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Sample records for label-free cell discrimination

  1. Label-Free Discrimination of Cells Undergoing Apoptosis by Hyperspectral Confocual Reflectance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, F. R.; Botti, E.; Costanzo, A.; Ferrari, L.; Mussi, V.; D'Alessandro, M.; Selci, S.

    2013-12-01

    Among the optical techniques used for exploring the properties of cells and tissues, those based on hyperspectral label-free analysis are particularly interesting due to their non-invasive character and their ability to fast collect a huge number of information on the different sample constituents and their spatial distribution. Here we present results obtained with a novel hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscope of label-free discrimination of cells undergoing apoptosis. Our data, analyzed by means of a powerful statistical method, enable to obtain information on the biological status at a single cell level through the local measurement of reflectivity. Furthermore, an optical model of the local dielectric response gives an additional insight of the parameters linking the optical responsivity to the biological status.

  2. Label-free cell separation and sorting in microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Gossett, Daniel R.; Weaver, Westbrook M.; Mach, Albert J.; Hur, Soojung Claire; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Lee, Wonhee; Amini, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Cell separation and sorting are essential steps in cell biology research and in many diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Recently, there has been interest in methods which avoid the use of biochemical labels; numerous intrinsic biomarkers have been explored to identify cells including size, electrical polarizability, and hydrodynamic properties. This review highlights microfluidic techniques used for label-free discrimination and fractionation of cell populations. Microfluidic systems have been adopted to precisely handle single cells and interface with other tools for biochemical analysis. We analyzed many of these techniques, detailing their mode of separation, while concentrating on recent developments and evaluating their prospects for application. Furthermore, this was done from a perspective where inertial effects are considered important and general performance metrics were proposed which would ease comparison of reported technologies. Lastly, we assess the current state of these technologies and suggest directions which may make them more accessible. Figure A wide range of microfluidic technologies have been developed to separate and sort cells by taking advantage of differences in their intrinsic biophysical properties PMID:20419490

  3. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; ...

    2016-03-15

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individualmore » cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. In conclusion, this system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.« less

  4. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  5. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K.; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. In conclusion, this system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  6. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K.; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells. PMID:26975219

  7. Deep Learning in Label-free Cell Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Tai, Li-Chia; Blaby, Ian K.; Huang, Allen; Niazi, Kayvan Reza; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Label-free cell analysis is essential to personalized genomics, cancer diagnostics, and drug development as it avoids adverse effects of staining reagents on cellular viability and cell signaling. However, currently available label-free cell assays mostly rely only on a single feature and lack sufficient differentiation. Also, the sample size analyzed by these assays is limited due to their low throughput. Here, we integrate feature extraction and deep learning with high-throughput quantitative imaging enabled by photonic time stretch, achieving record high accuracy in label-free cell classification. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images and extracts multiple biophysical features of individual cells. These biophysical measurements form a hyperdimensional feature space in which supervised learning is performed for cell classification. We compare various learning algorithms including artificial neural network, support vector machine, logistic regression, and a novel deep learning pipeline, which adopts global optimization of receiver operating characteristics. As a validation of the enhanced sensitivity and specificity of our system, we show classification of white blood T-cells against colon cancer cells, as well as lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production. This system opens up a new path to data-driven phenotypic diagnosis and better understanding of the heterogeneous gene expressions in cells.

  8. Label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihwan; Song, Minsun; Kang, Taewook; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-01

    The selective cell separation is a critical step in fundamental life sciences, translational medicine, biotechnology, and energy harvesting. Conventional cell separation methods are fluorescent activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting based on fluorescent probes and magnetic particles on cell surfaces. Label-free cell separation methods such as Raman-activated cell sorting, electro-physiologically activated cell sorting, dielectric-activated cell sorting, or inertial microfluidic cell sorting are, however, limited when separating cells of the same kind or cells with similar sizes and dielectric properties, as well as similar electrophysiological phenotypes. Here we report a label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting (dDACS) without using any external optical, magnetic, electrical forces, or fluidic activations. The conceptual microfluidic design consists of an inlet, hydraulic jump cavity, and multiple outlets. Incoming particles experience gravity, buoyancy, and drag forces in the separation chamber. The height and distance that each particle can reach in the chamber are different and depend on its density, thus allowing for the separation of particles into multiple outlets. The separation behavior of the particles, based on the ratio of the channel heights of the inlet and chamber and Reynolds number has been systematically studied. Numerical simulation reveals that the difference between the heights of only lighter particles with densities close to that of water increases with increasing the ratio of the channel heights, while decreasing Reynolds number can amplify the difference in the heights between the particles considered irrespective of their densities.

  9. Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Feng, Yuanming; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Lu, Jun Q; Brock, R Scott; Yang, Li V; Bertrand, Fred E; Farwell, Mary A; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2011-06-01

    Automated classification of biological cells according to their 3D morphology is highly desired in a flow cytometer setting. We have investigated this possibility experimentally and numerically using a diffraction imaging approach. A fast image analysis software based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm has been developed to extract feature parameters from measured diffraction images. The results of GLCM analysis and subsequent classification demonstrate the potential for rapid classification among six types of cultured cells. Combined with numerical results we show that the method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry has the capacity as a platform for high-throughput and label-free classification of biological cells.

  10. A scalable label-free approach to separate human pluripotent cells from differentiated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, N A; Bock, H; Hoeve, M A; Pells, S; Williams, C; McPhee, G; Freile, P; Choudhury, D; De Sousa, P A

    2016-01-01

    The broad capacity of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to grow and differentiate demands the development of rapid, scalable, and label-free methods to separate living cell populations for clinical and industrial applications. Here, we identify differences in cell stiffness, expressed as cell elastic modulus (CEM), for hESC versus mesenchymal progenitors, osteoblast-like derivatives, and fibroblasts using atomic force microscopy and data processing algorithms to characterize the stiffness of cell populations. Undifferentiated hESC exhibited a range of CEMs whose median was nearly three-fold lower than those of differentiated cells, information we exploited to develop a label-free separation device based on the principles of tangential flow filtration. To test the device's utility, we segregated hESC mixed with fibroblasts and hESC-mesenchymal progenitors induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation. The device permitted a throughput of 10(6)-10(7) cells per min and up to 50% removal of specific cell types per single pass. The level of enrichment and depletion of soft, pluripotent hESC in the respective channels was found to rise with increasing stiffness of the differentiating cells, suggesting CEM can serve as a major discriminator. Our results demonstrate the principle of a scalable, label-free, solution for separation of heterogeneous cell populations deriving from human pluripotent stem cells.

  11. A scalable label-free approach to separate human pluripotent cells from differentiated derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, N. A.; Hoeve, M. A.; Pells, S.; Williams, C.; McPhee, G.

    2016-01-01

    The broad capacity of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to grow and differentiate demands the development of rapid, scalable, and label-free methods to separate living cell populations for clinical and industrial applications. Here, we identify differences in cell stiffness, expressed as cell elastic modulus (CEM), for hESC versus mesenchymal progenitors, osteoblast-like derivatives, and fibroblasts using atomic force microscopy and data processing algorithms to characterize the stiffness of cell populations. Undifferentiated hESC exhibited a range of CEMs whose median was nearly three-fold lower than those of differentiated cells, information we exploited to develop a label-free separation device based on the principles of tangential flow filtration. To test the device's utility, we segregated hESC mixed with fibroblasts and hESC-mesenchymal progenitors induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation. The device permitted a throughput of 106–107 cells per min and up to 50% removal of specific cell types per single pass. The level of enrichment and depletion of soft, pluripotent hESC in the respective channels was found to rise with increasing stiffness of the differentiating cells, suggesting CEM can serve as a major discriminator. Our results demonstrate the principle of a scalable, label-free, solution for separation of heterogeneous cell populations deriving from human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26858819

  12. Label-free electronic detection of target cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandyarpour, Rahim; Javanmard, Mehdi; Harris, James; Davis, Ronald W.

