) it must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, but the high cost of VR technology has limited its practical application to fields with big budgets, such as military combat simulation, commercial pilot training, and certain projects within the space program. However, in the last year there has been a revolution in the cost of VR technology. The speed of inexpensive personal computers has increased dramatically, especially with the introduction of the Pentium processor and the PCI bus for IBM-compatibles, and the cost of high-quality virtual reality peripherals has plummeted. The result is that many public schools, colleges, and universities can afford a PC-based workstation capable of running immersive virtual reality applications. My goal this summer was to assemble and evaluate such a system.

  1. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  2. Object-oriented design for imaging-task workstations in international development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Okazaki, Nobuo; Parra, Miguel V.; Toshimitsu, Akihiro; Dallas, William J.; Shinoda, Hidenori; Evanoff, Michael G.; Ovitt, Theron W.

    1997-05-01

    At the University of Arizona, software development for image viewing tasks use object-oriented techniques for scalability, portability, cost and the ability to adapt rapidly to changing technology. Object orientation facilitates object-based decomposition, rapid development, code reuse and portability. These techniques were used developing software for a diagnostic system for the Pulmonary Section of Toshiba General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Object-oriented analysis and design were based on the Grady Booch method. Implemented used visual C++. Software components are implemented as cooperating objects. The resulting Toshiba-Arizona Viewing Station (TAVS) software system was installed in Tokyo in July 1996 for clinical evaluation. The host system provides 1760 X 2140, grey scale resolution. HIS/RIS integration allows HIS/RIS workstations to control the TAVS. TAVS code has been demonstrated on systems ranging from 'palm-top' computers to high-performance desktop systems. TAVS software objects were then modified and a TAVS system was installed in the University Medical Center, Tucson, Arizona supporting diagnostic image viewing tasks in the Emergency Department. This approach has demonstrated support for rapid development and adaptability to diverse end-user requirements and produced software which can operate across platforms.

  3. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beam lines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical change with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP, and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are imbedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed these application programs for a fourth time. This time, however, the programs we are developing are generic so that we will not have to do it again. We have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  4. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model-based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beamlines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical changes with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are embedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Genetic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  5. The hazard of software updates to clinical workstations: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam B; Takhar, Sukhjit S; Wang, Samuel L; Cardoso, Anabela; Kosowsky, Joshua M; Raja, Ali S; Khorasani, Ramin; Poon, Eric G

    2013-06-01

    Emergency department (ED) electronic tracking boards provide a snapshot view of patient status and a quick link to other clinical applications, such as a web-based image viewer client to view current and previous radiology images from the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). We describe a case where an update to Microsoft Internet Explorer severed the link between the ED tracking board and web-based image viewer. The loss of this link resulted in decreased web-based image viewer access rates for ED patients during the 10 days of the incident (2.8 views/study) compared with image review rates for a similar 10-day period preceding this event (3.8 views/study, p<0.001). Single-click user interfaces that transfer user and patient contexts are efficient mechanisms to link disparate clinical systems. Maintaining hazard analyses and rigorously testing all software updates to clinical workstations, including seemingly minor web-browser updates, are important to minimize the risk of unintended consequences.

  6. Comparative study of upper limb load assessment and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive task workstations.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Bugajska, Joanna; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

  7. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Flexible System for Automated 3D Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Gallert, C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-08-01

    The shift from 2D cultures to 3D cultures enables improvement in cell culture research due to better mimicking of in vivo cell behavior and environmental conditions. Different cell lines and applications require altered 3D constructs. The automation of the manufacturing and screening processes can advance the charge stability, quality, repeatability, and precision. In this study we integrated the automated production of three 3D cell constructs (alginate beads, spheroid cultures, pellet cultures) using the Biomek Cell Workstation and compared them with the traditional manual methods and their consequent bioscreening processes (proliferation, toxicity; days 14 and 35) using a high-throughput screening system. Moreover, the possible influence of antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) on the production and screening processes was investigated. The cytotoxicity of automatically produced 3D cell cultures (with and without antibiotics) was mainly decreased. The proliferation showed mainly similar or increased results for the automatically produced 3D constructs. We concluded that the traditional manual methods can be replaced by the automated processes. Furthermore, the formation, cultivation, and screenings can be performed without antibiotics to prevent possible effects.

