Science.gov

Sample records for la2cuo4 properties hints

  1. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  2. Hints to blood groupers, 1950.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Paul J; Greenwalt, Tibor J

    2006-03-01

    Sixty years ago, the premier blood grouping laboratory was that of Robert Race in London. Agglutination tests and blood grouping had provided breakthroughs in immunology, genetics, and the solution of clinical problems. The significance of immunohematology was recognized by the clinical hematology community as a potent force in the expanding field of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. The instructions by Race to his London workers entitled Hints to Blood Groupers provide a picture of the immunohematology laboratory even before automation and differed slightly from the American techniques that derived from Landsteiner. Before agglutination is replaced in the near future by the emergence of molecular methods, the detailed method of a superb laboratory is recorded.

  3. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  4. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  5. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  6. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for…

  7. Helpful hints to painless payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terhune, Terry; Carson, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    The helpful hints herein describe, from a system perspective, the functional flow of hardware and software. The flow will begin at the experiment development stage and continue through build-up, test, verification, delivery, launch and deintegration of the experiment. An effort will be made to identify those interfaces and transfer functions of processing that can be improved upon in the new world of 'Faster, Better, and Cheaper.' The documentation necessary to ensure configuration and processing requirements satisfaction will also be discussed. Hints and suggestions for improvements to enhance each phase of the flow will be derived from extensive experience and documented lessons learned. Charts will be utilized to define the functional flow and a list of 'lessons learned' will be addressed to show applicability. In conclusion, specific improvements for several areas of hardware processing, procedure development and quality assurance, that are generic to all Small Payloads, will be identified.

  8. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  9. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice.

  10. HINTS 2013 Conference Summaries of Presentations and Posters

    Cancer.gov

    Summaries of Presentations and Poster Abstracts for the HINTS 2013 Conference titled A Decade of HINTS: Quantifying the Health Information Revolution through Data Innovation and Collaboration and held on October 2-3, 2013 at the Natcher building on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD

  11. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  12. 113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. SOUTHERN GATEWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. CAMPANILE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. GOTHIC DESIGN FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. CENTRAL SOUTHERN TOWER, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; FROM THE SOUTH-WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. WEST WING, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FROM THE SOUTH WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot–Marie–Tooth subtype. PMID:28007994

  1. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  2. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  3. HINTS for differentiating peripheral from central causes of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jaynstein, Dayna

    2016-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are common and difficult complaints encountered by providers. The differential diagnosis is large and varies from benign to life-threatening disorders. The true challenge becomes differentiating benign peripheral vertigo from central vertigo. The HINTS examination can help differentiate peripheral from central causes of dizziness and vertigo.

  4. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  5. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  6. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  7. [Peripheral vertigo versus central vertigo. Application of the HINTS protocol].

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Ángel; Yáñez-González, Raquel; Sánchez-Blanco, Carmen; González-Sánchez, Enrique; Benito, José; Gómez, José Carlos; Santa Cruz-Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Uno de los dilemas mas importantes concernientes al vertigo en urgencias es su diagnostico diferencial. Existen signos de alarma de gran sensibilidad en la exploracion que pueden ponernos en la pista de encontrarnos ante un vertigo central. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de la aplicacion del protocolo HINTS en el diagnostico del accidente cerebrovascular que simula un vertigo periferico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo sobre pacientes ingresados con diagnostico de sindrome vestibular agudo en urgencias. Todos los pacientes fueron objeto de un seguimiento diario hasta la mejoria de sus sintomas con informacion del nistagmo, la maniobra de impulso oculocefalico y el test de skew. Se comparan los resultados del estudio de resonancia magnetica con la alteracion en alguno de esos tres signos a lo largo del ingreso del enfermo. Resultados. Se reunio a 91 pacientes, con una edad media de 55,8 años. Se objetivo un accidente cerebrovascular en ocho de ellos. De estos (edad media: 71 años), en siete existia una alteracion en alguno de los signos HINTS y en uno el estudio fue normal (sensibilidad: 0,88; especificidad: 0,96). Todos ellos tenian algun factor de riesgo vascular. Conclusiones. Una exploracion adecuada y dirigida ante un paciente que acude a urgencias con un sindrome vestibular agudo resulta de vital importancia para establecer el diagnostico diferencial entre la patologia periferica y la central, ya que algunos accidentes cerebrovasculares se pueden presentar bajo la apariencia de un vertigo agudo. Aplicar un protocolo como HINTS permite sospechar la patologia central con una gran sensibilidad y especificidad.

  8. Hints for a nonstandard Higgs boson from the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    We reconsider Higgs boson invisible decays into Dark Matter in the light of recent Higgs searches at the LHC. Present hints in the Compact Muon Solenoid and ATLAS data favor a nonstandard Higgs boson with approximately 50% invisible branching ratio, and mass around 143 GeV. This situation can be realized within the simplest thermal scalar singlet Dark Matter model, predicting a Dark Matter mass around 50 GeV and direct detection cross section just below present bound. The present runs of the Xenon100 and LHC experiments can test this possibility.

  9. Transfer of metacognitive skills and hint seeking in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate; Son, Lisa K; Terrace, Herbert S

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is knowledge that can be expressed as confidence judgments about what one knows (monitoring) and by strategies for learning what one does not know (control). Although there is a substantial literature on cognitive processes in animals, little is known about their metacognitive abilities. Here we show that rhesus macaques, trained previously to make retrospective confidence judgments about their performance on perceptual tasks, transferred that ability immediately to a new perceptual task and to a working memory task. We also show that monkeys can learn to request "hints" when they are given problems that they would otherwise have to solve by trial and error. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability to monitor and transfer their metacognitive ability both within and between different cognitive tasks, and to seek new knowledge on a need-to-know basis.

  10. Hints of quantum gravity from the horizon fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have tried to glean hints about quantum gravity from black hole thermodynamics. However, black hole thermodynamics suffers from the problem of universality—at leading order, several approaches with different microscopic degrees of freedom lead to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We attempt to bypass this issue by using a minimal statistical mechanical model for the horizon fluid based on the Damour-Navier-Stokes (DNS) equation. For stationary asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes in general relativity, we show explicitly that, at equilibrium, the entropy of the horizon fluid is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Further, we show that, for the bulk viscosity of the fluctuations of the horizon fluid to be identical to Damour, a confinement scale exists for these fluctuations, implying quantization of the horizon area. The implications and possible mechanisms from the fluid point of view are discussed.

  11. Hints for the aspiring public health nurse. 1923.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Sarah E

    2010-01-01

    The original article from which these excerpts were taken, "Some Hints to the Nurse Who Seeks to Become a Successful Partner in the Community Health Program," by Mary Margaret Muckley, was published the 1923 volume of the original Public Health Nursing journal. The paper listed practical pointers to nurses wanting to work in the area of public or community health nursing. The author's advice involved personal attributes, professional engagement, skills, effective organization, and community relations. Much of the original article contained sound advice for aspirants to nursing work in community settings, but some advice may be considered too idealistic even for this optimistic time period. While the particular references to organizations and agencies existing in Helena, Montana have been omitted, the nurse reading the paper in 1923 had a general guide to her key stakeholders. The excerpts from this paper may give contemporary readers an appreciation of the endurance of what Muckley terms the public health nurse's "Valuable Assets."

  12. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  13. Hint1 suppresses migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro by modulating girdin activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Song; Bao, Tian-Hao; Ke, Yang; Sun, De-Yun; Shi, Zhi-Tian; Tang, Hao-Ran; Wang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Its role in cancer cell migration has not been previously speculated. In the current study, we examined the expression of Hint1 in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further elucidated the effect of Hint1 expression on girdin expression and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 and on the migration of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of Hint1 and girdin in primary HCC tissues and metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was determined by RT-PCR assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors overexpressing Hint1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Hint1, girdin, Hint1 plus girdin, or the scrambled RNA. Migration and invasion of HCC cells were examined by wound and Transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. RT-PCR assays revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of Hint1 were markedly lower than those of primary HCC tissues and non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.01). By contrast, the mRNA transcript levels of girdin were significantly higher than non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of HINT1 resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA transcript levels of girdin in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). Wound assays and Transwell assays showed that Hint1 knockdown by siRNA significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. Hint1 knockdown also led to significantly increased phosphorylation of girdin and AKT in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05), which, however, was effectively aborted by girdin knockdown by siRNA (P < 0.05). Hint1 is downregulated in metastatic lymph nodes and is implicated in migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro by modulating girdin and AKT expression and phosphorylation. The Hint1-girdin-AKT signaling axis should be

  14. [HINT1--a novel tumor suppressor protein of the HIT superfamily].

    PubMed

    Ozga, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (Hint1) belongs to the first branch of the HIT superfamily. Hint1 catalyses the process of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in AMP-lysine, AMP-alanine, AMP-NH2. The physiological role of this enzyme is still unclear. There is accumulating evidence that HINT1 is a novel tumor suppressor protein, albeit the mechanism of action of HINT1 in respect to tumor suppression is not fully understood. Recent findings have shown that Hint1 inhibits the activity of the transcription factors AP1, MITF and USF2, as well as influences the transcription process of some genes of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Thereby, it seems that Hint1 exerts its major cellular function as gene transcription regulator, and thus, this function provides its potential role as a tumor suppressor protein. The clinical relevance of impairments in the Hint1 expression with the respect to specific human cancers is still a matter of extensive studies.

  15. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  16. Lithospheric Decoupling and Rotations: Hints from Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.; Kidane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plates move relative to the mantle because some torques are acting on them. The shear in the low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the base of the lithosphere is the expression of these torques. The decoupling is allowed by the low viscosity in the LVZ, which is likely few orders of magnitudes lower than previously estimated. The viscosity value in the LVZ controls the degree of coupling/decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Lateral variations in viscosity within the LVZ may explain the velocity gradient among tectonic plates as the one determining the Ethiopian Rift (ER) separating Africa from Somalia. While it remains not fully understood the mechanisms of the torques acting on the lithosphere (thermally driven mantle convection or the combination of mantle convection with astronomical forces such as the Earth's rotation and tidal drag), the stresses are transmitted across the different mechanical layers (e.g., the brittle upper crust, down to the viscous-plastic ductile lower crust and upper mantle). Differential basal shear traction at the base of the lithosphere beneath the two sides of the East African Rift System (EARS) is assumed to drive and sustain rifting. In our analysis, the differential torques acting on the lithospheric/crustal blocks drive kinematics and block rotations. Since, ER involves the whole lithosphere, we do not expect large amount of rotation. Rotation can be the result of the whole plate motion on the sphere moving along the tectonic equator, or the second order sub-rotation of a single plate. Further rotation may occur along oblique plate boundaries (e.g., left lateral transtensional setting at the ER). Small amount of vertical axis rotation of blocks in northern ER could be related to the presence of local, shallower decollement layers. Shallow brittle-ductile transition (BDT) zone and differential tilting of crustal blocks in the northern ER could hint a possibility of detachment surface between the flow in the lower

  17. Comparison of Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) Scores Using Three Different Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    HINT system consisting of laptop computer (left), optional speakers and hearing test device with TDH 39P supra-aural headphones (center) and monitor...Figure 1). 1 Figure 1. The HINT system consisting of laptop computer (left), optional speakers and hearing test device with TDH 39P supra...aural headphones (center) and monitor (right). Photo courtesy of Maico Diagnostics (Eden Prairie, Minnesota). Telephonics TDH -39P 10-ohm supra

  18. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  19. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  20. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  1. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  2. Hint of CPT Violation in Short-Baseline Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  3. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  4. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  5. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  6. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kelly D; Portnoy, David B; Kaufman, Annette R; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lo, Serena C; Backlund, Eric; Cantor, David; Hicks, Lloyd; Lin, Amy; Caporaso, Andrew; Davis, Terisa; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2016-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov . NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements.

  7. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  8. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  9. Exome sequencing reveals HINT1 mutations as a cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; De Jonghe, Peter; Robberecht, Wim; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Damme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogenous group of genetic disorders with length-dependent degeneration of motor axons. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in patients with dHMN remains challenging. We performed exome sequencing in a diagnostic setting in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dHMN. Potential disease-causing variants in genes associated with dHMN and other forms of inherited neuropathies/motor neuron diseases were validated using Sequenom. The coverage in the genes studied was >95% with an average coverage of >50 times. In none of the patients a mutations was found in genes previously reported to be associated with dHMN. However, in 2/12 patients a recessive mutation in histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1, recently discovered as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia) was identified. Our results demonstrate the diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with inherited neuropathies. The phenotypic spectrum of recessive mutations in HINT1 includes dHMN. HINT1 should be added to the list of genes to check for in dHMN. PMID:24105373

  10. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  11. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies.

  12. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined.

  13. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed.

  14. Hints of theta13>0 from global neutrino data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogli, G L; Lisi, E; Marrone, A; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M

    2008-10-03

    Nailing down the unknown neutrino mixing angle theta{13} is one of the most important goals in current lepton physics. In this context, we perform a global analysis of neutrino oscillation data, focusing on theta{13}, and including recent results [ (unpublished)]. We discuss two converging hints of theta{13}>0, each at the level of approximately 1sigma: an older one coming from atmospheric neutrino data, and a newer one coming from the combination of solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data. Their combination provides the global estimate sin{2}theta{13}=0.016+/-0.010(1sigma), implying a preference for theta{13}>0 with non-negligible statistical significance ( approximately 90% C.L.). We discuss possible refinements of the experimental data analyses, which might sharpen such intriguing indications.

  15. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  16. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  17. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI’s Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015

    PubMed Central

    BLAKE, KELLY D.; PORTNOY, DAVID B.; KAUFMAN, ANNETTE R.; LIN, CHUNG-TUNG JORDAN; LO, SERENA C.; BACKLUND, ERIC; CANTOR, DAVID; HICKS, LLOYD; LIN, AMY; CAPORASO, ANDREW; DAVIS, TERISA; MOSER, RICHARD P.; HESSE, BRADFORD W.

    2016-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov. NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements. PMID:27892827

  18. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  19. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20), incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality) in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001). Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:28173686

  20. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage.

  1. Precursory Hints of June 23-2001 Earthquake in Southern Peru Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, L.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23, 2001, a destructive 8.3 Mw, shallow depth, shallow-dip thrust-mechanism earthquake shook southern Peru. The hypocenter was located under the ocean floor, at the northern end of the southern Peru seismic gap. The gap is about 500 km long, located between 16\\deg-19\\deg S, parallel to Peru-Chile trench. It delineates the rupture zone of the 1868, 9.0-9.3 Mw, earthquake; the largest historically documented "terremoto" in this region. This gap and the northern Chile gap have been known for several decades and they belong to a normal-subduction segment delimited by the Nazca-Abancay (northern end) and Copiapo-Tucuman (southern end) contortions of the Wadati-Benioff subduction zone. The Peru-Chile trench and the Central Andean Active Volcanic Zone axis run nearly parallel to each other in this subduction segment. Regional seismicity (1999-2000) was the clearest indicator of the proximity of incoming event. It showed a striking deficiency of activity in the southern Peru gap region which has a good spatial correlation with a negative anomaly of the rate of change of the GPS vertical component in, approximately, the same region. Since it was not possible to issue a prediction on the incoming event, an hypothetical scenario was computed for a 9.3 Mw earthquake and reported to the Civil Defense Agency in order to implement preventive measures for disaster mitigation. The June 23-2001, 8.3 Mw , earthquake occurred in the northern extreme of the hypothetical rupture zone. However, about one half of the rupture zone is to go in the near future to cover the 1868-earthquake equivalent rupture zone. In summary, the following precursory hints could be identified before the June 23-2001 earthquake: Deficiency of regional seismic activity, negative tendency on the rate of change of the GPS vertical component, seismicity on the near surface fault system in the gap region.

  2. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae.

  3. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces.

    PubMed

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-02-27

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1(-/-) mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1(-/-) mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1(-/-) mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with "manic" Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1(-/-) mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1(-/-) mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder.

  4. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces

    PubMed Central

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1−/− mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1−/− mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1−/− mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1−/− mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with “manic” Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1−/− mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1−/− mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder. PMID:28240305

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2)

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å3 Da−1 and 53.27%, respectively. PMID:23832208

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2).

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å(3) Da(-1) and 53.27%, respectively.

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  8. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  13. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  14. Diphoton channel at the LHC experiments to find a hint for a new heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Kunio; Kang, Subeom; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-09-01

    Recently there has been a huge interest in the diphoton excess around 750 GeV reported by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations, although the newest analysis with more statistics does not seem to support the excess. Nevertheless, the diphoton channel at the LHC experiments are a powerful tool to probe a new physics. One of the most natural explanations of a diphoton excess, if it occurs, could be a new scalar boson with exotic colored particles. In this setup, it would be legitimate to ask what is the role of this new scalar in nature. A heavy neutral gauge boson (Z‧) is one of the traditional targets of the discovery at the collider experiments with numerous motivations. While the Landau-Yang theorem dictates the diphoton excess cannot be this spin-1 gauge boson, there is a strong correlation of a new heavy gauge boson and a new scalar boson which provides a mass to the gauge boson being at the same mass scale. In this paper, we point out a simple fact that a new scalar with a property similar to the recently highlighted 750 GeV would suggest an existence of a TeV scale Z‧ gauge boson that might be within the reach of the LHC Run 2 experiments. We take a scenario of the well-motivated and popular gauged B - L symmetry and require the gauge coupling unification to predict the mass and other properties of the Z‧ and illustrate the discovery of the Z‧ would occur during the LHC experiments.

  15. Histidine Triad Nucleotide-binding Protein 1 (HINT-1) Phosphoramidase Transforms Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphorothioates to Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphates*

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside 5′-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5′-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5′-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5′-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released. PMID:20940308

  16. Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri

    PubMed Central

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Morant, Pierre-Emmanuel; Corellou, Florence; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intringuing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks. PMID:21085637

  17. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, C. O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-03-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s-1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King & Ritter. The decay time-scales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 h. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: (1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of `normal' X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; (2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; (3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an LX of 1034-1035 erg s-1 for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accretion flow in a propeller effect, permitting a small portion of the flow to accrete on to the neutron star's surface. We thus predict that (quasi-) persistent VFXBs may also be transitional millisecond pulsars, turning on as millisecond radio pulsars when their LX drops below 1032 erg s-1.

  18. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  19. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  20. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Cantoni, Claudia; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Alessandro; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta; Vitale, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue.

  1. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  2. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  3. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    While the types of cases reported in this year's chapter are essentially the same as those reported in last year's, the number of certain types of cases have changed--in some instances significantly. For example, the number of cases raising constitutional issues in the areas of school construction, location, and property use have declined. On the…

  10. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  11. Family history of gastric cancer correlates with decreased expression of HINT1 tumor suppressor gene in gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    ZUK, KAROLINA; PECZEK, LUKASZ; STEC-MICHALSKA, KRYSTYNA; MEDREK, MARTA; NAWROT, BARBARA

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Approximately 10% of gastric cancers are hereditary and a small percentage of these cases (1–3%) have been classified as a single hereditary syndrome (hereditary diffuse gastric cancer). We previously demonstrated that a family history of gastric cancer (FHGC) contributes to a predisposition towards the development of gastric cancer. Our data revealed that for dyspeptic patients whose first-degree relative(s) succumbed to GC, the levels of the fragile histidine triad pro-apoptotic protein in gastric mucosa were decreased. Another member of the histidine triad protein superfamily is histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), a novel tumor suppressor that plays an inhibitory role in the control of gene transcription. The study comprised 38 ethnically homogeneous patients with dyspeptic symptoms without concomitant chronic diseases (18 controls/20 patients with FHGC). The results showed that the samples from the control patients predominantly exhibited non-atrophic changes (approximately 90%), whereas atrophic changes occurred more frequently in patients with FHGC. Notably, the expression levels of the HINT1 gene were markedly higher in the samples with atrophy taken from the antrum of FHGC patients compared to the non-atrophic samples. Moreover, the levels of HINT1 mRNA in samples obtained from the antrum of patients with FHGC were lower compared to analogous samples from the control individuals. The decreased levels of HINT1 mRNA in the antrum samples of patients with the FHGC indicate that it is a factor predisposing those patients to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:22740884

  12. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  13. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-07

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers.

