Science.gov

Sample records for la2cuo4 properties hints

  1. Hints.

    PubMed

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    1995-07-01

    The systematic use of hints in the learning-from-examples paradigm is the subject of this review. Hints are the properties of the target function that are known to use independently of the training examples. The use of hints is tantamount to combining rules and data in learning, and is compatible with different learning models, optimization techniques, and regularization techniques. The hints are represented to the learning process by virtual examples, and the training examples of the target function are treated on equal footing with the rest of the hints. A balance is achieved between the information provided by the different hints through the choice of objective functions and learning schedules. The Adaptive Minimization algorithm achieves this balance by relating the performance on each hint to the overall performance. The application of hints in forecasting the very noisy foreign-exchange markets is illustrated. On the theoretical side, the information value of hints is contrasted to the complexity value and related to the VC dimension.

  2. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  3. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.

  4. Hints to blood groupers, 1950.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Paul J; Greenwalt, Tibor J

    2006-03-01

    Sixty years ago, the premier blood grouping laboratory was that of Robert Race in London. Agglutination tests and blood grouping had provided breakthroughs in immunology, genetics, and the solution of clinical problems. The significance of immunohematology was recognized by the clinical hematology community as a potent force in the expanding field of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. The instructions by Race to his London workers entitled Hints to Blood Groupers provide a picture of the immunohematology laboratory even before automation and differed slightly from the American techniques that derived from Landsteiner. Before agglutination is replaced in the near future by the emergence of molecular methods, the detailed method of a superb laboratory is recorded.

  5. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  6. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  7. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  8. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  9. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for…

  10. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for…

  11. Hints on storing timber to prevent decay

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1919-01-01

    Many serious losses from decay in wooden structures are due to the fact that the timbers used were infected with wood-destroying fungi while in storage. These losses can be greatly reduced by keeping lumber storage yards in a sanitary condition. Some hints as to how to do this are given below.

  12. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  13. Helpful hints to painless payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terhune, Terry; Carson, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    The helpful hints herein describe, from a system perspective, the functional flow of hardware and software. The flow will begin at the experiment development stage and continue through build-up, test, verification, delivery, launch and deintegration of the experiment. An effort will be made to identify those interfaces and transfer functions of processing that can be improved upon in the new world of 'Faster, Better, and Cheaper.' The documentation necessary to ensure configuration and processing requirements satisfaction will also be discussed. Hints and suggestions for improvements to enhance each phase of the flow will be derived from extensive experience and documented lessons learned. Charts will be utilized to define the functional flow and a list of 'lessons learned' will be addressed to show applicability. In conclusion, specific improvements for several areas of hardware processing, procedure development and quality assurance, that are generic to all Small Payloads, will be identified.

  14. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  15. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice.

  16. HINTS 2013 Conference Summaries of Presentations and Posters

    Cancer.gov

    Summaries of Presentations and Poster Abstracts for the HINTS 2013 Conference titled A Decade of HINTS: Quantifying the Health Information Revolution through Data Innovation and Collaboration and held on October 2-3, 2013 at the Natcher building on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD

  17. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  18. Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.

    PubMed

    Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR.

  19. Measuring Learning from hints in Web-based Socratic Tutor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Pritchard, D. E.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of the usefulness of various hints implemented in a Web-based homework tutor MasteringPhysics. Problem solving skill of students and difficulty of problems were first determined by applying Item Response Theory (IRT) to the first answers of students working on homework problems of an introductory Newtonian physics course. The usefulness of hints were then measured by the changes in their problem solving skill on the second attempt at answering the problems they had previously failed after they went through different learning paths, e.g. using different hints provided by the online tutor. We found that the changes in problem solving skill depended strongly on the learning paths students took. The most effective path (about plus 1.8 standard deviation above untutored expectation) was for students who requested hints and subtasks prior to attempting to answer. They may be displaying metacognitive ability.

  20. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. CENTRAL SOUTHERN TOWER, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; FROM THE SOUTH-WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. WEST WING, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. CAMPANILE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. SOUTHERN GATEWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FROM THE SOUTH WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. GOTHIC DESIGN FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena

    2017-04-01

    Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot-Marie-Tooth subtype. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  9. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia: there is a HINT

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Kristien; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recessive mutations in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) were recently shown to cause a motor-predominant Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. About 80% of the patients exhibit neuromyotonia, a striking clinical and electrophysiological hallmark that can help to distinguish this disease and to guide diagnostic screening. HINT1 neuropathy has worldwide distribution and is particularly prevalent in populations inhabiting central and south-eastern Europe. With 12 different mutations identified in more than 60 families, it ranks among the most common subtypes of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. This article provides an overview of the present knowledge on HINT1 neuropathy with the aim to increase awareness and spur interest among clinicians and researchers in the field. We propose diagnostic guidelines to recognize and differentiate this entity and suggest treatment strategies to manage common symptoms. As a recent player in the field of hereditary neuropathies, the role of HINT1 in peripheral nerves is unknown and the underlying disease mechanisms are unexplored. We provide a comprehensive overview of the structural and functional characteristics of the HINT1 protein that may guide further studies into the molecular aetiology and treatment strategies of this peculiar Charcot–Marie–Tooth subtype. PMID:28007994

  10. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  11. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  13. Some Field Hints from an Old Top Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Seimon W.

    1983-01-01

    Suggestions for successful geology field trips are provided. These "field hints" focus on geological reasoning; equipment; notes; samples and records; field practices, including mapping; camping; working with associates in the field; and general considerations such as carrying along a few textbooks, finding out about an area before the trip, and…

  14. Study Hints for Learning a Foreign/Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    A list of basic study practices and strategies, with examples and alternatives that focus on both receptive and productive skills and the value in interaction, is presented. The following hints are included: (1) don't study a language by yourself and in silence, but study aloud and with another person; (2) use the target language as much as…

  15. HINTS for differentiating peripheral from central causes of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jaynstein, Dayna

    2016-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are common and difficult complaints encountered by providers. The differential diagnosis is large and varies from benign to life-threatening disorders. The true challenge becomes differentiating benign peripheral vertigo from central vertigo. The HINTS examination can help differentiate peripheral from central causes of dizziness and vertigo.

  16. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  17. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  18. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-21

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  19. [Adaptation of the Hinting Task theory of the mind test to Spanish].

    PubMed

    Gil, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea, Rosario; Arrieta, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in theory of mind. Some authors associate this deficit with the presence of symptoms, while others maintain that it can also be observed in patients in the remission phase. There is no reference test to assess theory of mind in schizophrenia, although one of the most used is the Hinting Task. The aim of the present study consists of adapting and validating, in Spanish, the 10 histories that make up this test. The study was conducted on a sample of 39 control subjects and 40 patients with schizophrenia. The internal consistency and the between-observer reliability and test-retest were assessed in both sample groups. The performance of the patients and control subjects were also compared. Good reliability data was obtained in the inter-observer and test-retest in the two samples. On the other hand, the internal consistency was somewhat low for all of the 10 histories. For this reason, and starting from a previous study, a reduced version of 5 histories was prepared, which showed good internal consistency. The patients with schizophrenia obtained a significantly lower score than the control subjects in 8 out of the 10 histories. The reduced Spanish version of the Hinting Task demonstrated good psychometric properties. When compared to the control group, the patients with schizophrenia had a deficit in theory of mind. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  1. [Peripheral vertigo versus central vertigo. Application of the HINTS protocol].

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Ángel; Yáñez-González, Raquel; Sánchez-Blanco, Carmen; González-Sánchez, Enrique; Benito, José; Gómez, José Carlos; Santa Cruz-Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. Uno de los dilemas mas importantes concernientes al vertigo en urgencias es su diagnostico diferencial. Existen signos de alarma de gran sensibilidad en la exploracion que pueden ponernos en la pista de encontrarnos ante un vertigo central. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de la aplicacion del protocolo HINTS en el diagnostico del accidente cerebrovascular que simula un vertigo periferico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo sobre pacientes ingresados con diagnostico de sindrome vestibular agudo en urgencias. Todos los pacientes fueron objeto de un seguimiento diario hasta la mejoria de sus sintomas con informacion del nistagmo, la maniobra de impulso oculocefalico y el test de skew. Se comparan los resultados del estudio de resonancia magnetica con la alteracion en alguno de esos tres signos a lo largo del ingreso del enfermo. Resultados. Se reunio a 91 pacientes, con una edad media de 55,8 años. Se objetivo un accidente cerebrovascular en ocho de ellos. De estos (edad media: 71 años), en siete existia una alteracion en alguno de los signos HINTS y en uno el estudio fue normal (sensibilidad: 0,88; especificidad: 0,96). Todos ellos tenian algun factor de riesgo vascular. Conclusiones. Una exploracion adecuada y dirigida ante un paciente que acude a urgencias con un sindrome vestibular agudo resulta de vital importancia para establecer el diagnostico diferencial entre la patologia periferica y la central, ya que algunos accidentes cerebrovasculares se pueden presentar bajo la apariencia de un vertigo agudo. Aplicar un protocolo como HINTS permite sospechar la patologia central con una gran sensibilidad y especificidad.

  2. Legacy limits and hints of New Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrin, Arnaud; /Marseille, CPPM

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews results of beyond-the-standard model searches at the Tevatron presented in a plenary talk at the Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP) in Grenoble. Here I present a selection of results from the CDF and D0 experiments that were shown at the conference during the parallel sessions. Much more is available and can be found at the experiment's web pages. This proceeding essentially focuses on searches in the dilepton, diboson, and t{bar t} final states. Throughout the paper, hints of new physics observed at the Tevatron are also briefly discussed.

  3. Hints for a nonstandard Higgs boson from the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    We reconsider Higgs boson invisible decays into Dark Matter in the light of recent Higgs searches at the LHC. Present hints in the Compact Muon Solenoid and ATLAS data favor a nonstandard Higgs boson with approximately 50% invisible branching ratio, and mass around 143 GeV. This situation can be realized within the simplest thermal scalar singlet Dark Matter model, predicting a Dark Matter mass around 50 GeV and direct detection cross section just below present bound. The present runs of the Xenon100 and LHC experiments can test this possibility.

  4. The Effects of Cognitive Styles on the Use of Hints in Academic English: A Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Yeh, Chia-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Various hints have been proposed to scaffold students. Such hints can be broadly divided into direct hints and indirect hints. On the other hand, individual differences existed among learners. In particular, cognitive styles greatly affect student learning. However, there is a lack of studies to investigate how cognitive styles affect students'…

  5. Transfer of metacognitive skills and hint seeking in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate; Son, Lisa K; Terrace, Herbert S

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is knowledge that can be expressed as confidence judgments about what one knows (monitoring) and by strategies for learning what one does not know (control). Although there is a substantial literature on cognitive processes in animals, little is known about their metacognitive abilities. Here we show that rhesus macaques, trained previously to make retrospective confidence judgments about their performance on perceptual tasks, transferred that ability immediately to a new perceptual task and to a working memory task. We also show that monkeys can learn to request "hints" when they are given problems that they would otherwise have to solve by trial and error. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability to monitor and transfer their metacognitive ability both within and between different cognitive tasks, and to seek new knowledge on a need-to-know basis.

  6. Hints of quantum gravity from the horizon fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, researchers have tried to glean hints about quantum gravity from black hole thermodynamics. However, black hole thermodynamics suffers from the problem of universality—at leading order, several approaches with different microscopic degrees of freedom lead to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We attempt to bypass this issue by using a minimal statistical mechanical model for the horizon fluid based on the Damour-Navier-Stokes (DNS) equation. For stationary asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes in general relativity, we show explicitly that, at equilibrium, the entropy of the horizon fluid is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Further, we show that, for the bulk viscosity of the fluctuations of the horizon fluid to be identical to Damour, a confinement scale exists for these fluctuations, implying quantization of the horizon area. The implications and possible mechanisms from the fluid point of view are discussed.

  7. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  8. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  9. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms for geophysical inversion, practical hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Gonzalo, E.; Fernandez Martinez, J.; Fernandez Alvarez, J.; Kuzma, H.; Menendez Perez, C.

    2008-12-01

    PSO is a stochastic optimization technique that has been successfully used in many different engineering fields. PSO algorithm can be physically interpreted as a stochastic damped mass-spring system (Fernandez Martinez and Garcia Gonzalo 2008). Based on this analogy we present a whole family of PSO algorithms and their respective first order and second order stability regions. Their performance is also checked using synthetic functions (Rosenbrock and Griewank) showing a degree of ill-posedness similar to that found in many geophysical inverse problems. Finally, we present the application of these algorithms to the analysis of a Vertical Electrical Sounding inverse problem associated to a seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer in South Spain. We analyze the role of PSO parameters (inertia, local and global accelerations and discretization step), both in convergence curves and in the a posteriori sampling of the depth of an intrusion. Comparison is made with binary genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. As result of this analysis, practical hints are given to select the correct algorithm and to tune the corresponding PSO parameters. Fernandez Martinez, J.L., Garcia Gonzalo, E., 2008a. The generalized PSO: a new door to PSO evolution. Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications. DOI:10.1155/2008/861275.

  10. 'Hints' in the horn: diagnostic clues in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José Carlos; Veraitch, Ophelia; Gianotti, Raffaele; Ferrara, Gerardo; Tomasini, Carlo F; Singh, Manuraj; Zalaudek, Iris; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    The stratum corneum or horny layer is the uppermost layer of the epidermis, and is mainly responsible for the skin's barrier function. In spite of its complexity at the ultrastructural and molecular level, the features accessible to visualization on conventional histology are relatively limited. Nevertheless, knowledge of subtle clues that one may observe in the stratum corneum can prove useful in a wide range of situations in dermatopathology. We herein review a selection of common and rare entities in which the horny layer may reveal significantly important hints for the diagnosis. These clues include parakeratosis and its different patterns (focal, confluent, alternating, associated with spongiosis, epidermal hyperplasia or lichenoid changes), subcorneal acantholysis, infectious organisms in the stratum corneum (including fungal, bacterial and parasitic), thickening or thinning of the stratum corneum and the presence of different kinds of pigment. Even when normal, the horny layer may prove to be useful when seen in association with severe epidermal damage, a combination of features testifying to the acute nature of the underlying pathological process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  12. Hint1 suppresses migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro by modulating girdin activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Song; Bao, Tian-Hao; Ke, Yang; Sun, De-Yun; Shi, Zhi-Tian; Tang, Hao-Ran; Wang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Its role in cancer cell migration has not been previously speculated. In the current study, we examined the expression of Hint1 in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further elucidated the effect of Hint1 expression on girdin expression and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 and on the migration of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of Hint1 and girdin in primary HCC tissues and metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was determined by RT-PCR assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors overexpressing Hint1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Hint1, girdin, Hint1 plus girdin, or the scrambled RNA. Migration and invasion of HCC cells were examined by wound and Transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. RT-PCR assays revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of Hint1 were markedly lower than those of primary HCC tissues and non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.01). By contrast, the mRNA transcript levels of girdin were significantly higher than non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of HINT1 resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA transcript levels of girdin in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). Wound assays and Transwell assays showed that Hint1 knockdown by siRNA significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. Hint1 knockdown also led to significantly increased phosphorylation of girdin and AKT in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05), which, however, was effectively aborted by girdin knockdown by siRNA (P < 0.05). Hint1 is downregulated in metastatic lymph nodes and is implicated in migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro by modulating girdin and AKT expression and phosphorylation. The Hint1-girdin-AKT signaling axis should be

  13. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints, part 4: lollipops/lozenges, gummy bears, patches, flavoring/coloring, sweeteners, and packaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    Just a reminder--shortcuts, tips, hints, new techniques, etc. help make every compounder's job easier and enhance patient care. Keep a list of these tips and hints and add to them as new techniques are developed.

  14. 10 Helpful hints for dementia design at home 10 Helpful hints for dementia design at home June Andrews and Colm Cunningham Dementia Services Development Centre £7.50 54pp 9781857692549 1857692543 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-02-24

    THERE ARE more than 40 pages of hints in this short booklet, covering lighting, sound, interior decor and the use of assistive technology among other areas. Each section has an illustration relevant to one of the hints. A short paragraph is included about each hint and there are many illustrations of the experiences of people living with dementia.

  15. [HINT1--a novel tumor suppressor protein of the HIT superfamily].

    PubMed

    Ozga, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (Hint1) belongs to the first branch of the HIT superfamily. Hint1 catalyses the process of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in AMP-lysine, AMP-alanine, AMP-NH2. The physiological role of this enzyme is still unclear. There is accumulating evidence that HINT1 is a novel tumor suppressor protein, albeit the mechanism of action of HINT1 in respect to tumor suppression is not fully understood. Recent findings have shown that Hint1 inhibits the activity of the transcription factors AP1, MITF and USF2, as well as influences the transcription process of some genes of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Thereby, it seems that Hint1 exerts its major cellular function as gene transcription regulator, and thus, this function provides its potential role as a tumor suppressor protein. The clinical relevance of impairments in the Hint1 expression with the respect to specific human cancers is still a matter of extensive studies.

  16. Lack of Neuropathy-Related Phenotypes in Hint1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seburn, Kevin L.; Morelli, Kathryn H.; Jordanova, Albena; Burgess, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HINT1, the gene encoding histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), cause a recessively inherited peripheral neuropathy that involves primarily motor dysfunction and is usually associated with neuromyotonia, i.e. prolonged muscle contraction resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Because these mutations are hypothesized to cause loss of function, we analyzed Hint1 knockout mice for their relevance as a disease model. Mice lacking Hint1 were normal in appearance and in behavioral tests or motor performance, although they moved slower and for a smaller fraction of time than wild-type (WT) mice in an open field arena. Muscles, neuromuscular junctions, and nodes of Ranvier are anatomically normal and did not show evidence of degeneration or regeneration. Axon numbers and myelination in peripheral nerves were normal at 4 and 13 months of age. Axons were slightly smaller than those in WT mice at 4 months of age, but this did not cause a decrease in conduction velocity, and no differences in axon diameters were detected at 13 months. Using electromyography, we were unable to detect neuromyotonia, even using supra-physiological stimuli and stressors such as reduced temperature or 3,4 diaminopyridine to block potassium channels. Therefore, we conclude that Hint1 knockout mice may be useful for studying the biochemical activities of HINT1, but these mice do not provide a disease model or a means for investigating the basis of HINT1-associated neuropathy and neuromyotonia. PMID:24918641

  17. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Algebra and Trigonometry Review Workbook. Exercises with Hints and Complete Solutions in Algebra and Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Petrushka, Sharon

    This workbook is designed to be used as a review at the end of a college level course in algebra and trigonometry. Four review sheets containing 117 problems provide hints and detailed solutions for each problem. (YP)

  19. Lithospheric Decoupling and Rotations: Hints from Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.; Kidane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plates move relative to the mantle because some torques are acting on them. The shear in the low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the base of the lithosphere is the expression of these torques. The decoupling is allowed by the low viscosity in the LVZ, which is likely few orders of magnitudes lower than previously estimated. The viscosity value in the LVZ controls the degree of coupling/decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Lateral variations in viscosity within the LVZ may explain the velocity gradient among tectonic plates as the one determining the Ethiopian Rift (ER) separating Africa from Somalia. While it remains not fully understood the mechanisms of the torques acting on the lithosphere (thermally driven mantle convection or the combination of mantle convection with astronomical forces such as the Earth's rotation and tidal drag), the stresses are transmitted across the different mechanical layers (e.g., the brittle upper crust, down to the viscous-plastic ductile lower crust and upper mantle). Differential basal shear traction at the base of the lithosphere beneath the two sides of the East African Rift System (EARS) is assumed to drive and sustain rifting. In our analysis, the differential torques acting on the lithospheric/crustal blocks drive kinematics and block rotations. Since, ER involves the whole lithosphere, we do not expect large amount of rotation. Rotation can be the result of the whole plate motion on the sphere moving along the tectonic equator, or the second order sub-rotation of a single plate. Further rotation may occur along oblique plate boundaries (e.g., left lateral transtensional setting at the ER). Small amount of vertical axis rotation of blocks in northern ER could be related to the presence of local, shallower decollement layers. Shallow brittle-ductile transition (BDT) zone and differential tilting of crustal blocks in the northern ER could hint a possibility of detachment surface between the flow in the lower

  20. Kinetic Mechanism of Human Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (Hint1)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Aubol, Brandon E; Park, Chin Ju; Wolfenden, Richard; Adams, Joseph; Wagner, Carston R.

    2013-01-01

    Human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (hHint1) is a member of a ubiquitous and ancient branch of the histidine triad (HIT) protein superfamily. hHint1 is a homodimeric protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of model substrates, phosphoramidate (TpAd) and acyl adenylate (AIPA), with a high efficiency. Recently, catalytically inactive hHint1 has been identified as the cause of inherited peripheral neuropathy (1). We have carried out the first detailed kinetic mechanistic studies of hHint1 and have found that the reaction mechanism is consistent with a double displacement mechanism, in which the active site nucleophile His112 is first adenylylated by the substrate, followed by hydrolysis of the AMP-enzyme intermediate. A transient burst phase followed by a linear phase from the stopped-flow fluorescence assay indicated that enzyme adenylylation was faster than the subsequent intermediate hydrolysis and product release. Solvent viscosity experiments suggested that both chemical transformation and diffusion-sensitive events (product release or protein conformational change) limit the overall turnover. The catalytic trapping experiments and data simulation indicated that the true koff rate of the final product AMP is unlikely to control the overall kcat. Therefore, a protein conformational change associated with product release is likely rate limiting. In addition, the rate of Hint1 adenylylation was found to be dependent on two residues with pKas of 6.5 and 8, with the former pKa agreeing well with the NMR titration results for the pKa of the active site nucleophile His112. When compared to the uncatalyzed rates, hHint1 was shown to enhance acyl-AMP and AMP phosphoramidate hydrolysis by 106 to 108- fold. Taken together, our analysis indicates that hHint1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoramidate and acyl adenylate with high efficiency, through a mechanism that relies on rapid adenylylation of the active residue, His-112, while being partially rate limited

  1. A Nonresponse Bias Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Maitland, Aaron; Lin, Amy; Cantor, David; Jones, Mike; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; Davis, Terisa; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a nonresponse bias analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 4, Cycles 1 and 3, collected in 2011 and 2013, respectively, using three analysis methods: comparison of response rates for subgroups, comparison of estimates with weighting adjustments and external benchmarks, and level-of-effort analysis. Areas with higher concentrations of low socioeconomic status, higher concentrations of young households, and higher concentrations of minority and Hispanic populations had lower response rates. Estimates of health information seeking behavior were higher in HINTS compared to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The HINTS estimate of doctors always explaining things in a way that the patient understands was not significantly different from the same estimate from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); however, the HINTS estimate of health professionals always spending enough time with the patient was significantly lower than the same estimate from MEPS. A level-of-effort analysis found that those who respond later in the survey field period were less likely to have looked for information about health in the past 12 months, but found only small differences between early and late respondents for the majority of estimates examined. There is some evidence that estimates from HINTS could be biased toward finding higher levels of health information seeking.

  2. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  3. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  4. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  5. Hint of CPT Violation in Short-Baseline Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  6. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  7. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  8. Evident or doubtful? How lexical hints in written information influence laypersons' understanding of influenza.