  8. Color postprocessing for 3-dimensional finite element mesh quality evaluation and evolving graphical workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panthaki, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Three general tasks on general-purpose, interactive color graphics postprocessing for three-dimensional computational mechanics were accomplished. First, the existing program (POSTPRO3D) is ported to a high-resolution device. In the course of this transfer, numerous enhancements are implemented in the program. The performance of the hardware was evaluated from the point of view of engineering postprocessing, and the characteristics of future hardware were discussed. Second, interactive graphical tools implemented to facilitate qualitative mesh evaluation from a single analysis. The literature was surveyed and a bibliography compiled. Qualitative mesh sensors were examined, and the use of two-dimensional plots of unaveraged responses on the surface of three-dimensional continua was emphasized in an interactive color raster graphics environment. Finally, a postprocessing environment was designed for state-of-the-art workstation technology. Modularity, personalization of the environment, integration of the engineering design processes, and the development and use of high-level graphics tools are some of the features of the intended environment.

  9. Long-Term file activity patterns in a UNIX workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Timothy J.; Miller, Ethan L.

    1998-01-01

    As mass storage technology becomes more affordable for sites smaller than supercomputer centers, understanding their file access patterns becomes crucial for developing systems to store rarely used data on tertiary storage devices such as tapes and optical disks. This paper presents a new way to collect and analyze file system statistics for UNIX-based file systems. The collection system runs in user-space and requires no modification of the operating system kernel. The statistics package provides details about file system operations at the file level: creations, deletions, modifications, etc. The paper analyzes four months of file system activity on a university file system. The results confirm previously published results gathered from supercomputer file systems, but differ in several important areas. Files in this study were considerably smaller than those at supercomputer centers, and they were accessed less frequently. Additionally, the long-term creation rate on workstation file systems is sufficiently low so that all data more than a day old could be cheaply saved on a mass storage device, allowing the integration of time travel into every file system.

  10. A virtual instrument ergonomics workstation for measuring the mental workload of performing video-endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, W D; Chung, Y H; Berguer, R

    2000-01-01

    The visual and physical interface imposed on the surgeon by video-endoscopic surgery (VES) increases the surgeon's mental workload. Ergonomic studies are needed to develop ways to reduce this workload. We used virtual instrumentation to devise a portable ergonomic workstation to compare the surgeon's mental workloads during simulated open surgery and VES. The system measures palmar tonic skin conductance level (SCL) and electrooculogram (EOG) and frontalis electrical activity to monitor mental stress and concentration levels. We used the system at a national surgery conference on volunteer subjects during a rest period and as they performed simulated surgery, consisting of typing knots using open and VES techniques. The subjects were asked to self-rate their levels of mental concentration and stress during these activities and reported that both progressively increased from rest to the open surgery task to the VES task. The subjects tied fewer knots during the VES than the open task, consistent with the increased demands of the VES task. The SCL progressively increased from rest to the open task to the VES task, correlating with the subjects' reported increase in mental stress level. Eye blinks and low frequency EOG activity decreased from rest to the open task, consistent with the subjects' reported increase in mental concentration level. From the open to the VES task, eye blinks and EOG activity increased, as expected given the greater demands of the VES task. High frequency frontalis activity merits further study as another indicator of the subjects' levels of mental concentration and stress.

  11. Interactive query workstation: a demonstration of the practical use of UMLS knowledge sources.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, C.; Barnett, G. O.; Blewett, D. R.; Hassan, L. J.; Grundmeier, R.; Merz, R.; Kahn, J. A.; Gnassi, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive Query Workstation (IQW) has been developed to provide clinicians with a uniform program interface for retrieving medical-related information from various computer-based information resources. These resources can vary in content (bibliographic databases, drug information, general medical text databases), function (article retrieval, differential diagnosis, drug interaction detection, or drug dosage and administration information), and media formats (local hard disk, CD-ROM, local area network, or distant telecommunication link). IQW allows modular addition of new resources as well as extension of previously installed resources. The National Library of Medicine's three Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, the Metathesaurus (Meta), the Semantic Network, and the Information Sources Map (ISM) have been incorporated into many aspects of IQW. Meta provides information about medical terminology and aids IQW in isolating the basic concepts from a clinician's question. The Semantic Network provides information about the categorization of concepts and possible relations between concepts. It also assists IQW in determining which queries are appropriate for a set of concepts contained in the clinician's question. The ISM provides information about the content available from a computer-based resources and aids IQW in selecting an appropriate resource from which to collect information. The computer-based resource selection is performed without user intervention. This interactive demonstration shows an environment which increases the accessibility of medical information to clinicians by utilizing the three UMLS Knowledge Sources. PMID:1483001