    2014-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe an electronic label-free method for detection of target cells, which has potential applications ranging from pathogen detection for food safety all the way to detection of circulating tumor cells for cancer diagnosis. The nanoelectronic platform consists of a stack of electrodes separated by a 30nm thick insulating layer. Cells binding to the tip of the sensor result in a decrease in the impedance at the sensing tip due to an increase in the fringing capacitance between the electrodes. As a proof of concept we demonstrate the ability to detect Saccharomyces Cerevisae cells with high specificity using a sensor functionalized with Concanavalin A. Ultimately we envision using this sensor in conjunction with a technology for pre-concentration of target cells to develop a fully integrated micro total analysis system.

  13. Label-free detection of immune complexes with myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Szittner, Z; Bentlage, A E H; Rovero, P; Migliorini, P; Lóránd, V; Prechl, J; Vidarsson, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide proof-of-concept for quantitative and qualitative label-free detection of immune complexes through myeloid cells with imaging surface plasmon resonance. Surface plasmon resonance imaging was first applied to monitor the binding of human sera from healthy and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to immobilized citrullinated RA-specific peptide antigens, histone citrullinated peptide 2 (HCP2) and viral citrullinated peptide 2 (VCP2). Next, the binding of monocytoid cell line U937 to the resulting immune complexes on the sensor surface was monitored. As control, binding of U937 was monitored to immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses simultaneously. Cell response results were compared to results of cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (CCP2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), clinical RA diagnosis and antigen-specific antibody distribution of the samples. Human IgG3 triggered the most pronounced response, followed by IgG1 and IgG4, while IgG2 did not result in U937 cell binding. Serum samples obtained from RA patients resulted in a significantly increased cell response to VCP2 compared to healthy controls. The strength of cell response towards VCP2 immune complexes showed significant correlation with levels of antigen-specific IgA, IgG and IgG3. Cellular responses on VCP2 immune complexes showed significant association with both CCP2-based serological positivity and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria-based clinical RA diagnosis. Immunoglobulin-triggered binding of monocytoid cells can be monitored using a label-free multiplex technology. Because these binding events are presumably initiated by Fc receptors, the system provides a tool for biological detection of autoantibodies with diagnostic value, here exemplified by anti-citrullinated antibodies. This provides added information to antibody levels, as interaction with Fc-receptor-expressing cells is also affected by post-translational modification of the immunoglobulins.

  14. Label-Free Ratiometric Imaging of Serotonin in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Anand Kant; Maity, Barun Kumar; Surendran, Dayana; Tripathy, Umakanta; Maiti, Sudipta

    2017-08-24

    Ratiometric imaging can quantitatively measure changes in cellular analyte concentrations using specially designed fluorescent labels. We describe a label-free ratiometric imaging technique for direct detection of changes in intravesicular serotonin concentration in live cells. At higher concentrations, serotonin forms transient oligomers whose ultraviolet emission is shifted to longer wavelengths. We access the ultraviolet/blue emission using relatively benign three-photon excitation and split it into two imaging channels, whose ratio reports the concentration. The technique is sensitive at a physiologically relevant concentration range (10-150 mM serotonin). As a proof of principle, we measure the increase of intravesicular serotonin concentration with the addition of external serotonin. In general, since emission spectra of molecules are often sensitive to concentration, our method may be applicable to other natively fluorescent intracellular molecules which are present at high concentrations.

  15. Antibody microarrays for label-free cell-based applications.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Sarah; Bombera, Radoslaw; Livache, Thierry; Roupioz, Yoann

    2012-02-01

    The recent advances in microtechnologies have shown the interest of developing microarrays dedicated to cell analysis. In this way, miniaturized cell analyzing platforms use several detection techniques requiring specific solid supports for microarray read-out (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, acoustic, optical…). Real-time and label-free techniques, such as Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi), arouse increasing interest for applications in miniaturized formats. Thus, we focused our study on chemical methods for antibody-based microarray fabrication dedicated to the SPRi analysis of cells or cellular activity. Three different approaches were designed and developed for specific applications. In the first case, a polypyrrole-based chemistry was used to array antibody-microarray for specific capture of whole living cells. In the second case, the polypyrrole-based chemistry was complexified in a three molecular level assembly using DNA and antibody conjugates to allow the specific release of cells after their capture. Finally, in the third case, a thiol-based chemistry was developed for long incubation times of biological samples of high complexity. This last approach was focused on the simultaneous study of both cell type characterization and secretory activity (detection of proteins secreted by cells). This paper describes three original methods allowing a rapid and efficient analysis of cellular sample on-chip using immunoaffinity-based assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microfluidic, Label-Free Enrichment of Prostate Cancer Cells in Blood Based on Acoustophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia; Nordin, Maria; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are shed in peripheral blood at advanced metastatic stages of solid cancers. Surface-marker-based detection of CTC predicts recurrence and survival in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. However, scarcity and variation in size, morphology, expression profile, and antigen exposure impairs reliable detection and characterization of CTC. We have developed a non-contact, label-free microfluidic acoustophoresis method to separate prostate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBC) through forces generated by ultrasonic resonances in microfluidic channels. Implementation of cell pre-alignment in a temperature-stabilized (±0.5°C) acoustophoresis microchannel dramatically enhanced the discriminatory capacity and enabled the separation of 5-μm microspheres from 7-μm microspheres with 99% purity. Next, we determined the feasibility of employing label-free microfluidic acoustophoresis to discriminate and divert tumor cells from WBCs using erythrocyte-lysed blood from healthy volunteers spiked with tumor cells from three prostate cancer cell-lines (DU145, PC3, LNCaP). For cells fixed with paraformaldehyde, cancer cell recovery ranged from 93.6% to 97.9% with purity ranging from 97.4% to 98.4%. There was no detectable loss of cell viability or cell proliferation subsequent to the exposure of viable tumor cells to acoustophoresis. For non-fixed, viable cells, tumor cell recovery ranged from 72.5% to 93.9% with purity ranging from 79.6% to 99.7%. These data contribute proof-in-principle that label-free microfluidic acoustophoresis can be used to enrich both viable and fixed cancer cells from WBCs with very high recovery and purity. PMID:22897670

  17. Label-free haemogram using wavelength modulated Raman spectroscopy for identifying immune-cell subset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Campbell, Elaine C.; Dholakia, Kishan; Powis, Simon J.

    2014-03-01

    Leucocytes in the blood of mammals form a powerful protective system against a wide range of dangerous pathogens. There are several types of immune cells that has specific role in the whole immune system. The number and type of immune cells alter in the disease state and identifying the type of immune cell provides information about a person's state of health. There are several immune cell subsets that are essentially morphologically identical and require external labeling to enable discrimination. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using Wavelength Modulated Raman Spectroscopy (WMRS) with suitable machine learning algorithms as a label-free method to distinguish between different closely lying immune cell subset. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on WMRS data from single cells, obtained using confocal Raman microscopy for feature reduction, followed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) for binary discrimination of various cell subset, which yielded an accuracy >85%. The method was successful in discriminating between untouched and unfixed purified populations of CD4+CD3+ and CD8+CD3+ T lymphocyte subsets, and CD56+CD3- natural killer cells with a high degree of specificity. It was also proved sensitive enough to identify unique Raman signatures that allow clear discrimination between dendritic cell subsets, comprising CD303+CD45+ plasmacytoid and CD1c+CD141+ myeloid dendritic cells. The results of this study clearly show that WMRS is highly sensitive and can distinguish between cell types that are morphologically identical.

  18. Label-free biochemical characterization of bovine sperm cells using Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A. C.; Manago, S.; Ferrara, M. A.; Sirleto, L.; Puglisi, R.; Balduzzi, D.; Galli, A.; Rendina, I.; Ferraro, P.; Coppola, G.

    2013-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a label-free and non-invasive method that measures the inelastic scattered light from a sample giving insight into the vibration eigenmodes of the excited molecules. For these reasons, Raman spectroscopy has been used as a powerful tool to investigate different biological tissues and living cells. In this paper, we present a Raman spectroscopy-based method for sensitive biochemical characterization of bovine sperm cells. Importantly, by analysing separate Raman spectra from the nucleus, acrosomale vesicle and tail of single sperm cells, we are able to identify characteristic Raman features associated with DNA, protein and lipid molecular vibrations for discriminating among different locations inside the cell with sub-micrometric resolution (˜0.3 μm). We demonstrate that our Raman spectroscopy facilitates spectral assignment and increases detection sensitivity, opening the way for novel bio-imaging platforms.