    PubMed

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Jucks, Regina

    2015-01-01

    There are clear differences in the way written information on health issues presents research findings. In some cases, the source of a piece of information (e.g. "expert professor") is highlighted to emphasize its credibility and relevance. In other cases, the impact of a certain argument is stressed by avoiding hints on tentativeness such as "mostly" or "up to now." This article examines whether and how far such differences influence laypersons' comprehension of the contents provided. In an experimental setting, 157 laypersons were asked to read an online article on a new approach to preventing influenza. The texts manipulated whether there were (a) hints on the source of information and (b) lexical hints on the tentativeness of the information (hedges). After reading the text, participants were asked to write an essay reporting their opinion on the topic. Their argumentation on vaccination was assessed with content analysis and their attitudes toward vaccination were surveyed with a questionnaire. Results indicated that when lexical hints were given, tentativeness led participants to focus more on the actual information in the text. Additionally, decisions more strongly favored the direction implied in the text when the source of the medical information was not reported. Consequences for the way health information should be presented to laypersons are discussed.

  9. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  10. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  11. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  12. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  13. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  14. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kelly D; Portnoy, David B; Kaufman, Annette R; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lo, Serena C; Backlund, Eric; Cantor, David; Hicks, Lloyd; Lin, Amy; Caporaso, Andrew; Davis, Terisa; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2016-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov . NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements.

  15. Observational hints of radial migration in disc galaxies from CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Team

    2017-07-01

    Context. According to numerical simulations, stars are not always kept at their birth galactocentric distances but they have a tendency to migrate. The importance of this radial migration in shaping galactic light distributions is still unclear. However, if radial migration is indeed important, galaxies with different surface brightness (SB) profiles must display differences in their stellar population properties. Aims: We investigate the role of radial migration in the light distribution and radial stellar content by comparing the inner colour, age, and metallicity gradients for galaxies with different SB profiles. We define these inner parts, avoiding the bulge and bar regions and up to around three disc scale lengths (type I, pure exponential) or the break radius (type II, downbending; type III, upbending). Methods: We analysed 214 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey covering different SB profiles. We made use of GASP2D and SDSS data to characterise the light distribution and obtain colour profiles of these spiral galaxies. The stellar age and metallicity profiles were computed using a methodology based on full-spectrum fitting techniques (pPXF, GANDALF, and STECKMAP) to the Integral Field Spectroscopic CALIFA data. Results: The distributions of the colour, stellar age, and stellar metallicity gradients in the inner parts for galaxies displaying different SB profiles are unalike as suggested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. We find a trend in which type II galaxies show the steepest profiles of all, type III show the shallowest, and type I display an intermediate behaviour. Conclusions: These results are consistent with a scenario in which radial migration is more efficient for type III galaxies than for type I systems, where type II galaxies present the lowest radial migration efficiency. In such a scenario, radial migration mixes the stellar content, thereby flattening the radial stellar properties and shaping different SB profiles. However

  16. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Elisabeth; Wang, Jia Bei

    2009-11-13

    Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  17. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS. PMID:19912621

  18. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  19. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  20. Comparison of Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) Scores Using Three Different Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    earphones , and Group #3 was tested with the CEP. Presentation sequence of all speech materials was randomized using a Latin Squares design to reduce...between the THD-39P results and those obtained from the other two insert earphones in the quite condition that was likely due to a calibration issue...Conclusion: Insert-type earphones should be considered for administration of the HINT once a correction factor has been established. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  1. Exome sequencing reveals HINT1 mutations as a cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; De Jonghe, Peter; Robberecht, Wim; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Damme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogenous group of genetic disorders with length-dependent degeneration of motor axons. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in patients with dHMN remains challenging. We performed exome sequencing in a diagnostic setting in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dHMN. Potential disease-causing variants in genes associated with dHMN and other forms of inherited neuropathies/motor neuron diseases were validated using Sequenom. The coverage in the genes studied was >95% with an average coverage of >50 times. In none of the patients a mutations was found in genes previously reported to be associated with dHMN. However, in 2/12 patients a recessive mutation in histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1, recently discovered as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia) was identified. Our results demonstrate the diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with inherited neuropathies. The phenotypic spectrum of recessive mutations in HINT1 includes dHMN. HINT1 should be added to the list of genes to check for in dHMN. PMID:24105373

  2. Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides directives for the assembly of a skin sensitivity tester that can be used to examine the skin's function of feeling. Procedures for this experiment are reviewed and a chart for recording the data is also included. (ML)

  3. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  4. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies.

  5. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined.

  6. P80, the HinT interacting membrane protein, is a secreted antigen of Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Hoffmann, Ricarda; Henrich, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria which encode a minimal set of proteins. In Mycoplasma hominis, the genes encoding the surface-localized membrane complex P60/P80 are in an operon with a gene encoding a cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding protein with a characteristic Histidine triad motif (HinT). HinT is found in both procaryotes and eukaryotes and known to hydrolyze adenosine nucleotides in eukaryotes. Immuno-precipitation and BIACore analysis revealed an interaction between HinT and the P80 domain of the membrane complex. As the membrane anchored P80 carries an N-terminal uncleaved signal peptide we have proposed that the N-terminus extends into the cytoplasm and interacts with the cytosolic HinT. Results Further characterization of P80 suggested that the 4.7 kDa signal peptide is protected from cleavage only in the membrane bound form. We found several proteins were released into the supernatant of a logarithmic phase mycoplasma culture, including P80, which was reduced in size by 10 kDa. Western blot analysis of recombinant P80 mutants expressed in E. coli and differing in the N-terminal region revealed that mutation of the +1 position of the mature protein (Asn to Pro) which is important for signal peptidase I recognition resulted in reduced P80 secretion. All other P80 variants were released into the supernatant, in general as a 74 kDa protein encompassing the helical part of P80. Incubation of M. hominis cells in phosphate buffered saline supplemented with divalent cations revealed that the release of mycoplasma proteins into the supernatant was inhibited by high concentrations of calciumions. Conclusions Our model for secretion of the P80 protein of M. hominis implies a two-step process. In general the P80 protein is transported across the membrane and remains complexed to P60, surface-exposed and membrane anchored via the uncleaved signal sequence. Loss of the 4.7 kDa signal peptide seems to be a pre-requisite for P80 secretion, which is

  7. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed.

  8. Hints of theta13>0 from global neutrino data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogli, G L; Lisi, E; Marrone, A; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M

    2008-10-03

    Nailing down the unknown neutrino mixing angle theta{13} is one of the most important goals in current lepton physics. In this context, we perform a global analysis of neutrino oscillation data, focusing on theta{13}, and including recent results [ (unpublished)]. We discuss two converging hints of theta{13}>0, each at the level of approximately 1sigma: an older one coming from atmospheric neutrino data, and a newer one coming from the combination of solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data. Their combination provides the global estimate sin{2}theta{13}=0.016+/-0.010(1sigma), implying a preference for theta{13}>0 with non-negligible statistical significance ( approximately 90% C.L.). We discuss possible refinements of the experimental data analyses, which might sharpen such intriguing indications.

  9. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  10. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  11. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  12. Hints for cyclical recruitment of atelectasis during ongoing mechanical ventilation in lavage and oleic acid lung injury detected by SpO₂ oscillations and electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Bodenstein, Marc; Boehme, Stefan; Wang, Hemei; Duenges, Bastian; Markstaller, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Detection of cyclical recruitment of atelectasis after induction of lavage (LAV) or oleic acid injury (OAI) in mechanically ventilated pigs. Primary hypothesis is that oxygen oscillations within the respiratory cycle can be detected by SpO₂ recordings (direct hint). SpO₂ oscillations reflect shunt oscillations that can only be explained by cyclical recruitment of atelectasis. Secondary hypothesis is that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) depicts specific regional changes of lung aeration and of pulmonary mechanical properties (indirect hint). Three groups (each n = 7) of mechanically ventilated pigs were investigated applying above mentioned methods before and repeatedly after induction of lung injury: (1) sham treated animals (SHAM), (2) LAV, and (3) OAI. Early oxygen oscillations occurred in the LAV group (mean calculated amplitude: 73.8 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillation of 11.2% in mean). In the OAI group oxygen oscillations occurred hours after induction of lung injury (mean calculated amplitude: 57.1 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillations of 8.4% in mean). The SHAM group had no relevant oxygen oscillations (<30 mmHg, shunt oscillations < 1.5%). Synchronously to oxygen oscillations, EIT depicted (1) a decrease of ventilation in dorsal areas, (2) an increase in ventral areas, (3) a decrease of especially dependent expiratory impedance, 3) an increase in late inspiratory flow especially in the dependant areas, (4) an increase in the speed of peak expiratory flow (PEF), and (5) a decrease of dorsal late expiratory flow. SpO2 and EIT recordings detect events that are interpreted as cyclical recruitment of atelectasis.

  13. Profiling and quantitative evaluation of three Nickel-Coated magnetic matrices for purification of recombinant proteins: lelpful hints for the optimized nanomagnetisable matrix preparation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several materials are available in the market that work on the principle of protein magnetic fishing by their histidine (His) tags. Little information is available on their performance and it is often quoted that greatly improved purification of histidine-tagged proteins from crude extracts could be achieved. While some commercial magnetic matrices could be used successfully for purification of several His-tagged proteins, there are some which have been proved to operate just for a few extent of His-tagged proteins. Here, we address quantitative evaluation of three commercially available Nickel nanomagnetic beads for purification of two His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and present helpful hints for optimized purification of such proteins and preparation of nanomagnetisable matrices. Results Marked differences in the performance of nanomagnetic matrices, principally on the basis of their specific binding capacity, recovery profile, the amount of imidazole needed for protein elution and the extent of target protein loss and purity were obtained. Based on the aforesaid criteria, one of these materials featured the best purification results (SiMAG/N-NTA/Nickel) for both proteins at the concentration of 4 mg/ml, while the other two (SiMAC-Nickel and SiMAG/CS-NTA/Nickel) did not work well with respect to specific binding capacity and recovery profile. Conclusions Taken together, functionality of different types of nanomagnetic matrices vary considerably. This variability may not only be dependent upon the structure and surface chemistry of the matrix which in turn determine the affinity of interaction, but, is also influenced to a lesser extent by the physical properties of the protein itself. Although the results of the present study may not be fully applied for all nanomagnetic matrices, but provide a framework which could be used to profiling and quantitative evaluation of other magnetisable matrices and also provide helpful hints for those

  14. Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI’s Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015

    PubMed Central

    BLAKE, KELLY D.; PORTNOY, DAVID B.; KAUFMAN, ANNETTE R.; LIN, CHUNG-TUNG JORDAN; LO, SERENA C.; BACKLUND, ERIC; CANTOR, DAVID; HICKS, LLOYD; LIN, AMY; CAPORASO, ANDREW; DAVIS, TERISA; MOSER, RICHARD P.; HESSE, BRADFORD W.

    2016-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail May 29 to September 8, 2015, using a random probability-based sample of U.S. postal addresses stratified by county-level smoking rates, with an oversampling of high and medium-high smoking strata to increase the yield of current smokers responding to the survey. The response rate for HINTS-FDA 2015 was 33% (N = 3,738). The yield of current smokers (n = 495) was lower than expected, but the sampling strategy achieved the goal of obtaining more former smokers (n = 1,132). Public-use HINTS-FDA 2015 data and supporting documentation have been available for download and secondary data analyses since June 2016 at http://hints.cancer.gov. NCI and FDA encourage the use of HINTS-FDA for health communication research and practice related to tobacco-related communications, public knowledge, and behaviors as well as beliefs and actions related to medical products and dietary supplements. PMID:27892827

  15. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  16. Inhibition by divalent metal ions of human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1 (hHint1), a regulator of opioid analgesia and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Maize, Kimberly M; Strom, Alexander; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2017-09-23

    Human histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (hHint1) is a purine nucleoside phosphoramidase and adenylate hydrolase that has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the management of pain. However, the molecular mechanism of Hint1 in the signaling pathway has remained less clear. The role of metal ions in regulating postsynaptic transmission is well known, and the active site of hHint1 contains multiple histidines. Here we have investigated the effect of divalent metal ions (Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+)) on the structural integrity and catalytic activity of hHint1. With the exception of Mg(2+), all the divalent ions inhibited hHint1, the rank of order was found to be Cu(2+) >Zn(2+) >Cd(2+) ≥Ni(2+) >Mn(2+) based on their IC50 and kin/KI values. A crystal structure of hHint1 with bound Cu(2+) is described to explain the competitive reversible inactivation of hHint1 by divalent cations. All the metal ions exhibited time- and concentration- dependent inhibition, with the rate of inactivation highly dependent on alterations of the C-terminus. With the exception of Cu(2+); restoration of inhibition was observed for all the metal ions after treatment with EDTA. Our studies reveal a loss in secondary structure and aggregation of hHint1 upon incubation with 10-fold excess of copper. Thus, hHint1 appears to be structurally sensitive to irreversible inactivation by copper, which may be of neurotoxicological and pharmacological significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  18. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage.

  19. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20), incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality) in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001). Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:28173686

  20. Precursory Hints of June 23-2001 Earthquake in Southern Peru Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, L.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23, 2001, a destructive 8.3 Mw, shallow depth, shallow-dip thrust-mechanism earthquake shook southern Peru. The hypocenter was located under the ocean floor, at the northern end of the southern Peru seismic gap. The gap is about 500 km long, located between 16\\deg-19\\deg S, parallel to Peru-Chile trench. It delineates the rupture zone of the 1868, 9.0-9.3 Mw, earthquake; the largest historically documented "terremoto" in this region. This gap and the northern Chile gap have been known for several decades and they belong to a normal-subduction segment delimited by the Nazca-Abancay (northern end) and Copiapo-Tucuman (southern end) contortions of the Wadati-Benioff subduction zone. The Peru-Chile trench and the Central Andean Active Volcanic Zone axis run nearly parallel to each other in this subduction segment. Regional seismicity (1999-2000) was the clearest indicator of the proximity of incoming event. It showed a striking deficiency of activity in the southern Peru gap region which has a good spatial correlation with a negative anomaly of the rate of change of the GPS vertical component in, approximately, the same region. Since it was not possible to issue a prediction on the incoming event, an hypothetical scenario was computed for a 9.3 Mw earthquake and reported to the Civil Defense Agency in order to implement preventive measures for disaster mitigation. The June 23-2001, 8.3 Mw , earthquake occurred in the northern extreme of the hypothetical rupture zone. However, about one half of the rupture zone is to go in the near future to cover the 1868-earthquake equivalent rupture zone. In summary, the following precursory hints could be identified before the June 23-2001 earthquake: Deficiency of regional seismic activity, negative tendency on the rate of change of the GPS vertical component, seismicity on the near surface fault system in the gap region.

  1. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  2. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data

    PubMed Central

    Mull, Kristin E

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. Objective To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Methods Data were from the National Cancer Institute’s 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Results Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons

  3. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Structure and energy level alignment at the dye-electrode interface in p-type DSSCs: new hints on the role of anchoring modes from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Ana B; Pavone, Michele

    2015-05-14

    p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent the complementary photocathodes to the well-studied n-type DSSCs (Grätzel cells), but their low performances have hindered the development of convenient tandem solar cells based on cost-effective n- and p-type DSSCs. Because of their low efficiencies, experimental investigations highlighted the role of hole-electron transport processes at the dye-electrode interface. However, the effects of the dye anchoring groups on interfacial electronic features are still unclear. We report here a first principles study of a benchmark p-type DSSC model, namely the widely used Coumarin-based dye C343 adsorbed on the p-NiO surface. Together with the original carboxylic acid, we test the alternative phosphonic acid as the anchoring group. We investigate binding energies, structural features and electronic energy level alignments: our results highlight that these properties are highly sensitive to the binding modes. In particular, both the chemical nature of the anchoring group and the binding mode strongly affect the thermodynamic driving force for the dye-electrode hole injection process. From analysis of the electronic densities, we find that favorable driving forces are correlated with small values of the interfacial electrostatic dipole that is formed upon dye adsorption. From our results, we derive new hints for improving open circuit potential and the hole injection process in p-type DSSCs based on NiO electrodes.

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  7. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces

    PubMed Central

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1−/− mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1−/− mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1−/− mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1−/− mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with “manic” Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1−/− mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1−/− mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder. PMID:28240305

  8. Increased PKC activity and altered GSK3β/NMDAR function drive behavior cycling in HINT1-deficient mice: bipolarity or opposing forces.

    PubMed

    Garzón-Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2017-02-27

    Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms. GSK3β inhibitors and valproate directly attenuated the expression of the manic-like symptoms, whereas PKC inhibition, lamotrigine, or risperidone promoted NMDAR-mediated depressive-like behaviors that counterbalanced the preexisting manic-like symptoms. Naïve HINT1(-/-) mice exposed to stressful paradigms rapidly manifested depressive-like behaviors in subsequent stressful situations, a capacity that persisted for a couple of weeks thereafter. During the depressive-like phase, citalopram, amitriptyline and MK801 precipitated manic-like behaviors in stressed HINT1(-/-) mice. Notably, the antagonism of NMDARs prevented HINT1(-/-) mice from alternating behaviors in response to stress. A comparison with "manic" Black Swiss mice indicated that in HINT1(-/-) mice, PKC supports manic-like symptoms and reduces the expression of depressive-like behaviors via activation of GSK3β and regulation of NR2B-enriched NMDARs. HINT1(-/-) mice represent a suitable model for studying human BPD and may facilitate the identification of novel targets and drugs to treat this mental disorder.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2)

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å3 Da−1 and 53.27%, respectively. PMID:23832208

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (hHINT2).

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Włodarczyk, Artur; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Nawrot, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial adenosine phosphoramidase mainly expressed in the pancreas, liver and adrenal gland. HINT2 possibly plays a role in apoptosis, as well as being involved in steroid biosynthesis, hepatic lipid metabolism and regulation of hepatic mitochondria function. The expression level of HINT2 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. To date, endogenous substrates for this enzyme, as well as the three-dimensional structure of human HINT2, are unknown. In this study, human HINT2 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystallization was performed at 278 K using PEG 4000 as the main precipitant; the crystals, which belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.38, c = 133.25 Å, diffracted to 2.83 Å resolution. Assuming two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.63 Å(3) Da(-1) and 53.27%, respectively.

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  13. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  14. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  15. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  16. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  18. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  19. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  20. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  1. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  2. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  3. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    While the types of cases reported in this year's chapter are essentially the same as those reported in last year's, the number of certain types of cases have changed--in some instances significantly. For example, the number of cases raising constitutional issues in the areas of school construction, location, and property use have declined. On the…

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  13. First hints of large scale structures in the ultrahigh energy sky?

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoco, A.; Miele, G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The result of the recent publication [1] of a broad maximum around 25 degrees in the two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions has been intriguingly interpreted as the first imprint of the large scale structures (LSS) of baryonic matter in the near universe. We analyze this suggestion in light of the clustering properties expected from the PSCz astronomical catalogue of LSS. The chance probability of the signal is consistent within 2 {sigma} with the predictions based on the catalogue. No evidence for a significant cross-correlation of the observed events with known overdensities in the LSS is found, which may be due to the role of the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, and is however consistent with the limited statistics. The larger statistics to be collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory is needed to answer definitely the question.

  14. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II

    2017-06-01

    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O i] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O i] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O i] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Diphoton channel at the LHC experiments to find a hint for a new heavy gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Kunio; Kang, Subeom; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-09-01

    Recently there has been a huge interest in the diphoton excess around 750 GeV reported by both ATLAS and CMS collaborations, although the newest analysis with more statistics does not seem to support the excess. Nevertheless, the diphoton channel at the LHC experiments are a powerful tool to probe a new physics. One of the most natural explanations of a diphoton excess, if it occurs, could be a new scalar boson with exotic colored particles. In this setup, it would be legitimate to ask what is the role of this new scalar in nature. A heavy neutral gauge boson (Z‧) is one of the traditional targets of the discovery at the collider experiments with numerous motivations. While the Landau-Yang theorem dictates the diphoton excess cannot be this spin-1 gauge boson, there is a strong correlation of a new heavy gauge boson and a new scalar boson which provides a mass to the gauge boson being at the same mass scale. In this paper, we point out a simple fact that a new scalar with a property similar to the recently highlighted 750 GeV would suggest an existence of a TeV scale Z‧ gauge boson that might be within the reach of the LHC Run 2 experiments. We take a scenario of the well-motivated and popular gauged B - L symmetry and require the gauge coupling unification to predict the mass and other properties of the Z‧ and illustrate the discovery of the Z‧ would occur during the LHC experiments.

  16. Histidine Triad Nucleotide-binding Protein 1 (HINT-1) Phosphoramidase Transforms Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphorothioates to Nucleoside 5′-O-Phosphates*

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Magdalena; Dolot, Rafal; Janicka, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Renata; Krakowiak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside 5′-O-phosphorothioates are formed in vivo as primary products of hydrolysis of oligo(nucleoside phosphorothioate)s (PS-oligos) that are applied as antisense therapeutic molecules. The biodistribution of PS-oligos and their pharmacokinetics have been widely reported, but little is known about their subsequent decay inside the organism. We suggest that the enzyme responsible for nucleoside 5′-O-monophosphorothioate ((d)NMPS) metabolism could be histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint-1), a phosphoramidase belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily that is present in all forms of life. An additional, but usually ignored, activity of Hint-1 is its ability to catalyze the conversion of adenosine 5′-O-monophosphorothioate (AMPS) to 5′-O-monophosphate (AMP). By mutagenetic and biochemical studies, we defined the active site of Hint-1 and the kinetic parameters of the desulfuration reaction (P-S bond cleavage). Additionally, crystallographic analysis (resolution from 1.08 to 1.37 Å) of three engineered cysteine mutants showed the high similarity of their structures, which were not very different from the structure of WT Hint-1. Moreover, we found that not only AMPS but also other ribonucleoside and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates are desulfurated by Hint-1 at the following relative rates: GMPS > AMPS > dGMPS ≥ CMPS > UMPS > dAMPS ≫ dCMPS > TMPS, and during the reaction, hydrogen sulfide, which is thought to be the third gaseous mediator, was released. PMID:20940308

  17. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, C. O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-03-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s-1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King & Ritter. The decay time-scales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 h. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: (1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of `normal' X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; (2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; (3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an LX of 1034-1035 erg s-1 for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accretion flow in a propeller effect, permitting a small portion of the flow to accrete on to the neutron star's surface. We thus predict that (quasi-) persistent VFXBs may also be transitional millisecond pulsars, turning on as millisecond radio pulsars when their LX drops below 1032 erg s-1.

  18. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  19. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Cantoni, Claudia; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Alessandro; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta; Vitale, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue.

  20. Maximum Time-to-Rescue After the 1908 Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake was 20 Days: Hints for Disaster Planning?