  12. Bavarian mammography recertification program: experiences with a workstation prototype for softcopy reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesmeier, Jorg; Eichelberg, Marco; Kieschke, Joachim; Hellemann, Hans-Peter; Gruschka-Hellemann, Birgit; Sokiranski, Roman; Munte, Axel; Thoben, Wilfried; Jensch, Peter F.

    2003-05-01

    In January 2002, the Bavarian Statutory Health Care Administration ("Kassenarztliche Vereinigung Bayerns", KVB) started a recertification programme for quality assurance and quality improvement in mammography reading. All accredited radiologists and gynaecologists are asked to prove their qualification every 1-2 years. The recertification programme requires the physicians to read 50 cases randomly selected from a larger collection of high-quality test cases. The portion of malignant and benign cases corresponds to the requirements of the German National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians ("Kassenarztliche Bundesvereinigung", KBV). In order to read the mammograms on a softcopy device the images are digitised with a high-quality scanner and converted to DICOM Digital Mammography format. The workstation software has been implemented according to the particular requirements of this programme. To verify the applicability of digitised mammograms for recertification purposes, a comparative study with 32 trained radiologists and gynaecologists has been performed. As a result the study showed that there was no significant difference in the error rate of the reported findings between conventional film and softcopy reading. The first intermediate results of this quality initiative are promising. The introduction of a corresponding federal German recertification programme is intended.

  13. Expanding the application of the tablet processing workstation to support the sample preparation of oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Opio, Alex Manuel; Nickerson, Beverly; Xue, Gang; Warzeka, John; Norris, Ken

    2011-06-01

    Sample preparation is the most time-consuming part of the analytical method for powder for oral suspension (POS) assay, purity, and preservative analysis, as this involves multiple dilution and filtration steps. The Tablet Processing Workstation (TPW) was used to automate the sample preparation of a POS formulation. Although the TPW is typically used to automate the preparation of solid oral dosage forms and powders, it contains all of the necessary components to perform POS sample preparation. The TPW exhibited acceptable repeatability in testing 3 lots using 10 replicate preparations per lot. Acceptable linearity of the drug and preservative in the presence of excipients was demonstrated over the range corresponding to 50-150% of intent. Accuracy showed suitable recoveries for all points evaluated. TPW results were shown to correlate to results obtained with the manual method. The TPW method was used to prepare samples in support of manufacturing scale-up efforts. With the efficiencies gained using the TPW, it was possible to analyze a large number of samples generated during process development activities for the POS formulation with minimal human intervention. The extensive data enabled trending of the manufacturing development runs and helped to identify optimization strategies for the process.

  14. Optimizing 10-Gigabit Ethernet for Networks of Workstations, Clusters, and Grids: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents a case study of the 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) adapter from Intel(reg sign). Specifically, with appropriate optimizations to the configurations of the 10GbE adapter and TCP, we demonstrate that the 10GbE adapter can perform well in local-area, storage-area, system-area, and wide-area networks. For local-area, storage-area, and system-area networks in support of networks of workstations, network-attached storage, and clusters, respectively, we can achieve over 7-Gb/s end-to-end throughput and 12-{micro}s end-to-end latency between applications running on Linux-based PCs. For the wide-area network in support of grids, we broke the recently-set Internet2 Land Speed Record by 2.5 times by sustaining an end-to-end TCP/IP throughput of 2.38 Gb/s between Sunnyvale, California and Geneva, Switzerland (i.e., 10,037 kilometers) to move over a terabyte of data in less than an hour. Thus, the above results indicate that 10GbE may be a cost-effective solution across a multitude of computing environments.