  14. Enhanced models for stellar Doppler noise reveal hints of a 13-year activity cycle of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of Doppler noise models on the statistical robustness of the exoplanetary radial velocity fits. We show that the traditional model of the Doppler noise with an additive jitter can generate large non-linearity effects, decreasing the reliability of the fit, especially in the cases when a correlated Doppler noise is involved. We introduce a regularization of the additive noise model that can gracefully eliminate its singularities together with the associated non-linearity effects. We apply this approach to Doppler time series data of several exoplanetary systems. It demonstrates that our new regularized noise model yields orbital fits that have either increased or at least the same statistical robustness, in comparison with the simple additive jitter. Various statistical uncertainties in the parametric estimations are often reduced, while planet detection significance is often increased. Concerning the 55 Cnc five-planet system, we show that its Doppler data contain significant correlated (`red') noise. Its correlation time-scale is in the range from days to months, and its magnitude is much larger than the effect of the planetary N-body perturbations in the radial velocity (these perturbations thus appear undetectable). Characteristics of the red noise depend on the spectrograph/observatory, and also show a cyclic time variation in phase with the public Ca II H&K and photometry measurements. We interpret this modulation as a hint of the long-term activity cycle of 55 Cnc, similar to the solar 11-yr cycle. We estimate the 55 Cnc activity period by 12.6± ^{2.5}_{1.0} yr, with the nearest minimum presumably expected in 2014 or 2015.

  15. Quantitative analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 protein over-expression in human prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Symes, Andrew J; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R; Patel, Hitendra R H; Patel, Hitenedra R H; Masters, John R W; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer.

  16. High-resolution X-ray structure of the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (rHINT1)-adenosine complex at 1.10 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine-triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the first complete structure of the rabbit HINT1-adenosine complex is reported at 1.10 Å resolution, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained for a HINT1 structure. The final structure has an R(cryst) of 14.25% (R(free) = 16.77%) and the model exhibits good stereochemical qualities. A detailed analysis of the atomic resolution data allowed an update of the details of the protein structure in comparison to previously published data.

  17. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  18. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  19. Computational chemistry study of 3D-structure-function relationships for enzymes based on Markov models for protein electrostatic, HINT, and van der Waals potentials.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Podda, Gianni; Uriarte, Eugenio; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2009-07-15

    In a significant work, Dobson and Doig (J Mol Biol 2003, 330, 771) illustrated protein prediction as enzymatic or not from spatial structure without resorting to alignments. They used 52 protein features and a nonlinear support vector machine model to classify more than 1000 proteins collected from the PDB with a 77% overall accuracy. The most useful features were: the secondary-structure content, the amino acid frequencies, the number of disulphide bonds, and the largest cleft size. Working on the same dataset used by D&D, in this article we reported a good and simple model, based on the Markov chain models (MCM), to classify protein 3D structures as enzymatic or not, taking into consideration the spatial structure without resorting to alignments. Here we define, for the first time, a general MCM to calculate the electrostatic potential, molecular vibrations, van der Waals (vdw) interactions, and hydrophobic interactions (HINT) and use them in comparative studies of potential fields and/or protein function prediction. The dataset is composed of 1371 proteins divided into 689 enzymes and 682 nonenzymes, all proteins were collected from the PDB. The best model we found was a linear model carried out with the linear discriminant analysis; it was able to classify 74.18% of the proteins using only two electrostatic potentials. In the work described here, we define 3D-HINT potentials (mu(k)) and use them for the first time to derive a classifier for protein enzymes. We analyzed ROC curves, domain of applicability, parametric assumptions, desirability maps, and also tested other nonlinear artificial neural network models which did not improve the linear model. In closing, this MCM allows a fast calculation and comparison of different potentials deriving into accurate protein 3D structure-function relationships, notably simpler than the previous.

  20. Recent insights on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based compounds: hints for the successful drug design.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, M Z; de S Pontes, F J; Coelho, L C D; Moreira, D R M; Pereira, V R A; Leite, A C L

    2010-01-01

    Although more complex than usually described, the anticancer action mechanism of cisplatin is based on binding to DNA. Following this line of reasoning, most the metal-based compounds discovered soon after cisplatin were designed to acting as DNA-binding agents and their pharmacological properties were thought to be correlated with this mechanism. Apart from the DNA structure, a significant number of proteins and biochemical pathways have been described as drug targets for metal-based compounds. This paper is therefore aimed at discussing the most recent findings on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based drugs. It starts illustrating the design concept behind the bioinorganic chemistry of anticancer complexes. Anticancer metallic compounds that inhibit the protein kinases are concisely discussed as a case study. The accuracy and limitations of molecular docking programs currently available to predict the binding mode of metallic complexes in molecular targets are further discussed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different in vitro screenings are briefly commented.

  1. Observations of Infalling and Rotational Motions on a 1000 AU Scale around 17 Class 0 and 0/I Protostars: Hints of Disk Growth and Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C18O (2-1) and 12CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C18O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ~600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C18O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ~1 to ~530 km s-1 pc-1. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M ⊙ to >1 M ⊙. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10-4 km s-1 pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk formation.

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF INFALLING AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS ON A 1000 AU SCALE AROUND 17 CLASS 0 AND 0/I PROTOSTARS: HINTS OF DISK GROWTH AND MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (2-1) and {sup 12}CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ∼600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C{sup 18}O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ∼1 to ∼530 km s{sup –1} pc{sup –1}. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M {sub ☉} to >1 M {sub ☉}. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10{sup –4} km s{sup –1} pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk

  3. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Prada, F.; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like

  4. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  5. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  6. The expression of the neonatal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA1b) hints to a role in muscle growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Erno; Vangheluwe, Peter; Wuytack, Frank

    2007-04-01

    The neonatal isoform of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA1b) is a Ca2+ pump with a well-known developmentally regulated transcript level but an undefined protein expression and function. Specific antibodies were generated to show that SERCA1b is exclusively expressed in myoblasts and myotubes of cultured and regenerating muscle. However, the SERCA1b protein was not detectable in normal adult fast and slow muscles. Studies of the in vitro differentiating myogenic cell lines C2C12 and sol8 showed that SERCA1b is the main SERCA1 protein isoform induced during differentiation and that it is found in the myotubes. Remarkably in BC3H1 cells, which show incomplete differentiation and are reluctant to form myotubes, express the SERCA1b mRNA but not the corresponding protein. SERCA1b protein was also absent from stretched or denervated adult soleus, in spite of the fact that its mRNA level was upregulated. SERCA1b accounts for nearly the total of SERCA1 expression in the diaphragm of newborn mice, which suggests that the insufficient function and development of the diaphragm in the SERCA1 null mutant mice may be due to the lack of SERCA1b. Our studies point to an important regulation of SERCA1b expression at the protein level and hints to a role in the growth of the developing muscle.

  7. Pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression following severe heat shock of heat-conditioned cells hints to intricate cell survival tactics.

    PubMed

    Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Florentin, Ida; Baki, Lia; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Alexis, Michael N

    2005-02-01

    We have previously reported that severe heat shock of HeLa cells stably transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, transcription of which is controlled by two glucocorticoid-responsive elements and a minimal promoter, pronouncedly enhanced glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression compared to that of non-heated cells, in spite of the glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated transcription of the gene being temporarily compromised by the shock. We now report that prolonged severe heat shock of properly heat-conditioned cells resulted in far more pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT mRNA and protein expressions, in spite of a similar heat-induced loss of receptor-mediated CAT gene transcription. During recovery from the shock the hormonal activation of transcription exceeded that of non-heated cells. While CAT mRNA translation was restored appreciably later than CAT gene transcription, mRNA and protein expressions were thermally enhanced to a comparable extent, consistent with the integrity of CAT mRNA being preserved during recovery. CAT mRNA turnover was fully impaired during early recovery, suggesting that stabilisation of CAT mRNA as well as stimulation of the hormonal activation of CAT gene transcription account for the thermal enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression. This data hint to cell survival tactics designed to safeguard high expression of genes of stress-enduring function.

  8. Turner syndrome and schizophrenia: a further hint for the role of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of sex chromosomes are associated with various forms of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Turner syndrome occurs approximately threefold more frequently in female schizophrenics compared to the general female population. A single case is reported. We report on a case of a 41-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. A polymorphism of the HOPA gene within Xq13 termed HOPA(12bp) is associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. Interestingly, Xq13 is the X-chromosome region that contains the X-inactivation center and a gene escaping X-inactivation whose gene product may be involved in the X-inactivation process as well as in the pathogenesis of sex chromosome anomalies such as Turner syndrome. These genes that escape X-inactivation may produce their gene products in excess, influencing normal brain growth and differentiation. Our case gives a further hint for an involvement of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  9. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  10. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  11. The National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]: a national cross-sectional analysis of talking to your doctor and other healthcare providers for health information

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need to understand preferred sources of health information remains important to providing patient-centered care. The Internet remains a popular resource for health information, but more traditional sources may still be valid for patients during a recent health need. This study sought to understand the characteristics of patients that turn to their doctor or healthcare provider first for a recent health or medical information need. Methods Using the national cross-sectional survey, Health Information National Trend Study [HINTS], characteristics of those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider for a recent health information need were compared to other sources. Weighted survey responses from Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 of the HINTS survey were used for multivariable logistic regression. Results A total 5,307 patient responses were analyzed. Overall, those who seek a doctor or healthcare provider first for a health need are female, 46–64 years, White non-Hispanic, educated, in good health and users of the Internet. Yet, adjusted logistic regressions showed that those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider first during a recent health information need compared to other sources were most likely to be 65+ years, in poor health, less educated and have health insurance. Conclusions Patients who seek their doctor or healthcare provider first for health information rather than other sources of information represent a unique population. Doctors or healthcare providers remain an important resource for these patients during recent needs, despite the wide use of the Internet as a source of health information. PMID:24906558

  12. The moon-Earth system...As a vacuum gravity energy machine? A Hint about the Nature of Universal Gravity that May Have Been Overlooked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2011-10-01

    We revisit the theories describing the moon raising the tides by virtue of pull gravity combined with the moon's centripetal angular momentum. We show that if gravity is considered as the attractive interaction between individual bodies, then a laboring moon doing work would have fallen to earth eons ago. Isaac Newton's laws of motion cannot work with pull gravity, but they do with Einstein's gravity as a property of the universe, which produces a continuous infusion of energy. In other words, the moon-Earth system becomes the first observable vacuum gravity energy machine. In other words the dynamics of what appears to be a closed system has been producing energy that continues raising the tides into perpetuity along with the force needed for the moon to escape the Earth's gravitational pull 4cm per year. All this is in defiance of Newton's first law which says ``If no force is added to a body it cannot accelerate.'' In this theory, a flowing space-time curves with three dimensions of force. A (flowing) spatial fabric bends around mass and displaces the inverse square field vanishing point property of matter with the appearance of a push-force square of the distance. In other words, the immeasurable universal gravity field appears as measurable local gravitation, concentrating universal gravitational pressure with the square of the distance from the very point was supposed to have disappeared. Needless to say such ``gravity'' necessitates a different beginning.

  13. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  14. OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-20

    We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

  15. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  16. Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the…

  17. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  18. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  19. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  20. Environmental Psychology: Hints of a New Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal W.

    1980-01-01

    The author briefly reports some significant findings concerning the impact of the environment on human perception, behavior, and performance, touching particularly on color, seating arrangement and crowding, and music and noise. Implications for schools are discussed. (PGD)

  1. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  2. Writing for Profit: A Catalog of Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Offers tips to business communication teachers on how to write for money. Tips include: (1) Begin by writing for free, (2) use business contacts, (3) vary approaches to writing, and (4) write about personal experiences. (FL)

  3. First-principle study of geometric stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium adsorption on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullahi, Yusuf Zuntu; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Zainuddin, H.; Abubakar, Shamsu

    2014-03-05

    Stable geometries, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium (V) atoms adsorption on graphene sheet have been investigated by first principles calculations, using generalized gradient approximation. Calculation shows that center of the ring is energetically favorable for both V adatom and perpendicular dimer after relaxation. Moreover, the proportion of orbital contribution of C-V bonding are mainly dominated by 2p{sub z} orbital of C and partially occupied by the 3d like states of V. It is also found that the low coverage V atom adsorbed graphene system is metallic and magnetic, and has demonstrated additional hint on its usefulness in magnetic devices.

  4. Studies of top quark properties and search for electroweak single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Mousumi; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The top quark was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron during the Run I operation. Since the start of the Tevatron Run II in 2001, both experiments have collected {approx}2 fb{sup -1} data samples, which are over twenty times larger than that used in the Run 1 discovery. This larger data sample allows more precise studies of top-quark properties; differences between observed top-quark properties and the Standard Model (SM) prediction may give hints to possible physics beyond the SM. Here we present the latest results on the measurements of top-quark properties and the search for electroweak (EW) single top quark production from the CDF and D0 collaborations. The integrated luminosity used for the measurements corresponds to about 1 fb{sup -1}.

  5. The interplay of mutations and electronic properties in disease-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chi-Tin; Wells, Stephen A.; Hsu, Ching-Ling; Cheng, Yun-Yin; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2012-02-01

    Electronic properties of DNA are believed to play a crucial role in many phenomena in living organisms, for example the location of DNA lesions by base excision repair (BER) glycosylases and the regulation of tumor-suppressor genes such as p53 by detection of oxidative damage. However, the reproducible measurement and modelling of charge migration through DNA molecules at the nanometer scale remains a challenging and controversial subject even after more than a decade of intense efforts. Here we show, by analysing 162 disease-related genes from a variety of medical databases with a total of almost 20,000 observed pathogenic mutations, a significant difference in the electronic properties of the population of observed mutations compared to the set of all possible mutations. Our results have implications for the role of the electronic properties of DNA in cellular processes, and hint at the possibility of prediction, early diagnosis and detection of mutation hotspots.

  6. Properties of the nuclear medium.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Burgio, G F

    2012-02-01

    We review our knowledge on the properties of the nuclear medium that have been studied, over many years, on the basis of many-body theory, laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Throughout the presentation particular emphasis is placed on the possible relationship and links between the nuclear medium and the structure of nuclei, including the limitations of such an approach. First we consider the realm of phenomenological laboratory data and astrophysical observations and the hints they can give on the characteristics that the nuclear medium should possess. The analysis is based on phenomenological models, that however have a strong basis on physical intuition and an impressive success. More microscopic models are also considered, and it is shown that they are able to give invaluable information on the nuclear medium, in particular on its equation of state. The interplay between laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations is particularly stressed, and it is shown how their complementarity enormously enriches our insights into the structure of the nuclear medium. We then introduce the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the microscopic many-body theory of nuclear matter, with a critical discussion about the different approaches and their results. The Landau-Fermi liquid theory is introduced and briefly discussed, and it is shown how fruitful it can be in discussing the macroscopic and low-energy properties of the nuclear medium. As an illustrative example, we discuss neutron matter at very low density, and it is shown how it can be treated within the many-body theory. The general bulk properties of the nuclear medium are reviewed to indicate at which stage of our knowledge we stand, taking into account the most recent developments both in theory and experiments. A section is dedicated to the pairing problem. The connection with nuclear structure is then discussed, on the basis of the energy density functional method. The possibility of linking

  7. Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  8. Tuning optical properties of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Anne S.; Tavernaro, Isabella; Machka, Friederike; Dakischew, Olga; Lips, Katrin S.; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, two different synthetic methods in aqueous solution are presented to tune the optical properties of CdTe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles. Additionally, the influence of different temperatures, pressures, precursor ratios, surface ligands, bases, and core components in the synthesis was investigated with regard to the particle sizes and optical properties. As a result, a red shift of the emission and absorption maxima with increasing reaction temperature (100 to 220°C), pressure (1 to 25 bar), and different ratios of core components of alloyed semiconductor nanoparticles could be observed without a change of the particle size. An increase in particle size from 2.5 to 5 nm was only achieved by variation of the mercaptocarboxylic acid ligands in combination with the reaction time and used base. To get a first hint on the cytotoxic effects and cell uptake of the synthesized quantum dots, in vitro tests mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were carried out.

  9. Isozymes of plant hexokinase: occurrence, properties and functions.

    PubMed

    Claeyssen, Eric; Rivoal, Jean

    2007-03-01

    Hexokinase (HK) occurs in all phyla, as an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Its importance in plant metabolism has emerged with compelling evidence that its preferential substrate, glucose, is both a nutrient and a signal molecule that controls development and expression of different classes of genes. A variety of plant tissues and organs have been shown to express multiple HK isoforms with different kinetic properties and subcellular localizations. Although plant HK is known to fulfill a catalytic function and act as a glucose sensor, the physiological relevance of plural isoforms and their contribution to either function are still poorly understood. We review here the current knowledge and hypotheses on the physiological roles of plant HK isoforms that have been identified and characterized. Recent findings provide hints on how the expression patterns, biochemical properties and subcellular localizations of HK isoforms may relate to their modes of action. Special attention is devoted to kinetic, mutant and transgenic data on HKs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the Solanaceae potato, tobacco, and tomato, as well as HK gene expression data from Arabidopsis public DNA microarray resources. Similarities and differences to known properties of animal and yeast HKs are also discussed as they may help to gain further insight into the functional adaptations of plant HKs.

  10. Investigating observability properties from data in nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Luis A.; Letellier, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    Investigation of observability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems aims at giving a hint on how much dynamical information can be retrieved from a system using a certain measuring function. Such an investigation usually requires knowledge of the system equations. This paper addresses the challenging problem of investigating observability properties of a system only from recorded data. From previous studies it is known that phase spaces reconstructed from poor observables are characterized by local sharp pleatings, local strong squeezing of trajectories, and global inhomogeneity. A statistic is then proposed to quantify such properties of poor observability. Such a statistic was computed for a number of bench models for which observability studies had been previously performed. It was found that the statistic proposed in this paper, estimated exclusively from data, correlates generally well with observability results obtained using the system equations. It is possible to arrive at the same order of observability among the state variables using the proposed statistic even in the presence of noise with a standard deviation as high as 10% of the data. The paper includes the application of the proposed statistic to sunspot time series.

  11. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 and was the last of the quarks to be discovered. As the partner of the bottom quark the top quark is expected to have quantum numbers identical to that of the other known up-type quarks. Only the mass is a free parameter. We now know that it is more than 30 times heavier than the next heaviest quark, the bottom quark. Thus, within the Standard Model all production and decay properties are fully defined. Having the complete set of quarks further allows to verify constraints that the Standard Model puts on the sum of all quarks or particles. This alone is reason enough to experimentally study the top quark properties. The high value of the top quark mass and its closeness to the electroweak scale has inspired people to speculate that the top quark could have a special role in the electroweak symmetry breaking. Confirming the expected properties of the top quark experimentally establishes the top quark as we expect it to be. Any deviation from the expectations gives hints to new physics that may help to solve the outstanding questions. In this review the recent results on top quark properties obtained by the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 are summarized. At the advent of the LHC special emphasis is given to the basic measurement methods and the dominating systematic uncertainties. After a short introduction to the Standard Model and the experimental environment in the remainder of this chapter, Chapter 2 describes the current status of top quark mass measurements. Then measurments of interaction properties are described in Chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 4 deals with analyses that consider hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model in the observed events.

  12. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  13. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  14. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  15. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).