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Maximum time-to-rescue has been studied accurately for many earthquakes in the years 1985-2004. No study is available for historical quakes. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to evaluate long-term survivors (from the fifth day after the quake) of the Messina-Reggio Calabria earthquake (1908; Italy), which is considered, historically, to be the worst seismic event in Europe. Accurate readings of 11 national newspapers from the fifth day after the quake looking for rescued persons and transferring, to an ad hoc form, all data relating to each rescued person. The maximum time-to rescue was 20 days. There were 225 survivors, among them 51 children (22.6 %). For 23 out 225 rescued persons, there was evidence of availability of foods and drinkable fluids while under the rubble. The maximum time-to-rescue under the debris following this historical earthquake far exceeds that of all other quakes that occurred in the years 1985-2004. The long survival under debris was probably due to the lack of an order to stop search and rescue. Recent strategies reducing the time for search and rescue carry the risk of missing survivors. De Santo NG , Bisaccia C , De Santo LS . Maximum time-to-rescue after the 1908 Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake was 20 days: hints for disaster planning? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):249-252.

  1. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  2. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in direct-to-consumer genetic tests awareness in HINTS 2007: sociodemographic and numeracy correlates.

    PubMed

    Langford, Aisha T; Resnicow, Ken; Roberts, J Scott; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    To examine the association of 1) race/ethnicity and 2) numeracy with awareness of DTC genetic tests. Secondary analysis of 6,754 Hispanic, black, and white adult respondents to the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic predictors of DTC genetic tests awareness including race/ethnicity, income, education, and gender. Next, two numeracy variables were added to the model. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, black respondents were significantly less likely to have heard of DTC genetic tests compared to white respondents (OR = 0.79; CI: 0.65-0.97). When numeracy variables were added to the model, the effect of black race was no longer significant (OR = 0.84; CI: 0.69-1.04). Hispanic respondents did not significantly differ from white respondents in awareness of DTC genetic tests. Other significant correlates of DTC genetic tests awareness in the full model included education, income, age, and numeracy variables including degree to which people use medical statistics and numbers to make health decisions, and preference for words or numbers when discussing "the chance of something happening." Although black respondents were generally less aware of DTC genetic tests than white respondents, this relationship appears to be partially mediated by numeracy.

  4. Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals.

  5. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  6. Family history of gastric cancer correlates with decreased expression of HINT1 tumor suppressor gene in gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    ZUK, KAROLINA; PECZEK, LUKASZ; STEC-MICHALSKA, KRYSTYNA; MEDREK, MARTA; NAWROT, BARBARA

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Approximately 10% of gastric cancers are hereditary and a small percentage of these cases (1–3%) have been classified as a single hereditary syndrome (hereditary diffuse gastric cancer). We previously demonstrated that a family history of gastric cancer (FHGC) contributes to a predisposition towards the development of gastric cancer. Our data revealed that for dyspeptic patients whose first-degree relative(s) succumbed to GC, the levels of the fragile histidine triad pro-apoptotic protein in gastric mucosa were decreased. Another member of the histidine triad protein superfamily is histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), a novel tumor suppressor that plays an inhibitory role in the control of gene transcription. The study comprised 38 ethnically homogeneous patients with dyspeptic symptoms without concomitant chronic diseases (18 controls/20 patients with FHGC). The results showed that the samples from the control patients predominantly exhibited non-atrophic changes (approximately 90%), whereas atrophic changes occurred more frequently in patients with FHGC. Notably, the expression levels of the HINT1 gene were markedly higher in the samples with atrophy taken from the antrum of FHGC patients compared to the non-atrophic samples. Moreover, the levels of HINT1 mRNA in samples obtained from the antrum of patients with FHGC were lower compared to analogous samples from the control individuals. The decreased levels of HINT1 mRNA in the antrum samples of patients with the FHGC indicate that it is a factor predisposing those patients to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:22740884

  7. Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-12-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  8. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay.

  9. Trends in cancer survivors' experience of patient-centered communication: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chawla, Neetu; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2016-12-01

    Two Institute of Medicine reports almost a decade apart suggest that cancer survivors often feel "lost in transition" and experience suboptimal quality of care. The six core functions of patient-centered communication: managing uncertainty, responding to emotions, making decisions, fostering healing relationships, enabling self-management, and exchanging information, represent a central aspect of survivors' care experience that has not been systematically investigated. Nationally representative data from four administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was merged with combined replicate weights using the jackknife replication method. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess (1) characteristics of cancer survivors (N = 1794) who report suboptimal patient-centered communication and (2) whether survivors' patient-centered communication experience changed from 2007 to 2013. One third to one half of survivors report suboptimal patient-centered communication, particularly on core functions of providers helping manage uncertainty (48 %) and responding to emotions (49 %). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, survivors with more education (Wald F = 2.84, p = .04), without a usual source of care (Wald F = 11.59, p < .001), and in poorer health (Wald F = 9.08, p < .001) were more likely to report less patient-centered communication. Although ratings of patient-centered communication improved over time (p trend = .04), this trend did not remain significant in fully adjusted models. Despite increased attention to survivorship, many survivors continue to report suboptimal communication with their health care providers. Survivorship communication should include managing uncertainty about future risk and address survivors' emotional needs. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication should focus on survivors without a usual source of care and in poorer health.

  10. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  11. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-07

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers.

  12. Enhanced models for stellar Doppler noise reveal hints of a 13-year activity cycle of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of Doppler noise models on the statistical robustness of the exoplanetary radial velocity fits. We show that the traditional model of the Doppler noise with an additive jitter can generate large non-linearity effects, decreasing the reliability of the fit, especially in the cases when a correlated Doppler noise is involved. We introduce a regularization of the additive noise model that can gracefully eliminate its singularities together with the associated non-linearity effects. We apply this approach to Doppler time series data of several exoplanetary systems. It demonstrates that our new regularized noise model yields orbital fits that have either increased or at least the same statistical robustness, in comparison with the simple additive jitter. Various statistical uncertainties in the parametric estimations are often reduced, while planet detection significance is often increased. Concerning the 55 Cnc five-planet system, we show that its Doppler data contain significant correlated (`red') noise. Its correlation time-scale is in the range from days to months, and its magnitude is much larger than the effect of the planetary N-body perturbations in the radial velocity (these perturbations thus appear undetectable). Characteristics of the red noise depend on the spectrograph/observatory, and also show a cyclic time variation in phase with the public Ca II H&K and photometry measurements. We interpret this modulation as a hint of the long-term activity cycle of 55 Cnc, similar to the solar 11-yr cycle. We estimate the 55 Cnc activity period by 12.6± ^{2.5}_{1.0} yr, with the nearest minimum presumably expected in 2014 or 2015.

  13. Quantitative analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 protein over-expression in human prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Symes, Andrew J; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R; Patel, Hitendra R H; Patel, Hitenedra R H; Masters, John R W; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer.

  14. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided.

  15. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  16. High-resolution X-ray structure of the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (rHINT1)-adenosine complex at 1.10 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine-triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the first complete structure of the rabbit HINT1-adenosine complex is reported at 1.10 Å resolution, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained for a HINT1 structure. The final structure has an R(cryst) of 14.25% (R(free) = 16.77%) and the model exhibits good stereochemical qualities. A detailed analysis of the atomic resolution data allowed an update of the details of the protein structure in comparison to previously published data.

  17. Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007

  18. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  19. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  20. Use of the Internet to Communicate with Health Care Providers in the United States: Estimates from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Squiers, Linda; Arora, Neeraj K; Volckmann, Lindsey; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite substantial evidence that the public wants access to Internet-based communication with health care providers, online patient-provider communication remains relatively uncommon, and few studies have examined sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with the use of online communication with health care providers at a population level. Objective The aim of the study was to use nationally representative data to report on the prevalence of and changes in use of online patient-provider communication in 2003 and 2005 and to describe sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with its use. Methods Data for this study are from two iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2003, HINTS 2005). In both years, respondents were asked whether they had ever used email or the Internet to communicate with a doctor or a doctor’s office. Adult Internet users in 2003 (n = 3982) and 2005 (n = 3244) were included in the present study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors for electronic communication with health care providers. Results In 2003, 7% of Internet users had communicated online with an health care provider; this prevalence significantly increased to 10% in 2005. In multivariate analyses, Internet users with more years of education, who lived in a metro area, who reported poorer health status or who had a personal history of cancer were more likely to have used online patient-provider communication. Conclusions Despite wide diffusion of the Internet, online patient-provider communication remains uncommon but is slowly increasing. Policy-level changes are needed to maximize the availability and effectiveness of online patient-provider communication for health care consumers and health care providers. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online patient-provider communication. PMID:17627929

  1. Computational chemistry study of 3D-structure-function relationships for enzymes based on Markov models for protein electrostatic, HINT, and van der Waals potentials.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Podda, Gianni; Uriarte, Eugenio; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2009-07-15

    In a significant work, Dobson and Doig (J Mol Biol 2003, 330, 771) illustrated protein prediction as enzymatic or not from spatial structure without resorting to alignments. They used 52 protein features and a nonlinear support vector machine model to classify more than 1000 proteins collected from the PDB with a 77% overall accuracy. The most useful features were: the secondary-structure content, the amino acid frequencies, the number of disulphide bonds, and the largest cleft size. Working on the same dataset used by D&D, in this article we reported a good and simple model, based on the Markov chain models (MCM), to classify protein 3D structures as enzymatic or not, taking into consideration the spatial structure without resorting to alignments. Here we define, for the first time, a general MCM to calculate the electrostatic potential, molecular vibrations, van der Waals (vdw) interactions, and hydrophobic interactions (HINT) and use them in comparative studies of potential fields and/or protein function prediction. The dataset is composed of 1371 proteins divided into 689 enzymes and 682 nonenzymes, all proteins were collected from the PDB. The best model we found was a linear model carried out with the linear discriminant analysis; it was able to classify 74.18% of the proteins using only two electrostatic potentials. In the work described here, we define 3D-HINT potentials (mu(k)) and use them for the first time to derive a classifier for protein enzymes. We analyzed ROC curves, domain of applicability, parametric assumptions, desirability maps, and also tested other nonlinear artificial neural network models which did not improve the linear model. In closing, this MCM allows a fast calculation and comparison of different potentials deriving into accurate protein 3D structure-function relationships, notably simpler than the previous.

  2. Light scattering observations and simulations, as hints about the media encountered by future rendezvous missions to comets and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    The success of future rendezvous mission to comets (i.e. Rosetta, which will explore the innermost coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, before deploying a lander on its nucleus in 2014) and asteroids (e.g. Marco-Polo candidate mission for ESA Cosmic Vision) require some understanding of the physical properties of the dust particles encountered in the coma (if any) and on the solid surface. Analysis of observations of the linear polarization of solar light scattered by such media may provide clues to their properties [1]. The polarization is actually a dimension-less ratio, which only varies with the geometry of the observations (i.e. phase angle), with the wavelength, and with the properties of the scattering medium. Comparisons between the shapes of the polarimetric phase curves of asteroids [2] and comets [3] provide a classification with respect to the dust properties. As far as asteroids are concerned, this classification is reminiscent of the taxonomic classes, and more information is expected from detailed studies of the wavelength dependence. As far as comets are concerned, an extensive programme of numerical and laboratory simulations with various irregular compact grains and aggregates has been developed in the past years [4,5]. Comparisons of the results with observations (tentatively on a large range of phase angles and wavelengths) have allowed us to suggest that cometary dust particles are built of both very fluffy aggregates and of more compact grains, with significant proportions of both rather transparent silicates and absorbing materials [6]. These estimations are confirmed by the analysis of Stardust samples, with, e.g. evidence for dense grains and aggregates with low bulk density within the coma of comet Wild 2 [7]. It may thus be concluded that the analysis of remote light scattering observations allows us to infer some properties of the scattering media, to point out some similarities and discrepancies between small solar system bodies, and to

  3. Recent insights on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based compounds: hints for the successful drug design.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, M Z; de S Pontes, F J; Coelho, L C D; Moreira, D R M; Pereira, V R A; Leite, A C L

    2010-01-01

    Although more complex than usually described, the anticancer action mechanism of cisplatin is based on binding to DNA. Following this line of reasoning, most the metal-based compounds discovered soon after cisplatin were designed to acting as DNA-binding agents and their pharmacological properties were thought to be correlated with this mechanism. Apart from the DNA structure, a significant number of proteins and biochemical pathways have been described as drug targets for metal-based compounds. This paper is therefore aimed at discussing the most recent findings on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based drugs. It starts illustrating the design concept behind the bioinorganic chemistry of anticancer complexes. Anticancer metallic compounds that inhibit the protein kinases are concisely discussed as a case study. The accuracy and limitations of molecular docking programs currently available to predict the binding mode of metallic complexes in molecular targets are further discussed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different in vitro screenings are briefly commented.

  4. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sa, Zhining; Zhou, Jingqi; Zou, Yangyun; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

    2017-08-01

    Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II) of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Observations of Infalling and Rotational Motions on a 1000 AU Scale around 17 Class 0 and 0/I Protostars: Hints of Disk Growth and Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C18O (2-1) and 12CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C18O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ~600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C18O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ~1 to ~530 km s-1 pc-1. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M ⊙ to >1 M ⊙. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10-4 km s-1 pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk formation.

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF INFALLING AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS ON A 1000 AU SCALE AROUND 17 CLASS 0 AND 0/I PROTOSTARS: HINTS OF DISK GROWTH AND MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (2-1) and {sup 12}CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ∼600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C{sup 18}O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ∼1 to ∼530 km s{sup –1} pc{sup –1}. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M {sub ☉} to >1 M {sub ☉}. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10{sup –4} km s{sup –1} pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk

  7. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, E; Martínez, J J; Huerta, M; Avila, R; Fragoso, G; Villalobos, N; de Aluja, A; Larralde, C

    2003-10-20

    In two rural villages of the state of Puebla, Mexico, where Taenia solium pig cysticercosis is highly endemic, 120 pairs of young out-bred piglets were used to assay what proved to be an effective synthetic peptide vaccine against naturally acquired cysticercosis. Because the piglets used were all sired by one of three distinct studs in many different out-bred sows, the prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as degree of protection conferred by the vaccine, could be related to each of the three stud families (A-C). The highest prevalence was found in the C family (25%), whilst the prevalence of B and A families were 21.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Familial clustering of cases was even more conspicuous in vaccinated pigs than in not-vaccinated ones: seven of the nine cysticercosis cases that occurred in the vaccinated group belonged to the C family (7/26) and two to the B family (2/23), whilst the vaccine rendered the A family totally resistant (0/71). Parasite numbers were also higher in the C family in both nai;ve and vaccinated pigs. Familial clustering of cases and of large parasite numbers in naive and vaccinated pigs hint to the relevance of their genetic background in their innate and acquired resistance to cysticercosis.

  8. Pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression following severe heat shock of heat-conditioned cells hints to intricate cell survival tactics.

    PubMed

    Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Florentin, Ida; Baki, Lia; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Alexis, Michael N

    2005-02-01

    We have previously reported that severe heat shock of HeLa cells stably transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, transcription of which is controlled by two glucocorticoid-responsive elements and a minimal promoter, pronouncedly enhanced glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression compared to that of non-heated cells, in spite of the glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated transcription of the gene being temporarily compromised by the shock. We now report that prolonged severe heat shock of properly heat-conditioned cells resulted in far more pronounced enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT mRNA and protein expressions, in spite of a similar heat-induced loss of receptor-mediated CAT gene transcription. During recovery from the shock the hormonal activation of transcription exceeded that of non-heated cells. While CAT mRNA translation was restored appreciably later than CAT gene transcription, mRNA and protein expressions were thermally enhanced to a comparable extent, consistent with the integrity of CAT mRNA being preserved during recovery. CAT mRNA turnover was fully impaired during early recovery, suggesting that stabilisation of CAT mRNA as well as stimulation of the hormonal activation of CAT gene transcription account for the thermal enhancement of glucocorticoid-induced CAT expression. This data hint to cell survival tactics designed to safeguard high expression of genes of stress-enduring function.

  9. Population Estimates of Meeting Strength Training and Aerobic Guidelines, by Gender and Cancer Survivorship Status: Findings From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Allison; Yu, Mandi; Moser, Richard P; Phillips, Siobhan M; Alfano, Catherine; Perna, Frank M

    2015-05-01

    Evidence is building that strength training may reduce complications associated with cancer such as fatigue, muscle wasting, and lymphedema, particularly among breast and prostate cancer survivors. Population estimates are available for rates of aerobic physical activity; however, data on strength training in this population are limited. The objective of this study was to identify rates of meeting public health recommendations for strength training and aerobic activity among cancer survivors and individuals with no cancer history. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), Iteration 4 Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 were combined to conduct the analyses. Missing data were imputed, and weighted statistical analyses were conducted in SAS. The proportion of individuals meeting both strength training and aerobic guidelines were low for both cancer survivors and those without a history of cancer. The odds of meeting strength training guidelines were significantly lower for women with a history of any cancer except breast, compared with women with no history of cancer (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.96). More work needs to be done to understand why women with cancers other than breast, may be less inclined to engage in aerobic physical activity and strength training.

  10. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  11. The expression of the neonatal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA1b) hints to a role in muscle growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Erno; Vangheluwe, Peter; Wuytack, Frank

    2007-04-01

    The neonatal isoform of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA1b) is a Ca2+ pump with a well-known developmentally regulated transcript level but an undefined protein expression and function. Specific antibodies were generated to show that SERCA1b is exclusively expressed in myoblasts and myotubes of cultured and regenerating muscle. However, the SERCA1b protein was not detectable in normal adult fast and slow muscles. Studies of the in vitro differentiating myogenic cell lines C2C12 and sol8 showed that SERCA1b is the main SERCA1 protein isoform induced during differentiation and that it is found in the myotubes. Remarkably in BC3H1 cells, which show incomplete differentiation and are reluctant to form myotubes, express the SERCA1b mRNA but not the corresponding protein. SERCA1b protein was also absent from stretched or denervated adult soleus, in spite of the fact that its mRNA level was upregulated. SERCA1b accounts for nearly the total of SERCA1 expression in the diaphragm of newborn mice, which suggests that the insufficient function and development of the diaphragm in the SERCA1 null mutant mice may be due to the lack of SERCA1b. Our studies point to an important regulation of SERCA1b expression at the protein level and hints to a role in the growth of the developing muscle.

  12. Turner syndrome and schizophrenia: a further hint for the role of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of sex chromosomes are associated with various forms of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Turner syndrome occurs approximately threefold more frequently in female schizophrenics compared to the general female population. A single case is reported. We report on a case of a 41-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. A polymorphism of the HOPA gene within Xq13 termed HOPA(12bp) is associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and hypothyroidism. Interestingly, Xq13 is the X-chromosome region that contains the X-inactivation center and a gene escaping X-inactivation whose gene product may be involved in the X-inactivation process as well as in the pathogenesis of sex chromosome anomalies such as Turner syndrome. These genes that escape X-inactivation may produce their gene products in excess, influencing normal brain growth and differentiation. Our case gives a further hint for an involvement of the X-chromosome in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  13. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  14. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  15. Humor Hints for School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bryan

    An attempt is made to show or suggest to the newcomer, whether adviser or reporter, some of the humor forms, devices, or ideas that can be used in a school publication. Twenty-four different types of humorous devices are included. These are boners (humorous errors); howlers (play on words); the pun; ethical light verse and limericks; humorous…

  16. The National Cancer Institute’s Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]: a national cross-sectional analysis of talking to your doctor and other healthcare providers for health information

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need to understand preferred sources of health information remains important to providing patient-centered care. The Internet remains a popular resource for health information, but more traditional sources may still be valid for patients during a recent health need. This study sought to understand the characteristics of patients that turn to their doctor or healthcare provider first for a recent health or medical information need. Methods Using the national cross-sectional survey, Health Information National Trend Study [HINTS], characteristics of those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider for a recent health information need were compared to other sources. Weighted survey responses from Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 of the HINTS survey were used for multivariable logistic regression. Results A total 5,307 patient responses were analyzed. Overall, those who seek a doctor or healthcare provider first for a health need are female, 46–64 years, White non-Hispanic, educated, in good health and users of the Internet. Yet, adjusted logistic regressions showed that those who sought a doctor or healthcare provider first during a recent health information need compared to other sources were most likely to be 65+ years, in poor health, less educated and have health insurance. Conclusions Patients who seek their doctor or healthcare provider first for health information rather than other sources of information represent a unique population. Doctors or healthcare providers remain an important resource for these patients during recent needs, despite the wide use of the Internet as a source of health information. PMID:24906558

  17. The moon-Earth system...As a vacuum gravity energy machine? A Hint about the Nature of Universal Gravity that May Have Been Overlooked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2011-10-01

    We revisit the theories describing the moon raising the tides by virtue of pull gravity combined with the moon's centripetal angular momentum. We show that if gravity is considered as the attractive interaction between individual bodies, then a laboring moon doing work would have fallen to earth eons ago. Isaac Newton's laws of motion cannot work with pull gravity, but they do with Einstein's gravity as a property of the universe, which produces a continuous infusion of energy. In other words, the moon-Earth system becomes the first observable vacuum gravity energy machine. In other words the dynamics of what appears to be a closed system has been producing energy that continues raising the tides into perpetuity along with the force needed for the moon to escape the Earth's gravitational pull 4cm per year. All this is in defiance of Newton's first law which says ``If no force is added to a body it cannot accelerate.'' In this theory, a flowing space-time curves with three dimensions of force. A (flowing) spatial fabric bends around mass and displaces the inverse square field vanishing point property of matter with the appearance of a push-force square of the distance. In other words, the immeasurable universal gravity field appears as measurable local gravitation, concentrating universal gravitational pressure with the square of the distance from the very point was supposed to have disappeared. Needless to say such ``gravity'' necessitates a different beginning.

  18. Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Let's stop passing around and work together for the next! ; HiNT, an organization creating new businesses in Hokkaido by exchanging people, information and technology ; Taking a close look at Mr.Eijun Ohta, a coordinator of cooperation among the government, industry and academia

  19. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  20. WISE properties of OH megamaser galaxies: Guide for future FAST OHM survey?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. S.; Wang, J. Z.; Li, D.; Zhu, Q. F.

    All 119 OH maser galaxies (110 out of them are megamasers, i.e., L OH > 10 L ⊙, OHMs) published so far were compiled and were cross-identified with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog. Our aim is to investigate intrinsic middle-infrared properties of OH maser galaxies and try to find some hints on sample selections on OHM surveys through the coming Five hundred aperture spherical telescope (FAST). In addition, enormous potentials for OHM surveys by future FAST are investigated, based on its innovative designs and its expected best sensitivity among single dish telescopes.

  1. Triaxial models description of the low-lying properties in 192Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, T.; An, S. Y.; Li, X. X.; Yu, X. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Several typical triaxial models have been parallel addressed and applied to describe the energy values and B(E2) transitional rates in the ground band and the γ band for 192Os. It is shown that the different triaxial model presents different triaxial dynamics but each of them can only succeed to explain part of the spectral properties of this nucleus, which indicates that the triaxial shape of 192Os may be more complicated than that reflected by an ideal triaxial model. In addition, the staggering signature in experiments hints that γ-rigid triaxiality should be more or less involved in 192Os.