  15. Integration of a computerized two-finger gripper for robot workstation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sneckenberger, John E.; Yoshikata, Kazuki

    1988-01-01

    A microprocessor-based controller has been developed that continuously monitors and adjusts the gripping force applied by a special two-finger gripper. This computerized force sensing gripper system enables the endeffector gripping action to be independently detected and corrected. The gripping force applied to a manipulated object is real-time monitored for problem situations, situations which can occur during both planned and errant robot arm manipulation. When unspecified force conditions occur at the gripper, the gripping force controller initiates specific reactions to cause dynamic corrections to the continuously variable gripping action. The force controller for this intelligent gripper has been interfaced to the controller of an industrial robot. The gripper and robot controllers communicate to accomplish the successful completion of normal gripper operations as well as unexpected hazardous situations. An example of an unexpected gripping condition would be the sudden deformation of the object being manipulated by the robot. The capabilities of the interfaced gripper-robot system to apply workstation safety measures (e.g., stop the robot) when these unexpected gripping effects occur have been assessed.

  16. CIWS-FW: A Customizable Instrument Workstation Software Framework for Instrument-independent Data Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, V.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Zoli, A.; Dadina, M.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; CIWS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    The CIWS-FW is aimed at providing a common and standard solution for the storage, processing and quick look at the data acquired from scientific instruments for astrophysics. The target system is the instrument workstation either in the context of the Electrical Ground Support Equipment for space-borne experiments, or in the context of the data acquisition system for instrumentation. The CIWS-FW core includes software developed by team members for previous experiments and provides new components and tools that improve the software reusability, configurability and extensibility attributes. The CIWS-FW mainly consists of two packages: the data processing system and the data access system. Both make use of a data definition language to model the data. The former provides the software components and libraries to support the data acquisition, transformation, display and storage in near real time of either a data packet stream and/or a sequence of data files generated by the instrument. The latter is a meta-data and data management system, providing a reusable solution for the archiving and retrieval of the acquired data. A built-in operator GUI allows to control and configure the IW. In addition, the framework provides mechanisms for system error and logging handling. A web portal provides the access to the CIWS-FW documentation, software repository and bug tracking tools for CIWS-FW developers. We will describe the CIWS-FW architecture and summarize the project status.

  17. Construction of the diagnostic encyclopedia workstation. Computerizing pathology for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; van Ginneken, A M; Baak, J P; Smeulders, A W

    1989-12-01

    The combination of a personal computer and a laser-vision disc player is an adroit tool for storing and retrieving textual information in combination with pictorial information. This paper describes such a system (a "diagnostic encyclopedia workstation"), which provides information to the pathologist engaged in daily diagnostic practice. The system contains a considerable amount of descriptive textual information that might be useful in making diagnoses in histopathology, along with many illustrations; the text is presented in a natural language (English). The descriptive information is divided into 18 categories, including such topics as histology, macroscopy, immunopathology and clinical data; each topic has a separate display in the system. Also present are two types of "decision rules" for making diagnoses (confirmative criteria for a diagnosis under consideration and exclusive criteria for many other diagnoses) and a classifying structure. The present version of this system contains information on about 100 diagnoses in ovarian pathology, illustrated with about 3,000 color slides from about 140 cases. The information and pictures are immediately available. Further characteristics of this system are its flexibility, accessibility and user friendliness; it has been structured so that components of artificial intelligence may be added later.

  18. Diagnosis of major cancer resection specimens with virtual slides: impact of a novel digital pathology workstation.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Ruddle, Roy A; Thomas, Rhys G; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Treanor, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Digital pathology promises a number of benefits in efficiency in surgical pathology, yet the longer time required to review a virtual slide than a glass slide currently represents a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. We aimed to create a novel workstation that enables pathologists to view a case as quickly as on the conventional microscope. The Leeds Virtual Microscope (LVM) was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design. Twelve consultant pathologists took part, each viewing one long cancer case (12-25 slides) on the LVM and one on a conventional microscope. Total time taken and diagnostic confidence were similar for the microscope and LVM, as was the mean slide viewing time. On the LVM, participants spent a significantly greater proportion of the total task time viewing slides and revisited slides more often. The unique design of the LVM, enabling real-time rendering of virtual slides while providing users with a quick and intuitive way to navigate within and between slides, makes use of digital pathology in routine practice a realistic possibility. With further practice with the system, diagnostic efficiency on the LVM is likely to increase yet more.