  16. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  17. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  18. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  19. Neutrino properties deduced from the study of lepton number violating processes at low and high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin

    2012-11-20

    There is nowadays a significant progress in understanding the neutrino properties. The results of the neutrino oscillation experiments have convincingly showed that neutrinos have mass and oscillate, in contradiction with the Standard Model (SM) assumptions, and these are the first evidences of beyond SM physics. However, fundamental properties of the neutrinos like their absolute mass, their character (are they Dirac or Majorana particles?), their mass hierarchy, the number of neutrino flavors, etc., still remain unknown. In this context there is an increased interest in the study of the lepton number violating (LNV) processes, since they could complete our understanding on the neutrino properties. Since recently, the neutrinoless double beta decay was considered the only process able to distinguish between Dirac or Majorana neutrinos and to give a hint on the absolute mass of the electron neutrino. At present, the increased luminosity of the LHC experiments makes feasible the search of LNV processes at high energy as well. In this lecture I will make a brief review on our present knowledge of the neutrino properties, on the present status of the double-beta decay studies and on the first attempts to search LNV processes at LHC.

  20. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Antiferromagnetic-Core/Ferrimagnetic-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.; Nogués, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are gaining increasing interest due to their foreseen applications. Inverse antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferrimagnetic(FiM) core/shell nanoparticles are particularly appealing since they may overcome some of the limitations of conventional FiM/AFM systems. However, virtually no simulations exist on this type of morphology. Here we present systematic Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of the exchange bias properties of such nanoparticles. The coercivity, HC, and loop shift, Hex, present a non-monotonic dependence with the core diameter and the shell thickness, in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate novel unconventional behavior in FiM/AFM particles. Namely, while HC and Hex decrease upon increasing FiM thickness for small AFM cores (as expected), they show the opposite trend for large cores. This presents a counterintuitive FiM size dependence for large AFM cores that is attributed to the competition between core and shell contributions, which expands over a wider range of core diameters leading to non-vanishing Hex even for very large cores. Moreover, the results also hint different possible ways to enhance the experimental performance of inverse core/shell nanoparticles for diverse applications. PMID:25872473

  1. Property Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  2. Three decades of structure- and property-based molecular design.

    PubMed

    Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    structure- and property-based drug discovery and it can only hint at important developments in other disciplines that have equally contributed to major paradigm shifts in Roche's small-molecule drug discovery efforts.

  3. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  4. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  5. Artists' Brushstrokes May Offer First Hints of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... quality of life for those persons living with cognitive disorders," study author Alex Forsythe said. Forsythe is a senior lecturer and director of studies in applied psychology at the University of Liverpool in England. "We ...

  6. Innovative chemical synthesis and conformational hints on the lipopeptide liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Guryanov, Ivan; Bondesan, Alex; Visentini, Dario; Orlandin, Andrea; Biondi, Barbara; Toniolo, Claudio; Formaggio, Fernando; Ricci, Antonio; Zanon, Jacopo; Cabri, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Liraglutide is a new generation lipopeptide drug used for the treatment of type II diabetes. In this work, we describe new approaches for its preparation fully by chemical methods. The key step of these strategies is the synthesis in solution of the Lys/γ-Glu building block, Fmoc-Lys-(Pal-γ-Glu-OtBu)-OH, in which Lys and Glu residues are linked through their side chains and γ-Glu is N(α) -palmitoylated. This dipeptide derivative is then inserted into the peptide sequence on solid phase. As liraglutide is obtained with great purity and high yield, our approach can be particularly attractive for an industrial production. We also report here the results of a circular dichroism conformational analysis in a membrane mimetic environment that offers new insights into the mechanism of action of liraglutide. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  8. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  9. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Budget Proposal NCI Congressional Justification NCI Budget Fact Book Careers at NCI Visitor Information Legislative Activities Hearings & ... Plan & Budget Proposal Congressional Justification NCI Budget Fact Book Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History ...

  10. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  11. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  12. The perfect photo book: hints for the image selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schmidt-Sacht, Wulf

    2007-01-01

    An ever increasing amount of digital images are being captured. This increase is due to several reasons. People are afraid of not "capturing the moment" and pressing the shutter is not directly liked to costs as was the case with silver halide photography. This behaviour seems to be convenient but can result in a dilemma for the consumer. This paper presents tools designed to help the consumer overcome the time consuming image selection process while turning the chore of selecting the images for prints or placing them automatically into a photo book into a fun experience.

  13. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  14. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  15. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  16. Scans Hint At Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... study co-designer Gene Alexander. He is a psychology professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson. " ... The study was published online recently in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience . SOURCE: University of Arizona, ...

  17. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  18. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  19. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  20. Placental dichotomy: a hint in twin anemia polycythemia sequence.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Amelie; Thomas, Sumesh; Somerset, David

    2014-12-01

    Contexte : Les grossesses monochorioniques représentent une partie significative de la charge de travail en imagerie diagnostique et doivent fréquemment faire l’objet d’une évaluation aux fins de la détection du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé. Il est important de reconnaître la présence d’une dichotomie placentaire au cours de la tenue d’une étude Doppler régulière de l’artère cérébrale fœtale, et ce, de façon à pouvoir alerter le clinicien quant à la présence possible d’une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire (un sous-ensemble important du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé). Cas : Une multigravide de 36 ans connaissant une grossesse gémellaire a accouché à 33 semaines de gestation, à la suite de l’identification d’une détresse fœtale. Une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire a été diagnostiquée à la suite de l’accouchement. Les échographies prénatales régulières n’avaient pas détecté la présence d’un oligohydramnios ou d’un polyhydramnios. L’analyse rétrospective des images échographiques du placenta a mis au jour la présence d’une dichotomie marquée, la partie relevant du jumeau anémique y apparaissant comme étant hyperéchogène. Conclusion : L’identification de la dichotomie placentaire (s’ajoutant au dépistage au moyen d’études Doppler cérébrales) pourrait mener à l’identification précoce de la séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire et à l’amélioration des issues.

  1. Helpful Hints for Successful 1-to-1 Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the book, "1-to-1 Learning: Laptop Programs That Work," author Pamela Livingston begins with an important point for those who are considering a laptop program for the first time: Newcomers are fortunate to be able to learn from the educators who have started down the 1-to-1 road before them. This proved to be true for two neighboring…

  2. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  3. SGML: The Reason Why and the First Published Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Charles F.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the first published paper on need for Standard Generalized Markup Language, "An Online System for Integrated Text Processing," presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, in October 15, 1970. Details the history of an online integrated text…

  4. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  5. Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: hints for a general theory.

    PubMed

    Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco

    2008-10-01

    We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.

  6. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  7. Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John

    2010-01-01

    In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…

  8. DO SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS SERVE SIGNALING FUNCTIONS? (HINT: YES).

    PubMed

    Tiokhin, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals. In this paper, I develop the hypothesis that symptoms of illness serve signaling functions, and provide a comprehensive review of relevant evidence from diverse disciplines. I also develop novel empirical predictions generated by this hypothesis and discuss its implications for public health. Signaling provides an ultimate explanation for otherwise opaque aspects of symptom expression, such as why symptoms fluctuate in social contexts, and can exist without underlying pathology, and why individuals deliberately generate symptoms of illness. This analysis suggests that signaling theory is a major organizing framework for understanding symptom etiology.

  9. Hints for Leptonic C P Violation or New Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, David V.; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic C P violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac C P phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if C P in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic C P violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  10. Hints of nonhierarchical folding of acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jesús M; Jiménez, M Angeles; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2002-02-12

    We have analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) the helical propensity of the all-beta protein acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and two peptides corresponding to beta-strand 8 (beta8 peptide, amino acids 95-107) and the beta-strand 8/turn/beta-strand 9 hairpin (beta8/9 peptide, amino acids 95-114), which has been involved in receptor binding. A secondary structure prediction of aFGF carried out by several procedures labels the 95-104 sequence as predominantly alpha-helical. A titration of aFGF with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in the far-UV CD spectrum of the protein giving rise to a prominent alpha-helical shape (22% alpha-helix). The cooperativity of the transition and the moderate TFE concentrations used (midpoint at 24%) suggest that the effect of TFE is specific. Moreover, a titration performed at pH 2 yields a higher amount of alpha-helix (55%) at a smaller TFE concentration. Synthetic peptides containing the beta8 and beta8/9 sequences display a random coil conformation at pH 7 but acquire alpha-helical structure in the presence of TFE, methanol, and SDS micelles. At pH below 3.0 a significant amount (20-30%) of alpha-helical conformation is present in both the beta8 and beta8/9 peptides even in the absence of other solvent additives. The secondary structure of the peptides was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). These results suggest that the 95-114 sequence of aFGF has helical propensity and that the protein may fold nonhierarchically in the early steps of folding, acquiring its final beta-structure by a later interaction with the rest of the polypeptide.

  11. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  12. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth, S.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Hamad, Syed; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-15

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO{sub 3} samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000{sup o}C and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650{sup o}C-800{sup o}C. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ∼ 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO{sub 3} is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing

  13. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakanth, S.; Hamad, Syed; Venugopal Rao, S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-01

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO3 samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000oC and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650oC-800oC. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ˜ 1019-1020/cm3 range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×1020/cm3 near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO3 is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing applications.

  14. Valuation of Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodley, Joanne H.; Goodenough, Linda

    This report describes property tax revenues and assessment rates for all 50 States during 1966. The following information is summarized by State and by class of property: (1) The total valuation and the taxable valuation of property subject to local general property taxation and the percent distribution of total valuation by class of property; (2)…

  15. Titania nanotubes from weak organic acid electrolyte: fabrication, characterization and oxide film properties.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, Balakrishnan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-04-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated using anodic oxidation in fluoride containing weak organic acid for different durations (0.5h, 1h, 2h and 3h). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs reveal that the morphology of titanium oxide varies with anodization time. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the as-formed oxide nanotubes were amorphous in nature, yet transform into crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) upon annealing at 600°C. Wettability measurements show that both as-formed and annealed nanotubes exhibited hydrophilic behavior. The electrochemical behavior was ascertained by DC polarization and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 0.9% NaCl solution. The results suggest that the annealed nanotubes showed higher impedance (10(5)-10(6)Ωcm(2)) and lower passive current density (10(-7)Acm(-2)) than the as-formed nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the influence of post heat treatment on the semiconducting properties of the oxides by capacitance measurements. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that precipitation of Ca/P is easier in crystallized nanotubes than the amorphous structure. Our study uses a simple strategy to prepare nano-structured titania films and hints the feasibility of tailoring the oxide properties by thermal treatment, producing surfaces with better bioactivity.

  16. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-12-01

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research.

  17. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research. PMID:27958347

  18. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-12-13

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research.

  19. Precise Boundary Element Computation of Protein Transport Properties: Diffusion Tensors, Specific Volume, and Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Sergio; Hahn, David K.

    2006-01-01

    A precise boundary element method for the computation of hydrodynamic properties has been applied to the study of a large suite of 41 soluble proteins ranging from 6.5 to 377 kDa in molecular mass. A hydrodynamic model consisting of a rigid protein excluded volume, obtained from crystallographic coordinates, surrounded by a uniform hydration thickness has been found to yield properties in excellent agreement with experiment. The hydration thickness was determined to be δ = 1.1 ± 0.1 Å. Using this value, standard deviations from experimental measurements are: 2% for the specific volume; 2% for the translational diffusion coefficient, and 6% for the rotational diffusion coefficient. These deviations are comparable to experimental errors in these properties. The precision of the boundary element method allows the unified description of all of these properties with a single hydration parameter, thus far not achieved with other methods. An approximate method for computing transport properties with a statistical precision of 1% or better (compared to 0.1–0.2% for the full computation) is also presented. We have also estimated the total amount of hydration water with a typical −9% deviation from experiment in the case of monomeric proteins. Both the water of hydration and the more precise translational diffusion data hint that some multimeric proteins may not have the same solution structure as that in the crystal because the deviations are systematic and larger than in the monomeric case. On the other hand, the data for monomeric proteins conclusively show that there is no difference in the protein structure going from the crystal into solution. PMID:16714342

  20. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  1. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  2. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  3. Neuroprotective properties of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease--merits and limitations.

    PubMed

    Chin, Dawn; Huebbe, Patricia; Pallauf, Kathrin; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    As demographics in developed nations shift towards an aging population, neurodegenerative pathologies, especially dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, pose one of the largest challenges to the modern health care system. Since there is yet no cure for dementia, there is great pressure to discover potential therapeutics for these diseases. One popular candidate is curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a polyphenolic compound that is the main curcuminoid found in Curcuma longa (family Zingiberaceae). In recent years, curcumin has been reported to possess anti-amyloidogenic, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative, and metal chelating properties that may result in potential neuroprotective effects. Particularly, the hydrophobicity of the curcumin molecule hints at the possibility of blood-brain barrier penetration and accumulation in the brain. However, curcumin exhibits extremely low bioavailability, mainly due to its poor aqueous solubility, poor stability in solution, and rapid intestinal first-pass and hepatic metabolism. Despite the many efforts that are currently being made to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, brain concentration of curcumin remains low. Furthermore, although many have reported that curcumin possesses a relatively low toxicity profile, curcumin applied at high doses, which is not uncommon practice in many in vivo and clinical studies, may present certain dangers that in our opinion have not been addressed sufficiently. Herein, the neuroprotective potential of curcumin, with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease, as well as its limitations will be discussed in detail.

  4. Water mass properties and chemical signatures in the central Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astraldi, M.; Conversano, F.; Civitarese, G.; Gasparini, G. P.; Ribera d'Alcalà, M.; Vetrano, A.

    2002-06-01

    During the last 15 years, the knowledge of Mediterranean physical dynamics as well as of atmospheric forcing underwent a tremendous improvement because of the action within several international programs and the development of remote sensing and modelling approaches. Curiously, it is still very difficult to build up a climatological database for chemical and basic biological parameters for the whole basin because most of the data published in the open literature were preferentially related to meso- to small-scale processes. Within the European Union project Mass Transfer and Ecosystem Response (MATER), systematic measurements of routine chemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen and nutrients, have been conducted. They will fill the existing gap between physical and chemical information. In this paper, we analyze the hydrographic data from a cruise conducted in the fall 1996 in the Central Mediterranean region and report, for the first time, on oxygen and nutrient concentrations, ranges and distributions. The joint analysis of T- S properties and chemical data also allows a better definition of water mass characteristics in this crucial area and hints at basic mechanisms relevant to water mass transformation and biological production in the basin.

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  6. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  7. Thickness-Dependent Properties of YBCO Films Grown on GZO/CLO-Buffered NiW Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Zhao, Y.; Grivel, J.-C.; Paturi, P.

    2017-01-01

    To study the role of novel Gd_2Zr_2O_7/Ce_{0.9}La_{0.1}O_2 buffer layer structure on a biaxially textured NiW substrate, a set of YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Interface imperfections as well as thickness-dependent structural properties were observed in the YBCO thin films. The structure is also reflected into the improved superconducting properties with the highest critical current densities in films with intermediate thicknesses. Therefore, it can be concluded that the existing buffer layers need more optimization before they can be successfully used for films with various thicknesses. This issue is linked to the extremely susceptible growth method of PLD when compared to the commonly used chemical deposition methods. Nevertheless, PLD-grown films can give a hint on what to concentrate to be able to further improve the buffer layer structures for future coated conductor technologies.

  8. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  10. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  11. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  14. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 545.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 545.309... General Definitions § 545.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  16. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 588.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.308... General Definitions § 588.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  19. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  1. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  3. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  4. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  5. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  6. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 562.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 562.307... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  8. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308... Definitions § 549.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  10. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 585.304 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 585.304... General Definitions § 585.304 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  12. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 575.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 575.315... § 575.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not... whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest...

  15. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  16. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  17. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  18. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  1. The critical current density, irreversibility line, and flux pinning properties of Ba2CaCu2O4(O,F)2 high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirage, P. M.; Tanaka, Y.; Iyo, A.

    2010-05-01

    The high-Tc superconductor of Ba2CaCu2O4(O,F)2 (F-0212) is an appealing material for application as it has a simple crystal structure with a highest Tc of 108 K. We have derived the intragrain critical current density (Jc), irreversibility field (Birr), flux pinning properties, etc., for the polycrystalline samples from under doping (Tc=82 K) to slightly-over doping (Tc=106 K) from the dc magnetization hysteresis loops. The Jc and Birr properties were found to improve rapidly as the doping state changes from under doping to slightly-over doping. Here we show that property of the spacing is crucial to enhance Birr as well as its thickness. An anisotropy factor for under doped Ba2CaCu2O4F2 was reckoned to 118 from a three-dimensional-two-dimensional crossover field of about 0.28 T. The double logarithmic plot of irreversibility field versus [1-(T /Tc)] analysis hints that the flux line melting model is adopted. Analysis of the normalized pinning force reveals that a surface pinning mechanism is dominant and reduced magnetic field bmax=0.2 agree with surface pinning mechanism with closely spaced pins.

  2. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  3. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  4. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  5. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  6. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  7. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  8. 31 CFR 586.314 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 586.314... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.314 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion,...

  9. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  10. Are mental properties supervenient on brain properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.

    2011-09-01

    The ``mind-brain supervenience'' conjecture suggests that all mental properties are derived from the physical properties of the brain. To address the question of whether the mind supervenes on the brain, we frame a supervenience hypothesis in rigorous statistical terms. Specifically, we propose a modified version of supervenience (called ɛ-supervenience) that is amenable to experimental investigation and statistical analysis. To illustrate this approach, we perform a thought experiment that illustrates how the probabilistic theory of pattern recognition can be used to make a one-sided determination of ɛ-supervenience. The physical property of the brain employed in this analysis is the graph describing brain connectivity (i.e., the brain-graph or connectome). ɛ-supervenience allows us to determine whether a particular mental property can be inferred from one's connectome to within any given positive misclassification rate, regardless of the relationship between the two. This may provide further motivation for cross-disciplinary research between neuroscientists and statisticians.

  11. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei- IV. Properties of the circumnuclear stellar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; Menezes, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    The study of stellar kinematic properties may provide hints on the formation and evolution of elliptical and lenticular galaxies. Although most previous studies have focused on the large scale of these galaxies, their central regions (scales of ˜100 pc) may contain important clues about their structure, such as kinematically decoupled cores. This is the fourth paper on a sample of 10 massive (σ > 200 km s-1) and nearby (d < 31 Mpc) early-type galaxies, observed with the integral field unit of the Gemini South Multi Object Spectrograph. Here, we analyse the properties of the stellar kinematics in the circumnuclear region. We fitted the line-of-sight velocity distribution with a Gauss-Hermite function. In seven galaxies of the sample, we detected a rotation pattern in their radial velocity maps that are anti-correlated with h3. We interpret this as stellar structures in rotation embedded in the bulges of the objects. Comparing the stellar kinematic results with the PCA Tomography results and also with the gas kinematic results of IC 5181, it seems that this object may have a non-axisymmetric potential at its centre. The velocity dispersion maps of four objects have a nuclear peak, which must correspond, in part, to unresolved stellar rotation. In NGC 1404, we detected a kinematic decoupled core with an extension of ˜200 pc. This galaxy also has a σ-drop in the centre, which may be related to both stellar components in counter-rotation or with a kinematically cold star-forming region.

  12. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  13. Organs as inheritable property?

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan; Holm, Soren

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that organs should be treated as individual tradable property like other material possessions and assets, on the basis that this would promote individual freedom and increase efficiency in addressing the shortage of organs for transplantation. If organs are to be treated as property, should they be inheritable? This paper seeks to contribute to the idea of organs as inheritable property by providing a defence of a default of the family of a dead person as inheritors of transplantable organs. In the course of discussion, various succession rules for organs and their justifications will be suggested. We then consider two objections to organs as inheritable property. Our intention here is to provoke further thought on whether ownership of one's body parts should be assimilated to property ownership.

  14. Mechanical properties of viruses.

    PubMed

    de Pablo, Pedro J; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology techniques have greatly contributed to unveil the relationships between structure, properties and functions of viruses. In recent years, classic structural approaches are being complemented by single-molecule techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers to study physical properties and functions of viral particles that are not accessible to classic structural techniques. Among these features are mechanical properties such as stiffness, intrinsic elasticity, tensile strength and material fatigue. The field of virus mechanics is contributing to materials science by investigating some physical parameters of "soft" biological matter and biological nano-objects. Virus mechanics studies are also starting to unveil the biological implications of physical properties of viruses. Growing evidence indicate that viruses are subjected to internal and external forces, and that they may have adapted to withstand and even use those forces. This chapter describes what is known on the mechanical properties of virus particles, their structural determinants, and possible biological implications, of which several examples are provided.