  19. Label-free detection and discrimination of poly-brominated diphenylethers using molecularly imprinted photonic cross-reactive sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Chen; Tian, Tian; Li, Jian; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing; Li, Guangtao

    2014-11-25

    Molecularly imprinted photonic polymers can serve as ideal sensing elements for efficiently creating cross-reactive sensor arrays. Based on this concept, a new method for sensitive and label-free detection of challenging PBDEs was developed, by which the direct detection and discrimination of trace levels of PBDEs against a high-background of interferents was achieved with 100% accuracy.

  20. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  1. Label-Free Detection and Discrimination of Bacterial Pathogens Based on Hemin Recognition.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Thora R; Adak, Avijit K; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N; Wei, Alexander

    2016-07-20

    Hemin linked to hexa(ethylene glycol)bishydrazide was patterned by inkjet printing into periodic microarrays, and evaluated for their ability to capture bacterial pathogens expressing various hemin receptors. Bacterial adhesion was imaged under darkfield conditions with Fourier analysis, supporting a label-free method of pathogen detection. Hemin microarrays were screened against a panel of 16 bacteria and found capable of capturing multiple species, some with limits of detection as low as 10(3) cfu/mL. Several Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis also exhibited rapid adhesion, enabling pattern recognition within minutes of exposure. This can be attributed to differences in hemin acquisition systems: aggressively adherent bacteria express cell-surface hemin receptors (CSHRs) that enable direct hemin binding and uptake, whereas other types of bacteria including most Gram-negative strains rely on the secretion and recapture of soluble proteins (hemophores) for hemin acquisition, with consequently longer times for ligand binding and detection.

  2. Rapid and label-free classification of human glioma cells by infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Gerald; Küchler, Saskia; Hermann, Andreas; Koch, Edmund; Salzer, Reiner; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    The discrimination of cell types is a crucial task in cell biology. Available techniques, based on an irreversible treatment of the cells, do not allow a sensitive label-free characterization under in situ conditions. Infrared spectroscopic imaging is a new and useful tool for studying individual cells. It has established itself as a powerful method to probe the molecular composition and to indicate the biochemistry of cells. Monolayers of cultivated U343, T1115 and T508 human glioma cells were characterized using infrared spectroscopic imaging. A classification algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis was developed to distinguish different cells without labeling. The classification is based upon spectral features which mainly arise from proteins, nucleic acids, and cholesterol. An accuracy of 91% and 84% was obtained for cells of U343 and T1115, respectively. Cells of the T508 cell line exhibit some misclassifications resulting in a lower accuracy rate of 73%. As the results demonstrate, the potential of infrared spectroscopic imaging method to assess the overall molecular composition of cells in a non-destructive manner opens the possibility to characterize cells on a molecular level without labels or an irreversible treatment.

  3. Label-free discrimination of different stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue based on Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    QIU, SUFANG; HUANG, QINGTING; HUANG, LINGLING; LIN, JINYONG; LU, JUN; LIN, DUO; CAO, GANG; CHEN, CHAO; PAN, JIANJI; CHEN, RONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a label-free tissue test for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at early and advanced stages using Raman spectroscopy (RS). RS measurements were performed to acquire high quality Raman spectra on two groups of tissue samples: One group consists of 30 NPC patients at the early stages (I–II), and the other group is 46 NPC patients at the advanced stages (III–IV). Tentative assignment of Raman bands showed specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. Furthermore, effective diagnostic algorithms based on principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for distinguishing Raman spectra of nasopharyngeal tissues from different stages, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 78%. This exploratory work suggests that RS in conjunction with the PCA-LDA algorithms provides good diagnostic ability for the early and the advanced staged NPC tissues, and RS has enormous potential for the non-invasive detection of early and advanced stage NPC. PMID:27073522

  4. Combining Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy for label-free classification of human immune cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McReynolds, Naomi; Cooke, Fiona G. M.; Chen, Mingzhou; Powis, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-02-01

    Moving towards label-free techniques for cell identification is essential for many clinical and research applications. Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM) are both label-free, non-destructive optical techniques capable of providing complimentary information. We demonstrate a multi-modal system which may simultaneously take Raman spectra and DHM images to provide both a molecular and a morphological description of our sample. In this study we use Raman spectroscopy and DHM to discriminate between three immune cell populations CD4+ T cells, B cells, and monocytes, which together comprise key functional immune cell subsets in immune responses to invading pathogens. Various parameters that may be used to describe the phase images are also examined such as pixel value histograms or texture analysis. Using our system it is possible to consider each technique individually or in combination. Principal component analysis is used on the data set to discriminate between cell types and leave-one-out cross-validation is used to estimate the efficiency of our method. Raman spectroscopy provides specific chemical information but requires relatively long acquisition times, combining this with a faster modality such as DHM could help achieve faster throughput rates. The combination of these two complimentary optical techniques provides a wealth of information for cell characterisation which is a step towards achieving label free technology for the identification of human immune cells.

  5. Label-free single cell analysis with a chip-based impedance flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Hebeisen, Monika; Mittag, Anja; Di Berardino, Marco; Tarnok, Attila

    2010-02-01

    For description of cellular phenotypes and physiological states new developments are needed. Axetris' impedance flow cytometer (IFC) (Leister) is a new promising label-free alternative to fluorescence-based flow cytometry (FCM). IFC measures single cells at various frequencies simultaneously. The frequencies used for signal acquisition range from 0.1 to 20 MHz. The impedance signal provides information about cell volume (< 1 MHz), membrane capacitance (~1-4 MHz) and cytoplasmic conductivity (4-10 MHz), parameters directly related to the physiological conditions of single cells. In MCF-7 cell viability experiments, cells were treated with cytotoxic agents to induce cell death. Impedance analysis showed discrimination between viable and dead cells. This was clearly visible at 4 MHz suggesting that differentiation was possible based on cell membrane capacitance. Changes in cell membrane potential were also analysed by IFC. RN22 cells were loaded with membrane potential sensitive dye (DiBAC4). The cells were then treated with the ionophore valinomycin. Changes in membrane potential were detectable at the level of cytoplasm conductivity (>4 MHz) and membrane capacitance (1-4 MHz). Our data indicate that IFC can be a valuable alternative to conventional FCM for various applications in the field of cell death and physiology. The work will be extended to address further potential applications of IFC in biotechnology and biomedical cell analysis, as well as in cell sorting.

  6. Glycan heterogeneity on gold nanoparticles increases lectin discrimination capacity in label-free multiplexed bioassays†

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Lucienne; Vlachou, Denise; Richards, Sarah-Jane; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new analytical tools as point-of-care biosensors is crucial to combat the spread of infectious diseases, especially in the context of drug-resistant organisms, or to detect biological warfare agents. Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature and are often the first site of adhesion/recognition during infection making them appealing targets for biosensors. Glycosylated gold nanoparticles have been developed that change colour from red to blue upon interaction with carbohydrate-binding proteins and may find use as biosensors, but are limited by the inherent promiscuity of some of these interactions. Here we mimic the natural heterogeneity of cell-surface glycans by displaying mixed monolayers of glycans on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These are then used in a multiplexed, label-free bioassay to create ‘barcodes’ which describe the lectin based on its binding profile. The increased information content encoded by using complex mixtures of a few sugars, rather than increased numbers of different sugars makes this approach both scalable and accessible. These nanoparticles show increased lectin identification power at a range of lectin concentrations, relative to single-channel sensors. It was also found that some information about the concentration of the lectins can be extracted, all from just a simple colour change, taking this technology closer to being a realistic biosensor. PMID:27181289

  7. Scattering pulse of label free fine structure cells to determine the size scale of scattering structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Kaixing; Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    Scattering pulse is sensitive to the morphology and components of each single label-free cell. The most direct detection result, label free cell's scattering pulse is studied in this paper as a novel trait to recognize large malignant cells from small normal cells. A set of intrinsic scattering pulse calculation method is figured out, which combines both hydraulic focusing theory and small particle's scattering principle. Based on the scattering detection angle ranges of widely used flow cytometry, the scattering pulses formed by cell scattering energy in forward scattering angle 2°-5° and side scattering angle 80°-110° are discussed. Combining the analysis of cell's illuminating light energy, the peak, area, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of label free cells' scattering pulses for fine structure cells with diameter 1-20 μm are studied to extract the interrelations of scattering pulse's features and cell's morphology. The theoretical and experimental results show that cell's diameter and FWHM of its scattering pulse agree with approximate linear distribution; the peak and area of scattering pulse do not always increase with cell's diameter becoming larger, but when cell's diameter is less than about 16 μm the monotone increasing relation of scattering pulse peak or area with cell's diameter can be obtained. This relationship between the features of scattering pulse and cell's size is potentially a useful but very simple criterion to distinguishing malignant and normal cells by their sizes and morphologies in label free cells clinical examinations.