  19. Using Sit-Stand Workstations to Decrease Sedentary Time in Office Workers: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Nirjhar; Koepp, Gabriel A.; Stovitz, Steven D.; Levine, James A.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time) sedentary office workers took part in a 4 week intervention period which included the use of SSDs to gradually replace 50% of sitting time with standing during the workday. Physical activity was the primary outcome. Mood, energy level, fatigue, appetite, dietary intake, and productivity were explored as secondary outcomes. Results: The intervention reduced sitting time at work by 21% (95% CI 18%–25%) and sedentary time by 4.8 min/work-hr (95% CI 4.1–5.4 min/work-hr). For a 40 h work-week, this translates into replacement of 8 h of sitting time with standing and sedentary time being reduced by 3.2 h. Activity level during non-work hours did not change. The intervention also increased overall sense of well-being, energy, decreased fatigue, had no impact on productivity, and reduced appetite and dietary intake. The workstations were popular with the participants. Conclusion: The SSD intervention was successful in increasing work-time activity level, without changing activity level during non-work hours. PMID:24968210

  20. A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

  1. A real-time monitoring/emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with SODAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-05-10

    Many workstation based emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional-diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability project.

  2. FT3D: three-dimensional Fourier analysis on small Unix workstations for electron microscopy and tomographic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanzavecchia, S; Bellon, P L; Tosoni, L

    1993-12-01

    FT3D is a self-contained package of tools for three-dimensional Fourier analysis, written in the C language for Unix workstations. It can evaluate direct transforms of three-dimensional real functions, inverse transforms, auto- and cross-correlations and spectra. The library has been developed to support three-dimensional reconstructions of biological structures from projections obtained in the electron microscope. This paper discusses some features of the library, which has been implemented in such a way as to profit from the resources of modern workstations. A table of elapsed times for jobs of different dimensions with different RAM buffers is reported for the particular hardware used in the authors' laboratory.

  3. Compiling and editing agricultural strata boundaries with remotely sensed imagery and map attribute data using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1991-01-01

    The USDA presently uses labor-intensive photographic interpretation procedures to delineate large geographical areas into manageable size sampling units for the estimation of domestic crop and livestock production. Computer software to automate the boundary delineation procedure, called the computer-assisted stratification and sampling (CASS) system, was developed using a Hewlett Packard color-graphics workstation. The CASS procedures display Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite digital imagery on a graphics display workstation as the backdrop for the onscreen delineation of sampling units. USGS Digital Line Graph (DLG) data for roads and waterways are displayed over the TM imagery to aid in identifying potential sample unit boundaries. Initial analysis conducted with three Missouri counties indicated that CASS was six times faster than the manual techniques in delineating sampling units.

  4. Simplifying the construction of domain-specific automatic programming systems: The NASA automated software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.; Holtzman, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Automated Software Development Workstation Project, an effort to explore knowledge-based approaches to increasing software productivity. The project focuses on applying the concept of domain specific automatic programming systems (D-SAPSs) to application domains at NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center. A version of a D-SAPS developed in Phase 1 of the project for the domain of space station momentum management is described. How problems encountered during its implementation led researchers to concentrate on simplifying the process of building and extending such systems is discussed. Researchers propose to do this by attacking three observed bottlenecks in the D-SAPS development process through the increased automation of the acquisition of programming knowledge and the use of an object oriented development methodology at all stages of the program design. How these ideas are being implemented in the Bauhaus, a prototype workstation for D-SAPS development is discussed.

  5. Simplifying the construction of domain-specific automatic programming systems: The NASA automated software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.; Holtzman, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Automated Software Development Workstation Project, an effort to explore knowledge-based approaches to increasing software productivity. The project focuses on applying the concept of domain specific automatic programming systems (D-SAPSs) to application domains at NASA's Johnson Space Center. A version of a D-SAPS developed in Phase 1 of the project for the domain of space station momentum management is described. How problems encountered during its implementation led researchers to concentrate on simplifying the process of building and extending such systems is discussed. Researchers propose to do this by attacking three observed bottlenecks in the D-SAPS development process through the increased automation of the acquisition of programming knowledge and the use of an object oriented development methodology at all stages of the program design. How these ideas are being implemented in the Bauhaus, a prototype workstation for D-SAPS development is discussed.