  2. OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS FOR THE HOT URANUS GJ3470b: A HINT OF A CLOUD-FREE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kawauchi, Kiyoe; Nagayama, Shogo; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Hiroshi; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Suenaga, Takuya; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-20

    We present optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c}) to near-infrared (J) simultaneous photometric observations for a primary transit of GJ3470b, a Uranus-mass transiting planet around a nearby M dwarf, by using the 50 cm MITSuME telescope and the 188 cm telescope, both at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. From these data, we derive the planetary mass, radius, and density as 14.1 {+-} 1.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 4.32{sup +0.21}{sub -0.10} R{sub Circled-Plus }, and 0.94 {+-} 0.12 g cm{sup -3}, respectively, thus confirming the low density that was reported by Demory et al. based on the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m photometry (0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}). Although the planetary radius is about 10% smaller than that reported by Demory et al., this difference does not alter their conclusion that the planet possesses a hydrogen-rich envelope whose mass is approximately 10% of the planetary total mass. On the other hand, we find that the planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p} /R{sub s} ) in the J band (0.07577{sup +0.00072}{sub -0.00075}) is smaller than that in the I{sub c} (0.0802 {+-} 0.0013) and 4.5 {mu}m (0.07806{sup +0.00052}{sub -0.00054}) bands by 5.8% {+-} 2.0% and 2.9% {+-} 1.1%, respectively. A plausible explanation for the differences is that the planetary atmospheric opacity varies with wavelength due to absorption and/or scattering by atmospheric molecules. Although the significance of the observed R{sub p} /R{sub s} variations is low, if confirmed, this fact would suggest that GJ3470b does not have a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere. This property would offer a wealth of opportunity for future transmission-spectroscopic observations of this planet to search for certain molecular features, such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO, without being prevented by clouds.

  3. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  4. Shear wave splitting hints at dynamical features of mantle convection: a global study of homogeneously processed source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The asthenosphere is embroiled in the process of mantle convection. Its viscous properties allow it to flow around sinking slabs and deep cratonic roots as it is displaced by intruding material and dragged around by the moving layer above. As the asthenosphere flows it develops a crystalline fabric with anisotropic crystals preferentially aligned in the direction of flow. Meanwhile, the lithosphere above deforms as it is squeezed and stretched by underlying tectonic processes, enabling anisotropic fabrics to develop and become fossilised in the rigid rock and to persist over vast spans of geological time. As a shear wave passes through an anisotropic medium it splits into two orthogonally polarised quasi shear waves that propagate at different velocities (this phenomenon is known as shear wave splitting). By analysing the polarisation and the delay time of many split waves that have passed through a region it is possible to constrain the anisotropy of the medium in that region. This anisotropy is the key to revealing the deformation history of the deep Earth. In this study we present measurements of shear wave splitting recorded on S, SKS, and SKKS waves from earthquakes recorded at stations from the IRIS DMC catalogue (1976-2010). We have used a cluster analysis phase picking technique [1] to pick hundreds of thousands of high signal to noise waveforms on long period data. These picks are used to feed the broadband data into an automated processing workflow that recovers shear wave splitting parameters [2,3]. The workflow includes a new method for making source and receiver corrections, whereby the stacked error surfaces are used as input to correction rather than a single set of parameters, this propagates uncertainty information into the final measurement. Using SKS, SKKS, and source corrected S, we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 1,569 stations. Using receiver corrected S we recover good measurements of anisotropy beneath 470 events. We compare

  5. Nursing knowledge: hints from the placebo effect.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Nursing knowledge stems from a dynamic interplay between population-based scientific knowledge (the general) and specific clinical cases (the particular). We compared the 'cascade model of knowledge translation', also known as 'classical biomedical model' in clinical practice (in which knowledge gained at population level may be applied directly to a specific clinical context), with an emergentist model of knowledge translation. The structure and dynamics of nursing knowledge are outlined, adopting the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Then, a (moderately) emergentist approach to nursing knowledge is proposed, based on the assumption of a two-way flow from the general to the particular and vice versa. The case of the 'placebo effect' is analysed as an example of emergentist knowledge. The placebo effect is usually considered difficult to be explained within the classical biomedical model, and we underscore its importance in shaping nursing knowledge. In fact, nurses are primarily responsible for administering placebo in the clinical setting and have an essential role in promoting the placebo effect and reducing the nocebo effect. The beliefs responsible for the placebo effect are as follows: (1) interactive, because they depend on the relationship between patients and health care professionals; (2) situated, because they occur in a given clinical context related to certain rituals; and (3) grounded on higher order beliefs concerning what an individual thinks about the beliefs of others. It is essential to know the clinical context and to understand other people's beliefs to make sense of the placebo effect. The placebo effect only works when the (higher order) beliefs of doctors, nurses and patients interact in a given setting. Finally, we argue for a close relationship between placebo effect and nursing knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  7. Writing for Profit: A Catalog of Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Offers tips to business communication teachers on how to write for money. Tips include: (1) Begin by writing for free, (2) use business contacts, (3) vary approaches to writing, and (4) write about personal experiences. (FL)

  8. Hints for the Health Education Student Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Elmer A.

    1977-01-01

    Views are presented on education and health education that a student teacher should consider in a search for excellence in teaching, including the interest of health education to the student, nature of the learning process, development of a learning climate, and others. (MJB)

  9. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  10. Helpful Hints for New BIA Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Window Rock, AZ.

    A series of short articles gives suggestions for new Bureau of Indian Affairs teachers preparing to teach Navajo children in Arizona. The topics considered include 1) Navajo children as they are the first day (week, two weeks) of school, from beginners through eighth graders; 2) a beginning teacher's first impressions of Navajo high school…

  11. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints.

    PubMed

    Brink, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain.

  12. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  13. Environmental Psychology: Hints of a New Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal W.

    1980-01-01

    The author briefly reports some significant findings concerning the impact of the environment on human perception, behavior, and performance, touching particularly on color, seating arrangement and crowding, and music and noise. Implications for schools are discussed. (PGD)

  14. Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the…

  15. Hints at Ceres Composition from Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This map-projected view of Ceres was created from images taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft during its high-altitude mapping orbit, in August and September, 2015. Images taken using infrared (920 nanometers), red (750 nanometers) and blue (440 nanometers) spectral filters were combined to create this false-color view. Redder colors indicate places on Ceres' surface that reflect light strongly in the infrared, while bluish colors indicate enhanced reflectivity at short (bluer) wavelengths; green indicates places where albedo, or overall brightness, is strongly enhanced. Scientists use this technique in order to highlight subtle color differences across Ceres, which would appear fairly uniform in natural color. This can provide valuable insights into the mineral composition of the surface, as well as the relative ages of surface features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19977

  16. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  17. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  18. Hints to an Effective Personalized Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskin, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Five basic features of PSI are emphasized: written materials (i.e., study guides) specifically designed to supplement existing traditional texts; a "mastery" philosophy of learning which allows the learner to progress only after he or she has successfully demonstrated complete knowledge of the previous material; self-pacing; the use of…

  19. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  20. Hints for Teaching Success in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    This book offers support for middle school teachers and suggestions on how they can help their students be more successful, both in the classroom and in life. Thirteen chapters cover being a teacher, the classroom, students and the challenges they face, communication, teaching, testing, working with parents, staff relations and job stress, public…

  1. First-principle study of geometric stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium adsorption on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullahi, Yusuf Zuntu; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Zainuddin, H.; Abubakar, Shamsu

    2014-03-05

    Stable geometries, electronic and magnetic properties of low coverage vanadium (V) atoms adsorption on graphene sheet have been investigated by first principles calculations, using generalized gradient approximation. Calculation shows that center of the ring is energetically favorable for both V adatom and perpendicular dimer after relaxation. Moreover, the proportion of orbital contribution of C-V bonding are mainly dominated by 2p{sub z} orbital of C and partially occupied by the 3d like states of V. It is also found that the low coverage V atom adsorbed graphene system is metallic and magnetic, and has demonstrated additional hint on its usefulness in magnetic devices.

  2. Studies of top quark properties and search for electroweak single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Mousumi; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The top quark was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron during the Run I operation. Since the start of the Tevatron Run II in 2001, both experiments have collected {approx}2 fb{sup -1} data samples, which are over twenty times larger than that used in the Run 1 discovery. This larger data sample allows more precise studies of top-quark properties; differences between observed top-quark properties and the Standard Model (SM) prediction may give hints to possible physics beyond the SM. Here we present the latest results on the measurements of top-quark properties and the search for electroweak (EW) single top quark production from the CDF and D0 collaborations. The integrated luminosity used for the measurements corresponds to about 1 fb{sup -1}.

  3. Physicochemical properties of sorghum flour are selectively modified by combined germination-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Elkhalifa, Abd Elmoneim O; Bernhardt, Rita; Cardone, Gaetano; Marti, Alessandra; Iametti, Stefania; Marengo, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    The combined effects of grain germination and of subsequent fermentation on the physicochemical properties of sorghum flour were investigated by studying the structural changes occurring in the starch and protein fractions and by assessing their effects on physical properties of the resulting materials most relevant to end use. The sequential treatments were more effective than either individual treatment in the modification of starch-related properties, whereas modification of the protein components only occurs in the fermentation step, almost regardless of a previous germination step. The resulting profile of physicochemical traits offers several hints as for the suitability of flour from treated sorghum as an ingredient for various types of gluten-free food products, and provides a basis for expanding the use of processed sorghum in applications other than traditional African foods.

  4. The interplay of mutations and electronic properties in disease-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chi-Tin; Wells, Stephen A.; Hsu, Ching-Ling; Cheng, Yun-Yin; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2012-02-01

    Electronic properties of DNA are believed to play a crucial role in many phenomena in living organisms, for example the location of DNA lesions by base excision repair (BER) glycosylases and the regulation of tumor-suppressor genes such as p53 by detection of oxidative damage. However, the reproducible measurement and modelling of charge migration through DNA molecules at the nanometer scale remains a challenging and controversial subject even after more than a decade of intense efforts. Here we show, by analysing 162 disease-related genes from a variety of medical databases with a total of almost 20,000 observed pathogenic mutations, a significant difference in the electronic properties of the population of observed mutations compared to the set of all possible mutations. Our results have implications for the role of the electronic properties of DNA in cellular processes, and hint at the possibility of prediction, early diagnosis and detection of mutation hotspots.

  5. Properties of the nuclear medium.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Burgio, G F

    2012-02-01

    We review our knowledge on the properties of the nuclear medium that have been studied, over many years, on the basis of many-body theory, laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Throughout the presentation particular emphasis is placed on the possible relationship and links between the nuclear medium and the structure of nuclei, including the limitations of such an approach. First we consider the realm of phenomenological laboratory data and astrophysical observations and the hints they can give on the characteristics that the nuclear medium should possess. The analysis is based on phenomenological models, that however have a strong basis on physical intuition and an impressive success. More microscopic models are also considered, and it is shown that they are able to give invaluable information on the nuclear medium, in particular on its equation of state. The interplay between laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations is particularly stressed, and it is shown how their complementarity enormously enriches our insights into the structure of the nuclear medium. We then introduce the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the microscopic many-body theory of nuclear matter, with a critical discussion about the different approaches and their results. The Landau-Fermi liquid theory is introduced and briefly discussed, and it is shown how fruitful it can be in discussing the macroscopic and low-energy properties of the nuclear medium. As an illustrative example, we discuss neutron matter at very low density, and it is shown how it can be treated within the many-body theory. The general bulk properties of the nuclear medium are reviewed to indicate at which stage of our knowledge we stand, taking into account the most recent developments both in theory and experiments. A section is dedicated to the pairing problem. The connection with nuclear structure is then discussed, on the basis of the energy density functional method. The possibility of linking

  6. Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  7. Tuning optical properties of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Anne S.; Tavernaro, Isabella; Machka, Friederike; Dakischew, Olga; Lips, Katrin S.; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, two different synthetic methods in aqueous solution are presented to tune the optical properties of CdTe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles. Additionally, the influence of different temperatures, pressures, precursor ratios, surface ligands, bases, and core components in the synthesis was investigated with regard to the particle sizes and optical properties. As a result, a red shift of the emission and absorption maxima with increasing reaction temperature (100 to 220°C), pressure (1 to 25 bar), and different ratios of core components of alloyed semiconductor nanoparticles could be observed without a change of the particle size. An increase in particle size from 2.5 to 5 nm was only achieved by variation of the mercaptocarboxylic acid ligands in combination with the reaction time and used base. To get a first hint on the cytotoxic effects and cell uptake of the synthesized quantum dots, in vitro tests mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were carried out.

  8. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  9. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 and was the last of the quarks to be discovered. As the partner of the bottom quark the top quark is expected to have quantum numbers identical to that of the other known up-type quarks. Only the mass is a free parameter. We now know that it is more than 30 times heavier than the next heaviest quark, the bottom quark. Thus, within the Standard Model all production and decay properties are fully defined. Having the complete set of quarks further allows to verify constraints that the Standard Model puts on the sum of all quarks or particles. This alone is reason enough to experimentally study the top quark properties. The high value of the top quark mass and its closeness to the electroweak scale has inspired people to speculate that the top quark could have a special role in the electroweak symmetry breaking. Confirming the expected properties of the top quark experimentally establishes the top quark as we expect it to be. Any deviation from the expectations gives hints to new physics that may help to solve the outstanding questions. In this review the recent results on top quark properties obtained by the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 are summarized. At the advent of the LHC special emphasis is given to the basic measurement methods and the dominating systematic uncertainties. After a short introduction to the Standard Model and the experimental environment in the remainder of this chapter, Chapter 2 describes the current status of top quark mass measurements. Then measurments of interaction properties are described in Chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 4 deals with analyses that consider hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model in the observed events.

  10. Isozymes of plant hexokinase: occurrence, properties and functions.

    PubMed

    Claeyssen, Eric; Rivoal, Jean

    2007-03-01

    Hexokinase (HK) occurs in all phyla, as an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Its importance in plant metabolism has emerged with compelling evidence that its preferential substrate, glucose, is both a nutrient and a signal molecule that controls development and expression of different classes of genes. A variety of plant tissues and organs have been shown to express multiple HK isoforms with different kinetic properties and subcellular localizations. Although plant HK is known to fulfill a catalytic function and act as a glucose sensor, the physiological relevance of plural isoforms and their contribution to either function are still poorly understood. We review here the current knowledge and hypotheses on the physiological roles of plant HK isoforms that have been identified and characterized. Recent findings provide hints on how the expression patterns, biochemical properties and subcellular localizations of HK isoforms may relate to their modes of action. Special attention is devoted to kinetic, mutant and transgenic data on HKs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the Solanaceae potato, tobacco, and tomato, as well as HK gene expression data from Arabidopsis public DNA microarray resources. Similarities and differences to known properties of animal and yeast HKs are also discussed as they may help to gain further insight into the functional adaptations of plant HKs.

  11. Investigating observability properties from data in nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Luis A.; Letellier, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    Investigation of observability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems aims at giving a hint on how much dynamical information can be retrieved from a system using a certain measuring function. Such an investigation usually requires knowledge of the system equations. This paper addresses the challenging problem of investigating observability properties of a system only from recorded data. From previous studies it is known that phase spaces reconstructed from poor observables are characterized by local sharp pleatings, local strong squeezing of trajectories, and global inhomogeneity. A statistic is then proposed to quantify such properties of poor observability. Such a statistic was computed for a number of bench models for which observability studies had been previously performed. It was found that the statistic proposed in this paper, estimated exclusively from data, correlates generally well with observability results obtained using the system equations. It is possible to arrive at the same order of observability among the state variables using the proposed statistic even in the presence of noise with a standard deviation as high as 10% of the data. The paper includes the application of the proposed statistic to sunspot time series.

  12. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  13. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  14. Plant nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; simple purification from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seeds and properties of homogeneous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna M; Rydzik, Anna M; Stepiński, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH₂-pA) is an uncommon natural nucleotide of poorly understood biochemistry and function. We studied a plant enzyme potentially involved in the catabolism of NH₂-pA. A fast and simple method comprising extraction of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) seed-meal with a low ionic strength buffer, ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionations, removal of contaminating proteins by heat denaturation, and affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose, yielded homogenous nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the lupin hydrolase exhibits closest similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana Hint1 protein. The substrate specificity of the lupin enzyme, in particular its ability to split the P-S bond in adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate, is typical of known Hint1 proteins. Adenosine 5'-phosphofluoride and various derivatives of guanosine 5'-phosphoramidate were also substrates. Neither common divalent metal cations nor 10 mM EDTA or EGTA affected the hydrolysis of NH₂-pA. The enzyme functions as a homodimer (2 x 15,800 Da). At the optimum pH of 7.0, the K(m) for NH₂-pA was 0.5 µM and k(cat) 0.8 s⁻¹ (per monomer active site). The properties of the lupin nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidase are compared with those of its counterparts from other organisms.

  15. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  16. Colors and Properties of Jupiter's Greeks and Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    In this Ph.D. talk, I will present the colors and properties of Jupiter Trojan asteroids examined in my dissertation research. The Jupiter Trojan asteroids are minor bodies that orbit 60 degrees in front and 60 degrees behind Jupiter. Because these orbits are stable over the lifetime of the Solar System, the properties of these objects may inform us about the conditions under which the Solar System formed. We present BVRKCIKC photometry for over 100 of the intrinsically brightest and presumably largest members of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans. We use a new principal color component derived by Chatelain et al. 2016 that is indicative of taxonomic types relevant to the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. We previously found that 76% of the largest L5 Jupiter Trojans are consistent with a D-type classification, while 24% show shallower slopes more consistent with X-type and C-type classifications. Here we extend this study to the L4 cloud and compare the two populations, as well as include findings about specific objects that have resulted from these data. Specifically, multiple photometric observations hint at color variation in some objects, and our richest datasets allow for the determination of phase curves and shapes for a handful of the most compelling asteroids including a new shape model and pole solution for 1173 Anchises. Our goal is to use this study to shed light on these fascinating objects and to place the Trojans in context in the larger Solar System.

  17. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).

  18. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  19. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  20. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  1. Thermal properties

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The traditional question at the start of a class on thermal properties of wood is, “Does wood burn?” The students have all been warmed in front of a wood-burning fire before, so they are sure the answer is yes—but since the professor asked the question, there must be some hidden trick to the obvious answer. Going with their experience, their answer is “yes, wood burns...

  2. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute "electrical and electronic devices", such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  3. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan; Seitz, Steffen

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute electrical and electronic devices, such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  4. Predicting the connectivity of primate cortical networks from topological and spatial node properties

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luciano da F; Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2007-01-01

    Background The organization of the connectivity between mammalian cortical areas has become a major subject of study, because of its important role in scaffolding the macroscopic aspects of animal behavior and intelligence. In this study we present a computational reconstruction approach to the problem of network organization, by considering the topological and spatial features of each area in the primate cerebral cortex as subsidy for the reconstruction of the global cortical network connectivity. Starting with all areas being disconnected, pairs of areas with similar sets of features are linked together, in an attempt to recover the original network structure. Results Inferring primate cortical connectivity from the properties of the nodes, remarkably good reconstructions of the global network organization could be obtained, with the topological features allowing slightly superior accuracy to the spatial ones. Analogous reconstruction attempts for the C. elegans neuronal network resulted in substantially poorer recovery, indicating that cortical area interconnections are relatively stronger related to the considered topological and spatial properties than neuronal projections in the nematode. Conclusion The close relationship between area-based features and global connectivity may hint on developmental rules and constraints for cortical networks. Particularly, differences between the predictions from topological and spatial properties, together with the poorer recovery resulting from spatial properties, indicate that the organization of cortical networks is not entirely determined by spatial constraints. PMID:17408506

  5. Neutrino properties deduced from the study of lepton number violating processes at low and high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin

    2012-11-20

    There is nowadays a significant progress in understanding the neutrino properties. The results of the neutrino oscillation experiments have convincingly showed that neutrinos have mass and oscillate, in contradiction with the Standard Model (SM) assumptions, and these are the first evidences of beyond SM physics. However, fundamental properties of the neutrinos like their absolute mass, their character (are they Dirac or Majorana particles?), their mass hierarchy, the number of neutrino flavors, etc., still remain unknown. In this context there is an increased interest in the study of the lepton number violating (LNV) processes, since they could complete our understanding on the neutrino properties. Since recently, the neutrinoless double beta decay was considered the only process able to distinguish between Dirac or Majorana neutrinos and to give a hint on the absolute mass of the electron neutrino. At present, the increased luminosity of the LHC experiments makes feasible the search of LNV processes at high energy as well. In this lecture I will make a brief review on our present knowledge of the neutrino properties, on the present status of the double-beta decay studies and on the first attempts to search LNV processes at LHC.

  6. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Antiferromagnetic-Core/Ferrimagnetic-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.; Nogués, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are gaining increasing interest due to their foreseen applications. Inverse antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferrimagnetic(FiM) core/shell nanoparticles are particularly appealing since they may overcome some of the limitations of conventional FiM/AFM systems. However, virtually no simulations exist on this type of morphology. Here we present systematic Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of the exchange bias properties of such nanoparticles. The coercivity, HC, and loop shift, Hex, present a non-monotonic dependence with the core diameter and the shell thickness, in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate novel unconventional behavior in FiM/AFM particles. Namely, while HC and Hex decrease upon increasing FiM thickness for small AFM cores (as expected), they show the opposite trend for large cores. This presents a counterintuitive FiM size dependence for large AFM cores that is attributed to the competition between core and shell contributions, which expands over a wider range of core diameters leading to non-vanishing Hex even for very large cores. Moreover, the results also hint different possible ways to enhance the experimental performance of inverse core/shell nanoparticles for diverse applications. PMID:25872473

  7. Electronic Properties of Fe-based Ladder Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fei; Ohgushi, Kenya; Ueda, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    The crystal structure of Fe-based superconductors found so far have two-dimensional conducting planes composed of a square lattice of Fe atoms coordinated tetrahedrally by pnictogens or chalcogens. Although there is no report on the discovery of superconductivity in Fe-based materials with one-dimensional structures, elucidating electronic states of such compounds is expected to give an important clue to the mechanism of superconductivity as well as a strong hint for searching new superconductors. We here report on electronic properties of a series of quasi-one-dimensional spin-ladder compounds AFe2X3 (A = K, Cs, Ba; X = S, Se) with a special focus on a solid-solution AFe2(S1-xSex)3 . We demonstrate that fruitful electronic states emerge as a consequence of the strong electron correlation effect and quantum fluctuations in a low dimensional crystal structure. The following is the list of papers directly related to this talk: [1] Y. Nambu, et al., Phys. Rev. B, 85 064413 (2012). [2] F. Du, et al, Phys. Rev. B 85, 214436 (2012). [3] F. Du, et al, Phys. Rev. B 90, 085143 (2014).