  8. Label-free optical sensor based on red blood cells laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Duo; Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Huang, Hao; Huang, Zufang; Yu, Yun; Qiu, Sufang; Wen, Cuncheng; Cheng, Min; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-17

    The clinical significance of ABO blood typing extends beyond transfusion medicine and is demonstrated to be associated with susceptibility to various diseases, even including cancer. In this study, a home-made laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system was applied to detect red blood cells (RBCs) with the aim to develop a label-free, simple and objective blood typing method for the first time. High-quality Raman spectra of RBCs in the fingerprint region of 420-1700 cm-1 can be obtained, meanwhile exciting blood typing results can be achieved, especially with an accuracy of 100% for identifying Type AB from other blood types with the use of multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This primary work demonstrates that the label-free RBCs LTRS analysis in conjunction with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has great potential as a biosensor for ABO blood typing.

  9. Label-free isolation of circulating tumor cells in microfluidic devices: Current research and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Igor; Wen Yee, Chay; Iliescu, Florina S.; Min Phyo, Wai; Hon Lim, Kiat; Iliescu, Ciprian; Han Tan, Min

    2013-01-01

    This review will cover the recent advances in label-free approaches to isolate and manipulate circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In essence, label-free approaches do not rely on antibodies or biological markers for labeling the cells of interest, but enrich them using the differential physical properties intrinsic to cancer and blood cells. We will discuss technologies that isolate cells based on their biomechanical and electrical properties. Label-free approaches to analyze CTCs have been recently invoked as a valid alternative to “marker-based” techniques, because classical epithelial and tumor markers are lost on some CTC populations and there is no comprehensive phenotypic definition for CTCs. We will highlight the advantages and drawbacks of these technologies and the status on their implementation in the clinics. PMID:24403992

  10. Troubleshooting and deconvoluting label-free cell phenotypic assays in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Central to drug discovery and development is to comprehend the target(s), potency, efficacy and safety of drug molecules using pharmacological assays. Owing to their ability to provide a holistic view of drug actions in native cells, label-free biosensor-enabled cell phenotypic assays have been emerging as new generation phenotypic assays for drug discovery. Despite the benefits associated with wide pathway coverage, high sensitivity, high information content, non-invasiveness and real-time kinetics, label-free cell phenotypic assays are often viewed to be a blackbox in the era of target-centric drug discovery. This article first reviews the biochemical and biological complexity of drug-target interactions, and then discusses the key characteristics of label-free cell phenotypic assays and presents a five-step strategy to troubleshooting and deconvoluting the label-free cell phenotypic profiles of drugs. Drug-target interactions are intrinsically complicated. Label-free cell phenotypic signatures of drugs mirror the innate complexity of drug-target interactions, and can be effectively deconvoluted using the five-step strategy. The past decades have witnessed dramatic expansion of pharmacological assays ranging from molecular to phenotypic assays, which is coincident with the realization of the innate complexity of drug-target interactions. The clinical features of a drug are defined by how it operates at the system level and by its distinct polypharmacology, ontarget, phenotypic and network pharmacology. Approaches to examine the biochemical, cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of drugs are essential to increase the efficiency of drug discovery and development. Label-free cell phenotypic assays and the troubleshooting and deconvoluting approach presented here may hold great promise in drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Label-Free Classification of Bax/Bak Expressing vs. Double-Knockout Cells.

    PubMed

    Naser, Mohammad; Graham, Michelle T; Pierre, Kamau; Boustany, Nada N

    2016-11-01

    We combine optical scatter imaging with principal component analysis (PCA) to classify apoptosis-competent Bax/Bak-expressing, and apoptosis resistant Bax/Bak-null immortalized baby mouse kidney cells. We apply PCA to 100 stacks each containing 236 dark-field cell images filtered with an optically implemented Gabor filter with period between 0.3 and 2.9 μm. Each stack yields an "eigencell" image corresponding to the first principal component obtained at one of the 100 Gabor filter periods used. At each filter period, each cell image is multiplied by (projected onto) the eigencell image. A Feature Matrix consisting of 236 × 100 scalar values is thus constructed with significantly reduced dimension compared to the initial dataset. Utilizing this Feature Matrix, we implement a supervised linear discriminant analysis and classify successfully the Bax/Bak-expressing and Bax/Bak-null cells with 94.7% accuracy and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.993. Applying a feature selection algorithm further reveals that the Gabor filter period ranges most significant for the classification correspond to both large (likely nuclear) features as well as small sized features (likely organelles present in the cytoplasm). Our results suggest that cells with a genetic defect in their apoptosis pathway can be differentiated from their normal counterparts by label-free multi-parametric optical scatter data.

  12. Cell-impedance-based label-free technology for the identification of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Drug discovery has progressed from relatively simple binding or activity screening assays to high-throughput screening of sophisticated compound libraries with emphasis on miniaturization and automation. The development of functional assays has enhanced the success rate in discovering novel drug molecules. Many technologies, originally based on radioactive labeling, have sequentially been replaced by methods based on fluorescence labeling. Recently, the focus has switched to label-free technologies in cell-based screening assays. Areas covered: Label-free, cell-impedance-based methods comprise of different technologies including surface plasmon resonance, mass spectrometry and biosensors applied for screening of anticancer drugs, G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase and virus inhibitors, drug and nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Many of the developed methods have been used for high-throughput screening in cell lines. Cell viability and morphological damage prediction have been monitored in three-dimensional spheroid human HT-29 carcinoma cells and whole Schistosomula larvae. Expert opinion: Progress in label-free, cell-impedance-based technologies has facilitated drug screening and may enhance the discovery of potential novel drug molecules through, and improve target molecule identification in, alternative signal pathways. The variety of technologies to measure cellular responses through label-free cell-impedance based approaches all support future drug development and should provide excellent assets for finding better medicines.

  13. Label-free Optofluidic Cell Classifier Utilizing Support Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    A unique optofluidic lab-on-a-chip device that can measure optically encoded forward scattering signals has been demonstrated. From the design of the spatial pattern, the position and velocity of each cell in the flow can be detected and then a spatial cell distribution over the cross section of the channel can be generated. According to the forward scattering intensity and position information of cells, a data-mining method, support vector machines (SVMs), is applied for cell classification. With the help of SVMs, the multi-dimensional analysis can be performed to significantly increase all figures of merit for cell classification. PMID:23997428

  14. Label-free Optofluidic Cell Classifier Utilizing Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-09-01

    A unique optofluidic lab-on-a-chip device that can measure optically encoded forward scattering signals has been demonstrated. From the design of the spatial pattern, the position and velocity of each cell in the flow can be detected and then a spatial cell distribution over the cross section of the channel can be generated. According to the forward scattering intensity and position information of cells, a data-mining method, support vector machines (SVMs), is applied for cell classification. With the help of SVMs, the multi-dimensional analysis can be performed to significantly increase all figures of merit for cell classification.

  15. Tumor cell differentiation by label-free microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneckenburger, Herbert; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Autofluorescence and Raman measurements of U251-MG glioblastoma cells prior and subsequent to activation of tumor suppressor genes are compared. While phase contrast images and fluorescence intensity patterns of the tumor (control) cells and the less malignant cells are similar, differences can be deduced from fluorescence spectra and nanosecond decay times. In particular, upon excitation around 375nm, the fluorescence ratio of the protein bound and the free coenzyme NADH depends on the state of malignancy and reflects different cytoplasmic (including lysosomal) and mitochondrial contributions. Slight differences are also observed in the Raman spectra of these cell lines, mainly originating from small granules (lysosomes) surrounding the cell nucleus. While larger numbers of fluorescence and Raman spectra are evaluated by multivariate statistical methods, additional information is obtained from spectral images and fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM).