  15. MAGNETIC FIELD PROPERTIES IN HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION FROM LARGE TO SMALL SCALES: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FROM POLARIZATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2010-09-20

    Polarization data from high-mass star formation regions (W51 e2/e8, Orion BN/KL) are used to derive statistical properties of the plane of sky projected magnetic field. Structure function and auto-correlation function are calculated for observations with various resolutions from the BIMA and SMA interferometers, covering a range in physical scales from {approx}70 mpc to {approx}2.1 mpc. Results for the magnetic field turbulent dispersion, its turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio, and the large-scale polarization angle correlation length are presented as a function of the physical scale at the star formation sites. Power-law scaling relations emerge for some of these physical quantities. The turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio is found to be close to constant over the sampled observing range, with a hint of a decrease toward smaller scales, indicating that the role of the magnetic field and turbulence is evolving with the physical scale. A statistical method is proposed to separate large- and small-scale correlations from an initial ensemble of polarization segments. This also leads to a definition of a turbulent polarization angle correlation length.

  16. The Devron property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Max

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a criterion called the Devron property that a discrete dynamical system can possess. The Devron property is said to occur when a class of highly singular inputs of a mapping F are carried by some iterate of F-1 to a class of highly singular inputs of F-1. The inspiration for this definition is the discovery by R. Schwartz that the pentagram map exhibits this kind of behavior. We investigate occurrences of the Devron property in a number of different dynamical systems.

  17. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  18. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  19. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  20. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  2. The property 'instinct'.

    PubMed Central

    Stake, Jeffrey Evans

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run to quite specific and detailed rules about property acquisition, retention and disposition. The great variation in property-related behaviours across species may mask some important commonalities grounded in adaptive utility. Experiments and observations in the field and laboratory suggest that the legal rules of temporal priority and possession are grounded in what were evolutionarily stable strategies in the ancestral environment. Moreover, the preferences that humans exhibit in disposing of their property on their deaths, both by dispositions made in wills and by the laws of intestacy, tend to advance reproductive success as a result of inclusive fitness pay-offs. PMID:15590617

  3. Properties of nonaqueous electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. N.; Hanson, D. C.; Hon, J. F.; Keller, R.; Muirhead, J. S.

    1970-01-01

    Physical property measurements and structural studies conducted in aprotic solvents using various solutes are applicable to the further development of lithum batteries. Structural studies utilize nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques.

  4. Jet Properties of GeV-Selected Radio-Loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies and Possible Connection to Their Disk and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin

    2015-08-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (Lcorona) to the accretion disk luminosity (Ld) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with Lcorona. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high Lcorona/Ld ratio prefers to power a jet.

  5. Jet Properties of GeV-selected Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies and Possible Connection to Their Disk and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Da-Bin; Xue, Zi-Wei; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L corona) to the accretion disk luminosity (L d) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L corona. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L corona/L d ratio prefers to power a jet.

  6. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of UnOm (n=1-3,m=1-3n) clusters: A theoretical study using screened hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-05-14

    The structural and electronic properties of small uranium oxide clusters UnOm (n=1-3, m=1-3n) are systematically studied within the screened hybrid density functional theory. It is found that the formation of U-O-U bondings and isolated U-O bonds are energetically more stable than U-U bondings. As a result, no uranium cores are observed. Through fragmentation studies, we find that the UnOm clusters with the m/n ratio between 2 and 2.5 are very stable, hinting that UO2+x hyperoxides are energetically stable. Electronically, we find that the O-2p states always distribute in the deep energy range, and the U-5f states always distribute at the two sides of the Fermi level. The U-6d states mainly hybridize with the U-5f states in U-rich clusters, while hybridizing with O-2p states in O-rich clusters. Our work is the first one on the screened hybrid density functional theory level studying the atomic and electronic properties of the actinide oxide clusters.

  8. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of given uranyl complexes in aqueous solutions with possible environmental and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Višňak, Jakub; Sobek, Lukáš

    2016-11-01

    A brief introduction into computational methodology and preliminary results for spectroscopic (excitation energies, vibrational frequencies in ground and excited electronic states) and thermodynamic (stability constants, standard enthalpies and entropies of complexation reactions) properties of some 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 uranyl sulphato- and selenato- complexes in aqueos solutions will be given. The relativistic effects are included via Effective Core Potential (ECP), electron correlation via (TD)DFT/B3LYP (dispersion interaction corrected) and solvation is described via explicit inclusion of one hydration sphere beyond the coordinated water molecules. We acknowledge limits of this approximate description - more accurate calculations (ranging from semi-phenomenological two-component spin-orbit coupling up to four-component Dirac-Coulomb-Breit hamiltonian) and Molecular Dynamics simulations are in preparation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies (including our original experimental research on this topic). In case of the TRLFS and UV-VIS speciation studies, the problem of complex solution spectra decomposition into individual components is ill-conditioned and hints from theoretical chemistry could be very important. Qualitative agreement between our quantum chemical calculations of the spectroscopic properties and experimental data was achieved. Possible applications for geochemical modelling (e.g. safety studies of nuclear waste repositories, modelling of a future mining site) and analytical chemical studies (including natural samples) are discussed.

  9. Properties of leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-12-01

    The properties of the electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos are reviewed. Three discrepancies in our understanding of those properties are discussed: the lifetime of orthopositronium, the mass spectra of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in heavy ion collisions, and the 1-charged particle modes problem in tau decays. The review concludes with a discussion of what we need to learn about the tau and the consequent need for a tau-charm factory. 68 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Higgs Boson Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, André Dührssen, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the measured properties of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Searches for deviations from the properties predicted by the standard theory are also summarised. The present status corresponds to the combined analysis of the full Run 1 data sets of collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  11. The Property Suffix Tree with Dynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelowitz, Tsvi

    Recently there has been much interest in the Property Indexing Problem ([1],[7],[8]), where one is interested to preprocess a text T of size n over alphabet Σ (which we assume is of constant size), and a set of intervals π over the text positions, such that give a query pattern P of size m we can report all of the occurrences of P in T which are completely contained within some interval from π. This type of matching is extremely helpful in scenarios in molecular biology where it has long been a practice to consider special areas in the genome by their structure.

  12. Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina; Bullmore, Daniel; Duran, Michael; Jacobs, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Different synthesizing methods are used to create various nanostructures of carbon; we are mainly interested in single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, (SWCNTs) and (MWCNTs) respectively. The properties of these tubes are related to their synthetic methods, chirality, and diameter. The extremely sturdy structure of CNTs, with their distinct thermal and electromagnetic properties, suggests a tremendous use of these tubes in electronics and medicines. Here, we analyze various physical properties of SWCNTs with a special emphasis on electromagnetic and chemical properties. By examining their electrical properties, we demonstrate the viability of discrete CNT based components. After considering the advantages of using CNTs over microstructures, we make a case for the advancement and development of nanostructures based electronics. As for current CNT applications, it's hard to overlook their use and functionality in the development of cancer treatment. Whether the tubes are involved in chemotherapeutic drug delivery, molecular imaging and targeting, or photodynamic therapy, we show that the remarkable properties of SWCNTs can be used in advantageous ways by many different industries.

  13. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  14. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-04-01

    In this research program, we have adopted the approach that by measuring fundamental properties (i.e, the complex refractive index, m) of the fly ash which participates in the radiation transfer, we can use well established theoretical principles (Mie theory) to compute the radiative properties of dispersions of fly ash as found in coal combustors. With this approach one can, understand the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of an ash dispersion and more confidently predict how variations in the characteristics of the ash dispersion cause variations in its radiative properties. An important criterion in this approach is that the fly ash particles be spherical, homogeneous, and isotropic. Fortunately, fly ash particles are formed at high temperatures at which most of them are molten, leading primarily to spherical particles. Furthermore, one should expect that molten particles will be reasonably homogeneous and isotropic. On cooling, most fly ash particles form glassy spheres which are homogeneous and isotropic. Some ash particles form hollow shells (cenospheres) while others form as particles with bubbles'' or voids, but most fly ash particles are well approximated as homogeneous isotropic spheres. In the following sections we review some of the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of fly ash dispersions and report on progress that has been made during the past quarter.

  15. Understanding the interfacial properties of graphene-based materials/BiOI heterostructures by DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wen-Wu; Zhao, Zong-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Heterostructure constructing is a feasible and powerful strategy to enhance the performance of photocatalysts, because they can be tailored to have desirable photo-electronics properties and couple distinct advantageous of components. As a novel layered photocatalyst, the main drawback of BiOI is the low edge position of the conduction band. To address this problem, it is meaningful to find materials that possess suitable band gap, proper band edge position, and high mobility of carrier to combine with BiOI to form hetertrostructure. In this study, graphene-based materials (including: graphene, graphene oxide, and g-C3N4) were chosen as candidates to achieve this purpose. The charge transfer, interface interaction, and band offsets are focused on and analyzed in detail by DFT calculations. Results indicated that graphene-based materials and BiOI were in contact and formed van der Waals heterostructures. The valence and conduction band edge positions of graphene oxide, g-C3N4 and BiOI changed with the Fermi level and formed the standard type-II heterojunction. In addition, the overall analysis of charge density difference, Mulliken population, and band offsets indicated that the internal electric field is facilitate for the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which means these heterostructures can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of BiOI. Thus, BiOI combines with 2D materials to construct heterostructure not only make use of the unique high electron mobility, but also can adjust the position of energy bands and promote the separation of photo-generated carriers, which provide useful hints for the applications in photocatalysis.

  16. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  17. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  18. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  19. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  20. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  1. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-12-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  2. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  3. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet ‘hydrogel’. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. PMID:27877456

  4. Properties of Sulfur Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-06

    This report summarizes the state of the art of sulfur concrete . Sulfur concrete is created by mixing molten sulfur with aggregate and allowing the...and many organic compounds. It works well as a rapid runway repair material. Sulfur concrete also has unfavorable properties. It has poor durability

  5. An intellectual property primer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  6. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  7. Thermophysical properties of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  8. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  9. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  10. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  11. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface

  12. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references.

  13. Optical properties of stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap Chaudhary, Raghvendra; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-12-01

    Successful synthesis of graphene has created a runaway effect in the exploration of other similar two-dimensional materials. These materials are important as they provide large surface areas and have led to the exploration of new physical phenomena. Even though graphene has exotic electronic properties, its spin-orbit coupling is very weak. Tin, being one of the heaviest elements in this group, is expected to have enhanced spin-orbit coupling in addition to other exotic properties of graphene. Here we report optical signatures of free standing stanene obtained using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Raman measurements were performed on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid. Interlayer spacing, phonon frequencies and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function obtained using first principles methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. Occurrence of parallel bands suggests the possibility of the presence of excitonic effects in stanene.

  14. Monitoring Properties of Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.; Gates, Ann Q.

    1997-01-01

    Development of complex systems requires interaction between a large group of people at various levels of software development, including the communication of properties of the system and the data to be manipulated. A natural idea is to maintain a centralized database of properties of the system to which all members of the development group have access, and to automate the process of checking for violations against this database. The focus of this paper is to discuss such an automated process, called integrity constraint checking. The paper defines the notion of an integrity constraint and discusses considerations for adding an automated checker to a programming language compiler or interpreter. Current work on the implementation of integrity constraint checking in a very high-level language called SequenceL is discussed, and future work in developing a similar checker in an imperative language is outlined.

  15. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  16. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  17. Antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Beeh, K M; Beier, J; Esperester, A; Paul, L D

    2008-12-03

    Ambroxol is frequently used as mucolytic agent in respiratory diseases associated with increased mucus production like acute or chronic bronchitis. Further, ambroxol is used topically (lozenges) for the treatment of sore throat and pharyngitis associated with common cold. In addition to the effects of ambroxol on mucus regulation and local anaesthetic effects, a wide range of pharmacological antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol have been described in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition or scavenging of oxidative and nitro?sative stress, increase of local defense molecules involved in respiratory virus replication, reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid meta?bolites, inflammatory cell chemotaxis, and lipid peroxidation of tissues. The present review summarizes the antiinflammatory effects of ambroxol and relates these properties to results from controlled clinical trials in targeted diseases such as chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sore throat.

  18. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  19. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  20. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  1. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-10-01

    The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Work is organized under four tasks: Characterization of Flyash: The chemical composition and size distribution of representative flyashes are being measured by appropriate microanalytical techniques; Measurements of the Optical Constants of Slags: Measurements of the infrared optical constants (i.e., the complex reflective index m = n {minus} ik) of synthetic slags are being made as a function of wavelength and temperature for controlled compositions. Particular attention will be given to the contribution of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and its valence state. The data is being reduced to yield formulae giving the complex refractive index over relevant ranges of wavelength and temperatures, as a function of the relevant metal oxide constituents; Sample Calculations of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This component comprises various calculations to guide and evaluate the experimental work under the other three tasks; and Measurement of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This bench-scale experiment is planned to compare the measured radiant properties of a dispersion of well-characterized ash with computations based on data developed under the first two tasks. Progress is described in all areas. 10 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  4. Thermal properties of nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Philip, John; Shima, P D

    2012-11-15

    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject.

  5. Elastic properties of pyrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Bridget; Bass, Jay D.; Rossman, George R.; Geiger, Charles A.; Langer, Klaus

    1991-03-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy was used to measure the single crystal elastic properties of a pure synthetic pyrope and a natural garnet containing 89.9 mol% of the pyrope end member (Mg3Al2Si3O12). The elastic moduli, c ij , of the two samples are entirely consistent and agree with previous estimates of the elastic properties of pyrope based upon the moduli of solid solutions. Our results indicate that the elastic moduli of pyrope end-member are c 11=296.2±0.5, c 12=111.1±0.6, c 44=91.6±0.3, Ks=172.8±0.3, μ=92.0±0.2, all in units of GPa. These results differ by several percent from those reported previously for synthetic pyrope, but are based upon a much larger data set. Although the hydrous components of the two samples from the present study are substantially different, representing both ‘dry’ and ‘saturated’ samples, we find no discernable effect of structurally bound water on the elastic properties. This is due to the small absolute solubility of water in pyrope, as compared with other garnets such as grossular.

  6. Irreversibility line and flux pinning properties in a multilayered cuprate superconductor of Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (Tc = 105 K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirage, P. M.; Iyo, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Tanaka, Y.; Kito, H.; Kodama, Y.

    2008-07-01

    Irreversibility line (IL) and flux pinning properties were investigated for a Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (F-0234) multilayered cuprate superconductor with a Tc of 105 K. The intragrain critical current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Birr) were determined by using Bean's critical state model for the grain-aligned sample (nominal composition Ba2Ca3Cu4O8.7F1.3). The irreversibility line (IL) of F-0234 is much lower than that of (Cu,C)Ba2Ca3Cu4Oy ((Cu, C)-1234) and HgBa2Ca3Cu4Oy (Hg-1234) in spite of the spacing between the superconducting blocks of F-0234 (7.3 Å) being much thinner. The double logarithmic plot of Birr field versus [1-(T/Tc) ] analysis hints that the flux line melting model has been adopted. An anisotropy factor of 65 was calculated from a 3D to 2D crossover field of about 0.95 T. Due to the high anisotropy of this system, a low IL has resulted. The flux pinning force density Fp ( ≈JcB) exhibits scaling behaviour when the magnetic field B is normalized by the Birr field. Analysis of the normalized pinning force reveals that a surface pinning mechanism is dominant and the reduced magnetic field bmax = 0.2 agrees with surface pinning mechanism with closely spaced pins.

  7. Structure-property relations of orthorhombic [(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3 · 2H2 O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussühl, Eiken; Schreuer, Jürgen; Wiehl, Leonore; Paulsen, Natalia

    2014-04-01

    Large single crystals of orthorhombic [(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3 · 2H2 O with dimensions up to 40×40×30 mm3 were grown from aqueous solutions. The elastic and piezoelastic coefficients were derived from ultrasonic resonance frequencies and their shifts upon variation of pressure, respectively, using the plate-resonance technique. Additionally, the coefficients of thermal expansion were determined between 95 K and 305 K by dilatometry. The elastic behaviour at ambient conditions is dominated by the 2-dimensional network of strong hydrogen bonds within the (001) plane leading to a corresponding pseudo-tetragonal anisotropy of the longitudinal elastic stiffness. The variation of elastic properties with pressure, however, as well as the thermal expansion shows strong deviations from the pseudo-tetragonal symmetry. These deviations are probably correlated with tilts of the elongated tri-nuclear betaine-CuCl2-water complexes. Neither the thermal expansion nor the specific heat capacity gives any hint on a phase transition in the investigated temperature range.

  8. The impact of galactic properties and environment on the quenching of central and satellite galaxies: a comparison between SDSS, Illustris and L-Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluck, Asa F. L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Simard, Luc; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; Torrey, Paul; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Moreno, Jorge; Starkenburg, Else

    2016-11-01

    We quantify the impact that a variety of galactic and environmental properties have on the quenching of star formation. We collate a sample of ˜400 000 central and ˜100 000 satellite galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). Specifically, we consider central velocity dispersion (σc), stellar, halo, bulge and disc mass, local density, bulge-to-total ratio, groupcentric distance and galaxy-halo mass ratio. We develop and apply a new statistical technique to quantify the impact on the quenched fraction (fQuench) of varying one parameter, while keeping the remaining parameters fixed. For centrals, we find that the fQuench-σc relationship is tighter and steeper than for any other variable considered. We compare to the Illustris hydrodynamical simulation and the Munich semi-analytic model (L-Galaxies), finding that our results for centrals are qualitatively consistent with their predictions for quenching via radio-mode AGN feedback, hinting at the viability of this process in explaining our observational trends. However, we also find evidence that quenching in L-Galaxies is too efficient and quenching in Illustris is not efficient enough, compared to observations. For satellites, we find strong evidence that environment affects their quenched fraction at fixed central velocity dispersion, particularly at lower masses. At higher masses, satellites behave identically to centrals in their quenching. Of the environmental parameters considered, local density affects the quenched fraction of satellites the most at fixed central velocity dispersion.

  9. Functional properties of vinegar.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2014-05-01

    A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars.

  10. Static Properties of Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Gregory S.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * CHIRAL FIELD THEORY * The Skyrme Lagrangian * Topological Solitons * Symmetries and Currents * THE SKYRMION * The Hedgehog * The Shape Function * The Rotating Soliton * QUANTIZATION * Quantization and Wave Functions * Matrix Elements * STATIC PROPERTIES * Masses * Sizes and Magnetic Moments * Electric and Magnetic Transition Elements * Axial Coupling and the Goldberger-Treiman Relation * More Results and Predictions * DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX A: NOTATION * APPENDIX B: PAULI MATRIX ALGEBRA * APPENDIX C: THE ADJOINT REPRESENTATION OF SU(2) * APPENDIX D: A FEW USEFUL FACTS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  11. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  12. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Mohammad J; Fromm, Katharina M; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Rojo, Teofilo; Serpooshan, Vahid; Parak, Wolfgang J; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-10-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials.

  13. 76 FR 50186 - Surplus Properties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Department of the Army Surplus Properties AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This amended notice provides information regarding the properties that have been determined surplus to the... property. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Headquarters, Department of the Army, Assistant Chief of...

  14. Hydrogen technology survey: Thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic functions, transport properties, and physical properties of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen are presented. The low temperature regime is emphasized. The tabulation of the properties of normal hydrogen in both Si and engineering units is given along with the tabulation of parahydrogen.