  8. Property Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  9. Property Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  10. Predicting atmospheric states from local dynamical properties of the underlying attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Rodrigues, David; Alvarez-Castro, M. Carmen; Messori, Gabriele; Yiou, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Mid-latitude flows are characterized by a chaotic dynamics and recurring patterns hinting to the existence of an atmospheric attractor. In 1963 Lorenz described this object as: "the collection of all states that the system can assume or approach again and again, as opposed to those that it will ultimately avoid" and analyzed a low dimensional system describing a convective dynamics whose attractor has the shape of a butterfly. Since then, many studies try to find equivalent of the Lorenz butterfly in the complex atmospheric dynamics. Most of the studies where focused to determine the average dimension D of the attractor i.e. the number of degrees of freedom sufficient to describe the atmospheric circulation. However, obtaining reliable estimates of D has proved challenging. Moreover, D does not provide information on transient atmospheric motions, such as those leading to weather extremes. Using recent developments in dynamical systems theory, we show that such motions can be classified through instantaneous rather than average properties of the attractor. The instantaneous properties are uniquely determined by instantaneous dimension and stability. Their extreme values correspond to specific atmospheric patterns, and match extreme weather occurrences. We further show the existence of a significant correlation between the time series of instantaneous stability and dimension and the mean spread of sea-level pressure fields in an operational ensemble weather forecast at lead times of over two weeks. Instantaneous properties of the attractor therefore provide an efficient way of evaluating and informing operational weather forecasts.

  11. Three decades of structure- and property-based molecular design.

    PubMed

    Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    structure- and property-based drug discovery and it can only hint at important developments in other disciplines that have equally contributed to major paradigm shifts in Roche's small-molecule drug discovery efforts.

  12. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakanth, S.; Hamad, Syed; Venugopal Rao, S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-01

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO3 samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000oC and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650oC-800oC. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ˜ 1019-1020/cm3 range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×1020/cm3 near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO3 is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing applications.

  13. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth, S.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Hamad, Syed; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-15

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO{sub 3} samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000{sup o}C and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650{sup o}C-800{sup o}C. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ∼ 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO{sub 3} is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing

  14. Valuation of Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodley, Joanne H.; Goodenough, Linda

    This report describes property tax revenues and assessment rates for all 50 States during 1966. The following information is summarized by State and by class of property: (1) The total valuation and the taxable valuation of property subject to local general property taxation and the percent distribution of total valuation by class of property; (2)…

  15. Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2006-04-01

    The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.

  16. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  17. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  18. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  19. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  20. Some Broader Hints on Establishing a Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, George J.

    1965-01-01

    A general survey of U.S. schools and universities in 1965 suggests that 50 percent of them do not feature proper language laboratory facilities. Aimed at prospective laboratory buyers and those seeking equipment replacements, the article analyzes the laboratory's mechanical aspects, accessible locations, physical facilities and equipment…

  1. The perfect photo book: hints for the image selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schmidt-Sacht, Wulf

    2007-01-01

    An ever increasing amount of digital images are being captured. This increase is due to several reasons. People are afraid of not "capturing the moment" and pressing the shutter is not directly liked to costs as was the case with silver halide photography. This behaviour seems to be convenient but can result in a dilemma for the consumer. This paper presents tools designed to help the consumer overcome the time consuming image selection process while turning the chore of selecting the images for prints or placing them automatically into a photo book into a fun experience.

  2. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  3. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  4. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  5. Lepton flavour violation:. hints on the SUSY seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We address the constraints on the supersymmetric seesaw parameters arising from Lepton Flavour Violation observables, namely tau and muon decays, and μ - e conversion in nuclei. We work in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model extended by three right-handed (s)neutrinos, considering scenarios of universal and non-universal soft supersymmetry breaking Higgs masses at the gauge coupling unification scale. We compare the obtained predictions with the present experimental bounds and future sensitivities, discussing the most promising processes, and how these can offer a new insight into the supersymmetric seesaw parameters.

  6. Artists' Brushstrokes May Offer First Hints of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... quality of life for those persons living with cognitive disorders," study author Alex Forsythe said. Forsythe is a senior lecturer and director of studies in applied psychology at the University of Liverpool in England. "We ...

  7. Jens’ Map Reading Hints, Number 1: Quick Compass Conversions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    protractor/scale becomes the magnetized needle of a compass . Since the magnetized needle will seek magnetic north, pivot the protractor/scale (your...imagined compass ) about the center cross- hairs In the direction of magnetic -north. The number of degrees pivoted should equal the G-M angle (See Fig 2). In...our example, left 70. Last, the magnetic azimuth on your compass reading can now be read directly from the protractor/scale where the line you drew

  8. SGML: The Reason Why and the First Published Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Charles F.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the first published paper on need for Standard Generalized Markup Language, "An Online System for Integrated Text Processing," presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, in October 15, 1970. Details the history of an online integrated text…

  9. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Levels of Evidence: Integrative Therapies Fact Sheets NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary ...

  10. Innovative chemical synthesis and conformational hints on the lipopeptide liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Guryanov, Ivan; Bondesan, Alex; Visentini, Dario; Orlandin, Andrea; Biondi, Barbara; Toniolo, Claudio; Formaggio, Fernando; Ricci, Antonio; Zanon, Jacopo; Cabri, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Liraglutide is a new generation lipopeptide drug used for the treatment of type II diabetes. In this work, we describe new approaches for its preparation fully by chemical methods. The key step of these strategies is the synthesis in solution of the Lys/γ-Glu building block, Fmoc-Lys-(Pal-γ-Glu-OtBu)-OH, in which Lys and Glu residues are linked through their side chains and γ-Glu is N(α) -palmitoylated. This dipeptide derivative is then inserted into the peptide sequence on solid phase. As liraglutide is obtained with great purity and high yield, our approach can be particularly attractive for an industrial production. We also report here the results of a circular dichroism conformational analysis in a membrane mimetic environment that offers new insights into the mechanism of action of liraglutide. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  12. Does Saint Nicholas provoke seizures? Hints from Google Trends.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; van Diessen, Eric; Otte, Willem M; Joels, Marian; Jansen, Floor E; Braun, Kees P J

    2014-03-01

    Stress is the most often reported seizure-precipitant in epilepsy. As most evidence for the relation between stress and epilepsy is derived from human self-reports, observational studies including a larger part of the population could provide additional proof. A stressor often reported to increase seizure frequency in children with epilepsy in the Netherlands is the national celebration of Saint Nicholas' eve (December 5) and the weeks before; this is the main period of festivities for children in this country. To study the relation between stress and epilepsy, we analyzed epilepsy information-seeking behavior on the Internet, an indirect measure of seizure frequency, around this national children's celebration. Google Trends was used to extract relative search percentages for 'epilepsy' on Google in the Netherlands, the United States, and the United Kingdom between 2004 and 2013. Relative search percentages during the Saint Nicholas period were compared with baseline. Epilepsy searches increased by 14% in the Saint Nicholas period compared with baseline (p<0.001). This effect was not found for searches performed in the same period in the United States or the United Kingdom, countries where this holiday is not celebrated. The increase in epilepsy information-seeking behavior in the Saint Nicholas period is possibly caused by an increased occurrence of epileptic seizures. This underscores the potential of health information-seeking behavior on the Internet to answer clinically relevant research questions and provides circumstantial evidence for a relation between stress and the occurrence of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: Hints for a general theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco

    2008-10-01

    We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.

  14. Helpful Hints for Successful 1-to-1 Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In the book, "1-to-1 Learning: Laptop Programs That Work," author Pamela Livingston begins with an important point for those who are considering a laptop program for the first time: Newcomers are fortunate to be able to learn from the educators who have started down the 1-to-1 road before them. This proved to be true for two neighboring…

  15. Analysis Sharpens Mars Hydrogen Map, Hinting Equatorial Water Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Re-analysis of 2002-2009 data from a hydrogen-finding instrument on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter increased the resolution of maps of hydrogen abundance. The reprocessed data (lower map) shows more "water-equivalent hydrogen" (darker blue) in some parts of this equatorial region of Mars. Puzzingly, this suggests the possible presence of water ice just beneath the surface near the equator, though it would not be thermodynamically stable there. The upper map uses raw data from Odyssey's neutron spectrometer instrument, which senses the energy state of neutrons coming from Mars, providing an indication of how much hydrogen is present in the top 3 feet (1 meter) of the surface. Hydrogen detected by Odyssey at high latitudes of Mars in 2002 was confirmed to be in the form of water ice by the follow-up NASA Phoenix Mars Lander mission in 2008. A 2017 reprocessing of the older data applied image-reconstruction techniques often used to reduce blurring from medical imaging data. The results are shown here for an area straddling the equator for about one-fourth the circumference of the planet, centered at 175 degrees west longitude. The white contours outline lobes of a formation called Medusae Fossae, coinciding with some areas of higher hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The black line indicates the limit of a relatively young lava plain, coinciding with areas of lower hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The color-coding key for hydrogen abundance in both maps is indicated by the horizontal bar, in units expressed as how much water would be present in the ground if the hydrogen is all in the form of water. Units of the equivalent water weight, as a percentage of the material in the ground, are correlated with counts recorded by the spectrometer, ranging from less than 1 weight-percent water equivalent (red) to more than 30 percent (dark blue). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21848

  16. Informed walks: whispering hints to gene hunters inside networks' jungle.

    PubMed

    Bourdakou, Marilena M; Spyrou, George M

    2017-10-11

    Systemic approaches offer a different point of view on the analysis of several types of molecular associations as well as on the identification of specific gene communities in several cancer types. However, due to lack of sufficient data needed to construct networks based on experimental evidence, statistical gene co-expression networks are widely used instead. Many efforts have been made to exploit the information hidden in these networks. However, these approaches still need to capitalize comprehensively the prior knowledge encrypted into molecular pathway associations and improve their efficiency regarding the discovery of both exclusive subnetworks as candidate biomarkers and conserved subnetworks that may uncover common origins of several cancer types. In this study we present the development of the Informed Walks model based on random walks that incorporate information from molecular pathways to mine candidate genes and gene-gene links. The proposed model has been applied to TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) datasets from seven different cancer types, exploring the reconstructed co-expression networks of the whole set of genes and driving to highlighted sub-networks for each cancer type. In the sequel, we elucidated the impact of each subnetwork on the indication of underlying exclusive and common molecular mechanisms as well as on the short-listing of drugs that have the potential to suppress the corresponding cancer type through a drug-repurposing pipeline. We have developed a method of gene subnetwork highlighting based on prior knowledge, capable to give fruitful insights regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms and valuable input to drug-repurposing pipelines for a variety of cancer types.

  17. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  18. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  19. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis. PMID:28603595

  20. Study Hints At Link Between Some Statins, Parkinson's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... But so far, studies have come to mixed conclusions, according to Huang. Some have tied statins to ... been controversial. "We can't really make any conclusions," said Dr. Olga Waln, who specializes in treating ...

  1. Placental dichotomy: a hint in twin anemia polycythemia sequence.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Amelie; Thomas, Sumesh; Somerset, David

    2014-12-01

    Contexte : Les grossesses monochorioniques représentent une partie significative de la charge de travail en imagerie diagnostique et doivent fréquemment faire l’objet d’une évaluation aux fins de la détection du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé. Il est important de reconnaître la présence d’une dichotomie placentaire au cours de la tenue d’une étude Doppler régulière de l’artère cérébrale fœtale, et ce, de façon à pouvoir alerter le clinicien quant à la présence possible d’une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire (un sous-ensemble important du syndrome transfuseur-transfusé). Cas : Une multigravide de 36 ans connaissant une grossesse gémellaire a accouché à 33 semaines de gestation, à la suite de l’identification d’une détresse fœtale. Une séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire a été diagnostiquée à la suite de l’accouchement. Les échographies prénatales régulières n’avaient pas détecté la présence d’un oligohydramnios ou d’un polyhydramnios. L’analyse rétrospective des images échographiques du placenta a mis au jour la présence d’une dichotomie marquée, la partie relevant du jumeau anémique y apparaissant comme étant hyperéchogène. Conclusion : L’identification de la dichotomie placentaire (s’ajoutant au dépistage au moyen d’études Doppler cérébrales) pourrait mener à l’identification précoce de la séquence anémie polyglobulie gémellaire et à l’amélioration des issues.

  2. Hyperon puzzle: hints from quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-06

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars.

  3. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-05-26

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis.

  4. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  5. Scans Hint At Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... study co-designer Gene Alexander. He is a psychology professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson. " ... The study was published online recently in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience . SOURCE: University of Arizona, ...

  6. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  7. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  8. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  9. Hints of nonhierarchical folding of acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jesús M; Jiménez, M Angeles; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2002-02-12

    We have analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) the helical propensity of the all-beta protein acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and two peptides corresponding to beta-strand 8 (beta8 peptide, amino acids 95-107) and the beta-strand 8/turn/beta-strand 9 hairpin (beta8/9 peptide, amino acids 95-114), which has been involved in receptor binding. A secondary structure prediction of aFGF carried out by several procedures labels the 95-104 sequence as predominantly alpha-helical. A titration of aFGF with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in the far-UV CD spectrum of the protein giving rise to a prominent alpha-helical shape (22% alpha-helix). The cooperativity of the transition and the moderate TFE concentrations used (midpoint at 24%) suggest that the effect of TFE is specific. Moreover, a titration performed at pH 2 yields a higher amount of alpha-helix (55%) at a smaller TFE concentration. Synthetic peptides containing the beta8 and beta8/9 sequences display a random coil conformation at pH 7 but acquire alpha-helical structure in the presence of TFE, methanol, and SDS micelles. At pH below 3.0 a significant amount (20-30%) of alpha-helical conformation is present in both the beta8 and beta8/9 peptides even in the absence of other solvent additives. The secondary structure of the peptides was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). These results suggest that the 95-114 sequence of aFGF has helical propensity and that the protein may fold nonhierarchically in the early steps of folding, acquiring its final beta-structure by a later interaction with the rest of the polypeptide.

  10. DO SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS SERVE SIGNALING FUNCTIONS? (HINT: YES).

    PubMed

    Tiokhin, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals. In this paper, I develop the hypothesis that symptoms of illness serve signaling functions, and provide a comprehensive review of relevant evidence from diverse disciplines. I also develop novel empirical predictions generated by this hypothesis and discuss its implications for public health. Signaling provides an ultimate explanation for otherwise opaque aspects of symptom expression, such as why symptoms fluctuate in social contexts, and can exist without underlying pathology, and why individuals deliberately generate symptoms of illness. This analysis suggests that signaling theory is a major organizing framework for understanding symptom etiology.

  11. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  12. Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John

    2010-01-01

    In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…

  13. Riemannian geometry of Hamiltonian chaos: hints for a general theory.

    PubMed

    Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Ciraolo, Guido; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco

    2008-10-01

    We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Therefore, a numerical hypotheses testing has been performed for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model and for a chain of coupled rotators. These models, for which analytic computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents have been carried out in the mentioned Riemannian geometric framework, appear as paradigmatic examples to unveil the reason why the main hypothesis of quasi-isotropy of the mechanical manifolds sometimes breaks down. The breakdown is expected whenever the topology of the mechanical manifolds is nontrivial. This is an important step forward in view of developing a geometric theory of Hamiltonian chaos of general validity.

  14. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Chaves, M M; Zarrouk, O; Francisco, R; Costa, J M; Santos, T; Regalado, A P; Rodrigues, M L; Lopes, C M

    2010-05-01

    A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with 'isohydric' behaviour in contrast to 'anysohydric' behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed.

  15. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  16. Hints for Leptonic C P Violation or New Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, David V.; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic C P violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac C P phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if C P in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic C P violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  17. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  18. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  19. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  20. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research. PMID:27958347

  1. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-12-01

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research.

  2. Titanium oxide nanotubes: Synthesis, properties and applications for solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Eugen

    Titanium oxide (titania) nanotubes, although relatively recently discovered (less than 15 years ago), have already shown great promise regarding solar energy harvesting applications, exhibiting very good photocatalytic and photovoltaic properties. An alternative anodization route for production of titania nanotubes at the surface of a titanium foil using chloride ions as catalyst instead of the routinely used highly toxic fluorides, is presented in this work. Moreover, the fabrication parameters are extensively studied, thus providing both an insight into the synthesis mechanism and hints towards possible process optimization routes. Although not forming uniformly over the sample surface and lacking long range ordering, very high aspect ratio (over 1000:1) nanotubes are rapidly formed (in minutes) by a self assembling mechanism. Thus, the method is a viable alternative route for the fast production of partially ordered titania nanotubes, both as films on top of a titanium foil, or as microscopic grains (powders or suspended in solutions). Since the as formed nanotubes are amorphous, attention is also given to the crystallization process, especially in the case of poorly studied powders. Attachment of other nanostructures such as cadmium telluride quantum dots, bio-composites (proteins), or gold nanoparticles for the synthesis of hybrid materials combining properties of both composites have been studied too. Also, possible applications of these new materials in two solar energy technologies: photovoltaic electricity generation using dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's), and hydrogen production by the photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water are investigated.

  3. Titania nanotubes from weak organic acid electrolyte: fabrication, characterization and oxide film properties.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, Balakrishnan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-04-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated using anodic oxidation in fluoride containing weak organic acid for different durations (0.5h, 1h, 2h and 3h). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs reveal that the morphology of titanium oxide varies with anodization time. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the as-formed oxide nanotubes were amorphous in nature, yet transform into crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) upon annealing at 600°C. Wettability measurements show that both as-formed and annealed nanotubes exhibited hydrophilic behavior. The electrochemical behavior was ascertained by DC polarization and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 0.9% NaCl solution. The results suggest that the annealed nanotubes showed higher impedance (10(5)-10(6)Ωcm(2)) and lower passive current density (10(-7)Acm(-2)) than the as-formed nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the influence of post heat treatment on the semiconducting properties of the oxides by capacitance measurements. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that precipitation of Ca/P is easier in crystallized nanotubes than the amorphous structure. Our study uses a simple strategy to prepare nano-structured titania films and hints the feasibility of tailoring the oxide properties by thermal treatment, producing surfaces with better bioactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Local Dielectric Property Detection of the Interface between Nanoparticle and Polymer in Nanocomposite Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Simin; Zeng, Qibin; Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Jinliang

    2016-12-13

    The interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrix is considered to have an important effect on the properties of nanocomposites. In this experimental study, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the local dielectric property of the interface of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/TiO2 nanocomposites at nanometer scale. The results show that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a decrease in local permittivity. We then carry out the finite element simulation and confirm that the decrease of local permittivity is related to the effect of interface. According to the results, we propose several models and validate the dielectric effect and range effect of interface. Through the analysis of DSC and solid-state NMR results, we find TiO2 nanoparticles can suppress the mobility of local chain segments in the interface, which influences the dipolar polarization of chain segments in the interface and eventually results in a decrease in local permittivity. It is believed the results would provide important hint to the research of the interface in future research.

  5. Precise Boundary Element Computation of Protein Transport Properties: Diffusion Tensors, Specific Volume, and Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Sergio; Hahn, David K.

    2006-01-01

    A precise boundary element method for the computation of hydrodynamic properties has been applied to the study of a large suite of 41 soluble proteins ranging from 6.5 to 377 kDa in molecular mass. A hydrodynamic model consisting of a rigid protein excluded volume, obtained from crystallographic coordinates, surrounded by a uniform hydration thickness has been found to yield properties in excellent agreement with experiment. The hydration thickness was determined to be δ = 1.1 ± 0.1 Å. Using this value, standard deviations from experimental measurements are: 2% for the specific volume; 2% for the translational diffusion coefficient, and 6% for the rotational diffusion coefficient. These deviations are comparable to experimental errors in these properties. The precision of the boundary element method allows the unified description of all of these properties with a single hydration parameter, thus far not achieved with other methods. An approximate method for computing transport properties with a statistical precision of 1% or better (compared to 0.1–0.2% for the full computation) is also presented. We have also estimated the total amount of hydration water with a typical −9% deviation from experiment in the case of monomeric proteins. Both the water of hydration and the more precise translational diffusion data hint that some multimeric proteins may not have the same solution structure as that in the crystal because the deviations are systematic and larger than in the monomeric case. On the other hand, the data for monomeric proteins conclusively show that there is no difference in the protein structure going from the crystal into solution. PMID:16714342

  6. Properties of galaxy haloes in clusters and voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Becciani, U.; van Kampen, E.; Pagliaro, A.; Romeo, A. B.; Colafrancesco, S.; Germaná, A.; Gambera, M.

    2002-05-01

    >=34.2r 0 , where r 0 is the core radius of the TIS solution). We do, however, find a dependence of this relationship on the environment, like for the P (λ ) statistics. These facts hint at a possible role of tidal fields in determining the statistical properties of haloes.

  7. GLOSSARY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A glossary of optical property indexing terms used by the Electronic Property Information Center is presented. Twenty eight primary optical property...descriptors and over 180 related terms are carefully defined. A detailed list of property cross references provides a complete index to the glossary .

  8. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  9. The structural and dynamical properties of compact elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Akın; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Husemann, Bernd; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gebhardt, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Dedicated photometric and spectroscopic surveys have provided unambiguous evidence for a strong stellar mass-size evolution of galaxies within the last 10 Gyr. The likely progenitors of today's most massive galaxies are remarkably small, discy, passive and have already assembled much of their stellar mass at redshift z = 2. An in-depth analysis of these objects, however, is currently not feasible due to the lack of high-quality, spatially resolved photometric and spectroscopic data. In this paper, we present a sample of nearby compact elliptical galaxies (CEGs), which bear resemblance to the massive and quiescent galaxy population at earlier times. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and wide-field integral field unit (IFU) data have been obtained, and are used to constrain orbit-based dynamical models and stellar population synthesis (SPS) fits, to unravel their structural and dynamical properties. We first show that our galaxies are outliers in the present-day stellar mass-size relation. They are, however, consistent with the mass-size relation of compact, massive and quiescent galaxies at redshift z = 2. The compact sizes of our nearby galaxies imply high central stellar mass surface densities, which are also in agreement with the massive galaxy population at higher redshift, hinting at strong dissipational processes during their formation. Corroborating evidence for a largely passive evolution within the last 10 Gyr is provided by their orbital distribution as well as their stellar populations, which are difficult to reconcile with a very active (major) merging history. This all supports that we can use nearby CEGs as local analogues of the high-redshift, massive and quiescent galaxy population, thus providing additional constraints for models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  10. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  11. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  12. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  13. GLOSSARY OF ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A glossary of all electronic property indexing terms used by the Electronic Properties Information Center was prepared. In addition, definitions are...to the glossary and to the property term under which data has been indexed by the Center. (Author)...given for those terms subsumed under the main property entry term . A detailed list of cross-references and subsumed terms provides a complete index

  14. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  15. Nanocrystalline coatings properties forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch

    2017-06-01

    The paper considers various properties of nanocrystalline coatings. The methods of determining the surface tension of the deposited coating on the basis of the size dependence of their physical properties. It is shown that predict the mechanical properties of the coatings, their melting point, heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. It can be based on a theoretical evaluation of the surface tension.

  16. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  17. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by...

  18. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  1. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  3. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  4. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 545.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 545.309... General Definitions § 545.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  6. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  8. 31 CFR 588.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.308... General Definitions § 588.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  9. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  10. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  11. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  13. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  14. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  16. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  17. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 585.304 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 585.304... General Definitions § 585.304 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  20. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  1. 31 CFR 575.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 575.315... § 575.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not... whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest...

  2. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  3. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  4. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  5. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  6. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  8. Neuroprotective properties of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease--merits and limitations.