  16. Tumor cell differentiation by label-free fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Kioschis, Petra; Kessler, Waltraud; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2012-10-01

    Autofluorescence spectra, images, and decay kinetics of U251-MG glioblastoma cells prior and subsequent to activation of tumor suppressor genes are compared. While phase contrast images and fluorescence intensity patterns of tumor (control) cells and less malignant cells are similar, differences can be deduced from autofluorescence spectra and decay kinetics. In particular, upon near UV excitation, the fluorescence ratio of the free and protein-bound coenzyme nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide depends on the state of malignancy and reflects different cytoplasmic (including lysosomal) and mitochondrial contributions. While larger numbers of fluorescence spectra are evaluated by principal component analysis, a multivariate data analysis method, additional information on cell metabolism is obtained from spectral imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  17. Label-free discrimination of normal and fibroadenomal breast tissues using second harmonic generation imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Gang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Yan, Jun; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of fibroadenoma (FA) is critical for preventing subsequent breast cancer. In this work, we show that label-free second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is feasible and effective in quantitatively differentiating the fibroadenomal tissue from normal breast tissue. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature SHG microscopy, we believe that the technique has great potential in offering a noninvasive in vivo imaging tool for early detection of FA and monitoring the treatment responses of FA in clinics. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Label-free discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues using multiphoton fluorescence ratiometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    We performed multiphoton excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for the distinction of normal, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens. In addition to morphological distinction, we derived quantitative metrics of cellular redox ratios for cancer discrimination. Specifically, the redox ratios of paired normal/SCC and normal/LAC specimens were found to be 0.53±0.05/0.41±0.06 and 0.56±0.02/0.35±0.06, respectively. The lower redox ratios in cancer specimens, indicating an increase in metabolic activity. These results show that the combination of morphological multiphoton imaging along with redox ratio indices can be used for the discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues.

  19. Label-free fingerprinting of tumor cells in bulk flow using inline digital holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Ahrens, Caroline C.; Li, Wei; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale and label-free phenotyping of cells holds great promise in medicine, especially in cancer diagnostics and prognosis. Here, we introduce inline digital holography microscopy for volumetric imaging of cells in bulk flow and fingerprinting of flowing tumor cells based on two metrics, in-focus scattered intensity and cell diameter. Using planar distribution of immobilized particles, we identify the optimal recording distance and microscope objective magnification that minimizes the error in measurement of particle position, size and scattered intensity. Using the optimized conditions and the two metrics, we demonstrate the capacity to enumerate and fingerprint more than 100,000 cells. Finally, we highlight the power of our label-free and high throughput technology by characterizing breast tumor cell lines with different metastatic potentials and distinguishing drug resistant ovarian cancer cells from their parental cell line. PMID:28270966

  20. A Label-free Technique for the Spatio-temporal Imaging of Single Cell Secretions.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Deepa; Christodoulides, Joseph A; Delehanty, James B; Byers, Jeff M; Raphael, Marc P

    2015-11-23

    Inter-cellular communication is an integral part of a complex system that helps in maintaining basic cellular activities. As a result, the malfunctioning of such signaling can lead to many disorders. To understand cell-to-cell signaling, it is essential to study the spatial and temporal nature of the secreted molecules from the cell without disturbing the local environment. Various assays have been developed to study protein secretion, however, these methods are typically based on fluorescent probes which disrupt the relevant signaling pathways. To overcome this limitation, a label-free technique is required. In this paper, we describe the fabrication and application of a label-free localized surface plasmon resonance imaging (LSPRi) technology capable of detecting protein secretions from a single cell. The plasmonic nanostructures are lithographically patterned onto a standard glass coverslip and can be excited using visible light on commercially available light microscopes. Only a small fraction of the coverslip is covered by the nanostructures and hence this technique is well suited for combining common techniques such as fluorescence and bright-field imaging. A multidisciplinary approach is used in this protocol which incorporates sensor nanofabrication and subsequent biofunctionalization, binding kinetics characterization of ligand and analyte, the integration of the chip and live cells, and the analysis of the measured signal. As a whole, this technology enables a general label-free approach towards mapping cellular secretions and correlating them with the responses of nearby cells.

  1. Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Caihong; Liang, Lanju; Ding, Liang; Jin, Biaobing; Hou, Yayi; Li, Chun; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Weiwei; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-06-01

    Label-free, real-time, and in-situ measurement on cell apoptosis is highly desirable in cell biology. We propose here a design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial-based biosensor for meeting this requirement. This metamaterial consists of a planar array of five concentric subwavelength gold ring resonators on a 10 μm-thick polyimide substrate, which can sense the change of dielectric environment above the metamaterial. We employ this sensor to an oral cancer cell (SCC4) with and without cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug for cancer treatment, and find a linear relation between cell apoptosis measured by Flow Cytometry and the relative change of resonant frequencies of the metamaterial measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy. This implies that we can determine the cell apoptosis in a label-free manner. We believe that this metamaterial-based biosensor can be developed into a cheap, label-free, real-time, and in-situ detection tool, which is of significant impact on the study of cell biology.

  2. Label-free hyperspectral microscopy for scatter imaging of biological processes in cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeeseong C.; Ray, Aniruddha; Cheney, Philip P.; Chon, Bonghwan; Lee, Ji Youn; Briggman, Kimberly A.

    2016-03-01

    We will present unique applications of a label-free, hyperspectral scatter imaging technique in different microscopy platforms including conventional wide-field, dark-field, and confocal. In different platforms, we conducted label-free imaging of cells undergoing biological processes such as nanoparticle uptake, apoptosis, and metabolic flux change in response to the variation of the osmotic pressure. Hyperspectral image analyses resolved spectral endmembers corresponding to unique scattering and absorption characteristics as a result of such processes at the single particle, single organelle, and single cell level, delineating the details of nanomaterial-cell interactions in a 2D cell culture, cell apoptotic characteristics in a 3D culture, and volumetric changes of single cells under the variation of osmotic pressure. Our label-free scatter imaging has the potential for a broad range of biological and biomedical applications such as the development of scatter-based imaging contrast agents and the measurement of scatter parameters of subcellular organelles to identify the sub-micron scale origins of scattering signals in tissue scattering measurements.

  3. Modulating cell-cell communication with a high-throughput label-free cell assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangshan; Lai, Fang; Fang, Ye

    2012-02-01

    A high-throughput label-free cell assay for modulating cell-cell communication is demonstrated with the Epic® system, a resonant waveguide grating sensor platform. Natural killer (NK) cells are known to be able to recognize abnormal cells (e.g., cancer cells and cells presenting intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1] through cell surface receptors) and kill them. In this study, the effect of effecter cells NK92MI on two kinds of target cells, cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and Chinese hamster ovarian cells overexpressing ICAM1 (CHO-ICAM1), was examined. Living target cells' response to NK92MI cells was monitored in real time and measured as wavelength shift in picometers. The authors showed that the detectability of target cell response is affected by multiple factors: the ratio of effecter cells to target cells (E/T), the interaction time of the two types of cells, and the target cell type. For example, with the effecter cells NK92MI and the same incubation time of 16 h, a minimal E/T ratio of 1 is required to detect HeLa cell response, whereas an E/T of 0.5 is sufficient to detect CHO-ICAM1 cell response. The authors confirmed that NK92MI cell-mediated target cell cytotoxicity results in negative optical signals and is associated with apoptosis mainly through caspase pathways. Distinct optical signals could be generated with the pretreatment of the target cells with various known pharmaceutical reagents, making the assay useful for discovering new chemicals that may affect cell-cell communications.