  15. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  16. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  17. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  18. Quasiparticle properties in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Euyheon

    2012-02-01

    The quasiparticle properties in both single layer and bilayer graphene are presented. We study the electron self-energy as well as the quasiparticle spectral function in graphene, taking into account electron-electron interaction in the leading order dynamically screened Coulomb coupling and electron-impurity interaction associated with quenched disorder. Our calculation of the self-energy provides the basis for calculating all one-electron properties of graphene. We provide analytical and numerical results for quasiparticle renormalization in graphene. Comparison with existing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements shows broad qualitative and semiquantitative agreement between theory and experiment, for both the momentum-distribution and energy-distribution curves in the measured spectra. We also present the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rate and the carrier mean free path for energetic hot electrons as a function of carrier energy, density, and temperature, including both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. Our results are directly applicable to device structures where ballistic transport is relevant with inelastic scattering dominating over elastic scattering.[4pt] S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407 (2011). [0pt] E. H. Hwang, Ben Yu-Kuang Hu, and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 76, 115434 (2007). [0pt] E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 77, 081412 (2008). [0pt] Rajdeep Sensarma, E. H. Hwang, and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 84, 041408(R) (2011).

  19. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  20. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  1. Properties of solid supports.

    PubMed

    Meldal, M

    1997-01-01

    Many supports including composite materials and functionalized surfaces are available for solid-phase synthesis. In the process of selecting the proper support it is important to consider the optimal performance during solid-phase synthesis. For most purposes the mechanically stable beaded gel resins are preferred. These resins are homogeneous, and the loading and physical and chemical properties can easily be varied. Optimal properties have been obtained by radical polymerization of end group acryloylated long-chain polyethylene glycols. However, polystyrene resins or amide bond free PEG-based resins may be more suited for general organic synthesis where reactivity of radicals, carbenes, carbanions, carbenium ions, or strong Lewis acids have to be considered. Loading of the resins can have a dramatic effect on the outcome of a synthesis and has to be considered separately for each synthesis. Synthesis of long peptides with 50-100 amino acids imposes completely different requirements on the performance, swelling, and loading than a large-scale synthesis of, for example, the pentapeptide enkephalin. Automated multiple synthesizers constructed for columns of beaded gel or composite supports are available from many suppliers. It is therefore expected that the optimization of support properties will continue in order to meet new synthetic challenges. In the synthesis for solid-phase screening of binding of biomolecules to ligands directly on the resin beads, it is an advantage if the resin is not permeable to the biomolecule so unbound molecules can easily be removed by washing. This is the case with polystyrene-based resins, but they do, however, often show nonspecific adhesion of proteins owing to the hydrophobic character of the polystyrene. Modification of the functional groups of polystyrene with polyethylene glycol as spacers for synthesis of the binding ligands can increase the available ligand concentration on the bead surface and eliminate most of the

  2. Fundamental properties of resonances.

    PubMed

    Ceci, S; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Percan, A; Zauner, B

    2017-03-27

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, T.; Pascalutsa, V.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Martin-Camalich, J.

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the chiral behavior of the nucleon and {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic properties within the framework of a SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our one-loop calculation is complete to the order p{sup 3} and p{sup 4}/{Delta} with {Delta} as the {Delta}(1232)-nucleon energy gap. We show that the magnetic moment of a resonance can be defined by the linear energy shift only when an additional relation between the involved masses and the applied magnetic field strength is fulfilled. Singularities and cusps in the pion mass dependence of the {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic moments reflect a non-fulfillment. We show results for the pion mass dependence of the nucleon iso-vector electromagnetic quantities and present preliminary results for finite volume effects on the iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment.

  4. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    This is the sixteenth quarterly report under DOE contract No. DE-AC22-87PC 79903 entitled Optical Properties of Flyash.'' Tasks 1 and 2 of this program were funded from September 15, 1987. Tasks 3 and 4 were funded from September 15, 1988. The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Some preliminary work in this area has been carried out at Stanford in the past several years with NSF support. The present program will greatly enlarge the scope of this work.

  5. [Nutraceutical properties of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Blasco, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, dietary recommendations have suggested an increase in the consumption of foods that contain phytochemicals that provide benefits to human health and play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. Lycopene -the carotenoid responsible for the red color of tomatoes- has attracted attention because of its physicochemical and biological properties in the prevention of chronic diseases in which oxidative stress is a major etiological factor, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and hypertension, among others. Antioxidants, including lycopene, interact with reactive oxygen species, can mitigate their damaging effects and play a significant role in preventing these diseases. This article presents a review of some epidemiological studies published in recent years on beneficial effects of lycopene in human health.

  6. Computational modeling of properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Judy R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wise-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid II-VI semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  8. Physical properties of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of asteroids were studied by telescopic observations and laboratory and theoretical work. Spectrophotometry from 0.3 to 1.1 microns and 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 micron photometry allow spectral-compositional classification of asteroids. Based on laboratory data and telescopic observations, it was found that infrared measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns provide a relatively rapid and accurate method for the classification of minor planets and are important in comparing asteroids with meteorites. This technique was proven and employed in an expanded survey of Apollo-Amor-Aten and other unusual asteroids recently scanned by IRAS.

  9. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  10. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  11. My body, my property.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1986-10-01

    Two recent cases raise the question: Should the body be considered a form of property? Patients generally do not share in the profits derived from the applications of research on their body parts and products. Nor is their consent for research required so long as the body part is unidentified and is removed in the course of treatment. A market in body parts and products would require consent to all categories of research and ensure that patients are protected from coercion and given the chance to be paid fairly for their contributions. Such a market might force us to rethink our policies prohibiting organ sales. Donors, recipients, and society will benefit from a market in body parts so long as owners--and no one else--retain control over their bodies.

  12. Properties of subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony; Jozsa, Richard; Benatti, Fabio

    2014-06-15

    Subentropy is an entropy-like quantity that arises in quantum information theory; for example, it provides a tight lower bound on the accessible information for pure state ensembles, dual to the von Neumann entropy upper bound in Holevo's theorem. Here we establish a series of properties of subentropy, paralleling the well-developed analogous theory for von Neumann entropy. Further, we show that subentropy is a lower bound for min-entropy. We introduce a notion of conditional subentropy and show that it can be used to provide an upper bound for the guessing probability of any classical-quantum state of two qubits; we conjecture that the bound applies also in higher dimensions. Finally, we give an operational interpretation of subentropy within classical information theory.

  13. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this task is to validate the whole approach adopted in this program. Specifically, this bench-scale experiment is intended to compare the measured optical/radiative properties of a dispersion of well characterized ash with those calculated on the basis of the known size/composition distribution using the correlation formulae relating the composition and complex refractive index resulting from measurements on bulk samples of synthetic slag. Considerable thought has been given to the various possible approaches to satisfying the objectives of this task. Several experiments were done to guide our design of an apparatus for measuring the scattering and absorption properties of dispersions of flyash. As a result of these experiments, and from extensive prior experience in connection with research on electrostatic precipitation, it has been determined that there is no satisfactory way to satisfy the aims of this task using a gaseous dispersion of flyash because it is not possible to adequately disperse and deagglomerate flyash into a gas stream. Unless the ash is adequately dispersed, as it exists in the radiant boiler of a pulverized coal-fired combustion system, one cannot expect calculations, based on Mie calculations for a dispersion of spheres to properly agree with laboratory measurements. For these reasons, our design efforts are based on making measurements on a dispersion of flyash in liquid, for which our experience shows we can obtain stable, well-deagglomerated dispersions of ash. Because there is not single liquid which is adequately transparent over the wavelength range 1--12 {mu}m, we plan to use a combination of three liquids, C Cl{sub 4}, C S{sub 2} and bromoform to cover the full range. Windows of BaF{sub 2} will be used to contain the liquid suspension in an absorption/scattering cell.

  14. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  15. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  16. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  17. Structural, morphological and optical properties of chromium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Babukutty, Blessy; Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Nair, Swapna S.; Bhalero, G. M.; Aravind, P. B.

    2015-06-24

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction route from chloride precursors with surfactant, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Structural and morphological characterization are analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Transmission Electron micrographs show that the average grain size lies in the range 5nm to 10nm. Optical characterization has been done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Distinct optical absorptions of Cr{sup 3+} ions show hinting towards the presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Presence of oxygen is also confirmed from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies.

  18. Gold-rich R3Au7Sn3: Establishing the interdependence between electronic features and physical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Provino, Alessia; Steinberg, Simon; Smetana, Volodymyr; ...

    2015-05-18

    Two new polar intermetallic compounds Y3Au7Sn3 (I) and Gd3Au7Sn3 (II) have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (P63/m; Z = 2, a = 8.148(1)/8.185(3), and c = 9.394(2)/9.415(3) for I/II, respectively). They can formally be assigned to the Cu10Sn3 type and consist of parallel slabs of Sn centered, edge-sharing trigonal Au6 antiprisms connected through R3 (R = Y, Gd) triangles. Additional Au atoms reside in the centres of trigonal Au6 prisms forming Au@Au6 clusters with Au–Au distances of 2.906–2.960 Å, while the R–R contacts in the R3 groups are considerably larger than themore » sums of their metallic radii. These exclusive structural arrangements provide alluring systems to study the synergism between strongly correlated systems, particularly, those in the structure of (II), and extensive polar intermetallic contacts, which has been inspected by measurements of the magnetic properties, heat capacities and electrical conductivities of both compounds. Gd3Au7Sn3 shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 13 K, while Y3Au7Sn3 is a Pauli paramagnet and a downward curvature in its electrical resistivity at about 1.9 K points to a superconducting transition. DFT-based band structure calculations on R3Au7Sn3 (R = Y, Gd) account for the results of the conductivity measurements and different spin ordering models of (II) provide conclusive hints about its magnetic structure. As a result, chemical bonding analyses of both compounds indicate that the vast majority of bonding originates from the heteroatomic Au–Gd and Au–Sn interactions, while homoatomic Au–Au bonding is evident within the Au@Au6 clusters.« less

  19. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  20. A distinct magnetic property of the inner penumbral boundary. Formation of a stable umbra-penumbra boundary in a sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčák, J.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.

    2015-08-01

    Context. A sunspot emanates from a growing pore or protospot. In order to trigger the formation of a penumbra, large inclinations at the outskirts of the protospot are necessary. The penumbra develops and establishes by colonising both umbral areas and granulation. Evidence for a unique stable boundary value for the vertical component of the magnetic field strength, Bstablever, was found along the umbra-penumbra boundary of developed sunspots. Aims: We study the changing value of Bver as the penumbra forms and as it reaches a stable state. We compare this with the corresponding value in fully developed penumbrae. Methods: We use broadband G-band images and spectropolarimetric GFPI/VTT data to study the evolution of and the vertical component of the magnetic field on a forming umbra-penumbra boundary. For comparison with stable sunspots, we also analyse the two maps observed by Hinode/SP on the same spot after the penumbra formed. Results: The vertical component of the magnetic field, Bver, at the umbra-penumbra boundary increases during penumbra formation owing to the incursion of the penumbra into umbral areas. After 2.5 h, the penumbra reaches a stable state as shown by the GFPI data. At this stable stage, the simultaneous Hinode/SP observations show a Bver value comparable to that of umbra-penumbra boundaries of fully fledged sunspots. Conclusions: We confirm that the umbra-penumbra boundary, traditionally defined by an intensity threshold, is also characterised by a distinct canonical magnetic property, namely by Bverstable. During the penumbra formation process, the inner penumbra extends into regions where the umbra previously prevailed. Hence, in areas where Bverhints toward the role of Bverstable as inhibitor of the penumbral mode of magneto-convection.

  1. Dielectric property measurements in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Bussell, Kerri; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to measure the dielectric properties of various materials has been developed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory (EPML) of the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB). Two measurement techniques which have been implemented in the EPML to characterize materials are the dielectric probe and waveguide techniques. Several materials, including some for which the dielectric properties are well known, have been measured in an attempt to establish the capabilities of the EPML in determining dielectric properties. Brief descriptions of the two techniques are presented in this report, along with representative results obtained during these measurements.

  2. Fractal aggregates in reduced gravity experiments and numerical simulations to characterize cometary material properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    to determine cometary dust properties useful to interpret observations and to prepare on-going missions. Cometary primordial aggregation Recent in situ studies have unveiled surface features hinting at a pervasive internal layered structure on 9P/Tempel 1 [9]. Assuming reduced gravity aggregation of cometesimals and taking into account sintering processes, quantitative internal properties of the nucleus can be obtained [10]. At large dissipation of the kinetic energy during impact, possible fractal structure disappears and is replaced by a density, cohesive strength and porosity layering of the material. The cohesive strength of the nuclei obtained (¡104 N.m-2 ) compares well with values deduced from disruption events observations and laboratory impact experiments. During an impact, if the ejected material is lost, the internal structure of the nucleus can be erased. This suggests that either the structures observed are not primordial (e.g. cryovolcanism resurfacing [11]) or that secondary mechanisms, such as the re-accretion of fragments after destructive collision, have occurred during the accretion process [12]. Support from LPI, LATMOS/IPSL, CNES for PROGRA2 and CNES and ESA for the micro-gravity flights are acknowledged. [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al, PSS 2009 [2] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, JQSRT 2003; [3] Levasseur-Regourd et al., ESA-SP 2001; [4] Blum et al., ASR 2002; [5] Renard et al., AO 2002; [6] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2006; [7] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2007; [8] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009a) ; [9] Thomas et al., Icarus 2007 ; [10] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009b) ; [11] Belton et al., Icarus (2008); [12] Blum and Wurm, Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. (2008)

  3. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmenter, Kelly E.; Milstein, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels' mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels' mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests. Moreover, before the mechanical response

  4. Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  6. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET ADLEE INVENTORY Physical Properties Data for Rock salt N DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION DJsbTRIuT10IN STATEMENT A DISTRIUTION...Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt )ata Book (see block 18) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. 167RCORGRN NUMBER(n) SH. H. Li, R. A...Chemical properties -Electrical properties --- : Mechanical properties --Optical properties --Magnetic properties -- .1Theruophysical properties -Geological

  7. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  8. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Ait Mou, Younss; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study.

  9. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Younss Ait; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study. PMID:26779498

  10. Opiomelanins synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Rosei, M A

    2001-07-01

    Opiomelanins represent a new class of synthetic pigments produced by the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of opioid peptides and other tyrosine aminoterminal peptides. In contrast with dopamelanin, these polymers are fully soluble in hydrophilic media, due to the presence of the peptide moiety. Opiomelanins show paramagnetism as demonstrated by the EPR spectrum identical to that of dopamelanin. The presence of the aminoacidic chain linked to the melaninic moiety, influences the electron transfer properties of opiomelanins i.e. the ability to oxidize NADH. Like dopamelanin Tyr-Gly-melanin exhibits this behaviour whereas leuenkmelanin does not show any oxidizing potential. Opiomelanins UV-Vis spectrum is characterized by an absorption band at 330 nm which disappears upon acid hydrolysis, H2O2 treatment and under simulated solar illumination. Opiomelanins exhibit a fluorescence emission peaked at 440 and 520 nm if excited at 330 nm. These fluorescence bands are due to the oligomeric units and high molecular weight units, respectively. When opioid peptides are allowed to react with tyrosinase in the presence of an excess of cysteine, cysteinyldopaenkephalins are synthesized. These peptides are furtherly oxidized giving rise to pheoopiomelanins. Reactive oxygen species also are able to oxidize non enzymatically both enkephalins and cysteinyldopaenkephalins, producing the corresponding melanin pigments.

  11. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-05-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at ‑20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism.

  12. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    PubMed Central

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at −20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism. PMID:27188748

  13. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  14. Grepafloxacin: microbiological properties.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Michael S.

    1998-03-01

    Grepafloxacin is a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone characterized by having a methyl-substituted piperazine at the 7 position. It is a water-soluble racemate with both stereoisomers having the same activity. Its mode of action involves inhibition of topoisomerases II and IV. Grepafloxacin is not recognized by the NorA efflux mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus and, thus, some strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to other fluoroquinolones remain susceptible to grepafloxacin. Grepafloxacin has potent in vitro activity against streptococci and staphylococci, respiratory Gram-negative pathogens, atypical respiratory pathogens and sexually transmitted disease pathogens. It combines the positive properties of the beta-lactams against conventional Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory pathogens with the activity of the macrolides against the atypical pathogens. Unlike macrolides, it is bactericidal at concentrations close to the MIC. Its in vitro activity has been reflected in animal models of respiratory tract infections. Concentrations above MICs are maintained throughout nearly all of the 24-h dosing interval. Grepafloxacin provides important improvements over older quinolones and over other classes of antibiotics.

  15. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  16. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  17. Healthy properties of proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocío; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Boqué, Noemí; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also named condensed tannins, are the result of flavanols condensation. Oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins can widely be found in the plant kingdom, as in fruits and berries, seeds, flowers, and leaves. They have a putative role as antioxidants, and they affect the inflammatory process via calcium-dependent release of nitric oxide and protect against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation. They also demonstrated a role in cardiovascular diseases via vessel relaxation and LDL oxidation inhibition. These condensed tannins have also shown activities that improve diabetic complications, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy, including a decrease in serum glucose and advanced glycation end products. Furthermore, proanthocyanidins have evidenced anticancer properties by mitigating tumor development through induction of apoptosis or inhibition of cell proliferation. Finally, they are able to produce antiadhesive actions against bacteria in urinary and dental infections, including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. Hence, proanthocyanidins are considered as beneficial molecules in preventing or treating many diseases and pathological conditions. Therefore, finding out more about condensed tannins bioavailability, and understanding the regulatory genes and pathways involved in their effects should be aimed in future research.

  18. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  19. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 558.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 558.308 Section 558.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308 Section 543.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 542.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.315 Section 542.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wenjie; He, Xingyuan; Zhang, Wentian; Song, Kaishan; Han, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and bulk density) and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements). Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05). The primary forest had a 2.35–2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C–H, C–O, and O–H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N) in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05). However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes. PMID:26430896

  4. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wenjie; He, Xingyuan; Zhang, Wentian; Song, Kaishan; Han, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and bulk density) and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements). Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05). The primary forest had a 2.35-2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C-H, C-O, and O-H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N) in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05). However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes.

  5. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-04-01

    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  6. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tye, C.; Neumann, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    Our principal accomplishments in the physical property studies of low-rank coals are the determination of their: (A) relative amounts of tightly and loosely bound moisture, (B) porosity and pore size distribution, (C) mechanical and thermal friabilities, and (D) surface areas. The occurrence of moisture in low-rank coals involves at least two fundamentally different mechanisms for binding the water to the coal matrix. The first type of moisture behaves as if it were ''free''; the vapor pressure versus temperature behavior is similar to that of pure water. The second type occurs at sites where it is bound more tightly, resulting in a lowering of the corresponding vapor pressure. A dielectric-relaxation-spectroscopic investigation of a North Dakota lignite and a subbituminous coal provides direct evidence for the existence of the two types of moisture. Lignite incorporates 80% of its moisture in a loosely-bound form which freezes to ice and the remaining 20% is present possibly chemically bound to inorganic moieties. The subbituminous coal contains only the latter type of bound moisture. Small angle scattering has proven to be a useful and convenient method of studying the pore structure of coal, and yields information related to pore size, pore size distribution, specific surface area and specific volume. Calculation of values for these parameters must be made in terms of some model; a pore model developed at the University of Missouri has proven to be quite useful. The objective in friability studies is to determine the shift in particle size distribution as a result of tumbling or heating. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  8. Nuclear properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The heavy Fm isotopes (/sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm) so far appear to be unique in exhibiting very symmetric mass distributions and anomolously high fragment total kinetic energies. This effect appears to be associated with the Z = 100 proton configuration of the fissioning nuclide which can fission symmetrically into two fragments having the Z = 50 closed-proton shell configuration; /sup 256/Cf which has the same number of neutrons but only 98 protons does not exhibit these fission properties. Furthermore, /sup 259/Md, also having 158 neutrons but with 101 protons, fissions symmetrically but with a normal total kinetic energy. However, the total kinetic-energy distribution is extremely broad, indicating a range of fragment shapes at scission from spherical to highly distorted. It is extremely important to check more nuclides with Z greater than 100 and N greater than or equal to 158 to check the relative importance of the fragement proton and neutron shells. New methods are needed for measurements of half lives of ms or less and for providing positive identification of the Z and A of the fissioning species. Recent experiments indicate that /sup 259/Fm is produced with a 10 to 15 nb cross section in bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 18/O and that therefore extreme caution must be exercised in making assignments. However, transfer or deep inelastic reactions of this kind would appear to offer a good possibility for making the heavier isotopes of Md or Lr for study by bombarding Bk or Es targets with /sup 18/O.