    PubMed

    Chin, Dawn; Huebbe, Patricia; Pallauf, Kathrin; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    As demographics in developed nations shift towards an aging population, neurodegenerative pathologies, especially dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, pose one of the largest challenges to the modern health care system. Since there is yet no cure for dementia, there is great pressure to discover potential therapeutics for these diseases. One popular candidate is curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a polyphenolic compound that is the main curcuminoid found in Curcuma longa (family Zingiberaceae). In recent years, curcumin has been reported to possess anti-amyloidogenic, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative, and metal chelating properties that may result in potential neuroprotective effects. Particularly, the hydrophobicity of the curcumin molecule hints at the possibility of blood-brain barrier penetration and accumulation in the brain. However, curcumin exhibits extremely low bioavailability, mainly due to its poor aqueous solubility, poor stability in solution, and rapid intestinal first-pass and hepatic metabolism. Despite the many efforts that are currently being made to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, brain concentration of curcumin remains low. Furthermore, although many have reported that curcumin possesses a relatively low toxicity profile, curcumin applied at high doses, which is not uncommon practice in many in vivo and clinical studies, may present certain dangers that in our opinion have not been addressed sufficiently. Herein, the neuroprotective potential of curcumin, with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease, as well as its limitations will be discussed in detail.

  9. Short-Term Photometric Variations in a Sample of Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs. Rotational Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Thirouin, A.; Santos Sanz, P.; Morales, N.; Aceituno, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present new time-resolved observations of 20 large Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs taken at the Sierra Nevada Observatory 1.5m telescope (Granada, Spain), at the Calar Alto Observatory 2.2m telescope (Almeria, Spain) and at the 2.5m INT telescope at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). This program is the continuation of a lightcurve survey of the transneptunian belt that we carry out since 2000, approximately. All the CCD images were reduced and analyzed with identical tools and methods, and older images of some of the targets were reanalyzed with exactly the same software. Rotation periods and axial ratios (or degree of heterogeneity) were derived for most of the targets while for others only some constraints were obtained. These results were merged with the rotational parameters of other TNOs and Centaurs already published in the literature in order to build a data base of nearly 70 bodies. This allows us to search for possible correlations of the rotational parameters with different orbital parameters in the different dynamical groups. Also, we can search for correlations of rotational properties with purely physical parameters to get hints on the collisional evolution and other physical processes that could have had an effect on the different groups. Some preliminary work in this regard was already presented by Santos-Sanz et al. (2006) but we show numerous improvements here.

  10. Crystallization and melting properties of mixtures of milk fat stearin and omega-3 rich oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Zheng; Truong, Tuyen; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-03-01

    Solid milk fat stearin (S25) can be a promising oxidation retarder due to its capacity to entrap liquid oils, especially for incorporating omega-3 (ω-3) rich oils into dairy products. Thermal properties of S25/ω-3 rich oil mixtures are necessary for such application. The effects of S25 on the crystallization and melting behaviours of ω-3 rich oils, namely fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO) and krill oil (KO), were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermograms showed that with S25 concentration increasing, transitions of FO and LO shifted to lower and largely to higher temperatures, respectively, while crystallization temperature of KO slightly decreased. Negative, positive and low values of interaction enthalpy (ΔHint) suggested the adverse, beneficial and limited effect of S25 on the crystallization of S25/FO, S25/LO and S25/KO mixtures, respectively. LO could have the best oxidative stability upon the addition of S25 since their interactions facilitated earlier and stronger crystallization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water mass properties and chemical signatures in the central Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astraldi, M.; Conversano, F.; Civitarese, G.; Gasparini, G. P.; Ribera d'Alcalà, M.; Vetrano, A.

    2002-06-01

    During the last 15 years, the knowledge of Mediterranean physical dynamics as well as of atmospheric forcing underwent a tremendous improvement because of the action within several international programs and the development of remote sensing and modelling approaches. Curiously, it is still very difficult to build up a climatological database for chemical and basic biological parameters for the whole basin because most of the data published in the open literature were preferentially related to meso- to small-scale processes. Within the European Union project Mass Transfer and Ecosystem Response (MATER), systematic measurements of routine chemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen and nutrients, have been conducted. They will fill the existing gap between physical and chemical information. In this paper, we analyze the hydrographic data from a cruise conducted in the fall 1996 in the Central Mediterranean region and report, for the first time, on oxygen and nutrient concentrations, ranges and distributions. The joint analysis of T- S properties and chemical data also allows a better definition of water mass characteristics in this crucial area and hints at basic mechanisms relevant to water mass transformation and biological production in the basin.

  12. Magnetic properties of amorphous Si films doped with rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercheli, M. S.; Rettori, C.; Zanatta, A. R.

    2003-11-01

    Amorphous silicon films doped with Y, La, Gd, Er, and Lu rare-earth elements (a-Si:RE) have been prepared by cosputtering and studied by means of electron-spin resonance (ESR) and dc magnetization. For comparison purposes the magnetic properties of laser-crystallized and hydrogenated a-Si:RE films were also studied. It was found that the rare-earth species are incorporated in the a-Si:RE films in the RE3+ form and that the RE doping depletes the neutral dangling bond (D0) density. The reduction of D0 density is significantly larger for the magnetic RE’s (Gd3+ and Er3+) than for the nonmagnetic ones (Y3+, La3+, Lu3+). These results are interpreted in terms of an exchangelike interaction Hint˜-JRE-DBSRESDB between the spin of the magnetic RE’s and that of the D0. All our Gd-doped Si films showed basically the same broad ESR Gd3+ resonance (ΔHpp≈850 Oe) at g≈2.01, suggesting the formation of a rather stable RE-Si complex in these films.

  13. Thickness-Dependent Properties of YBCO Films Grown on GZO/CLO-Buffered NiW Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Zhao, Y.; Grivel, J.-C.; Paturi, P.

    2017-01-01

    To study the role of novel Gd_2Zr_2O_7/Ce_{0.9}La_{0.1}O_2 buffer layer structure on a biaxially textured NiW substrate, a set of YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Interface imperfections as well as thickness-dependent structural properties were observed in the YBCO thin films. The structure is also reflected into the improved superconducting properties with the highest critical current densities in films with intermediate thicknesses. Therefore, it can be concluded that the existing buffer layers need more optimization before they can be successfully used for films with various thicknesses. This issue is linked to the extremely susceptible growth method of PLD when compared to the commonly used chemical deposition methods. Nevertheless, PLD-grown films can give a hint on what to concentrate to be able to further improve the buffer layer structures for future coated conductor technologies.

  14. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  15. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  16. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  17. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  18. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  19. 31 CFR 586.314 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 586.314... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.314 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion,...

  20. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308 Section 547.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property...

  1. Molecular Outflows: Observed Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Lane, Adair P.

    Introduction Molecular Outflow Characteristics Recent Developments EHV CO Outflows Luminosity Dependence of Flow Properties and Statistics Optical and Near-IR Observations of Molecular Outflows Outflow Models

  2. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  3. Are mental properties supervenient on brain properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.

    2011-09-01

    The ``mind-brain supervenience'' conjecture suggests that all mental properties are derived from the physical properties of the brain. To address the question of whether the mind supervenes on the brain, we frame a supervenience hypothesis in rigorous statistical terms. Specifically, we propose a modified version of supervenience (called ɛ-supervenience) that is amenable to experimental investigation and statistical analysis. To illustrate this approach, we perform a thought experiment that illustrates how the probabilistic theory of pattern recognition can be used to make a one-sided determination of ɛ-supervenience. The physical property of the brain employed in this analysis is the graph describing brain connectivity (i.e., the brain-graph or connectome). ɛ-supervenience allows us to determine whether a particular mental property can be inferred from one's connectome to within any given positive misclassification rate, regardless of the relationship between the two. This may provide further motivation for cross-disciplinary research between neuroscientists and statisticians.

  4. The critical current density, irreversibility line, and flux pinning properties of Ba2CaCu2O4(O,F)2 high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirage, P. M.; Tanaka, Y.; Iyo, A.

    2010-05-01

    The high-Tc superconductor of Ba2CaCu2O4(O,F)2 (F-0212) is an appealing material for application as it has a simple crystal structure with a highest Tc of 108 K. We have derived the intragrain critical current density (Jc), irreversibility field (Birr), flux pinning properties, etc., for the polycrystalline samples from under doping (Tc=82 K) to slightly-over doping (Tc=106 K) from the dc magnetization hysteresis loops. The Jc and Birr properties were found to improve rapidly as the doping state changes from under doping to slightly-over doping. Here we show that property of the spacing is crucial to enhance Birr as well as its thickness. An anisotropy factor for under doped Ba2CaCu2O4F2 was reckoned to 118 from a three-dimensional-two-dimensional crossover field of about 0.28 T. The double logarithmic plot of irreversibility field versus [1-(T /Tc)] analysis hints that the flux line melting model is adopted. Analysis of the normalized pinning force reveals that a surface pinning mechanism is dominant and reduced magnetic field bmax=0.2 agree with surface pinning mechanism with closely spaced pins.

  5. Mechanical properties of aspen

    Treesearch

    R.P.A. Johnson

    1947-01-01

    The clear wood of aspen has inherent properties of merit. Several of these properties are familiar to a large proportion of the general public, for some of the common types of matches are made of this wood. The requirements of wood for matches are exacting in that the wood must combine straightness of grain, ease of splitting, ease of working, and toughness. To meet...

  6. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  7. Property Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George E., Ed.

    Nine experts examine the nature and administration of the property tax, analyzing its effects on educational opportunity, land use, racial residential patterns, central city finance, neighborhood deterioration, and low income housing. The so-called circuit-breaker, a form of property tax relief that has rapidly come into widespread use, is viewed…

  8. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  9. Tribological Properties Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1990-01-01

    Report reviews adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics - properties increasingly important as more ceramic materials used in bearings, seals, and gears in advanced engines and in cutting tools and extrusion dies. Report considers effects of contaminating surface films, temperature, and chemical interactions. Examines ceramics, in both monolithic and coating form, in contact with themselves, with other harder materials, and with metals.

  10. Mechanical properties of viruses.

    PubMed

    de Pablo, Pedro J; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology techniques have greatly contributed to unveil the relationships between structure, properties and functions of viruses. In recent years, classic structural approaches are being complemented by single-molecule techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers to study physical properties and functions of viral particles that are not accessible to classic structural techniques. Among these features are mechanical properties such as stiffness, intrinsic elasticity, tensile strength and material fatigue. The field of virus mechanics is contributing to materials science by investigating some physical parameters of "soft" biological matter and biological nano-objects. Virus mechanics studies are also starting to unveil the biological implications of physical properties of viruses. Growing evidence indicate that viruses are subjected to internal and external forces, and that they may have adapted to withstand and even use those forces. This chapter describes what is known on the mechanical properties of virus particles, their structural determinants, and possible biological implications, of which several examples are provided.

  11. Organs as inheritable property?

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan; Holm, Soren

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that organs should be treated as individual tradable property like other material possessions and assets, on the basis that this would promote individual freedom and increase efficiency in addressing the shortage of organs for transplantation. If organs are to be treated as property, should they be inheritable? This paper seeks to contribute to the idea of organs as inheritable property by providing a defence of a default of the family of a dead person as inheritors of transplantable organs. In the course of discussion, various succession rules for organs and their justifications will be suggested. We then consider two objections to organs as inheritable property. Our intention here is to provoke further thought on whether ownership of one's body parts should be assimilated to property ownership.

  12. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei- IV. Properties of the circumnuclear stellar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; Menezes, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    The study of stellar kinematic properties may provide hints on the formation and evolution of elliptical and lenticular galaxies. Although most previous studies have focused on the large scale of these galaxies, their central regions (scales of ˜100 pc) may contain important clues about their structure, such as kinematically decoupled cores. This is the fourth paper on a sample of 10 massive (σ > 200 km s-1) and nearby (d < 31 Mpc) early-type galaxies, observed with the integral field unit of the Gemini South Multi Object Spectrograph. Here, we analyse the properties of the stellar kinematics in the circumnuclear region. We fitted the line-of-sight velocity distribution with a Gauss-Hermite function. In seven galaxies of the sample, we detected a rotation pattern in their radial velocity maps that are anti-correlated with h3. We interpret this as stellar structures in rotation embedded in the bulges of the objects. Comparing the stellar kinematic results with the PCA Tomography results and also with the gas kinematic results of IC 5181, it seems that this object may have a non-axisymmetric potential at its centre. The velocity dispersion maps of four objects have a nuclear peak, which must correspond, in part, to unresolved stellar rotation. In NGC 1404, we detected a kinematic decoupled core with an extension of ˜200 pc. This galaxy also has a σ-drop in the centre, which may be related to both stellar components in counter-rotation or with a kinematically cold star-forming region.

  13. A simple method for obtaining transferrins from human plasma and porcine serum: preparations and properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Ren, Guoyan; Hu, Yiqiao

    2008-05-01

    A simple method was described for the purification of serum transferrin (Tf) from human plasma and porcine serum with relative high yield and purity. The properties including purity, integrity, immunoreactivity and the receptor-binding ability of the proteins were studied by several assays, comprising spectrometry, SDS-PAGE, HPLC, Western blotting, urea electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and cytometry. Analysis from all the different aspects manifested that the proteins were of high purity. The two kinds of Tfs appeared to be iron-saturated as confirmed by their absorbance spectra and urea-PAGE mobility. The specific spectra of absorption of the two Tfs were both at around 465 nm. The relative molecular weights of human Tf (hTf) and porcine Tf (pTf) were determined by SDS-PAGE and further identified by MAIDI-TOF mass spectrometry with a result of 79,707 and 79,258, respectively. Immunoblotting assay showed that pTf could react with the anti-human Tf monoclonal antibody with a less level compared to hTf. FACS assays of their binding activities to Tf receptor-positive cell (K562 cell line) indicated that pTf could be recognized by the hTf receptor and internalized into cells, with a slightly less efficacy than hTf. All special property studies demonstrated that pTf was similar to hTf in physical and chemical characteristics, which gave a hint that pTf could substitute for hTf in some kinds of researches, such as using hTf as a carrier in drug targeting system.

  14. Transport properties of ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, David

    1987-01-01

    The strong long-range interactions between (among) charged species require the inclusion of higher order contributions to the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion) of ionized gases than are required for neutral gases. These higher order contributions have been rewritten so that they are given in terms of universal functions which can be tabulated. Tables which provide for the rapid calculation of some higher order contributions to the transport properties of both ions and electrons are given. Some results which are useful for calculating the higher order contributions to the transport properties of mixtures of ions are also given. These results are applied to the ionic species in air at high temperatures.

  15. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  16. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  17. The Devron property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Max

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a criterion called the Devron property that a discrete dynamical system can possess. The Devron property is said to occur when a class of highly singular inputs of a mapping F are carried by some iterate of F-1 to a class of highly singular inputs of F-1. The inspiration for this definition is the discovery by R. Schwartz that the pentagram map exhibits this kind of behavior. We investigate occurrences of the Devron property in a number of different dynamical systems.

  18. Properties of nonaqueous electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. N.; Hanson, D. C.; Hon, J. F.; Keller, R.; Muirhead, J. S.

    1970-01-01

    Physical property measurements and structural studies conducted in aprotic solvents using various solutes are applicable to the further development of lithum batteries. Structural studies utilize nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques.

  19. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  20. The property 'instinct'.

    PubMed Central

    Stake, Jeffrey Evans

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run to quite specific and detailed rules about property acquisition, retention and disposition. The great variation in property-related behaviours across species may mask some important commonalities grounded in adaptive utility. Experiments and observations in the field and laboratory suggest that the legal rules of temporal priority and possession are grounded in what were evolutionarily stable strategies in the ancestral environment. Moreover, the preferences that humans exhibit in disposing of their property on their deaths, both by dispositions made in wills and by the laws of intestacy, tend to advance reproductive success as a result of inclusive fitness pay-offs. PMID:15590617

  1. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  2. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  4. Higgs Boson Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, André Dührssen, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the measured properties of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Searches for deviations from the properties predicted by the standard theory are also summarised. The present status corresponds to the combined analysis of the full Run 1 data sets of collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  5. Properties of leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-12-01

    The properties of the electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos are reviewed. Three discrepancies in our understanding of those properties are discussed: the lifetime of orthopositronium, the mass spectra of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in heavy ion collisions, and the 1-charged particle modes problem in tau decays. The review concludes with a discussion of what we need to learn about the tau and the consequent need for a tau-charm factory. 68 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  7. The Property Suffix Tree with Dynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelowitz, Tsvi

    Recently there has been much interest in the Property Indexing Problem ([1],[7],[8]), where one is interested to preprocess a text T of size n over alphabet Σ (which we assume is of constant size), and a set of intervals π over the text positions, such that give a query pattern P of size m we can report all of the occurrences of P in T which are completely contained within some interval from π. This type of matching is extremely helpful in scenarios in molecular biology where it has long been a practice to consider special areas in the genome by their structure.

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD PROPERTIES IN HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION FROM LARGE TO SMALL SCALES: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FROM POLARIZATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2010-09-20

    Polarization data from high-mass star formation regions (W51 e2/e8, Orion BN/KL) are used to derive statistical properties of the plane of sky projected magnetic field. Structure function and auto-correlation function are calculated for observations with various resolutions from the BIMA and SMA interferometers, covering a range in physical scales from {approx}70 mpc to {approx}2.1 mpc. Results for the magnetic field turbulent dispersion, its turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio, and the large-scale polarization angle correlation length are presented as a function of the physical scale at the star formation sites. Power-law scaling relations emerge for some of these physical quantities. The turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio is found to be close to constant over the sampled observing range, with a hint of a decrease toward smaller scales, indicating that the role of the magnetic field and turbulence is evolving with the physical scale. A statistical method is proposed to separate large- and small-scale correlations from an initial ensemble of polarization segments. This also leads to a definition of a turbulent polarization angle correlation length.

  9. Effect of calcination environments and plasma treatment on structural, optical and electrical properties of FTO transparent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Madhav; Kapadi, Ramesh K.; Joshi, Leela Pradhan; Rajbhandari, Armila; Subedi, Deepak P.; Gyawali, Gobinda; Lee, Soo W.; Adhikari, Rajendra; Kafle, Bhim P.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of the structural, optical and electrical properties of the FTO thin films on the film thickness (276 nm - 546 nm), calcination environment, and low temperature plasma treatment were examined. The FTO thin films, prepared by spray pyrolysis, were calcinated under air followed by either further heat treatment under N2 gas or treatment in low temperature atmospheric plasma. The samples before and after calcination under N2, and plasma treatment will be represented by Sair, SN2 and SPl, respectively, hereafter. The thin films were characterized by measuring the XRD spectra, SEM images, optical transmittance and reflectance, and sheet resistance of the films before and after calcination in N2 environment or plasma treatment. The presence of sharp and narrow multiple peaks in XRD spectra hint us that the films were highly crystalline (polycrystalline). The samples Sair with the thickness of 471 nm showed as high as 92 % transmittance in the visible range. Moreover, from the tauc plot, the optical bandgap Eg values of the Sair found to be noticeably lower than that of the samples SN2. Very surprisingly, the electrical sheet resistance (Rsh) found to decrease following the trend as Rshair > RshN2 > RshPl. The samples exposed to plasma found to possess the lowest RshPl (for film with thickness 546 nm, the RshPl was 17 Ω /sq.).

  10. Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina; Bullmore, Daniel; Duran, Michael; Jacobs, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Different synthesizing methods are used to create various nanostructures of carbon; we are mainly interested in single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, (SWCNTs) and (MWCNTs) respectively. The properties of these tubes are related to their synthetic methods, chirality, and diameter. The extremely sturdy structure of CNTs, with their distinct thermal and electromagnetic properties, suggests a tremendous use of these tubes in electronics and medicines. Here, we analyze various physical properties of SWCNTs with a special emphasis on electromagnetic and chemical properties. By examining their electrical properties, we demonstrate the viability of discrete CNT based components. After considering the advantages of using CNTs over microstructures, we make a case for the advancement and development of nanostructures based electronics. As for current CNT applications, it's hard to overlook their use and functionality in the development of cancer treatment. Whether the tubes are involved in chemotherapeutic drug delivery, molecular imaging and targeting, or photodynamic therapy, we show that the remarkable properties of SWCNTs can be used in advantageous ways by many different industries.

  11. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  12. Thermophysical Properties Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a computer generated model of a ground based casting. The objective of the therophysical properties program is to measure thermal physical properties of commercial casting alloys for use in computer programs that predict soldification behavior. This could reduce trial and error in casting design and promote less scrap, sounder castings, and less weight. In order for the computer models to reliably simulate the details of industrial alloy solidification, the input thermophysical property data must be absolutely reliable. Recently Auburn University and TPRL Inc. formed a teaming relationship to establish reliable measurement techniques for the most critical properties of commercially important alloys: transformation temperatures, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, density, solid fraction evolution, surface tension, and viscosity. A new initiative with the American Foundrymens Society has been started to measure the thermophysical properties of commercial ferrous and non-ferrous casting alloys and make the thermophysical property data widely available. Development of casting processes for the new gamma titanium aluminide alloys as well as existing titanium alloys will remain a trial-and-error procedure until accurate thermophysical properties can be obtained. These molten alloys react with their containers on earth and change their composition - invalidating the measurements even while the data are being acquired in terrestrial laboratories. However, measurements on the molten alloys can be accomplished in space using freely floating droplets which are completely untouched by any container. These data are expected to be exceptionally precise because of the absence of impurity contamination and buoyancy convection effects. Although long duration orbital experiments will be required for the large scale industrial alloy measurement program that results from this research, short duration experiments on NASA's KC-135 low

  13. Quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of given uranyl complexes in aqueous solutions with possible environmental and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Višňak, Jakub; Sobek, Lukáš

    2016-11-01

    A brief introduction into computational methodology and preliminary results for spectroscopic (excitation energies, vibrational frequencies in ground and excited electronic states) and thermodynamic (stability constants, standard enthalpies and entropies of complexation reactions) properties of some 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 uranyl sulphato- and selenato- complexes in aqueos solutions will be given. The relativistic effects are included via Effective Core Potential (ECP), electron correlation via (TD)DFT/B3LYP (dispersion interaction corrected) and solvation is described via explicit inclusion of one hydration sphere beyond the coordinated water molecules. We acknowledge limits of this approximate description - more accurate calculations (ranging from semi-phenomenological two-component spin-orbit coupling up to four-component Dirac-Coulomb-Breit hamiltonian) and Molecular Dynamics simulations are in preparation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from Time-resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-VIS spectroscopic studies (including our original experimental research on this topic). In case of the TRLFS and UV-VIS speciation studies, the problem of complex solution spectra decomposition into individual components is ill-conditioned and hints from theoretical chemistry could be very important. Qualitative agreement between our quantum chemical calculations of the spectroscopic properties and experimental data was achieved. Possible applications for geochemical modelling (e.g. safety studies of nuclear waste repositories, modelling of a future mining site) and analytical chemical studies (including natural samples) are discussed.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of UnOm (n=1-3,m=1-3n) clusters: A theoretical study using screened hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-05-14

    The structural and electronic properties of small uranium oxide clusters UnOm (n=1-3, m=1-3n) are systematically studied within the screened hybrid density functional theory. It is found that the formation of U-O-U bondings and isolated U-O bonds are energetically more stable than U-U bondings. As a result, no uranium cores are observed. Through fragmentation studies, we find that the UnOm clusters with the m/n ratio between 2 and 2.5 are very stable, hinting that UO2+x hyperoxides are energetically stable. Electronically, we find that the O-2p states always distribute in the deep energy range, and the U-5f states always distribute at the two sides of the Fermi level. The U-6d states mainly hybridize with the U-5f states in U-rich clusters, while hybridizing with O-2p states in O-rich clusters. Our work is the first one on the screened hybrid density functional theory level studying the atomic and electronic properties of the actinide oxide clusters.