  4. Suitability of Cell-Based Label-Free Detection for Cytotoxicity Screening of Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Absenger, Markus; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) by conventional screening assays is often complicated by interference. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are particularly difficult to assess. To test the suitability of cell-based label-free techniques for this application, a panel of CNTs with different diameters and surface functionalizations was assessed by impedance-based technique (xCELLigence RTCA) and automated microscopy (Cell-IQ) compared to formazan bioreduction (MTS assay). For validation of the label-free systems different concentrations of ethanol and of amine (AMI) polystyrene NPs were used. CNTs were evaluated in various cell lines, but only endothelial EAhy926 cells and L929 and V79 fibroblasts could be evaluated in all systems. Polystyrene particles obtained similar results in all assays. All systems identified thin (<8 nm) CNTs as more cytotoxic than thick (>20 nm) CNTs, but detection by xCELLigence system was less sensitive to CNT-induced cytotoxicity. Despite advantages, such as continuous monitoring and more detailed analysis of cytotoxic effects, label-free techniques cannot be generally recommended for cytotoxicity screening of NPs. PMID:24377092

  5. Combining label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches for novel drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Drug discovery is a long and costly process. Innovations and paradigm shifts are essential for continuous improvement in the productivity of pharmaceutical R&D. The author reviews the progress of label-free cell phenotypic and computational approaches in early drug discovery since 2004 and proposes a novel paradigm, which combines both approaches. Label-free cell phenotypic profiling techniques offer an unprecedented and integrated approach to comprehend drug-target interactions in their native environments. However, these approaches have disadvantages associated with the lack of molecular details. Computational approaches, including ligand-, structure- and phenotype-based virtual screens, have become versatile tools in the early drug discovery process. However, these approaches mostly predict the binding of drug molecules to targets of interest and are limited to targets that are either well annotated for ligands or that are structurally resolved. Thus, combining label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches can provide a potential paradigm to accelerate novel drug discovery by taking advantages of the best of both approaches.

  6. Uncovering stem-cell heterogeneity in the microniche with label-free microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Lydia L.

    2013-03-01

    Better suited for large number of cells from bulk tissue, traditional cell-screening techniques, such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, they rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. We have developed a label-free, single-cell analysis microfluidic platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. With this platform, we have screened single quiescent muscle stem (satellite) cells derived from single myofibers, and we have uncovered an important heterogeneity in the surface-marker expression of these cells. By sorting the screened cells with our microfluidic device, we have determined what this heterogeneity means in terms of muscle stem-cell functionality. For instance, we show that the levels of beta1-integrin can predict the differentiation capacity of quiescent satellite cells, and in contrast to recent literature, that some CXCR4 + cells are not myogenic. Our results provide the first direct demonstration of a microniche-specific variation in gene expression in stem cells of the same lineage. Overall, our label-free, single-cell analysis and cell-sorting platform could be extended to other systems involving rare-cell subsets. This work was funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation, NIH, and California Institute of Regenerative Medicine

  7. Quantitative Label-Free Cell Proliferation Tracking with a Versatile Electrochemical Impedance Detection Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviglia, C.; Carminati, M.; Heiskanen, A.; Vergani, M.; Ferrari, G.; Sampietro, M.; Andresen, T. L.; Emnéus, J.

    2012-12-01

    Since the use of impedance measurements for label-free monitoring of cells has become widespread but still the choice of sensing configuration is not unique though crucial for a quantitative interpretation of data, we demonstrate the application of a novel custom multipotentiostat platform to study optimal detection strategies. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to monitor and compare adhesion of different cell lines. HeLa cells and 3T3 fibroblasts have been cultured for 12 hours on interdigitated electrode arrays integrated into a tailor-made cell culture platform. Both vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configuration approaches have been used and compared on the same cell populations.

  8. Dynamic and label-free cell-based assays using the real-time cell electronic sensing system.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Josephine M; Yu, Naichen; Kirstein, Shelli L; Xi, Biao; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao; Abassi, Yama A

    2006-10-01

    Cell-based assays have become an integral part of the preclinical drug development process. Recently, noninvasive label-free cell-based assay technologies have taken center stage, offering important and distinct advantages over and in addition to traditional label-based endpoint assays. Dynamic monitoring of live cells, the preclusion of label, and kinetics are some of the fundamental features of cell-based label-free technologies. In this article we will discuss the real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES, ACEA Biosciences Inc., San Diego, CA) system and some of its key applications for cell-based assays such as cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, functional assays for receptor-ligand analysis, cell adhesion and spreading assays, dynamic monitoring of endothelial barrier function, and dynamic monitoring of cell migration and invasion. Also, where appropriate we will briefly discuss other label-free technologies in an application-specific manner.

  9. Label-free detection of anticancer drug paclitaxel in living cells by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, H.; Derely, L.; Vegh, A.-G.; Durand, J.-C.; Gergely, C.; Larroque, C.; Fauroux, M.-A.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2013-03-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy, a non-invasive, label-free, and high spatial resolution imaging technique is employed to trace the anticancer drug paclitaxel in living Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The Raman images were treated by K-mean cluster analysis to detect the drug in cells. Distribution of paclitaxel in cells is verified by calculating the correlation coefficient between the reference spectrum of the drug and the whole Raman image spectra. A time dependent gradual diffusion of paclitaxel all over the cell is observed suggesting a complementary picture of the pharmaceutical action of this drug based on rapid binding of free tubulin to crystallized paclitaxel.

  10. Classification of blood cells and tumor cells using label-free ultrasound and photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Kolios, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    A label-free method that can identify cells in a blood sample using high frequency photoacoustic and ultrasound signals is demonstrated. When the wavelength of the ultrasound or photoacoustic wave is similar to the size of a single cell (frequencies of 100-500 MHz), unique periodic features occur within the ultrasound and photoacoustic power spectrum that depend on the cell size, structure, and morphology. These spectral features can be used to identify different cell types present in blood, such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and circulating tumor cells. Circulating melanoma cells are ideal for photoacoustic detection due to their endogenous optical absorption properties. Using a 532 nm pulsed laser and a 375 MHz transducer, the ultrasound and photoacoustic signals from RBCs, WBCs, and melanoma cells were individually measured in an acoustic microscope to examine how the signals change between cell types. A photoacoustic and ultrasound signal was detected from RBCs and melanoma cells; only an ultrasound signal was detected from WBCs. The different cell types were distinctly separated using the ultrasound and photoacoustic signal amplitude and power spectral periodicity. The size of each cell was also estimated from the spectral periodicity. For the first time, sound waves generated using pulse-echo ultrasound and photoacoustics have been used to identify and size single cells, with applications toward counting and identifying cells, including circulating melanoma cells.

  11. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-09-08

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  12. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  13. Resonant waveguide grating biosensor-enabled label-free and fluorescence detection of cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Zaytseva, Natalya; Lynn, Jeffery G.; Wu, Qi; Mudaliar, Deepti J.; Sun, Haiyan; Kuang, Patty Q.; Fang, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is fundamental to many distinct aspects of cell biology, and has been an active topic for label-free biosensors. However, little attention has been paid to study the impact of receptor signaling on the cell adhesion process. We here report the development of resonant waveguide grating biosensor-enabled label-free and fluorescent approaches, and their use for investigating the adhesion of an engineered HEK-293 cell line stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) onto distinct surfaces under both ambient and physiological conditions. Results showed that cell adhesion is sensitive to both temperature and ECM coating, and distinct mechanisms govern the cell adhesion process under different conditions. The β2-AR agonists, but not its antagonists or partial agonists, were found to be capable of triggering signaling during the adhesion process, leading to an increase in the adhesion of the engineered cells onto fibronectin-coated biosensor surfaces. These results suggest that the dual approach presented is useful to investigate the mechanism of cell adhesion, and to identify drug molecules and receptor signaling that interfere with cell adhesion. PMID:24319319

  14. Original Research: Label-free detection for radiation-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dandan; Feng, Jingwen; Yang, Chengwen; Jin, Changrong; Sa, Yu; Feng, Yuanming

    2016-10-01

    Current flow cytometry (FCM) requires fluorescent dyes labeling cells which make the procedure costly and time consuming. This manuscript reports a feasibility study of detecting the cell apoptosis with a label-free method in glioblastoma cells. A human glioma cell line M059K was exposed to 8 Gy dose of radiation, which enables the cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis. The rates of apoptosis were studied at different time points post-irradiation with two different methods: FCM in combination with Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and a newly developed technique named polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry. Totally 1000 diffraction images were acquired for each sample and the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm was used in morphological characterization of the apoptotic cells. Among the feature parameters extracted from each image pair, we found that the two GLCM parameters of angular second moment (ASM) and sum entropy (SumEnt) exhibit high sensitivities and consistencies as the apoptotic rates (Pa) measured with FCM method. In addition, no significant difference exists between Pa and ASM_S, Pa and SumEnt_S, respectively (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that the new label-free method can detect cell apoptosis effectively. Cells can be directly used in the subsequent biochemical experiments as the structure and function of cells and biomolecules are well-preserved with this new method.