  9. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by…

  10. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  11. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  12. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  13. Who Owns Faculty Intellectual Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines definitions of ownership relevant to faculty's intellectual property. Highlights exclusive rights that copyright owners hold under Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act. Notes university initiatives looking into the question of intellectual property. Provides examples of "significant" resources which in the case of public…

  14. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Lukashenko, G.M.; Polotskaya, R.I.

    1986-11-01

    The authors determine the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, formation heat, and other thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide by measuring the electromotive force in the 830-960 K temperature range in electrolytes consisting of molten tin and various chlorides. The relationship of these properties to crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  15. The Structures & Properties of Carbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Olivia M.; Lisensky, George C.; Ehrlich, Jennifer; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    The four main forms of carbon--diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--are an excellent vehicle for teaching fundamental principles of chemical bonding, material structure, and properties. Carbon atoms form a variety of structures that are intrinsically connected to the properties they exhibit. Educators can take advantage of…

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  17. Materials properties data base computerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.

  18. New steam properties are coming

    SciTech Connect

    Bellows, J.C.; Sewell, J.B.; Friend, D.G.; Harvey, A.H.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.; Parry, W.T.; Sengers, J.V.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The IFC-67 Formulation for Industrial Use for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam (familiar to many from its implementation in the ASME Steam Tables) has served as the international steam property standard for contractual and design calculations in the power industry for 30 years, but is showing its age. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has developed and adopted the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 (IAPWS-IF97) as the successor to IFC-67. While the new property formulation will be a significant improvement, the changeover to IAPWS-IF97 will present major challenges for some users. In particular, there could be large economic impacts on manufacturers and buyers of boilers and turbines if they do not properly account for the new property calculations. This article, in addition to describing the structure and advantages of the new formulation, provides guidance for how to make this changeover as painless as possible.

  19. Transport properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the transport properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, measurements of thermal diffusivity and emissivity have been made. In addition to incorporating this new data, new equations have been derived to fit the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity data. This analysis is consistent with the analysis of enthalpy and heat capacity. A new form of equation for the emissivity is also given. The present report comprises the transport part of the UO/sub 2/ portion of section A of the planned complete revision of Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis.

  20. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  1. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  2. Distinguishing internal property from external property in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    What determines the ownership of human body parts? In this paper, I argue that this question can be informed by an exploration of the cognitive distinction between property external to the human body such as houses, cars or land, and internal property such as organs that are located within anatomical body confines. Each type of property has distinct brain representations and possibly different effects on the sense of self. This distinction may help explain the divergence in post-donation outcomes seen in different kidney donor populations. Poor outcomes in some types of kidney donors may be due not only to a failure in their proper selection by standard medical testing or post-donation care but may also be a manifestation of differing effects on sense of self resulting from transfer of their internal property. Because a kidney is internal property, a hypothesis worth exploring is that those who experience good outcomes post-donation experience dopaminergic activation and a feeling of reward, while those experiencing bad outcomes are instead overcoming cortisol or adrenergic-based stress or fear responses without a corresponding feeling of reward, disrupting of their sense of self. Discussions about the rules for internal property transfer must be based not only on values and laws designed to govern external property but also on cognitive science-based facts, values and judgments that discussions of external property do not presently accommodate. Any future system of rules for governing organ distribution requires a framework different from that of external property to prevent harm to living kidney donors.

  3. Dynamic Properties of Polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, George H.

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the dynamic behavior of polyurea at rates of loading that is outside the reach of plate impact and split-Hopkinson bar experiments. This was motivated by the desire to design polyurea-based armors against hypervelocity impacts such as those arising from shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles with speeds in the range of 9,000 to 30,000 ft/s. By employing the laser-induced stress waves, the tensile strength and fracture energy of polyurea were measured at peak strain rate of 10 7s-1. Tensile strength of 93.1 ±5 MPa and fracture energy values of 6.75 (± 0.5) J/m2 were measured. It was also shown that the Time Temperature Superposition Principle holds for polyurea even at strain rates as high as 105s-1. This strain rate is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported recently by the Caltech group (Zhao, et al.). This important finding suggests that blast simulations of large-scale structures and those of armors involving polyurea can be based on constitutive data gathered under quasi-static conditions. This is quite powerful. With a view towards future reach, preliminary experiments were performed to inquire how polyurca behaves in the presence of other armor materials when subjected to impacts in the nanoseconds timeframe. That is, does it synergistically add its intrinsic impact-mitigating properties to other known defeat mechanisms? To this end, sections in which I to 2 mm thick polyurea layers were sandwiched between glass, acrylic, polyurethane, Al, Steel, and PMMA plates were subjected to laser-generated stress waves. The sections were evaluated based on the amplitude and time profile of the stress wave that exited the sections. Both metal plates resulted in a significant reduction in the transmitted stress wave amplitude. This was due to the large impedance mismatch between the polyurea and the metal which essentially resulted in trapping of the stress wave within the incident substrate. An unexpected

  4. Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride/silicon carbide ceramic nanocomposites derived from polymer precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, Matthew Jeremy

    Creep deformation of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics is dominated by a solution-precipitation process through the glassy interface phase at grain boundary regions, which is formed by the reaction of oxide additives with the silicon oxide surface layer of the ceramic powder particles during liquid phase sintering. The ultimate approach to increase the creep resistance of these materials is to decrease the oxide content at the grain boundaries, rendering the solution-precipitation process non-effective. This research presents a new method of enhancing the creep properties of silicon nitride/silicon carbide composites by forming micro-nano and nano-nano microstructures during sintering. Starting from amorphous Si-C-N powders of micrometric size particles, powders were consolidated in three ways: (1) Consolidation of pyrolyzed powders without additives, (2) Electric Field Assisted Sintering (EFAS) of pyrolyzed powders with and without additives and (3) High pressure sintering. In all three cases, nanocomposites with varied grain size were achieved. High temperature mechanical creep testing was performed on the samples sintered by EFAS. Creep rates ranged from 1 x 10-8/s to 1 x 10-11/s depending on method in which powders were prepared and total oxide additive amount. For samples with high oxide contents the stress exponent was found to be n ˜ 2 with an activation energy of Q ˜ 600kJ/mol*K, indicating the typical solution precipitation process of deformation. But for the nano-nano composites sintered with little to none oxide additive, the stress exponent was found to be n ˜ 1 with and activation energy of Q ˜ 200kJ/mol*K, hinting at a diffusion controlled mechanism of creep deformation. For the nano-nano composites sintered without oxide additives, oxygen was found in the microstructure. However, oxygen contamination was found to distribute at grain boundary regions especially triple junctions. It is suggested that this highly dispersed distribution of

  5. Properties of the solar neighbor WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. D.; Vaisanen, P.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Beletsky, Y.; Mamajek, E. E.; Mužić, K.; Beamín, J. C.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Pourbaix, D.; Gandhi, P.; Gulbis, A.; Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Kurtev, R.; Mawet, D.; Borissova, J.; Minniti, D.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The severe crowding towards the Galactic plane suggests that the census of nearby stars in that direction may be incomplete. Recently, Scholz reported a new M9 object at an estimated distance d ≃ 7 pc (WISE J072003.20-084651.2; hereafter WISE J0720) at Galactic latitude b = 2.3°. Aims: Our goals are to determine the physical characteristics of WISE J0720, its kinematic properties, and to address the question of whether it is a binary object, as was suggested in the discovery paper. Methods: Optical and infrared spectroscopy from the Southern African Large Telescope and Magellan, respectively, and spectral energy distribution fitting were used to determine the spectral type of WISE J0720. The measured radial velocity, proper motion, and parallax yielded its Galactic velocities. We also investigated if WISE J0720 may show X-ray activity based on archival data. Results: Our spectra are consistent with spectral type L0±1. We find no evidence for binarity, apart from a minor 2σ level difference in the radial velocities taken at two different epochs. The spatial velocity of WISE J0720 does not connect it to any known moving group; instead, it places the object with high probability in the old thin disk or in the thick disk. The spectral energy distribution fit hints at excess in the 12 μm and 22 μm WISE bands which may be due to a redder companion, but the same excess is visible in other late-type objects, and it more likely implies a shortcoming of the models (e.g., problems with the effective wavelengths of the filters for these extremely cool objects, etc.) rather than a disk or redder companion. The optical spectrum shows some Hα emission, indicative of stellar activity. Archival X-ray observations yield no detection. Conclusions: WISE J0720 is a new member of the solar neighborhood, the third nearest L dwarf. Our data do not support the hypothesis of its binary nature. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), the

  6. Some Peculiar Properties of Magnetic Clouds as Observed by the WIND Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdichevsky, D.; Lepping, R. P.; Szabo, A.; Burlaga, L. F.; Thompson, B. J.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinburg, J. T.; Mariani, F.

    1999-01-01

    We aimed at understanding the common characteristics of magnetic clouds, relevant to solar-interplanetary connections, but exceptional ones were noted and are stressed here through a short compendium. The study is based on analyses of 28 good or better events (Out of 33 candidates) as identified in WIND magnetic field and plasma data. These cloud intervals are provided by WIND-MFI's Website under the URL (http://lepmfi.gsfc.nasa.gov/mfi/mag_cloud_publ.html#table). The period covered is from early 1995 to November 1998. A force free, cylindrically symmetric, magnetic field model has been applied to the field data in usually 1-hour averaged form for the cloud analyses. Some of the findings are: (1) one small duration event turned out to have an approximately normal size which was due to a distant almost "skimming" passage by the spacecraft; (2) One truly small event was observed, where 10 min averages had to be used in the model fitting; it had an excellent model fit and the usual properties of a magnetic cloud, except it possessed a small axial magnetic flux; (3) One cloud ha a dual axial-field-polarity, in the sense that the "core" had one polarity and the annular region around it had an opposite polarity. This event also satisfied the model and with a ve3ry good chi-squared value. Some others show a hint of this dual polarity; (4) The temporal distribution of occurrence clouds over the 4 years show a dip in 1996; (5) About 50 % of the clouds had upstream shocks; any others had upstream pressure pulses; (6) The overall average speed (390 km/s) of the best 28 events is less than the normally quoted for the average solar wind speed (420 km/s) The average of central cloud speed to the upstream solar wind speed was not much greater than one (1.08), even though many of these clouds were drivers of interplanetary shocks. Cloud expansion is partly the reason for the existence of upstream shocks; (7) The cloud axes often (about 50 % of the time) revealed reasonable

  7. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. Loss of control, loss of dignity, altered body image, reduced physical activity, and dietary restrictions may all be problems to contend with. These can interfere with work or school and social functions both in obvious and subtle ways – including ...

  8. Shell quenching in Ni78: A hint from the structure of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-06-01

    Recent progress in experimental techniques allows us to study very exotic systems like neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of Ni78. The spectroscopy of this region can nowadays be studied theoretically in the large scale shell model calculations. In this work, we perform a shell model study of odd copper nuclei with N=40-50, in a large valence space with the Ca48 core, using a realistic interaction derived from the CD-Bonn potential. We present the crucial importance of the proton core excitations for the description of spectra and magnetic moments, which are for the first time correctly reproduced in theoretical calculations. Shell evolution from Ni68 to Ni78 is discussed in detail. A weakening of the Z=28 gap when approaching the N=50 shell closure, suggested by the experimental evidence, is confirmed in the calculations.

  9. Impact of simulated microgravity on human bone stem cells: New hints for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Maier, Jeanette A M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-04-22

    Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved. Indeed, only the addition of an osteogenic cocktail activates the full differentiation process both in simulated microgravity and under static 1G-conditions. We conclude that simulated microgravity alone reprograms bone mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteogenic phenotype which results in complete differentiation only after exposure to a specific stimulus.

  10. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... the table below. There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to...

  11. Helpful Hints: Q and A for Use of the e-TSCA/e-PMN Submission Software

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The documentexplains some of the electronic reporting requirements in 40 CFR parts 720, 723 and 725applicable to documents submitted pursuant to those provisions. The document also discussesrecommended practices for such submission.

  12. Teaching Pre- and Semi-Literate Laotian and Cambodian Adolescents To Read: Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Charles R.; And Others

    The handbook details techniques and approaches for teaching adolescent Laotian and Cambodian refugees, aged 10-17, to read. It evolved from a workshop for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in which 17 such students participated. The book begins by looking at reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game, then proceeds to classroom…

  13. Some Biological Hints on the Control of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    This review paper explores the possibilities of the control of heat and mass transfer associated with drought tolerance and freeze tolerance. The accumulation of some metabolites, such as proline and trehalose, are effective for drought tolerance. The special microstructures on the surfaces of some plants and insects in deserts are effective for collecting moisture in the air. Methods of preserving crops will be improved by the mimetic of the drought tolerance. Calcium ions and a protein are effective for the retrieval of damaged cell membrane due to ice formation. Ice crystal growth is inhibited by some substances such as antifreeze proteins. The cryopreservation of foods and organs will be improved by the mimetic of the freeze tolerance.

  14. Can cold neutrons give hint to understanding nature of dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybolt, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The composition of Dark Matter remains a mystery despite numerous searches. We explore an alternative to the WIMP paradigm in which Ordinary Matter and Dark Matter ``Mirror'' sectors are made of the same particles with the Standard Model interactions in each sector, except two sectors do not interact with each other by the Standard Model interactions. They only interact gravitationally and by some BSM mechanisms that can mix neutral components from both sectors. Thus, for example, photons can mix with sterile mirror photons via ``kinetic mixing'' mechanism, neutrinos can oscillate into sterile mirror neutrinos, and neutrons into sterile mirror neutrons. I explore the possibility to search for this Dark ``Mirror'' Sector by looking at mixing between neutron and mirror neutron. This can be done in a cold neutron beam where neutrons can oscillate into mirror neutrons and pass through a neutron absorber and then transform back into ordinary neutrons where they are detected. The regeneration of neutron depends on the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field.

  15. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through condensation, sedimentation and evaporation of large HNO3-containing particles inside polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. In situ observations by the particle probe FSSP-100 during the RECONCILE campaign indicate unexpected large potential NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles inside PSCs. The observations can hardly be explained assuming particles with compact morphology and spherical shape due to limited growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). Utilizing simulations by the CLaMS and measurements by the airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer MIPAS-STR we study the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution. Reduced settling velocities are expected for spherical NAT particles with low mass density or aspheric NAT particles that might explain the maximum sizes of the particles observed in situ. The results of our study support the hypothesis that denitrification is produced by significantly aspheric (i.e. columnar) compact NAT particles which are characterised by reduced settling velocities.

  16. Denitrification by large NAT particles: the impact of reduced settling velocities and hints on particle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Grooß, J.-U.; Oelhaf, H.; Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Ebersoldt, A.; Frey, W.; Gulde, T.; Khaykin, S.; Maucher, G.; Piesch, C.; Orphal, J.

    2014-10-01

    Vertical redistribution of HNO3 through large HNO3-containing particles associated with polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of the Arctic winter stratosphere. During the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) campaign, apparently very large NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) particles were observed by the airborne in situ probe FSSP-100 (Molleker et al., 2014). Our analysis shows that the FSSP-100 observations associated with the flight on 25 January 2010 cannot easily be explained assuming compact spherical NAT particles due to much too short growing time at temperatures below the existence temperature of NAT (TNAT). State-of-the-art simulations using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere; Grooß et al., 2014) suggest considerably smaller particles. We consider the hypothesis that the simulation reproduces the NAT particle masses in a realistic way, but that real NAT particles may have larger apparent sizes compared to compact spherical particles, e.g. due to non-compact morphology or aspheric shape. Our study focuses on the consequence that such particles would have reduced settling velocities compared to compact spheres, altering the vertical redistribution of HNO3. Utilising CLaMS simulations, we investigate the impact of reduced settling velocities of NAT particles on vertical HNO3 redistribution and compare the results with observations of gas-phase HNO3 by the airborne Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS-STR associated with two RECONCILE flights. The MIPAS-STR observations confirm conditions consistent with denitrification by NAT particles for the flight on 25 January 2010 and show good agreement with the simulations within the limitations of the comparison. Best agreement is found if settling velocities between 100 and 50% relative to compact spherical particles are considered (slight preference for the 70% scenario). In contrast, relative settling velocities of 30% result in too weak vertical HNO3 redistribution. Sensitivity simulations considering temperature biases of ±1 K and multiplying the simulated nucleation rates by factors of 0.5 and 2.0 affect the comparisons to a similar extent, but result in no effective improvement compared to the reference scenario. Our results show that an accurate knowledge of the settling velocities of NAT particles is important for quantitative simulations of vertical HNO3 redistribution.

  17. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production).

  18. Challenge of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: Clues for diagnosis and hints for pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bessone, Fernando; Poles, Natalia; Roma, Marcelo G

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) encompass a broad spectrum of liver diseases. We propose here to classify them as follows: (1) immunological comorbilities (overlap syndromes); (2) non-immunological comorbilities associated to SLE; and (3) a putative liver damage induced by SLE itself, referred to as “lupus hepatitis”. In the first group, liver injury can be ascribed to overlapping hepatopathies triggered by autoimmune mechanisms other than SLE occurring with higher incidence in the context of lupus (e.g., autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis). The second group includes non-autoimmune liver diseases, such as esteatosis, hepatitis C, hypercoagulation state-related liver lesions, hyperplasic parenchymal and vascular lesions, porphyria cutanea tarda, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the data in the literature to support the existence of a hepatic disease produced by SLE itself, or the occurrence of a SLE-associated prone condition that increases susceptibility to acquire other liver diseases, is critically discussed. The pathological mechanisms underlying each of these liver disorders are also reviewed. Despite the high heterogeneity in the literature regarding the prevalence of SLE-associated liver diseases and, in most cases, lack of histopathological evidence or clinical studies large enough to support their existence, it is becoming increasingly apparent that liver is an important target of SLE. Consequently, biochemical liver tests should be routinely carried out in SLE patients to discard liver disorders, particularly in those patients chronically exposed to potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Diagnosing liver disease in SLE patients is always challenging, and the systematization of the current information carried out in this review is expected to be of help both to attain a better understanding of pathogenesis and to build an appropriate work-up for diagnosis. PMID:25018850

  19. Immunoglobulin gene repertoire in ocular adnexal lymphomas: hints on the nature of the antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dagklis, A; Ponzoni, M; Govi, S; Cangi, M G; Pasini, E; Charlotte, F; Vino, A; Doglioni, C; Davì, F; Lossos, I S; Ntountas, I; Papadaki, T; Dolcetti, R; Ferreri, A J M; Stamatopoulos, K; Ghia, P

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from certain geographical areas links lymphomas of the ocular adnexa marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZL) with Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection, suggesting that lymphoma development is dependent upon chronic stimulation by persistent infections. Notwithstanding that, the actual immunopathogenetical mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. As in other B-cell lymphomas, insight into this issue, especially with regard to potential selecting ligands, could be provided by analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) receptors of the malignant clones. To this end, we studied the molecular features of IGs in 44 patients with OAMZL (40% Cp-positive), identifying features suggestive of a pathogenic mechanism of autoreactivity. Herein, we show that lymphoma cells express a distinctive IG repertoire, with electropositive antigen (Ag)-binding sites, reminiscent of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing DNA. Additionally, five (11%) cases of OAMZL expressed IGs homologous with autoreactive Abs or IGs of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease known for the expression of autoreactive IGs by neoplastic cells. In contrast, no similarity with known anti-Chlamydophila Abs was found. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that OAMZL may originate from B cells selected for their capability to bind Ags and, in particular, auto-Ags. In OAMZL associated with Cp infection, the pathogen likely acts indirectly on the malignant B cells, promoting the development of an inflammatory milieu, where auto-Ags could be exposed and presented, driving proliferation and expansion of self-reactive B cells.