  15. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  16. Jet Properties of GeV-Selected Radio-Loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies and Possible Connection to Their Disk and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin

    2015-08-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (Lcorona) to the accretion disk luminosity (Ld) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with Lcorona. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high Lcorona/Ld ratio prefers to power a jet.

  17. Jet Properties of GeV-selected Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies and Possible Connection to Their Disk and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Da-Bin; Xue, Zi-Wei; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L corona) to the accretion disk luminosity (L d) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L corona. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L corona/L d ratio prefers to power a jet.

  18. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-04-01

    In this research program, we have adopted the approach that by measuring fundamental properties (i.e, the complex refractive index, m) of the fly ash which participates in the radiation transfer, we can use well established theoretical principles (Mie theory) to compute the radiative properties of dispersions of fly ash as found in coal combustors. With this approach one can, understand the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of an ash dispersion and more confidently predict how variations in the characteristics of the ash dispersion cause variations in its radiative properties. An important criterion in this approach is that the fly ash particles be spherical, homogeneous, and isotropic. Fortunately, fly ash particles are formed at high temperatures at which most of them are molten, leading primarily to spherical particles. Furthermore, one should expect that molten particles will be reasonably homogeneous and isotropic. On cooling, most fly ash particles form glassy spheres which are homogeneous and isotropic. Some ash particles form hollow shells (cenospheres) while others form as particles with bubbles'' or voids, but most fly ash particles are well approximated as homogeneous isotropic spheres. In the following sections we review some of the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of fly ash dispersions and report on progress that has been made during the past quarter.

  19. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  20. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  1. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  2. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  3. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  4. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  5. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  6. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet ‘hydrogel’. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. PMID:27877456

  7. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  8. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-12-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  9. Understanding the interfacial properties of graphene-based materials/BiOI heterostructures by DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wen-Wu; Zhao, Zong-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Heterostructure constructing is a feasible and powerful strategy to enhance the performance of photocatalysts, because they can be tailored to have desirable photo-electronics properties and couple distinct advantageous of components. As a novel layered photocatalyst, the main drawback of BiOI is the low edge position of the conduction band. To address this problem, it is meaningful to find materials that possess suitable band gap, proper band edge position, and high mobility of carrier to combine with BiOI to form hetertrostructure. In this study, graphene-based materials (including: graphene, graphene oxide, and g-C3N4) were chosen as candidates to achieve this purpose. The charge transfer, interface interaction, and band offsets are focused on and analyzed in detail by DFT calculations. Results indicated that graphene-based materials and BiOI were in contact and formed van der Waals heterostructures. The valence and conduction band edge positions of graphene oxide, g-C3N4 and BiOI changed with the Fermi level and formed the standard type-II heterojunction. In addition, the overall analysis of charge density difference, Mulliken population, and band offsets indicated that the internal electric field is facilitate for the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which means these heterostructures can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of BiOI. Thus, BiOI combines with 2D materials to construct heterostructure not only make use of the unique high electron mobility, but also can adjust the position of energy bands and promote the separation of photo-generated carriers, which provide useful hints for the applications in photocatalysis.

  10. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  11. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  12. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  13. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  14. An intellectual property primer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  15. Immunopharmacological properties of noopept.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Shipaeva, E V; Alekseeva, S V; Pronin, A V; Durnev, A D; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaja, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2007-07-01

    Noopept, a peptide analog of piracetam, enhanced phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages, stimulated humoral and cellular immune response to various antigens, and markedly increased spontaneous proliferative activity of splenocytes. In animals with secondary immune deficiency caused by cyclophosphamide, noopept exhibited immunocorrector properties.

  16. Thermophysical properties of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  17. Properties of Sulfur Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-06

    This report summarizes the state of the art of sulfur concrete . Sulfur concrete is created by mixing molten sulfur with aggregate and allowing the...and many organic compounds. It works well as a rapid runway repair material. Sulfur concrete also has unfavorable properties. It has poor durability

  18. Thermophysical properties of refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Platzer, B.; Maurer, G. ); Polt, A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book summarizes the extensive experimental results available for 16 pure and mixed halogenated hydrocarbons, important working media in organic Rankine cycles and refrigerant processes in industry. Properties like pressure-temperature-density relationship, vapour pressure, enthalphy etc. are correlated by the Bender equation of state for computerized calculations.

  19. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  20. Properties of relativistically rotating quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Enping

    2017-06-01

    In this work, quasi-equilibrium models of rapidly rotating triaxially deformed quark stars are computed in general relativistic gravity, assuming a conformally flat spatial geometry (Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation) and a polynomial equation of state. Especially, since we are using a full 3-D numerical relativity initial data code, we are able to consider the triaxially deformed rotating quark stars at very high spins. Such triaxially deformed stars are possible gravitational radiation sources detectable by ground based gravitational wave observatories. Additionally, the bifurcation from axisymmetric rotating sequence to triaxially rotating sequence hints a more realistic spin up limit for rotating compact stars compared with the mass-shedding limit. With future observations such as sub-millisecond pulsars, we could possibly distinguish between equation of states of compact stars, thus better understanding strong interaction in the low energy regime.

  1. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface

  2. Antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Beeh, K M; Beier, J; Esperester, A; Paul, L D

    2008-12-03

    Ambroxol is frequently used as mucolytic agent in respiratory diseases associated with increased mucus production like acute or chronic bronchitis. Further, ambroxol is used topically (lozenges) for the treatment of sore throat and pharyngitis associated with common cold. In addition to the effects of ambroxol on mucus regulation and local anaesthetic effects, a wide range of pharmacological antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol have been described in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition or scavenging of oxidative and nitro?sative stress, increase of local defense molecules involved in respiratory virus replication, reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid meta?bolites, inflammatory cell chemotaxis, and lipid peroxidation of tissues. The present review summarizes the antiinflammatory effects of ambroxol and relates these properties to results from controlled clinical trials in targeted diseases such as chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sore throat.

  3. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  4. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  5. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  6. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references.

  7. Monitoring Properties of Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.; Gates, Ann Q.

    1997-01-01

    Development of complex systems requires interaction between a large group of people at various levels of software development, including the communication of properties of the system and the data to be manipulated. A natural idea is to maintain a centralized database of properties of the system to which all members of the development group have access, and to automate the process of checking for violations against this database. The focus of this paper is to discuss such an automated process, called integrity constraint checking. The paper defines the notion of an integrity constraint and discusses considerations for adding an automated checker to a programming language compiler or interpreter. Current work on the implementation of integrity constraint checking in a very high-level language called SequenceL is discussed, and future work in developing a similar checker in an imperative language is outlined.

  8. Optical properties of stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap Chaudhary, Raghvendra; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-12-01

    Successful synthesis of graphene has created a runaway effect in the exploration of other similar two-dimensional materials. These materials are important as they provide large surface areas and have led to the exploration of new physical phenomena. Even though graphene has exotic electronic properties, its spin-orbit coupling is very weak. Tin, being one of the heaviest elements in this group, is expected to have enhanced spin-orbit coupling in addition to other exotic properties of graphene. Here we report optical signatures of free standing stanene obtained using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Raman measurements were performed on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid. Interlayer spacing, phonon frequencies and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function obtained using first principles methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. Occurrence of parallel bands suggests the possibility of the presence of excitonic effects in stanene.

  9. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  10. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  11. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  12. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  13. Semiconductor Properties Near Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    electron multi- plication with a scintillation counter. This detECtor , described in the appendix, provides very low background without sacrifice of...k ADA095 858 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES F/G 20/12I SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES NEAR INTERFACES.(U) JUL GO0 DB WITTRY. S Y YIN, F GUO...improvements in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer; in the course of the investioations in improved inn detector was developed and a microcomrnu*e

  14. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear wood...

  15. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  16. Thermal properties of nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Philip, John; Shima, P D

    2012-11-15

    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject.

  17. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  20. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-10-01

    The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Work is organized under four tasks: Characterization of Flyash: The chemical composition and size distribution of representative flyashes are being measured by appropriate microanalytical techniques; Measurements of the Optical Constants of Slags: Measurements of the infrared optical constants (i.e., the complex reflective index m = n {minus} ik) of synthetic slags are being made as a function of wavelength and temperature for controlled compositions. Particular attention will be given to the contribution of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and its valence state. The data is being reduced to yield formulae giving the complex refractive index over relevant ranges of wavelength and temperatures, as a function of the relevant metal oxide constituents; Sample Calculations of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This component comprises various calculations to guide and evaluate the experimental work under the other three tasks; and Measurement of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This bench-scale experiment is planned to compare the measured radiant properties of a dispersion of well-characterized ash with computations based on data developed under the first two tasks. Progress is described in all areas. 10 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Thermal Properties of Damocloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David; Fernandez, Yanga

    2005-06-01

    We propose to detect the thermal emission from 16 Damocloids. These are apparent asteroids on high-inclination and high-eccentricity orbits that are the dormant or extinct analogs to the Halley-Family (HF) and Long-Period (LP) comets. As such the Damocloids provide a way to study the physical properties of these cometary nuclei by proxy. Normally a HF or LP comet is active to very large heliocentric distances, thus making study of its nucleus problematic. So far we know fundamental properties of only a handful of these comets. Our primary goal is to sample the albedo and size distribution of the Damocloids by using complimentary visible-wavelength observations in concert with the proposed mid-IR program here. By sampling a large fraction of the entire known population of Damocloids, we will be able to make comparisons with the physical properties of both active and extinct Jupiter-family comets. We will look for differences that could be caused by the different evolutionary histories suffered by the two classes of comets. In addition we will search for indications of current and historical cometary activity. Deviations of the object's profile from a point source would indicate remnant low-level outgassing and dust ejection, while dust trails would suggest activity in the near past. Our program represents a first step in exploring this class of objects in the context of Solar System evolution.

  2. Elastic properties of pyrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Bridget; Bass, Jay D.; Rossman, George R.; Geiger, Charles A.; Langer, Klaus

    1991-03-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy was used to measure the single crystal elastic properties of a pure synthetic pyrope and a natural garnet containing 89.9 mol% of the pyrope end member (Mg3Al2Si3O12). The elastic moduli, c ij , of the two samples are entirely consistent and agree with previous estimates of the elastic properties of pyrope based upon the moduli of solid solutions. Our results indicate that the elastic moduli of pyrope end-member are c 11=296.2±0.5, c 12=111.1±0.6, c 44=91.6±0.3, Ks=172.8±0.3, μ=92.0±0.2, all in units of GPa. These results differ by several percent from those reported previously for synthetic pyrope, but are based upon a much larger data set. Although the hydrous components of the two samples from the present study are substantially different, representing both ‘dry’ and ‘saturated’ samples, we find no discernable effect of structurally bound water on the elastic properties. This is due to the small absolute solubility of water in pyrope, as compared with other garnets such as grossular.

  3. Surface properties working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. B.; Cain, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the Mars surface properties working group are described. The objectives were: (1) determine a simple reference surface that would adequately represent the shape of the planet for cartographic purposes; (2) monitor the topographic results and to assess the relative calibration and accuracies of these techniques, thereby leading to a composite topographic map of the planet; and (3) facilitate the exchange of data in closely connected disciplines. The shape, topography, and isobaric surface are discussed along with the gravity field, and crustal density model. It was found that there is no simple reference figure for the planetary surface, although an offset, triaxial ellipsoid is adequate for most purposes.

  4. Tribological properties of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The real area of contact between two solid surfaces is only a small portion of the apparent area. Deformation of these areas can result in solid state contact through surface films. For clean solid to solid contact strong adhesive bonding occurs across the interface. Under these conditions many properties of the solid such as the metallurgical and chemical nature of metals can influence adhesion, friction, and wear behavior. The presence of gases, liquids, and solid films on the surface of solids alter markedly tribological characteristics. These surface films can also considerably change the mechanical effects of solid state contact on bulk material behavior.

  5. Critical properties of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Divesh; Jasper, Ahren W; Schultz, Nathan E; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2006-04-05

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo calculations are performed using a validated embedded-atom potential to obtain the vapor-liquid coexistence curve for elemental aluminum in good agreement with available experimental data up to the boiling point. These calculations are then extended to make a reliable prediction of the critical temperature, pressure, and density of Al, which have previously been known only with very large uncertainties. This demonstrates the ability of modern simulations to predict fundamental physical properties that are extremely difficult to measure directly.

  6. Static Properties of Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Gregory S.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * CHIRAL FIELD THEORY * The Skyrme Lagrangian * Topological Solitons * Symmetries and Currents * THE SKYRMION * The Hedgehog * The Shape Function * The Rotating Soliton * QUANTIZATION * Quantization and Wave Functions * Matrix Elements * STATIC PROPERTIES * Masses * Sizes and Magnetic Moments * Electric and Magnetic Transition Elements * Axial Coupling and the Goldberger-Treiman Relation * More Results and Predictions * DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX A: NOTATION * APPENDIX B: PAULI MATRIX ALGEBRA * APPENDIX C: THE ADJOINT REPRESENTATION OF SU(2) * APPENDIX D: A FEW USEFUL FACTS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  7. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  8. Cosmology and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2008-12-15

    A brief review for particle physicists on the cosmological impact of neutrinos and on restrictions on neutrino properties from cosmology is given. The paper includes a discussion of upper bounds on neutrino mass and possible ways to relax them, methods to observe the cosmic-neutrino background, bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry which are strongly improved by neutrino oscillations, cosmological effects of breaking of the spin-statistics theorem for neutrinos, bounds on mixing parameters of active and possible sterile neutrinos with account of active-neutrino oscillations, bounds on right-handed currents and neutrino magnetic moments, and some more.

  9. Functional properties of vinegar.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2014-05-01

    A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Mohammad J; Fromm, Katharina M; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Rojo, Teofilo; Serpooshan, Vahid; Parak, Wolfgang J; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-10-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials.

  11. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements. DATES: Comments... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative Agreements. OMB Number: 0596-NEW. Type...

  12. Hydrogen technology survey: Thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic functions, transport properties, and physical properties of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen are presented. The low temperature regime is emphasized. The tabulation of the properties of normal hydrogen in both Si and engineering units is given along with the tabulation of parahydrogen.

  13. Land degradation and property regimes

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  14. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  15. Irreversibility line and flux pinning properties in a multilayered cuprate superconductor of Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (Tc = 105 K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirage, P. M.; Iyo, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Tanaka, Y.; Kito, H.; Kodama, Y.

    2008-07-01

    Irreversibility line (IL) and flux pinning properties were investigated for a Ba2Ca3Cu4O8(O,F)2 (F-0234) multilayered cuprate superconductor with a Tc of 105 K. The intragrain critical current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Birr) were determined by using Bean's critical state model for the grain-aligned sample (nominal composition Ba2Ca3Cu4O8.7F1.3). The irreversibility line (IL) of F-0234 is much lower than that of (Cu,C)Ba2Ca3Cu4Oy ((Cu, C)-1234) and HgBa2Ca3Cu4Oy (Hg-1234) in spite of the spacing between the superconducting blocks of F-0234 (7.3 Å) being much thinner. The double logarithmic plot of Birr field versus [1-(T/Tc) ] analysis hints that the flux line melting model has been adopted. An anisotropy factor of 65 was calculated from a 3D to 2D crossover field of about 0.95 T. Due to the high anisotropy of this system, a low IL has resulted. The flux pinning force density Fp ( ≈JcB) exhibits scaling behaviour when the magnetic field B is normalized by the Birr field. Analysis of the normalized pinning force reveals that a surface pinning mechanism is dominant and the reduced magnetic field bmax = 0.2 agrees with surface pinning mechanism with closely spaced pins.

  16. The impact of galactic properties and environment on the quenching of central and satellite galaxies: a comparison between SDSS, Illustris and L-Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluck, Asa F. L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Simard, Luc; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; Torrey, Paul; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Moreno, Jorge; Starkenburg, Else

    2016-11-01

    We quantify the impact that a variety of galactic and environmental properties have on the quenching of star formation. We collate a sample of ˜400 000 central and ˜100 000 satellite galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). Specifically, we consider central velocity dispersion (σc), stellar, halo, bulge and disc mass, local density, bulge-to-total ratio, groupcentric distance and galaxy-halo mass ratio. We develop and apply a new statistical technique to quantify the impact on the quenched fraction (fQuench) of varying one parameter, while keeping the remaining parameters fixed. For centrals, we find that the fQuench-σc relationship is tighter and steeper than for any other variable considered. We compare to the Illustris hydrodynamical simulation and the Munich semi-analytic model (L-Galaxies), finding that our results for centrals are qualitatively consistent with their predictions for quenching via radio-mode AGN feedback, hinting at the viability of this process in explaining our observational trends. However, we also find evidence that quenching in L-Galaxies is too efficient and quenching in Illustris is not efficient enough, compared to observations. For satellites, we find strong evidence that environment affects their quenched fraction at fixed central velocity dispersion, particularly at lower masses. At higher masses, satellites behave identically to centrals in their quenching. Of the environmental parameters considered, local density affects the quenched fraction of satellites the most at fixed central velocity dispersion.

  17. Structure-property relations of orthorhombic [(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3 · 2H2 O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussühl, Eiken; Schreuer, Jürgen; Wiehl, Leonore; Paulsen, Natalia

    2014-04-01

    Large single crystals of orthorhombic [(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3 · 2H2 O with dimensions up to 40×40×30 mm3 were grown from aqueous solutions. The elastic and piezoelastic coefficients were derived from ultrasonic resonance frequencies and their shifts upon variation of pressure, respectively, using the plate-resonance technique. Additionally, the coefficients of thermal expansion were determined between 95 K and 305 K by dilatometry. The elastic behaviour at ambient conditions is dominated by the 2-dimensional network of strong hydrogen bonds within the (001) plane leading to a corresponding pseudo-tetragonal anisotropy of the longitudinal elastic stiffness. The variation of elastic properties with pressure, however, as well as the thermal expansion shows strong deviations from the pseudo-tetragonal symmetry. These deviations are probably correlated with tilts of the elongated tri-nuclear betaine-CuCl2-water complexes. Neither the thermal expansion nor the specific heat capacity gives any hint on a phase transition in the investigated temperature range.

  18. Quasiparticle properties in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Euyheon

    2012-02-01

    The quasiparticle properties in both single layer and bilayer graphene are presented. We study the electron self-energy as well as the quasiparticle spectral function in graphene, taking into account electron-electron interaction in the leading order dynamically screened Coulomb coupling and electron-impurity interaction associated with quenched disorder. Our calculation of the self-energy provides the basis for calculating all one-electron properties of graphene. We provide analytical and numerical results for quasiparticle renormalization in graphene. Comparison with existing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements shows broad qualitative and semiquantitative agreement between theory and experiment, for both the momentum-distribution and energy-distribution curves in the measured spectra. We also present the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rate and the carrier mean free path for energetic hot electrons as a function of carrier energy, density, and temperature, including both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. Our results are directly applicable to device structures where ballistic transport is relevant with inelastic scattering dominating over elastic scattering.[4pt] S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407 (2011). [0pt] E. H. Hwang, Ben Yu-Kuang Hu, and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 76, 115434 (2007). [0pt] E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 77, 081412 (2008). [0pt] Rajdeep Sensarma, E. H. Hwang, and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 84, 041408(R) (2011).

  19. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  20. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  1. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  2. Review of Particle Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Hikasa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanabashi, M.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Amsler, C.; Barnett, R. M.; Burchat, P. R.; Carone, C. D.; Caso, C.; Conforto, G.; Dahl, O.; Doser, M.; Eidelman, S.; Feng, J. L.; Gibbons, L.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Groom, D. E.; Gurtu, A.; Hayes, K. G.; Herna`Ndez-Rey, J. J.; Honscheid, K.; Kolda, C.; Mangano, M. L.; Manley, D. M.; Manohar, A. V.; March-Russell, J.; Masoni, A.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Navas, S.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Piepke, A.; Roos, M.; Terning, J.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Trippe, T. G.; Vogel, P.; Wohl, C. G.; Workman, R. L.; Yao, W.-M.; Armstrong, B.; Gee, P. S.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K. S.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cattai, A.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cousins, R. D.; Cowan, G.; Damour, T.; Desler, K.; Donahue, R. J.; Edwards, D. A.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fasso`, A.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Froidevaux, D.; Fukugita, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gilman, F. J.; Haber, H. E.; Hagmann, C.; Hewett, J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hogan, C. J.; Höhler, G.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knowles, I. G.; Kreitz, P.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Landua, R.; Langacker, P.; Littenberg, L.; Martin, A. D.; Nakada, T.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Quinn, H. R.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Razuvaev, E. A.; Renk, B.; Rolandi, L.; Ronan, M. T.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sanda, A. I.; Sarkar, S.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Srednicki, M.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Ward, D. R.; Webber, B. R.; Whalley, M.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Zenin, O. V.

    2002-07-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

  3. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  4. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  5. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  6. Properties of solid supports.

    PubMed

    Meldal, M

    1997-01-01

    Many supports including composite materials and functionalized surfaces are available for solid-phase synthesis. In the process of selecting the proper support it is important to consider the optimal performance during solid-phase synthesis. For most purposes the mechanically stable beaded gel resins are preferred. These resins are homogeneous, and the loading and physical and chemical properties can easily be varied. Optimal properties have been obtained by radical polymerization of end group acryloylated long-chain polyethylene glycols. However, polystyrene resins or amide bond free PEG-based resins may be more suited for general organic synthesis where reactivity of radicals, carbenes, carbanions, carbenium ions, or strong Lewis acids have to be considered. Loading of the resins can have a dramatic effect on the outcome of a synthesis and has to be considered separately for each synthesis. Synthesis of long peptides with 50-100 amino acids imposes completely different requirements on the performance, swelling, and loading than a large-scale synthesis of, for example, the pentapeptide enkephalin. Automated multiple synthesizers constructed for columns of beaded gel or composite supports are available from many suppliers. It is therefore expected that the optimization of support properties will continue in order to meet new synthetic challenges. In the synthesis for solid-phase screening of binding of biomolecules to ligands directly on the resin beads, it is an advantage if the resin is not permeable to the biomolecule so unbound molecules can easily be removed by washing. This is the case with polystyrene-based resins, but they do, however, often show nonspecific adhesion of proteins owing to the hydrophobic character of the polystyrene. Modification of the functional groups of polystyrene with polyethylene glycol as spacers for synthesis of the binding ligands can increase the available ligand concentration on the bead surface and eliminate most of the

  7. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  8. Properties of subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony; Jozsa, Richard; Benatti, Fabio

    2014-06-15

    Subentropy is an entropy-like quantity that arises in quantum information theory; for example, it provides a tight lower bound on the accessible information for pure state ensembles, dual to the von Neumann entropy upper bound in Holevo's theorem. Here we establish a series of properties of subentropy, paralleling the well-developed analogous theory for von Neumann entropy. Further, we show that subentropy is a lower bound for min-entropy. We introduce a notion of conditional subentropy and show that it can be used to provide an upper bound for the guessing probability of any classical-quantum state of two qubits; we conjecture that the bound applies also in higher dimensions. Finally, we give an operational interpretation of subentropy within classical information theory.