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  7. Preliminary Development of a Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgical Procedures: Introducing a Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution System

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Chad R.; Murphy, Ryan J.; Coon, Devin; Basafa, Ehsan; Otake, Yoshito; Al Rakan, Mohammed; Rada, Erin; Susarla, Sriniras; Swanson, Edward; Fishman, Elliot; Santiago, Gabriel; Brandacher, Gerald; Liacouras, Peter; Grant, Gerald; Armand, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial transplantation represents one of the most complicated scenarios in craniofacial surgery because of skeletal, aesthetic, and dental discrepancies between donor and recipient. However, standard off-the-shelf vendor computer-assisted surgery systems may not provide custom features to mitigate the increased complexity of this particular procedure. We propose to develop a computer-assisted surgery solution customized for preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation including cutting guides, and dynamic, instantaneous feedback of cephalometric measurements/angles as needed for facial transplantation. Methods We developed the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution (CAPE) workstation to assist with planning and execution of facial transplantation. Preoperative maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained on 4 size-mismatched miniature swine encompassing 2 live face-jaw-teeth transplants. The system was tested in a laboratory setting using plastic models of mismatched swine, after which the system was used in 2 live swine transplants. Postoperative CT imaging was obtained and compared with the preoperative plan and intraoperative measures from the CAPE workstation for both transplants. Results Plastic model tests familiarized the team with the CAPE workstation and identified several defects in the workflow. Live swine surgeries demonstrated utility of the CAPE system in the operating room, showing submillimeter registration error of 0.6 ± 0.24 mm and promising qualitative comparisons between intraoperative data and postoperative CT imaging. Conclusions The initial development of the CAPE workstation demonstrated integration of computer planning and intraoperative navigation for facial transplantation are possible with submillimeter accuracy. This approach can potentially improve preoperative planning, allowing ideal donor-recipient matching despite significant size mismatch, and accurate surgical execution. PMID:24406592

  8. Instrument workstation for the EGSE of the Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Franceschi, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Zoli, A.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Corcione, L.; Debei, S.; De Rosa, A.; Dusini, S.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Ligori, S.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Morgante, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sortino, F.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The NISP instrument on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at different levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. The NISP Instrument Workstation (NI-IWS) will be part of the EGSE configuration that will support the NISP AIV/AIT activities from the NISP Warm Electronics level up to the launch of Euclid. One workstation is required for the NISP EQM/AVM, and a second one for the NISP FM. Each workstation will follow the respective NISP model after delivery to ESA for Payload and Satellite AIV/AIT and launch. At these levels the NI-IWS shall be configured as part of the Payload EGSE, the System EGSE, and the Launch EGSE, respectively. After launch, the NI-IWS will be also re-used in the Euclid Ground Segment in order to support the Commissioning and Performance Verification (CPV) phase, and for troubleshooting purposes during the operational phase. The NI-IWS is mainly aimed at the local storage in a suitable format of the NISP instrument data and metadata, at local retrieval, processing and display of the stored data for on-line instrument assessment, and at the remote retrieval of the stored data for off-line analysis on other computers. We describe the design of the IWS software that will create a suitable interface to the external systems in each of the various configurations envisaged at the different levels, and provide the capabilities required to monitor and verify the instrument functionalities and performance throughout all phases of the NISP lifetime.

  9. A VLSI chip set for a multiprocessor workstation; Part II: A memory management unit and cache controller

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, D.K.; Wood, D.A.; Gibson, G.A.; Eggers, S.J.; Hodges, D.A.; Katz, R.H.; Patterson, D.A. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper describes a memory management unit and a cache controller (MMU/CC) for a shared memory multiprocessor. The MMU/CC implements a novel memory management scheme, called in-cache address translation, that does not require a translation lookaside buffer (TLB). It also implements a snooping but protocol to maintain data consistency across all caches in the system. Both chips are implemented in a 1.6-{mu}m double-layer-metal CMOS technology, and are being used in a multiprocessor workstation (SPUR) successfully executing a UNIX-like network-based operating system called Sprite as well as many applications including LISP programs.

  10. Computer animation of NASTRAN displacements on IRIS 4D-series workstations: CANDI/ANIMATE postprocessing of NASHUA results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Janine L.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of the postprocessing program CANDI (Color Animation of Nastran DIsplacements) were expanded to accept results from axisymmetric analysis. An auxiliary program, ANIMATE, was developed to allow color display of CANDI output on the IRIS 4D-series workstations. The user can interactively manipulate the graphics display by three-dimensional rotations, translations, and scaling through the use of the keyboard and/or dials box. The user can also specify what portion of the model is displayed. These developments are limited to the display of complex displacements calculated with the NASHUA/NASTRAN procedure for structural acoustics analysis.