  20. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  1. SPINS OF LARGE ASTEROIDS: A HINT OF A PRIMORDIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THEIR SPIN RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re’em

    2015-04-15

    The Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt are relics from the formation of our solar system. Understanding the size and spin distribution of the two belts is crucial for a deeper understanding of the formation of our solar system and the dynamical processes that govern it. In this paper, we investigate the effect of collisions on the evolution of the spin distribution of asteroids and KBOs. We find that the power law nature of the impactors’ size distribution leads to a Lévy distribution of the spin rates. This results in a power law tail in the spin distribution, in stark contrast to the usually quoted Maxwellian distribution. We show that for bodies larger than 10 km, collisions alone lead to spin rates peaking at 0.15–0.5 revolutions per day. Comparing that to the observed spin rates of large asteroids (R > 50 km), we find that the spins of large asteroids, peaking at ∼1–2 revolutions per day, are dominated by a primordial component that reflects the formation mechanism of the asteroids. Similarly, the Kuiper Belt has undergone virtually no collisional spin evolution, assuming current densities. Collisions contribute a spin rate of ∼0.01 revolutions per day, thus the observed fast spin rates of KBOs are also primordial in nature.

  2. Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τ{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ∼5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  3. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  4. "Don juan-fracture" as a hint to aortic isthmus rupture.

    PubMed

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called "Don-Juan fracture," and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed.

  5. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  6. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic influence, and very modest shared environmental influence. No gender differences were evident. There were significant genetic influences common to IQ and parental expectations of educational attainment, parenting and engagement in school, school grades and engagement in school, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment and school grades, and IQ and school grades. A possible interpretation of the common genetic influences involving parenting is that parents use their own experience with school in shaping the ways in which they parent their offspring. PMID:19081831

  7. Digging for answers, smelling a hint of success and tasting triumph

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    The C12 ‘earthy’ odorant geosmin is derived from the C15 metabolite farnesyl diphosphate. Metabolic transformation now seems to be catalyzed by a bifunctional protein having two operatively independent sesquiterpene synthase domains. The domains are catalytically linked through the passive diffusion of a C15 alcohol product of the N-terminal catalytic domain to the C-terminal catalytic domain for the final steps of geosmin formation. PMID:17948014

  8. Hints of Thermal Fragmentation in the Primordial Substructure of NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Lada, C. J.; Young, E. T.; Marengo, M.; Muench, A.; Muzerolle, J.; Siegler, N.; Rieke, G.; Hartmann, L.; Megeath, T.; Fazio, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present Spitzer observations of a young star forming region within NGC2264. These observations reveal new 24 micron sources in curious linear alignments, extending radially like spokes on a wheel from a previously known luminous young protostar. These 24 micron sources are found to be mostly ( ˜60%) Class I protostars that are highly embedded within dense filamentary molecular material. The protostars still retain the primordial substructuring of the parental cloud. We find the protostars to be separated by regular intervals that are consistent with the Jeans length for the average density of the associated molecular material, suggesting that thermal fragmentation played an important role during the star forming process in this region. The figure shows a false color image of this young region built from MIPS 24 micron (red), IRAC 8 micron (green), and IRAC 3.6 micron (blue) data. PT acknowledges support from the scholarship SFRH/BD/13984/2003 FCT, Portugal.

  9. The 1998 earthquake sequence south of Long Valley Caldera, California: Hints of magmatic involvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Dollar, R.S.; Johnson, P.

    2000-01-01

    A significant episode of seismic and geodetic unrest took place at Long Valley Caldera, California, beginning in the summer of 1997. Activity through late May of 1998 was concentrated in and around the south moat and the south margin of the resurgent dome. The Sierran Nevada block (SNB) region to the south/southeast remained relatively quiet until a M 5.1 event occurred there on 9 June 1998 (UT). A second M 5.1 event followed on 15 July (UT); both events were followed by appreciable aftershock sequences. An additional, distinct burst of activity began on 1 August 1998. The number of events in the August sequence (over the first week or two) was similar to the aftershock sequence of the 15 July 1998 M 5.1 event, but the later sequence was not associated with any events larger than M 4.3. All of the summer 1998 SNB activity was considered tectonic rather than magmatic; in general the SNB is considered an unlikely location for future eruptions. However, the August sequence-an 'aftershock sequence without a mainshock'-is suggestive of a strain event larger than the cumulative seismotectonic strain release. Moreover, a careful examination of waveforms from the August sequence reveals a small handful of events whose spectral signature is strikingly harmonic. We investigate the waveforms of these events using spectral, autocorrelation, and empirical Green's function techniques and conclude that they were most likely associated with a fluid-controlled source. Our observations suggest that there may have been some degree of magma or magma-derived fluid involvement in the 1998 SNB sequence.

  10. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  11. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J.L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10−4M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species. PMID:26997665

  12. On (Not) Representing Sex in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Psychoanalytic Reflection on Orders and Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Colette A.

    2007-01-01

    In this conceptual piece I use two pedagogical texts or moments--a preschool/kindergarten diagram representing body parts, and an adult dance class--to explore gaps in curricula and practice with respect to the treatment of young children's sexual curiosity. Looking first at social constructs of children's sexuality and sexual curiosity, and at…

  13. Perceptual Strategies of Pigeons to Detect a Rotational Centre—A Hint for Star Compass Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  14. Towards understanding mechanisms governing cytotoxicity of metal oxides nanoparticles: hints from nano-QSAR studies.

    PubMed

    Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Schaeublin, Nicole; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Hussain, Saber; Leszczynska, Danuta; Puzyn, Tomasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    The production of nanomaterials increases every year exponentially and therefore the probability these novel materials that they could cause adverse outcomes for human health and the environment also expands rapidly. We proposed two types of mechanisms of toxic action that are collectively applied in a nano-QSAR model, which provides governance over the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The combined experimental-theoretical studies allowed the development of an interpretative nano-QSAR model describing the toxicity of 18 nano-metal oxides to the HaCaT cell line, which is a common in vitro model for keratinocyte response during toxic dermal exposure. The comparison of the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli (prokaryotic system) and a human keratinocyte cell line (eukaryotic system), resulted in the hypothesis that different modes of toxic action occur between prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

  15. Intelligent Tutoring for Programming Tasks: Using Plan Analysis to Generate Better Hints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    construction and execution of a BASIC proqram that assiqns an integer value to a variable and then prints the value of that integer. - ARTICHOKE : assign...the string " ARTICHOKE " to a string variable, assiqn the value of that variable to a second variable, and print the second variable. -SINOP: qet two...the first five tasks: GREENFLAG, ARTICHOKE , SINOP, NINOP, and TWOS. Because the protocols are very lonq, it was necessary to condense them into a

  16. Succeeding in Undergraduate Student Research: A Few Helpful Hints for Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Lora

    2013-01-01

    This article offers some insights into successfully engaging students in research. While most schools encourage undergraduate research, there is little guidance specific to mathematics on how to make it a rewarding experience for both the student and the advisor. With a small support group and a goal-oriented time line, students will be able to…

  17. Origin and Evolution of Retinoid Isomerization Machinery in Vertebrate Visual Cycle: Hint from Jawless Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65’s substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc.) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates. PMID:23209628

  18. Theoretical study on the acidities of chiral phosphoric acids in dimethyl sulfoxide: hints for organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Jin, Jia-Lu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2013-07-19

    The pKa values of 41 chiral phosphoric acid-family catalysts in DMSO were predicted using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method for the first time. The study showed that the calculated pKa's range from -4.23 to 6.16 for absolute pKa values and from -4.21 to 6.38 for relative pKa values. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental pKa's was achieved for the few available cases (to a precision of around 0.4 pKa unit), indicating that this strategy may be suitable for calculating highly accurate pKa's. A good linear correlation between the pKa's for 3 and 3' disubstituted phenyl BINOL phosphoric acids and the Hammett constants was obtained. The relationship between the acidities of phosphoric acid catalysts and their reaction activity and selectivity was also discussed. Knowledge of the pKa values of phosphoric acids should be of great value for the understanding of chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions and may aid in future catalyst design.

  19. Fermionic dark matter through a light pseudoscalar portal: Hints from the DAMA results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2016-08-01

    We study the fermionic dark matter (DM) particle interacting with Standard Model quarks via a light pseudoscalar mediator. We consider separately the scenarios for which the DM-pseudoscalar coupling is C P conserving or C P violating. We show that taking a contact interaction is not suitable, even when the mediator has a mass of the same order of magnitude as the typical momentum transfer at the direct-detection experiments, such that the allowed DAMA region is excluded or considerably modified by the correct relic density requirement. The DAMA result seems to indicate that the C P -violating interaction is dominant at direct searches. We find that, if the proton-to-neutron effective coupling ratio is -60 ˜-40 , the exclusion limits set by SuperCDMS, XENON100, and LUX are highly suppressed, and the DAMA signal can thus be easily reconciled with these null measurements. For this model, the allowed region determined by the DAMA signal and correct relic density can successfully satisfy the conditions required by the thermal equilibrium, big bang nucleosynthesis, and DM self-interactions. The results of future measurements on flavor physics will provide important constraints on the related models. Precise measurements performed by COUPP, PICASSO, SIMPLE, and KIMS should be able to test this model in the near future.

  20. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. Methods These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. Results The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324 PMID:23320410

  1. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients.

  2. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  3. Hints for Hidden Planetary Companions to Hot Jupiters in Stellar Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for stellar companions to hot Jupiters (HJs) have revealed that planetary systems hosting an HJ are approximately three times more likely to have a stellar companion with a semimajor axis between 50 and 2000 au, compared to field stars. This correlation suggests that HJ formation is affected by the stellar binary companion. A potential model is high-eccentricity migration, in which the binary companion induces high-eccentricity Lidov–Kozai (LK) oscillations in the proto-HJ orbit, triggering orbital migration driven by tides. A pitfall of this “binary-LK” model is that the observed stellar binaries hosting HJs are typically too wide to produce HJs in sufficient numbers because of suppression by short-range forces. We propose a modification to the binary-LK model in which there is a second giant planet orbiting the proto-HJ at a semimajor axis of several tens of au. Such companions are currently hidden to observations, but their presence could be manifested by a propagation of the perturbation of the stellar binary companion inward to the proto-HJ, thereby overcoming the barrier imposed by short-range forces. Our model does not require the planetary companion orbit to be eccentric and/or inclined with respect to the proto-HJ, but its semimajor axis should lie in a specific range given the planetary mass and binary semimajor axis, and the inclination with respect to the binary should be near 40° or 140°. Our prediction for planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries should be testable by future observations.

  4. Homology modeling of 5-lipoxygenase and hints for better inhibitor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparoy, P.; Reddy, R. N.; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Reddy, M. R.; Reddanna, P.

    2008-09-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of enzymes involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among these 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the key enzyme leading to the formation of pharmacologically important leukotrienes and lipoxins, the mediators of inflammatory and allergic disorders. In view of close functional similarity to mammalian lipoxygenase, potato 5-LOX is used extensively. In this study, the homology modeling technique has been used to construct the structure of potato 5-LOX. The amino acid sequence identity between the target protein and sequence of template protein 1NO3 (soybean LOX-3) searched from NCBI protein BLAST was 63%. Based on the template structure, the protein model was constructed by using the Homology program in InsightII. The protein model was briefly refined by energy minimization steps and validated using Profile-3D, ERRAT and PROCHECK. The results showed that 99.3% of the amino acids were in allowed regions of Ramachandran plot, suggesting that the model is accurate and its stereochemical quality good. Like all LOXs, 5-LOX also has a two-domain structure, the small N-terminal β-barrel domain and a larger catalytic domain containing a single atom of non-heme iron coordinating with His525, His530, His716 and Ile864. Asn720 is present in the fifth coordination position of iron. The sixth coordination position faces the open cavity occupied here by the ligands which are docked. Our model of the enzyme is further validated by examining the interactions of earlier reported inhibitors and by energy minimization studies which were carried out using molecular mechanics calculations. Four ligands, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) having IC50 of 1.5 μM and analogs of benzyl propargyl ethers having IC50 values of 760 μM, 45 μM, and no inhibition respectively were selected for our docking and energy minimization studies. Our results correlated well with the experimental data reported earlier, which proved the quality of the model. This model generated can be further used for the design and development of more potent 5-LOX inhibitors.

  5. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  6. Building Models to Predict Hint-or-Attempt Actions of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente; Adjei, Seth; Colombo, Tyler; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research in educational data mining is geared towards predicting student performance. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing, Performance Factors Analysis, and the different variations of these have been introduced and have had some success at predicting student knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that very little has been done to…

  7. Turbulent energy transfer in electromagnetic turbulence: hints from a Reversed Field Pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Bergsaker, H.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in a Reversed Field Pinch is addressed. ExB sheared flows and turbulence at the edge tends to organize themeselves near marginal stability, suggesting an underlying energy exchange process between turbulence and mean flow. In MHD this process is well described through the quantity P which represents the energy transfer (per mass and time unit) from turbulence to mean fields. In the edge region of RFP configuration, where magnetic field is mainly poloidal and the mean ExB is consequently toroidal, the quantity P results: P =[ -ρμ0 + ]Vφr where Vφ is the mean ExB toroidal flow, ρ the mean mass density and b and v the fluctuations of velocity and magnetic field respectively. Both the radial profiles and the temporal evolution of P have been measured in the edge region of Extrap-T2R Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The results support the existence of oscillating energy exchange process between fluctuations and mean flow.

  8. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Lacaci, G; Cernicharo, J; Agúndez, M; Prieto, L Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A; Marcelino, N; Cabezas, C; Peña, I; Alonso, J L; Zúñiga, J; Requena, A; Bastida, A; Kalugina, Y; Lique, F; Guélin, M

    2016-02-20

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10(-4)M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  9. RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF 47 TUCANAE AND {omega} CENTAURI: HINTS FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-03-10

    We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) and {omega} Centauri ({omega} Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5{sigma} detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3{sigma} upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} for {omega} Cen and 47 Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters.

  10. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  11. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  12. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of…

  13. CoRoT-2a Magnetic Activity: Hints for Possible Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Isabella; Lanza, Antonino F.; Leto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio; Barge, Pierre; Baglin, Annie

    2009-09-01

    CoRoT-2a is a young (≈0.5 Gyr) G7V star accompanied by a transiting hot-Jupiter, discovered by the CoRoT satellite (Alonso et al. Astron Astrophys 482:L21, 2008; Bouchy et al. Astron Astrophys 482:L25, 2008). An analysis of its photospheric activity, based on spot modelling techniques previously developed by our group for the analysis of the Sun as a star, shows that the active regions on CoRoT-2a arised within two active longitudes separated by about 180° and rotating with periods of 4.5221 and 4.5543 days, respectively, at epoch of CoRoT observations (112 continous days centered at ≈2007.6). We show that the total spotted area oscillates with a period of about 28.9 days, a value close to 10 times the synodic period of the planet with respect to the active longitude pattern rotating in 4.5221 days. Moreover, the variance of the stellar flux is modulated in phase with the planet orbital period. This suggests a possible star-planet magnetic interaction, a phenomenon already seen in other extrasolar planetary systems hosting hot-Jupiters.

  14. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  15. Evolving visual pigments: hints from the opsin-based proteins in a phylogenetically old "eyeless" invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Santillo, Silvia; Orlando, Pierangelo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Guglielmotti, Vittorio; Musio, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Visual pigments are photosensitive receptor proteins that trigger the transduction process producing the visual excitation once they have absorbed photons. In spite of the molecular and morpho-functional complexity that has characterized the development of animal eyes and eyeless photoreceptive systems, opsin-based protein family appears ubiquous along metazoan visual systems. Moreover, in addition to classic rhodopsin photoreceptors, all Metazoa have supplementary non-visual photosensitive structures, mainly located in the central nervous system, that sense light without forming an image and that rather regulate the organism's temporal physiology. The investigation of novel non-visual photopigments exerting extraretinal photoreception is a challenging field in vision research. Here we propose the cnidarian Hydra as a useful tool of investigation for molecular and functional differences between these pigment families. Hydra is the first metazoan owning a nervous system and it is an eyeless invertebrate showing only an extraocular photoreception, as it has no recognized visual or photosensitive structures. In this paper we provide an overview of the molecular and functional features of the opsin-based protein subfamilies and preliminary evidences in a phylogenetically old species of both image-forming and non-visual opsins. Then we give new insights on the molecular biology of Hydra photoreception and on the evolutionary pathways of visual pigments.

  16. Design of sweet protein based sweeteners: hints from structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Rega, Michele Fortunato; Di Monaco, Rossella; Leone, Serena; Donnarumma, Federica; Spadaccini, Roberta; Cavella, Silvana; Picone, Delia

    2015-04-15

    Sweet proteins represent a class of natural molecules, which are extremely interesting regarding their potential use as safe low-calories sweeteners for individuals who need to control sugar intake, such as obese or diabetic subjects. Punctual mutations of amino acid residues of MNEI, a single chain derivative of the natural sweet protein monellin, allow the modulation of its taste. In this study we present a structural and functional comparison between MNEI and a sweeter mutant Y65R, containing an extra positive charge on the protein surface, in conditions mimicking those of typical beverages. Y65R exhibits superior sweetness in all the experimental conditions tested, has a better solubility at mild acidic pH and preserves a significant thermal stability in a wide range of pH conditions, although slightly lower than MNEI. Our findings confirm the advantages of structure-guided protein engineering to design improved low-calorie sweeteners and excipients for food and pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  18. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  19. Atypical p-ANCA in PSC and AIH: a hint toward a "leaky gut"?

    PubMed

    Terjung, Birgit; Spengler, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are enigmatic chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver, which are frequently associated with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Both types of liver disease share various distinct autoantibodies such as atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA), and thus are considered autoimmune disorders with atypical features. The discovery that atypical p-ANCA recognize both tubulin beta isoform 5 in human neutrophils and the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ has renewed the discussion on the potential role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In this paper, we review the evidence for microbial infection in PSC and AIH and discuss new concepts how cross-recognition between microbial antigens in the gut and host components by the immune system along with stimulation of pattern recognition receptors might give rise to chronic hepatic inflammatory disorders with features of autoimmunity.

  20. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  1. The Principal's Companion: Strategies and Hints To Make the Job Easier. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey B.

    Despite the administrative leadership that most principals receive in university courses, their most useful learning occurs once they are on the job. The new knowledge--much of it the result of trial and error--is gained in relative isolation. This second edition provides ideas, approaches, strategies, resources, tools, techniques, and reflective…

  2. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition.

  3. Identification of an ovarian voltage-activated Na+-channel type: hints to involvement in luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bulling, A; Berg, F D; Berg, U; Duffy, D M; Stouffer, R L; Ojeda, S R; Gratzl, M; Mayerhofer, A

    2000-07-01

    An endocrine type of voltage-activated sodium channel (eNaCh) was identified in the human ovary and human luteinized granulosa cells (GC). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that the eNaCh in GC is functional and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive. The luteotrophic hormone human CG (hCG) was found to decrease the peak amplitude of the sodium current within seconds. Treatment with hCG for 24-48 h suppressed not only eNaCh mRNA levels, but also mean Na+ peak currents and resting membrane potentials. An unexpected role for eNaChs in regulating cell morphology and function was indicated after pharmacological modulation of presumed eNaCh steady-state activity in GC cultures for 24-48 h using TTX (NaCh blocker) and veratridine (NaCh activator). TTX preserved a highly differentiated cellular phenotype. Veratridine not only increased the number of secondary lysosomes but also led to a significantly reduced progesterone production. Importantly, endocrine cells of the nonhuman primate corpus luteum (CL), which represent in vivo counterparts of luteinized GC, also contain eNaCh mRNA. Although the mechanism of channel activity under physiological conditions is not clear, it may include persistent Na+ currents. As observed in GC in culture, abundant secondary lysosomes were particularly evident in the regressing CL, suggesting a functional link between eNaCh activity and this form of cellular regression in vivo. Our results identify eNaCh in ovarian endocrine cells and demonstrate that their expression is under the inhibitory control of hCG. Activation of eNaChs in luteal cells, due to loss of gonadotropin support, may initiate a cascade of events leading to decreased CL function, a process that involves lysosomal activation and autophagy. These results imply that ovarian eNaChs are involved in the physiological demise of the temporary endocrine organ CL in the primate ovary during the menstrual cycle. Because commonly used drugs, including phenytoin, target NaChs, these results may be of clinical relevance.