  15. Label-free imaging to study phenotypic behavioural traits of cells in complex co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, Rakesh; Smith, Gabrielle; Hazel, Kathryn E. A.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Coles, Mark; O’Toole, Peter; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a fundamental tool for studying cellular behaviours, however studies of primary cells in complex co-culture environments often requires fluorescent labelling and significant light exposure that can perturb their natural function over time. Here, we describe ptychographic phase imaging that permits prolonged label-free time-lapse imaging of microglia in the presence of neurons and astrocytes, which better resembles in vivo microenvironments. We demonstrate the use of ptychography as an assay to study the phenotypic behaviour of microglial cells in primary neuronal co-cultures through the addition of cyclosporine A, a potent immune-modulator.

  16. Observation of the immune response of cells and tissue through multimodal label-free microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavillon, Nicolas; Smith, Nicholas I.

    2017-02-01

    We present applications of a label-free approach to assess the immune response based on the combination of interferometric microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which makes it possible to simultaneously acquire morphological and molecular information of live cells. We employ this approach to derive statistical models for predicting the activation state of macrophage cells based both on morphological parameters extracted from the high-throughput full-field quantitative phase imaging, and on the molecular content information acquired through Raman spectroscopy. We also employ a system for 3D imaging based on coherence gating, enabling specific targeting of the Raman channel to structures of interest within tissue.

  17. Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Susanne A I; Wienken, Christoph J; Geissler, Sandra; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2012-10-15

    Look, no label! Microscale thermophoresis makes use of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins to quantify the binding affinities of ligands and discriminate between binding sites. This method is suitable for studying binding interactions of very small amounts of protein in solution. The binding of ligands to iGluR membrane receptors, small-molecule inhibitorss to kinase p38, aptamers to thrombin, and Ca(2+) ions to synaptotagmin was quantified.

  18. 2D light scattering static cytometry for label-free single cell analysis with submicron resolution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linyan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Xuming; Qiao, Xu; Liu, Qiao; Song, Kun; Kong, Beihua; Su, Xuantao

    2015-11-01

    Conventional optical cytometric techniques usually measure fluorescence or scattering signals at fixed angles from flowing cells in a liquid stream. Here we develop a novel cytometer that employs a scanning optical fiber to illuminate single static cells on a glass slide, which requires neither microfluidic fabrication nor flow control. This static cytometric technique measures two dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns via a small numerical aperture (0.25) microscope objective for label-free single cell analysis. Good agreement is obtained between the yeast cell experimental and Mie theory simulated patterns. It is demonstrated that the static cytometer with a microscope objective of a low resolution around 1.30 μm has the potential to perform high resolution analysis on yeast cells with distributed sizes. The capability of the static cytometer for size determination with submicron resolution is validated via measurements on standard microspheres with mean diameters of 3.87 and 4.19 μm. Our 2D light scattering static cytometric technique may provide an easy-to-use, label-free, and flow-free method for single cell diagnostics. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Label-free protein profiling of adipose-derived human stem cells under hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Elizabeth S; Brown, Lewis M; Bulinski, J Chloë; Hung, Clark T

    2011-07-01

    Our previous work suggested that treatment of cells with hyperosmotic media during 2D passaging primes cells for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Here, we used label-free proteomic profiling to evaluate the effects of control and hyperosmotic treatment environments on the phenotype of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) cultivated with a chondrogenic growth factor cocktail. Spectra were recorded in a data-independent fashion at alternate low (precursor) and high (product) fragmentation voltages (MS(E)). This method was supplemented with data mining of accurate mass and retention time matches in precursor ion spectra across the experiment. The results indicated a complex cellular response to osmotic treatment, with a number of proteins differentially expressed between control and treated cell groups. The roles of some of these proteins have been documented in the literature as characteristic of the physiological states studied, especially aldose reductase (osmotic stress). This protein acted as a positive control in this work, providing independent corroborative validation. Other proteins, including 5'-nucleotidase and transgelin, have been previously linked to cell differentiation state. This study demonstrates that label-free profiling can serve as a useful tool in characterizing cellular responses to chondrogenic treatment regimes, recommending its use in optimization of cell priming protocols for cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Label-Free Transient Absorption Microscopy for Red Blood Cell Flow Velocity Measurement in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-10-03

    Red blood cells have intrinsic transient absorption property at the near-infrared region, allowing for label-free detection and imaging. We present a new approach to measure the blood flow velocity in vivo with a transient absorption microscope and correlation analyses of signal sequences. With specific scan modes, we have quantitatively obtained the flow velocity in capillaries, arteries, and veins in a live zebrafish with accuracy of about 30 μm/s. In addition, a high-resolution three-dimensional vessel network can be reconstructed through this approach with spatial resolution of 1 μm.

  1. Planar Photonic Crystal Biosensor for Quantitative Label-Free Cell Attachment Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weili; Long, Kenneth D.; Kurniawan, Jonas; Hung, Margaret; Yu, Hojeong; Harley, Brendan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a planar-surface photonic crystal (PC) biosensor for quantitative, kinetic, label-free imaging of cell–surface interactions is demonstrated. The planar biosensor surface eliminates external stimuli to the cells caused by substrate topography to more accurately reflect smooth surface environment encountered by many cell types in vitro. Here, a fabrication approach that combines nanoreplica molding and a horizontal dipping process is used to planarize the surface of the PC biosensor. The planar PC biosensor maintains a high detection sensitivity that enables the monitoring of live cell–substrate interactions with spatial resolution sufficient for observing intracellular attachment strength gradients and the extensions of filopodia from the cell body. The evolution of cell morphology during the attachment and spreading process of 3T3 fibroblast cells is compared between planar and grating-structured PC biosensors. The planar surface effectively eliminates the directionally biased cellular attachment behaviors that are observed on the grating-structured surface. This work represents an important step forward in the development of label-free techniques for observing cellular processes without unintended external environmental modulation. PMID:26877910

  2. Label-free optical detection of cells grown in 3D silicon microstructures.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sabina; Carpignano, Francesca; Silva, Gloria; Aredia, Francesca; Scovassi, A Ivana; Mazzini, Giuliano; Surdo, Salvatore; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2013-08-21

    We demonstrate high aspect-ratio photonic crystals that could serve as three-dimensional (3D) microincubators for cell culture and also provide label-free optical detection of the cells. The investigated microstructures, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining of standard silicon wafers, consist of periodic arrays of silicon walls separated by narrow deeply etched air-gaps (50 μm high and 5 μm wide) and feature the typical spectral properties of photonic crystals in the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm: their spectral reflectivity is characterized by wavelength regions where reflectivity is high (photonic bandgaps), separated by narrow wavelength regions where reflectivity is very low. In this work, we show that the presence of cells, grown inside the gaps, strongly affects light propagation across the photonic crystal and, therefore, its spectral reflectivity. Exploiting a label-free optical detection method, based on a fiberoptic setup, we are able to probe the extension of cells adherent to the vertical silicon walls with a non-invasive direct testing. In particular, the intensity ratio at two wavelengths is the experimental parameter that can be well correlated to the cell spreading on the silicon wall inside the gaps.

  3. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43- symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm-1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue-implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis.

  4. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43− symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm−1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue–implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis. PMID:27225821

  5. Label-free detection of liver cancer cells by aptamer-based microcantilever biosensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuejuan; Pan, Yangang; Liu, Huiqing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Bailin

    2016-05-15

    Liver cancer is one of the most common and highly malignant cancers in the world. There are no effective therapeutic options if an early liver cancer diagnosis is not achieved. In this work, detection of HepG2 cells by label-free microcantilever array aptasensor was developed. The sensing microcantilevers were functionalized by HepG2 cells-specific aptamers. Meanwhile, to eliminate the interferences induced by the environment, the reference microcantilevers were modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol self-assembled monolayers. The aptasensor exhibits high specificity over not only human liver normal cells, but also other cancer cells of breast, bladder, and cervix tumors. The linear relation ranges from 1×10(3) to 1×10(5)cells/mL, with a detection limit of 300 cells/mL (S/N=3). Our work provides a simple method for detection of liver cancer cells with advantages in terms of simplicity and stability.