  9. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  10. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  11. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    This is the sixteenth quarterly report under DOE contract No. DE-AC22-87PC 79903 entitled Optical Properties of Flyash.'' Tasks 1 and 2 of this program were funded from September 15, 1987. Tasks 3 and 4 were funded from September 15, 1988. The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Some preliminary work in this area has been carried out at Stanford in the past several years with NSF support. The present program will greatly enlarge the scope of this work.

  12. Electronic properties of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.; Kittler, M.; Uebensee, H.; Pippel, E.; Haehnel, A.; Birner, S.

    2016-04-01

    Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase in the drain current of MOSFETs if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight-binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10 % or more—causes locally dramatic changes in the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas, single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, T.; Pascalutsa, V.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Martin-Camalich, J.

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the chiral behavior of the nucleon and {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic properties within the framework of a SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our one-loop calculation is complete to the order p{sup 3} and p{sup 4}/{Delta} with {Delta} as the {Delta}(1232)-nucleon energy gap. We show that the magnetic moment of a resonance can be defined by the linear energy shift only when an additional relation between the involved masses and the applied magnetic field strength is fulfilled. Singularities and cusps in the pion mass dependence of the {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic moments reflect a non-fulfillment. We show results for the pion mass dependence of the nucleon iso-vector electromagnetic quantities and present preliminary results for finite volume effects on the iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart A.; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of transcription have recently been shown to play a central role in gene expression. However, a full physical characterization of this central biological process is lacking. In this Letter, we introduce a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation, and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The resulting framework describes the relative amount of RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling that occurs during RNA elongation. Asymptotic behavior is derived and can be used to experimentally extract unknown mechanical parameters of transcription. Mechanical limits to transcription are incorporated through the addition of a DNA supercoiling-dependent RNA polymerase velocity. This addition can lead to transcriptional stalling and resulting implications for gene expression, chromatin structure and genome organization are discussed.

  15. Computational modeling of properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Judy R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wise-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid II-VI semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.

  16. Fundamental properties of resonances.

    PubMed

    Ceci, S; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Percan, A; Zauner, B

    2017-03-27

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own.

  17. [Nutraceutical properties of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Blasco, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, dietary recommendations have suggested an increase in the consumption of foods that contain phytochemicals that provide benefits to human health and play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. Lycopene -the carotenoid responsible for the red color of tomatoes- has attracted attention because of its physicochemical and biological properties in the prevention of chronic diseases in which oxidative stress is a major etiological factor, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and hypertension, among others. Antioxidants, including lycopene, interact with reactive oxygen species, can mitigate their damaging effects and play a significant role in preventing these diseases. This article presents a review of some epidemiological studies published in recent years on beneficial effects of lycopene in human health.

  18. My body, my property.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1986-10-01

    Two recent cases raise the question: Should the body be considered a form of property? Patients generally do not share in the profits derived from the applications of research on their body parts and products. Nor is their consent for research required so long as the body part is unidentified and is removed in the course of treatment. A market in body parts and products would require consent to all categories of research and ensure that patients are protected from coercion and given the chance to be paid fairly for their contributions. Such a market might force us to rethink our policies prohibiting organ sales. Donors, recipients, and society will benefit from a market in body parts so long as owners--and no one else--retain control over their bodies.

  19. Elastic properties of HMX.

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  1. Physical properties of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of asteroids were studied by telescopic observations and laboratory and theoretical work. Spectrophotometry from 0.3 to 1.1 microns and 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 micron photometry allow spectral-compositional classification of asteroids. Based on laboratory data and telescopic observations, it was found that infrared measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns provide a relatively rapid and accurate method for the classification of minor planets and are important in comparing asteroids with meteorites. This technique was proven and employed in an expanded survey of Apollo-Amor-Aten and other unusual asteroids recently scanned by IRAS.

  2. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  3. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  4. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this task is to validate the whole approach adopted in this program. Specifically, this bench-scale experiment is intended to compare the measured optical/radiative properties of a dispersion of well characterized ash with those calculated on the basis of the known size/composition distribution using the correlation formulae relating the composition and complex refractive index resulting from measurements on bulk samples of synthetic slag. Considerable thought has been given to the various possible approaches to satisfying the objectives of this task. Several experiments were done to guide our design of an apparatus for measuring the scattering and absorption properties of dispersions of flyash. As a result of these experiments, and from extensive prior experience in connection with research on electrostatic precipitation, it has been determined that there is no satisfactory way to satisfy the aims of this task using a gaseous dispersion of flyash because it is not possible to adequately disperse and deagglomerate flyash into a gas stream. Unless the ash is adequately dispersed, as it exists in the radiant boiler of a pulverized coal-fired combustion system, one cannot expect calculations, based on Mie calculations for a dispersion of spheres to properly agree with laboratory measurements. For these reasons, our design efforts are based on making measurements on a dispersion of flyash in liquid, for which our experience shows we can obtain stable, well-deagglomerated dispersions of ash. Because there is not single liquid which is adequately transparent over the wavelength range 1--12 {mu}m, we plan to use a combination of three liquids, C Cl{sub 4}, C S{sub 2} and bromoform to cover the full range. Windows of BaF{sub 2} will be used to contain the liquid suspension in an absorption/scattering cell.

  5. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  6. Dielectric property measurements in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Bussell, Kerri; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to measure the dielectric properties of various materials has been developed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory (EPML) of the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB). Two measurement techniques which have been implemented in the EPML to characterize materials are the dielectric probe and waveguide techniques. Several materials, including some for which the dielectric properties are well known, have been measured in an attempt to establish the capabilities of the EPML in determining dielectric properties. Brief descriptions of the two techniques are presented in this report, along with representative results obtained during these measurements.

  7. Structural, morphological and optical properties of chromium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Babukutty, Blessy; Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Nair, Swapna S.; Bhalero, G. M.; Aravind, P. B.

    2015-06-24

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction route from chloride precursors with surfactant, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Structural and morphological characterization are analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Transmission Electron micrographs show that the average grain size lies in the range 5nm to 10nm. Optical characterization has been done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Distinct optical absorptions of Cr{sup 3+} ions show hinting towards the presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Presence of oxygen is also confirmed from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmenter, Kelly E.; Milstein, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels' mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels' mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests. Moreover, before the mechanical response

  9. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.

  10. Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L

  11. Gold-rich R3Au7Sn3: Establishing the interdependence between electronic features and physical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Provino, Alessia; Steinberg, Simon; Smetana, Volodymyr; ...

    2015-05-18

    Two new polar intermetallic compounds Y3Au7Sn3 (I) and Gd3Au7Sn3 (II) have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (P63/m; Z = 2, a = 8.148(1)/8.185(3), and c = 9.394(2)/9.415(3) for I/II, respectively). They can formally be assigned to the Cu10Sn3 type and consist of parallel slabs of Sn centered, edge-sharing trigonal Au6 antiprisms connected through R3 (R = Y, Gd) triangles. Additional Au atoms reside in the centres of trigonal Au6 prisms forming Au@Au6 clusters with Au–Au distances of 2.906–2.960 Å, while the R–R contacts in the R3 groups are considerably larger than themore » sums of their metallic radii. These exclusive structural arrangements provide alluring systems to study the synergism between strongly correlated systems, particularly, those in the structure of (II), and extensive polar intermetallic contacts, which has been inspected by measurements of the magnetic properties, heat capacities and electrical conductivities of both compounds. Gd3Au7Sn3 shows an antiferromagnetic ordering at 13 K, while Y3Au7Sn3 is a Pauli paramagnet and a downward curvature in its electrical resistivity at about 1.9 K points to a superconducting transition. DFT-based band structure calculations on R3Au7Sn3 (R = Y, Gd) account for the results of the conductivity measurements and different spin ordering models of (II) provide conclusive hints about its magnetic structure. As a result, chemical bonding analyses of both compounds indicate that the vast majority of bonding originates from the heteroatomic Au–Gd and Au–Sn interactions, while homoatomic Au–Au bonding is evident within the Au@Au6 clusters.« less

  12. Modeling ferroelectric film properties and size effects from tetragonal interlayer in Hf1-xZrxO2 grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künneth, Christopher; Materlik, Robin; Kersch, Alfred

    2017-05-01

    Size effects from surface or interface energy play a pivotal role in stabilizing the ferroelectric phase in recently discovered thin film Zirconia-Hafnia. However, sufficient quantitative understanding has been lacking due to the interference with the stabilizing effect from dopants. For the important class of undoped Hf1-xZrxO2, a phase stability model based on free energy from Density functional theory (DFT) and surface energy values adapted to the sparse experimental and theoretical data has been successful to describe key properties of the available thin film data. Since surfaces and interfaces are prone to interference, the predictive capability of the model is surprising and directs to a hitherto undetected, underlying reason. New experimental data hint on the existence of an interlayer on the grain surface fixed in the tetragonal phase possibly shielding from external influence. To explore the consequences of such a mechanism, we develop an interface free energy model to include the fixed interlayer, generalize the grain model to include a grain radius distribution, calculate average polarization and permittivity, and compare the model with available experimental data. Since values for interface energies are sparse or uncertain, we obtain its values from minimizing the least square difference between predicted key parameters to experimental data in a global optimization. Since the detailed values for DFT energies depend on the chosen method, we repeat the search for different computed data sets and come out with quantitatively different but qualitatively consistent values for interface energies. The resulting values are physically very reasonable and the model is able to give qualitative prediction. On the other hand, the optimization reveals that the model is not able to fully capture the experimental data. We discuss possible physical effects and directions of research to possibly close this gap.

  13. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  14. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the submillimetre properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, K. E. K.; Geach, J. E.; Almaini, O.; Arumugam, V.; Dunlop, J. S.; Hartley, W. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Simpson, C. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Swinbank, A. M.; Blain, A. W.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.; Conselice, C.; Harrison, C. M.; Mortlock, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Davies, L. J. M.; Farrah, D.; Gibb, A.; Jenness, T.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Ibar, E.; Michałowski, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Rigopoulou, D.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, D.; Stevens, J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present detections at 850 μm of the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population at z ≈ 3, 4, and 5 using data from the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2 Cosmology Legacy Survey in the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey `Ultra Deep Survey' field. We employ stacking to probe beneath the survey limit, measuring the average 850 μm flux density of LBGs at z ≈ 3, 4, and 5 with typical ultraviolet luminosities of L1700 ≈ 1029 erg s-1 Hz-1. We measure 850 μm flux densities of (0.25 ± 0.03), (0.41 ± 0.06), and (0.88 ± 0.23) mJy, respectively, finding that they contribute at most 20 per cent to the cosmic far-infrared (IR) background at 850 μm. Fitting an appropriate range of spectral energy distributions to the z ˜ 3, 4, and 5 LBG stacked 24-850 μm fluxes, we derive IR luminosities of L8-1000 μm ≈ 3.2, 5.5, and 11.0 × 1011 L⊙ [and star formation rates (SFRs) of ≈50-200 M⊙ yr-1], respectively. We find that the evolution in the IR luminosity density of LBGs is broadly consistent with model predictions for the expected contribution of luminous-to-ultraluminous IR galaxies at these epochs. We observe a positive correlation between stellar mass and IR luminosity and confirm that, for a fixed mass, the reddest LBGs (UV slope β → 0) are redder due to dust extinction, with SFR(IR)/SFR(UV) increasing by about an order of magnitude over -2 < β < 0 with SFR(IR)/SFR(UV) ˜ 20 for the reddest LBGs. Furthermore, the most massive LBGs tend to have higher obscured-to-unobscured ratios, hinting at a variation in the obscuration properties across the mass range.

  15. Magnetic and thermodynamic properties of NdT{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (T=Pd, Ag) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gondek, L.; Penc, B.; Kaczorowski, D.; Baran, S.; Hoser, A.; Gerischer, S.; SzytuLa, A.

    2010-04-15

    Physical properties of NdPd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and NdAg{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, crystallizing with the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type crystal structure, were investigated by means of magnetic, calorimetric, electrical transport as well as by neutron diffraction measurements. The specific heat studies and neutron diffraction measurements were performed down to 0.30 K and 0.47 K, respectively. Both compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering below T{sub N} equal to 1.5 K for NdPd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and 1.8 K for NdAg{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. Neutron diffraction data for the latter germanide indicate antiferromagnetic collinear structure described by the propagation vector k=(0.5, 0, 0.5). The Nd magnetic moments equal to 2.24(5) mu{sub B} at 0.47 K are aligned along the a-axis and have the +- sequence within the crystal unit cell. For NdPd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} only very small Bragg peaks of magnetic origin were observed in the neutron diffraction patterns measured below T{sub N}, thus hampering determination of the magnetic structure. Both compounds exhibit metallic-like electrical conduction. From the specific heat data the crystal electric field (CEF) levels schemes were determined. Difference between the overall CEF splitting in the two compounds is correlated with their structural parameters. - Graphical abstract: Low-temperature specific heat of NdAg{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} under external magnetic fields. The lambda-like anomaly originates from onset of magnetic ordering below 1.80 K. Shifting the anomaly position towards the lower temperatures, when raising the magnetic field, hints at antiferromagnetic behaviors.

  16. A distinct magnetic property of the inner penumbral boundary. Formation of a stable umbra-penumbra boundary in a sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčák, J.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.

    2015-08-01

    Context. A sunspot emanates from a growing pore or protospot. In order to trigger the formation of a penumbra, large inclinations at the outskirts of the protospot are necessary. The penumbra develops and establishes by colonising both umbral areas and granulation. Evidence for a unique stable boundary value for the vertical component of the magnetic field strength, Bstablever, was found along the umbra-penumbra boundary of developed sunspots. Aims: We study the changing value of Bver as the penumbra forms and as it reaches a stable state. We compare this with the corresponding value in fully developed penumbrae. Methods: We use broadband G-band images and spectropolarimetric GFPI/VTT data to study the evolution of and the vertical component of the magnetic field on a forming umbra-penumbra boundary. For comparison with stable sunspots, we also analyse the two maps observed by Hinode/SP on the same spot after the penumbra formed. Results: The vertical component of the magnetic field, Bver, at the umbra-penumbra boundary increases during penumbra formation owing to the incursion of the penumbra into umbral areas. After 2.5 h, the penumbra reaches a stable state as shown by the GFPI data. At this stable stage, the simultaneous Hinode/SP observations show a Bver value comparable to that of umbra-penumbra boundaries of fully fledged sunspots. Conclusions: We confirm that the umbra-penumbra boundary, traditionally defined by an intensity threshold, is also characterised by a distinct canonical magnetic property, namely by Bverstable. During the penumbra formation process, the inner penumbra extends into regions where the umbra previously prevailed. Hence, in areas where Bverhints toward the role of Bverstable as inhibitor of the penumbral mode of magneto-convection.

  17. Profiling property criminals in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Içli, Tülin Günsen; Seydioğullari, Ibrahim; Tatlidil, Hüseyin; Coban, Sevgi; Sever, Hanifi; Süeroğlu, Unal

    2010-08-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a profile of a thief. Through a comprehensive survey of property crime suspects arrested in the city of Ankara between 2004 and 2005, the authors have attempted to determine the socioeconomic qualities of those involved in these forms of property crimes. Results of the study show that property crimes are a consequence of low education, lack of occupational skills, and alcohol and drug addiction on the part of the offenders. Because of these factors, theft becomes a way of life for offenders after their first act of property crime.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  19. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  20. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  1. Grepafloxacin: microbiological properties.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Michael S.

    1998-03-01

    Grepafloxacin is a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone characterized by having a methyl-substituted piperazine at the 7 position. It is a water-soluble racemate with both stereoisomers having the same activity. Its mode of action involves inhibition of topoisomerases II and IV. Grepafloxacin is not recognized by the NorA efflux mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus and, thus, some strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to other fluoroquinolones remain susceptible to grepafloxacin. Grepafloxacin has potent in vitro activity against streptococci and staphylococci, respiratory Gram-negative pathogens, atypical respiratory pathogens and sexually transmitted disease pathogens. It combines the positive properties of the beta-lactams against conventional Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory pathogens with the activity of the macrolides against the atypical pathogens. Unlike macrolides, it is bactericidal at concentrations close to the MIC. Its in vitro activity has been reflected in animal models of respiratory tract infections. Concentrations above MICs are maintained throughout nearly all of the 24-h dosing interval. Grepafloxacin provides important improvements over older quinolones and over other classes of antibiotics.

  2. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    PubMed Central

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at −20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism. PMID:27188748

  3. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Ait Mou, Younss; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study.

  4. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Younss Ait; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study. PMID:26779498

  5. Magnetic Properties of Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraldo, John

    2007-10-01

    The recent development of the superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP) technique has enabled the fabrication of complex molecular-electronic circuits at unprecedented densities. In this project, we explore the possibility of extending this technique to generate comparably dense arrays of nanoscale giant magnetoresistive (GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) devices. My primary contribution to this project has focused on using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), as well as a superconducting interference device (SQUID) magnetometer to monitor the magnetic properties of the devices as they are processed from thin 2D films into nanostructure arrays. This investigation allows us to investigate both fundamental and technological aspects of the nanopatterning process. For example, the effects of changing surface to volume ratios on the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and the role of various patterning techniques in determining surface chemistry and oxidation of the final nanostructures, respectively. Additionally I have worked on simulations of the materials using NIST's OOMF program, allowing me to compare actual results with theoretical expectations. I am also designing a magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) detector, which will allow faster approximations of magnetic behavior.

  6. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  7. The Properties of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruccio, Frank T.

    Scientists and engineers concerned with the environmental aspects of groundwater frequently require a comprehensive reference text that provides an overview of the pertinent problem, appropriate decision making criteria and a guide to relevant references. The Properties of Groundwater, translated from the German by John C. Harvey, is a welcome addition to the select books currently available in this field. The book occupies the niche that lies between Hem's classic Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water (U.S.G.S., Water Supply Pap. 1473, 363, pp., 1970), Stumm and Morgan's Aquatic Chemistry (John Wiley, New York, 780 pp., 1970), and Freeze and Cherry's Groundwater (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 604 pp., 1979). The level of presentation, coupled with the cost, may limit the use of the book to advanced seminar courses and, more appropriately, as a solid reference text for scientists and researchers concerned with water and water quality. The table of contents is well indexed and is structured to allow the reader to review effectively the subject matter.

  8. Opiomelanins synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Rosei, M A

    2001-07-01

    Opiomelanins represent a new class of synthetic pigments produced by the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of opioid peptides and other tyrosine aminoterminal peptides. In contrast with dopamelanin, these polymers are fully soluble in hydrophilic media, due to the presence of the peptide moiety. Opiomelanins show paramagnetism as demonstrated by the EPR spectrum identical to that of dopamelanin. The presence of the aminoacidic chain linked to the melaninic moiety, influences the electron transfer properties of opiomelanins i.e. the ability to oxidize NADH. Like dopamelanin Tyr-Gly-melanin exhibits this behaviour whereas leuenkmelanin does not show any oxidizing potential. Opiomelanins UV-Vis spectrum is characterized by an absorption band at 330 nm which disappears upon acid hydrolysis, H2O2 treatment and under simulated solar illumination. Opiomelanins exhibit a fluorescence emission peaked at 440 and 520 nm if excited at 330 nm. These fluorescence bands are due to the oligomeric units and high molecular weight units, respectively. When opioid peptides are allowed to react with tyrosinase in the presence of an excess of cysteine, cysteinyldopaenkephalins are synthesized. These peptides are furtherly oxidized giving rise to pheoopiomelanins. Reactive oxygen species also are able to oxidize non enzymatically both enkephalins and cysteinyldopaenkephalins, producing the corresponding melanin pigments.

  9. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-05-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at ‑20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism.

  10. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  11. Healthy properties of proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocío; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Boqué, Noemí; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also named condensed tannins, are the result of flavanols condensation. Oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins can widely be found in the plant kingdom, as in fruits and berries, seeds, flowers, and leaves. They have a putative role as antioxidants, and they affect the inflammatory process via calcium-dependent release of nitric oxide and protect against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation. They also demonstrated a role in cardiovascular diseases via vessel relaxation and LDL oxidation inhibition. These condensed tannins have also shown activities that improve diabetic complications, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy, including a decrease in serum glucose and advanced glycation end products. Furthermore, proanthocyanidins have evidenced anticancer properties by mitigating tumor development through induction of apoptosis or inhibition of cell proliferation. Finally, they are able to produce antiadhesive actions against bacteria in urinary and dental infections, including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. Hence, proanthocyanidins are considered as beneficial molecules in preventing or treating many diseases and pathological conditions. Therefore, finding out more about condensed tannins bioavailability, and understanding the regulatory genes and pathways involved in their effects should be aimed in future research.

  12. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  13. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET ADLEE INVENTORY Physical Properties Data for Rock salt N DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION DJsbTRIuT10IN STATEMENT A DISTRIUTION...Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt )ata Book (see block 18) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. 167RCORGRN NUMBER(n) SH. H. Li, R. A...Chemical properties -Electrical properties --- : Mechanical properties --Optical properties --Magnetic properties -- .1Theruophysical properties -Geological

  14. Fractal aggregates in reduced gravity experiments and numerical simulations to characterize cometary material properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    to determine cometary dust properties useful to interpret observations and to prepare on-going missions. Cometary primordial aggregation Recent in situ studies have unveiled surface features hinting at a pervasive internal layered structure on 9P/Tempel 1 [9]. Assuming reduced gravity aggregation of cometesimals and taking into account sintering processes, quantitative internal properties of the nucleus can be obtained [10]. At large dissipation of the kinetic energy during impact, possible fractal structure disappears and is replaced by a density, cohesive strength and porosity layering of the material. The cohesive strength of the nuclei obtained (¡104 N.m-2 ) compares well with values deduced from disruption events observations and laboratory impact experiments. During an impact, if the ejected material is lost, the internal structure of the nucleus can be erased. This suggests that either the structures observed are not primordial (e.g. cryovolcanism resurfacing [11]) or that secondary mechanisms, such as the re-accretion of fragments after destructive collision, have occurred during the accretion process [12]. Support from LPI, LATMOS/IPSL, CNES for PROGRA2 and CNES and ESA for the micro-gravity flights are acknowledged. [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al, PSS 2009 [2] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, JQSRT 2003; [3] Levasseur-Regourd et al., ESA-SP 2001; [4] Blum et al., ASR 2002; [5] Renard et al., AO 2002; [6] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2006; [7] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2007; [8] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009a) ; [9] Thomas et al., Icarus 2007 ; [10] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009b) ; [11] Belton et al., Icarus (2008); [12] Blum and Wurm, Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. (2008)

  15. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308 Section 593.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  16. 31 CFR 542.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.315 Section 542.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...