  4. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  5. Melatonin, Noncoding RNAs, Messenger RNA Stability and Epigenetics—Evidence, Hints, Gaps and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin. PMID:25310649

  6. Improving HIV coreceptor usage prediction in the clinic using hints from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Due to the high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug-resistant-variants emerge frequently. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for new ways to attack the virus. One new class of anti-HIV drugs is the class of coreceptor antagonists that block cell entry by occupying a coreceptor on CD4 cells. This type of drug just has an effect on the subset of HIVs that use the inhibited coreceptor. A good prediction of whether the viral population inside a patient is susceptible to the treatment is hence very important for therapy decisions and pre-requisite to administering the respective drug. The first prediction models were based on data from Sanger sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV. Recently, a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was introduced that predicts labels for each read separately and decides on the patient label through a percentage threshold for the resistant viral minority. Results: We model the prediction problem on the patient level taking the information of all reads from NGS data jointly into account. This enables us to improve prediction performance for NGS data, but we can also use the trained model to improve predictions based on Sanger sequencing data. Therefore, also laboratories without NGS capabilities can benefit from the improvements. Furthermore, we show which amino acids at which position are important for prediction success, giving clues on how the interaction mechanism between the V3 loop and the particular coreceptors might be influenced. Availability: A webserver is available at http://coreceptor.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de. Contact: nico.pfeifer@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:22962486

  7. Hints for the Improvement of Quality Teaching in Introductory Engineering Statistics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Felipe M. Aparicio

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a way to improve the quality of statistics teaching to undergraduate engineering students. Teaching quality can be understood as a goal to be achieved in three nurtured phases: (1) course planning; (2) adoption of methodological approach; and (3) evaluation of results. (Author/SAH)

  8. Bird Flight: Hints to Be Obtained from It for Use in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan,

    1923-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.

  9. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  10. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Teaching Database Modeling and Design: Areas of Confusion and Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies several areas of database modeling and design that have been problematic for students and even are likely to confuse faculty. Major contributing factors are the lack of clarity and inaccuracies that persist in the presentation of some basic database concepts in textbooks. The paper analyzes the problems and discusses ways to…

  12. Geoepidemiological hints about Streptococcus pyogenes strains in relationship with acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Fastiggi, Michele; Fumagalli, Monica; Andreozzi, Laura; Rigante, Donato

    2015-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains are lately classified on the basis of sequence variations in the emm gene encoding the M protein, but despite the high number of distinct emm genotypes, the spectrum of phenotypes varying from invasive suppurative to non-suppurative GAS-related disorders has still to be defined. The relationship of GAS types with the uprising of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a multisystemic disease caused by misdirected anti-GAS response in predisposed people, is also obscure. Studies published over the last 15 years were retrieved from PubMed using the keywords: "Streptococcus pyogenes" or "group A Streptococcus" and "acute rheumatic fever": the prevalence of peculiar emm types across different countries of the world is highly variable, depending on research designs, year of observation, country involved, patients' age, and gender. Most studies revealed that a relatively small number of specific emm/M protein types can be considered "rheumatogenic", as potentially characterized by the possibility of inducing ARF, with remarkable differences between developing and developed countries. The association between emm types and post-streptococcal manifestations is challenging, however surveillance of disease-causing variants in a specific community with high rate of ARF should be reinforced with the final goal of developing a potential primary prophylaxis against GAS infections.

  13. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Star Formation Histories of nearby Disks: Hints of Stellar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Roškar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  14. Melatonin, noncoding RNAs, messenger RNA stability and epigenetics--evidence, hints, gaps and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2014-10-10

    Melatonin is a highly pleiotropic regulator molecule, which influences numerous functions in almost every organ and, thus, up- or down-regulates many genes, frequently in a circadian manner. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene expression is actually now expanding to a previously unforeseen extent. In addition to classic actions of transcription factors, gene expression is induced, suppressed or modulated by a number of RNAs and proteins, such as miRNAs, lncRNAs, piRNAs, antisense transcripts, deadenylases, DNA methyltransferases, histone methylation complexes, histone demethylases, histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Direct or indirect evidence for involvement of melatonin in this network of players has originated in different fields, including studies on central and peripheral circadian oscillators, shift work, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, energy expenditure/obesity, diabetes type 2, neuropsychiatric disorders, and neurogenesis. Some of the novel modulators have also been shown to participate in the control of melatonin biosynthesis and melatonin receptor expression. Future work will need to augment the body of evidence on direct epigenetic actions of melatonin and to systematically investigate its role within the network of oscillating epigenetic factors. Moreover, it will be necessary to discriminate between effects observed under conditions of well-operating and deregulated circadian clocks, and to explore the possibilities of correcting epigenetic malprogramming by melatonin.

  15. Hint of CPT violation in short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations allowing for a CPT-violating difference of the squared masses and mixings of neutrinos and antineutrinos. We found that the discrepancy between the disappearance of electron neutrinos indicated by the data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the limits on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos given by the data of reactor experiments reveal a positive CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles (with a statistical significance of about 3.5σ), whereas the squared-mass asymmetry is practically not bounded.

  16. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  17. Clinical hints and precipitating factors in patients suffering from Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Steven D

    2010-10-01

    Meniere disease is one of the most fascinating and most vexing of all clinical conditions encountered by the otolaryngologist. Operationally speaking, a Meniere ear is a fragile ear. In fact, Meniere disease can and should be redefined as a degenerating inner ear that has impairment of one or more homeostatic systems, resulting in instability of hearing and balance function. This updated definition is a valuable guide to the clinical epidemiology and presentation of Meniere disease and to understanding the effects of conservative treatments. In the absence of a definitive test for Meniere disease, the greatest challenge for the clinician may be differentiating this condition from migraine. Ultimately, Meniere vertigo attacks are controllable in more than 99% of cases, but hearing loss and other auditory symptoms tend to be unresponsive to treatment.

  18. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights.

  19. Mobile Students' Appraisals of Keys to a Successful Stay Abroad Experience: Hints from the IEREST Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Jan; Vassilicos, Basil; Borghetti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better support for students in higher education throughout a mobility experience, it is important to understand their point of view regarding stay abroad. This paper analyzes the responses of pre-departure, while-abroad, and upon-return students of different academic backgrounds (N = 990) to an open question that asked them to…

  20. Design and structure of an equilibrium protein folding intermediate: a hint into dynamical regions of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ayuso-Tejedor, Sara; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Bueno, Marta; Campos, Luis A; Abián, Olga; Bernadó, Pau; Sancho, Javier; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2010-07-23

    Partly unfolded protein conformations close to the native state may play important roles in protein function and in protein misfolding. Structural analyses of such conformations which are essential for their fully physicochemical understanding are complicated by their characteristic low populations at equilibrium. We stabilize here with a single mutation the equilibrium intermediate of apoflavodoxin thermal unfolding and determine its solution structure by NMR. It consists of a large native region identical with that observed in the X-ray structure of the wild-type protein plus an unfolded region. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis indicates that the calculated ensemble of structures is consistent with the actual degree of expansion of the intermediate. The unfolded region encompasses discontinuous sequence segments that cluster in the 3D structure of the native protein forming the FMN cofactor binding loops and the binding site of a variety of partner proteins. Analysis of the apoflavodoxin inner interfaces reveals that those becoming destabilized in the intermediate are more polar than other inner interfaces of the protein. Natively folded proteins contain hydrophobic cores formed by the packing of hydrophobic surfaces, while natively unfolded proteins are rich in polar residues. The structure of the apoflavodoxin thermal intermediate suggests that the regions of natively folded proteins that are easily responsive to thermal activation may contain cores of intermediate hydrophobicity.

  1. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda.

  2. Hints of a Rotating Spiral Structure in the Innermost Regions around IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules toward the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08 {M}⊙ . Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in structures similar to those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ˜1.1 × 10-4 {M}⊙ . In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  3. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  4. Maximum number of habitable planets at the time of Earth's origin: new hints for panspermia?

    PubMed

    von Bloh, Werner; Franck, Siegfried; Bounama, Christine; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2003-04-01

    New discoveries have fuelled the ongoing discussion of panspermia, i.e. the transport of life from one planet to another within the solar system (interplanetary panspermia) or even between different planetary systems (interstellar panspermia). The main factor for the probability of interstellar panspermia is the average density of stellar systems containing habitable planets. The combination of recent results for the formation rate of Earth-like planets with our estimations of extrasolar habitable zones allows us to determine the number of habitable planets in the Milky Way over cosmological time scales. We find that there was a maximum number of habitable planets around the time of Earth's origin. If at all, interstellar panspermia was most probable at that time and may have kick-started life on our planet.

  5. Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny at fiHow can I increase my milk supply?If you think your baby needs more milk, increase the number of feedings a day. It's also important for you to get plenty of rest and eat right. Give your body time to catch up to your baby's demands.Don't start giving your baby formula or ...

  6. [Widened forwarding total laryngectomy ("squared laryngectomy"). Hints of surgical techniques and personal experience].

    PubMed

    Croce, A; Moretti, A; Bianchedi, M; Neri, G; Falcone, G

    1995-10-01

    Primitive T4 laryngeal neoplasms with anterior invasion and neoplasm recurring after partial and subtotal intervention often invade the soft prelaryngeal tissues and in these cases the neoplastic illness can be no longer be controlled be "organ surgery". The widened forwarding total laryngectomy, "squared" or "carrè" laryngectomy according to some Authors of French School, is a surgical procedure not "on an organ" but "in an area" or "region" which proposes to delete, in one step, the larynx, the bone hyoid, the fasciae and the prelaryngeal muscles, the thyroid gland and, if necessary, a more or less large quantity of anterior cervical skin. If the removal involves a vast cutaneous area, it is necessary to mend the loss of substance by wrapping around a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle. In the last five years, 4 male patients, between 48 and 73 years, were treated with widened forwarding total laryngectomy. They were all carriers of epidermoid laryngeal carcinomas with various degrees of differentation: primitive in one patients, recidivist after performance of partial (cordectomy) and subtotal (two Labayle) surgery in the other three patients. In the only case of T4 primitive laryngeal neoplasm it was necessary to carry out a functional neck dissection bilaterally. Loss of substance always required the use of a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle except in one patient in which the removal of the prelaryngeal tissues was limited and therefore it was possible to make a direct seam. We always completely removed the thyroid gland, the prelaryngeal muscular system and skin of the preceding stomy (in the Labayle) sparing, on the other hand, the hyoid bone. Only one patient, who died due to recurrence a year after surgery, underwent complemental percutaneous radiotherapy. At present, three patients are alive and NED: one after 5 years, the others are in excellent conditions although the follow-up is still brief. According to our experience, we can affirm that in selected cases, after an accurate general evaluation of the patient (exclusion of distant metastases, preparation from a metabolic and psychological point of view) a widened forwarding total laryngectomy is a valid procedure since surgery (together with other complementary therapies), is still today the best treatment in forms with anterior evolution.

  7. 3rd Circuit hints it may reconsider McNemar reasoning.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The [name removed] v. The Disney Store ruling is under criticism and the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals may reconsider its 1996 decision to not allow employees who receive disability benefits to sue under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A panel of 3rd Circuit judges, working on [name removed] v. American Sterilizer Co., asserts that the [name removed] decision should not be used to assume that an individual's ADA claims are barred because of prior representations of disability. [Name removed] is suing American Sterilizer under the retaliation provisions of the ADA. Other courts are criticizing the [name removed] decision, including the District of Columbia Court in [name removed] v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. The [name removed] court assets that a statement made in the context of a disability application does not preclude an ADA claim brought by a worker for illegal discrimination because the ADA and the Social Security Act differ in their statutory intent. AIDS advocates state that the [name removed] decision places a plaintiff in the position of having to choose between asserting a legal right or maintaining an income. Alan Epstein, who represented [name removed], is pleased by the criticism but explains that [name removed], who died this summer, will not be vindicated.

  8. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  9. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  10. On the structural and electronic properties of hexanuclear vanadium oxide clusters V6On(-/0) (n=12-15): is V6O12 cluster planar or cage-like?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Xie, Lu; Fang, Hong-Ling; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yong-Fan; Huang, Xin

    2014-10-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to investigate the structural and electronic properties of a series of hexanuclear vanadium oxide clusters V6On(-/0) (n=12-15). Generalized Koopmans' theorem is applied to predict the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and simulate the photoelectron spectra (PES) for V6On(-) (n=12-15) clusters. Extensive DFT calculations are performed in search of the lowest-energy structures for both the anions and neutrals. All of these clusters appear to prefer the polyhedral cage structures, in contrast to the planar star-like structures observed in prior model surface studies for the V6O12 cluster. Molecular orbitals are performed to analyze the chemical bonding in the hexanuclear vanadium oxide clusters and provide insights into the sequential oxidation of V6On(-) (n=12-15) clusters. The V6On(-) (n=12-15) clusters possess well-defined V(5+) and V(3+) sites, and may serve as molecular models for surface defects. Electron spin density analyses show that the unpaired electrons in V6On(-) (n=12-14) clusters are primarily localized on the V(3+) sites rather than on the V(5+) sites. The difference gas phase versus model surface structures of V6O12 hints the critical roles of cluster-substrate interactions in stabilizing the planar V6O12 cluster on model surfaces.

  11. Program Supplies Properties Of Parahydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards Parahydrogen Properties Database (NBS+_PH2) computer program developed to provide selected thermal and transport properties of parahydrogen matching 1981 parahydrogen data of National Bureau of Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology). Created to be linked with propulsion-simulation programs, which require mathematical model of parahydrogen covering wide range of pressures and temperatures. Provides data on parahydrogen for pressures from 10 kPa to 16 MPa and temperatures from 20 to 104 K. Provides following properties: density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, Prandtl number, enthalpy, specific heat, and speed of sound. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Top properties at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarelli, G.; The CDF Collaboration

    1997-05-01

    We present the latest results associated with top properties at the Tevatron. The large data set collected in four years of running has allowed, after top discovery, the study of various top properties. The results presented here include the measurement of the CKM matrix element {vert_bar}V{sub if}{vert_bar}, the search for top FCNC, the study of properties of W in t decays and the search for heavy states decaying to tt pairs. Future measurements in top physics at the Tevatron are briefly discussed.

  13. Dielectric properties of battery electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An effort was made to determine the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the terminal properties of electrochemical cells. Various constituents of the battery were measured to determine basic electromagnetic properties. These properties were used to predict how much radiation would be absorbed by a battery in a particular field configuration. The frequency range covered from 0 to 40 GHz with the greatest emphasis on the microwave range from 2.6 to 40 GHz. The measurements were made on NiCd, AgZn, and Pb acid cells. Results from observation show nothing which suggested any interaction between radiation and cells, and no incidence of any peaks of energy absorption was observed.

  14. Stellar and circumstellar properties of visual binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, S.; Duchêne, G.; Reipurth, B.; Zinnecker, H.; Daemgen, S.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Köhler, R.; Ratzka, Th.; Aspin, C.; Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Our general understanding of multiple star and planet formation is primarily based on observations of young multiple systems in low density regions like Tau-Aur and Oph. Since many, if not most, of the stars are born in clusters, observational constraints from young binaries in those environments are fundamental for understanding both the formation of multiple systems and planets in multiple systems throughout the Galaxy. Aims: We build upon the largest survey for young binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), which is based on Hubble Space Telescope observations to derive both stellar and circumstellar properties of newborn binary systems in this cluster environment. Methods: We present adaptive optics spatially-resolved JHKL'-band photometry and K-band R ~ 5000 spectra for a sample of eight ONC binary systems from this database. We characterize the stellar properties of binary components and obtain a census of protoplanetary disks through K - L' color excess. For a combined sample of ONC binaries including 7 additional systems with NIR spectroscopy from the literature, we derive mass ratio and relative age distributions. We compare the stellar and circumstellar properties of binaries in ONC with those in Tau-Aur and Oph from samples of binaries with stellar properties derived for each component from spectra and/or visual photometry and with a disk census obtained through K - L color excess. Results: The mass ratio distribution of ONC binaries is found to be indistinguishable from that of Tau-Aur and, to some extent, to that of Oph in the separation range 85-560 AU and for primary mass in the range 0.15 to 0.8 M⊙. A trend toward a lower mass ratio with larger separation is suggested in ONC binaries, which is not seen in Tau-Aur binaries. The components of ONC binaries are found to be significantly more coeval than the overall ONC population and as coeval as components of binaries in Tau-Aur and Oph. There is a hint of a larger fraction of mixed pairs

  15. Thermometric Property of a Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Fred W.; Woodruff, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple way to implement the thermometric property of a semiconductor diode to produce a thermometer with a nearly linear dependence upon temperature over a wide range of temperatures. (JRH)

  16. Microstructure and properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamano, K.

    1984-01-01

    The history of research into the microstructure and properties of ceramic ware is discussed; methods of producing ceramics with particular characteristics are investigated. Bubbles, sintering, cracks, and electron microscopy are discussed.

  17. Program calculation of thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Walter; Filho, Fernando Fachini; Ribeirodeoliveira, Ronaldo

    1986-12-01

    The determination of the thermodynamic properties are examined through the basic equations such as: state equation (Beattie-Bridgeman Form), saturation pressure equation, specific heat constant pressure or constant volume equation, and specific volume or density of liquid equation.

  18. Thermoelectric Properties of Selenides Spinels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G.; Caillat, T.; Fleurial, J-P.

    2000-01-01

    Many compounds with the spinel structure type have been analyzed for their thermoelectric properties. Published data was used to augment experimental results presented here to select promising thermoelectric spinels.

  19. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  20. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  1. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  2. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 1207.31 Section 1207.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1207.31 Real property. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning property. (2)...

  6. 36 CFR 1207.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property. 1207.31 Section 1207.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1207.31 Real property. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning property. (2)...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1240 - Unattended property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended property. 13.1240 Section 13.1240 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1240 Unattended property. Leaving property, other than motorboats and planes,...

  9. 36 CFR 72.40 - Historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic properties. 72.40 Section 72.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN... and Innovation § 72.40 Historic properties. Properties listed in or determined eligible for listing...

  10. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  11. 28 CFR 70.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 70.32 Section 70.32...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.32 Real property. (a) Title to real property will vest in the recipient subject to the condition that the recipient use the real property...

  12. Know your intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Khan, A

    1999-03-01

    Dismissing intellectual property rights as someone else's responsibility may not be prudent. It can jeopardize a company's future business because any new product could be unprotected, or even worse, belong to someone else. This article explains how a little strategic planning and due diligence can help prevent unnecessary legal costs. Much of a company's value can be tied up in intangible assets such as patents, trademarks and copyright, and an intellectual property audit helps assess its true worth.

  13. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  14. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of Federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of Federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  15. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    PubMed

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.

  16. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  17. Thermomechanical properties of Stripa granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L.

    1982-09-01

    The Stripa material properties testing program was initiated to study, by laboratory testing, the thermomechanical behavior of the Stripa rock mass and to provide material properties for input into numerical programs for simulation of the in situ heater experiments at Stripa. Measurement of elastic moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion of dry, intact samples of Stripa granite was completed in fiscal year 1980. A summary of the most significant findings resulting from tests on six samples are presented.

  18. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The 2000–05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications. PMID:20161617

  19. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  20. 32 CFR 174.13 - Personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The property is needed elsewhere in the national security interest of the United States as determined... property together with the real property, will be transferred to the Defense Reutilization and...