  11. The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle.

  12. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  13. OFF-SITE SMARTPHONE VS. STANDARD WORKSTATION IN THE RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF SMALL INTESTINAL MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS AND CATS.

    PubMed

    Noel, Peter G; Fischetti, Anthony J; Moore, George E; Le Roux, Alexandre B

    2016-09-01

    Off-site consultations by board-certified veterinary radiologists benefit residents and emergency clinicians by providing immediate feedback and potentially improving patient outcome. Smartphone devices and compressed images transmitted by email or text greatly facilitate availability of these off-site consultations. Criticism of a smartphone interface for off-site consultation is mostly directed at image degradation relative to the standard radiographic viewing room and monitors. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study was to compare the accuracy of abdominal radiographs in two imaging interfaces (Joint Photographic Experts Group, off-site, smartphone vs. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, on-site, standard workstation) for the diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs and cats. Two board-certified radiologists graded randomized abdominal radiographs using a five-point Likert scale for the presence of mechanical obstruction in 100 dogs or cats presenting for vomiting. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for both imaging interfaces was high. The accuracy of the smartphone and traditional workstation was not statistically significantly different for either reviewer (P = 0.384 and P = 0.536). Correlation coefficients were 0.821 and 0.705 for each reviewer when the same radiographic study was viewed in different formats. Accuracy differences between radiologists were potentially related to years of experience. We conclude that off-site expert consultation with a smartphone provides an acceptable interface for accurate diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in dogs and cat. PMID:27356300

  14. Office ergonomics training and a sit-stand workstation: effects on musculoskeletal and visual symptoms and performance of office workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Ciriello, Vincent M; Garabet, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) among office workers with intensive computer use is widespread and the prevalence of symptoms is growing. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an office ergonomics training combined with a sit-stand workstation on musculoskeletal and visual discomfort, behaviors and performance. Participants performed a lab-based customer service job for 8 h per day, over 15 days and were assigned to: Ergonomics Trained (n = 11) or Minimally Trained (n = 11). The training consisted of: a 1.5-h interactive instruction, a sit/stand practice period, and ergonomic reminders. Ergonomics Trained participants experienced minimal musculoskeletal and visual discomfort across the 15 days, varied their postures, with significantly higher performance compared to the Minimally Trained group who had a significantly higher number of symptoms, suggesting that training plays a critical role. The ability to mitigate symptoms, change behaviors and enhance performance through training combined with a sit-stand workstation has implications for preventing discomforts in office workers.

  15. Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: A cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations

    PubMed Central

    Klussmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjuergen; Liebers, Falk; Rieger, Monika A

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremities and neck at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1,065 employees working at VDT > 1 h/d completed a standardised questionnaire. Workstation conditions were documented in a standardised checklist, and a subgroup of 82 employees underwent a physical examination. Results Using the Nordic Questionnaire, the 12-month prevalence of symptoms of the neck, shoulder region, hand/wrist, or elbow/lower arm was 55%, 38%, 21%, and 15% respectively. The duration of VDT work had a significant impact on the frequency of neck symptoms in employees performing such work > 6 h/d. Conclusion With regard to musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities, preventive measures at VDT workstations should be focused on neck and shoulder symptoms (e.g. ergonomic measures, breaks to avoid sitting over long periods). PMID:18588677

  16. A NASTRAN/TREETOPS solution to a flexible, multi-body dynamics and controls problem on a UNIX workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavente, Javier E.; Luce, Norris R.

    1989-01-01

    Demands for nonlinear time history simulations of large, flexible multibody dynamic systems has created a need for efficient interfaces between finite-element modeling programs and time-history simulations. One such interface, TREEFLX, an interface between NASTRAN and TREETOPS, a nonlinear dynamics and controls time history simulation for multibody structures, is presented and demonstrated via example using the proposed Space Station Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). The ability to run all three programs (NASTRAN, TREEFLX and TREETOPS), in addition to other programs used for controller design and model reduction (such as DMATLAB and TREESEL, both described), under a UNIX Workstation environment demonstrates the flexibility engineers now have in designing, developing and testing control systems for dynamically complex systems.

  17. Development of flight experiment work performance and workstation interface requirements, part 1. Technical report and appendices A through G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatterick, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A skill requirement definition method was applied to the problem of determining, at an early stage in system/mission definition, the skills required of on-orbit crew personnel whose activities will be related to the conduct or support of earth-orbital research. The experiment data base was selected from proposed experiments in NASA's earth orbital research and application investigation program as related to space shuttle missions, specifically those being considered for Sortie Lab. Concepts for two integrated workstation consoles for Sortie Lab experiment operations were developed, one each for earth observations and materials sciences payloads, utilizing a common supporting subsystems core console. A comprehensive data base of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, task-skills and occupational skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments is presented. All data has been coded alphanumerically to permit efficient, low cost exercise and application of the data through automatic data processing in the future.

  18. The integration of electromyography (SEMG) at the workstation: assessment, treatment, and prevention of repetitive strain injury (RSI).

    PubMed

    Peper, Erik; Wilson, Vietta S; Gibney, Katherine H; Huber, Kate; Harvey, Richard; Shumay, Dianne M

    2003-06-01

    This paper reviews the ergonomic and psychosocial factors that affect musculoskeletal disorders at the workstation. First is a model of a physiological assessment protocol that incorporated SEMG monitoring while working at the computer. Next is a study that showed that participants lack awareness of their muscle tension as compared to the actual SEMG levels. The final study illustrated how an intervention program can reduce RSI symptoms, decrease respiration rate, and lower SEMG activity. Recommendations include suggestions that successful safety and prevention programs need multiple components and that participants should to be trained to control physiological responses with respiration and SEMG biofeedback. All participants should master these physiological skills just as they learn how to use the computer.

  19. Manual for a workstation-based generic flight simulation program (LaRCsim), version 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    LaRCsim is a set of ANSI C routines that implement a full set of equations of motion for a rigid-body aircraft in atmospheric and low-earth orbital flight, suitable for pilot-in-the-loop simulations on a workstation-class computer. All six rigid-body degrees of freedom are modeled. The modules provided include calculations of the typical aircraft rigid-body simulation variables, earth geodesy, gravity and atmospheric models, and support several data recording options. Features/limitations of the current version include English units of measure, a 1962 atmosphere model in cubic spline function lookup form, ranging from sea level to 75,000 feet, rotating oblate spheroidal earth model, with aircraft C.G. coordinates in both geocentric and geodetic axes. Angular integrations are done using quaternion state variables Vehicle X-Z symmetry is assumed.

  20. A Systems Engineering Framework for Implementing a Security and Critical Patch Management Process in Diverse Environments (Academic Departments' Workstations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi

    Use of the Patch Vulnerability Management (PVM) process should be seriously considered for any networked computing system. The PVM process prevents the operating system (OS) and software applications from being attacked due to security vulnerabilities, which lead to system failures and critical data leakage. The purpose of this research is to create and design a Security and Critical Patch Management Process (SCPMP) framework based on Systems Engineering (SE) principles. This framework will assist Information Technology Department Staff (ITDS) to reduce IT operating time and costs and mitigate the risk of security and vulnerability attacks. Further, this study evaluates implementation of the SCPMP in the networked computing systems of an academic environment in order to: 1. Meet patch management requirements by applying SE principles. 2. Reduce the cost of IT operations and PVM cycles. 3. Improve the current PVM methodologies to prevent networked computing systems from becoming the targets of security vulnerability attacks. 4. Embed a Maintenance Optimization Tool (MOT) in the proposed framework. The MOT allows IT managers to make the most practicable choice of methods for deploying and installing released patches and vulnerability remediation. In recent years, there has been a variety of frameworks for security practices in every networked computing system to protect computer workstations from becoming compromised or vulnerable to security attacks, which can expose important information and critical data. I have developed a new mechanism for implementing PVM for maximizing security-vulnerability maintenance, protecting OS and software packages, and minimizing SCPMP cost. To increase computing system security in any diverse environment, particularly in academia, one must apply SCPMP. I propose an optimal maintenance policy that will allow ITDS to measure and estimate the variation of PVM cycles based on their department's requirements. My results demonstrate that