  6. Hydrodynamic and label-free sorting of circulating tumor cells from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geislinger, Thomas M.; Stamp, Melanie E. M.; Wixforth, Achim; Franke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate continuous, passive, and label-free sorting of different in vitro cancer cell lines (MV3, MCF7, and HEPG2) as model systems for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from undiluted whole blood employing the non-inertial lift effect as driving force. This purely viscous, repulsive cell-wall interaction is sensitive to cell size and deformability differences and yields highly efficient cell separation and high enrichment factors. We show that the performance of the device is robust over a large range of blood cell concentrations and flow rates as well as for the different cell lines. The collected samples usually contain more than 90% of the initially injected CTCs and exhibit average enrichment factors of more than 20 for sorting from whole blood samples.

  7. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Yuliang; Liu, Lianqing; Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili; Li, Wen Jung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell) sample from red blood cells (RBCs) with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK) chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for efficient and

  8. Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xuantao; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; Gupta, Manisha; Capjack, Clarence E.; Rozmus, Wojciech; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Tsui, Ying Y.

    2011-06-01

    A microfluidic flow cytometric technique capable of obtaining information on nanometer-sized organelles in single cells in a label-free, noninvasive optical manner was developed. Experimental two-dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns from malignant lymphoid cells (Jurkat cell line) and normal hematopoietic stem cells (cord blood CD34+ cells) were compared with those obtained from finite-difference time-domain simulations. In the simulations, we assumed that the mitochondria were randomly distributed throughout a Jurkat cell, and aggregated in a CD34+ cell. Comparison of the experimental and simulated light scattering patterns led us to conclude that distinction from these two types of cells may be due to different mitochondrial distributions. This observation was confirmed by conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy. A method for potential cell discrimination was developed based on analysis of the 2D light scattering patterns. Potential clinical applications using mitochondria as intrinsic biological markers in single cells were discussed in terms of normal cells (CD34+ cell and lymphocytes) versus malignant cells (THP-1 and Jurkat cell lines).

  9. Probing Xylan-Specific Raman Bands for Label-Free Imaging Xylan in Plant Cell Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yining; Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Tucker, Melvin P.; Vinzant, Todd; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-06-15

    Xylan constitutes a significant portion of biomass (e.g. 22% in corn stover used in this study). Xylan is also an important source of carbohydrates, besides cellulose, for renewable and sustainable energy applications. Currently used method for the localization of xylan in biomass is to use fluorescence confocal microscope to image the fluorescent dye labeled monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to xylan. With the rapid adoption of the Raman-based label-free chemical imaging techniques in biology, identifying Raman bands that are unique to xylan would be critical for the implementation of the above label-free techniques for in situ xylan imaging. Unlike lignin and cellulose that have long be assigned fingerprint Raman bands, specific Raman bands for xylan remain unclear. The major challenge is the cellulose in plant cell wall, which has chemical units highly similar to that of xylan. Here we report using xylanase to specifically remove xylan from feedstock. Under various degree of xylan removal, with minimum impact to other major cell wall components, i.e. lignin and cellulose, we have identified Raman bands that could be further tested for chemical imaging of xylan in biomass in situ.

  10. Label-Free Imaging and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Managò, Stefano; De Angelis, Annalisa; Sirleto, Luigi; Coppola, Giuseppe; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-01-01

    A full label-free morphological and biochemical characterization is desirable to select spermatozoa during preparation for artificial insemination. In order to study these fundamental parameters, we take advantage of two attractive techniques: digital holography (DH) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). DH presents new opportunities for studying morphological aspect of cells and tissues non-invasively, quantitatively and without the need for staining or tagging, while RS is a very specific technique allowing the biochemical analysis of cellular components with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In this paper, morphological and biochemical bovine sperm cell alterations were studied using these techniques. In addition, a complementary DH and RS study was performed to identify X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells. We demonstrate that the two techniques together are a powerful and highly efficient tool elucidating some important criterions for sperm morphological selection and sex-identification, overcoming many of the limitations associated with existing protocols. PMID:25836358

  11. Novel MMP-9 substrates in cancer cells revealed by a label-free quantitative proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danmei; Suenaga, Naoko; Edelmann, Mariola J; Fridman, Rafael; Muschel, Ruth J; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2008-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is implicated in tumor metastasis as well as a variety of inflammatory and pathological processes. Although many substrates for MMP-9, including components of the extracellular matrix, soluble mediators such as chemokines, and cell surface molecules have been identified, we undertook a more comprehensive proteomics-based approach to identify new substrates to further understand how MMP-9 might contribute to tumor metastasis. Previous proteomics approaches to identify protease substrates have depended upon differential labeling of each sample. Instead we used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach based on ultraperformance LC-ESI-high/low collision energy MS. Conditioned medium from a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC-3ML, in which MMP-9 had been down-regulated by RNA interference was compared with that from the parental cells. From more than 200 proteins identified, 69 showed significant alteration in levels after depletion of the protease (>+/-2-fold), suggesting that they might be candidate substrates. Levels of six of these (amyloid-beta precursor protein, collagen VI, leukemia inhibitory factor, neuropilin-1, prostate cancer cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), and protease nexin-1 (PN-1)) were tested in the conditioned media by immunoblotting. There was a strong correlation between results by ultraperformance LC-ESI-high/low collision energy MS and by immunoblotting giving credence to the label-free approach. Further information about MMP-9 cleavage was obtained by comparison of the peptide coverage of collagen VI in the presence and absence of MMP-9 showing increased sensitivity of the C- and N-terminal globular regions over the helical regions. Susceptibility of PN-1 and leukemia inhibitory factor to MMP-9 degradation was confirmed by in vitro incubation of the recombinant proteins with recombinant MMP-9. The MMP-9 cleavage sites in PN-1 were sequenced. This study provides a new label-free method for

  12. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  13. Node-pore sensing enables label-free surface-marker profiling of single cells.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Karthik R; Whang, Jeremy C; Hwang, Richard; Hack, James H; Godley, Lucy A; Sohn, Lydia L

    2015-03-03

    Flow cytometry is a ubiquitous, multiparametric method for characterizing cellular populations. However, this method can grow increasingly complex with the number of proteins that need to be screened simultaneously: spectral emission overlap of fluorophores and the subsequent need for compensation, lengthy sample preparation, and multiple control tests that need to be performed separately must all be considered. These factors lead to increased costs, and consequently, flow cytometry is performed in core facilities with a dedicated technician operating the instrument. Here, we describe a low-cost, label-free microfluidic method that can determine the phenotypic profiles of single cells. Our method employs Node-Pore Sensing to measure the transit times of cells as they interact with a series of different antibodies, each corresponding to a specific cell-surface antigen, that have been functionalized in a single microfluidic channel. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method not only by screening two acute promyelocytic leukemia human cells lines (NB4 and AP-1060) for myeloid antigens, CD13, CD14, CD15, and CD33, simultaneously, but also by distinguishing a mixture of cells of similar size—AP-1060 and NALM-1—based on surface markers CD13 and HLA-DR. Furthermore, we show that our method can screen complex subpopulations in clinical samples: we successfully identified the blast population in primary human bone marrow samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and screened these cells for CD13, CD34, and HLA-DR. We show that our label-free method is an affordable, highly sensitive, and user-friendly technology that has the potential to transform cellular screening at the benchside.

  14. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringari, Chiara; Sierra, Robert; Donovan, Peter J.; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    We develop a label-free optical technique to image and discriminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from their differentiating progenies in vitro. Using intrinsic cellular fluorophores, we perform fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) and phasor analysis to obtain hESC metabolic signatures. We identify two optical biomarkers to define the differentiation status of hESCs: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lipid droplet-associated granules (LDAGs). These granules have a unique lifetime signature and could be formed by the interaction of reactive oxygen species and unsaturated metabolic precursor that are known to be abundant in hESC. Changes in the relative concentrations of these two intrinsic biomarkers allow for the discrimination of undifferentiated hESCs from differentiating hESCs. During early hESC differentiation we show that NADH concentrations increase, while the concentration of LDAGs decrease. These results are in agreement with a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation rate. Single-cell phasor FLIM signatures reveal an increased heterogeneity in the metabolic states of differentiating H9 and H1 hESC colonies. This technique is a promising noninvasive tool to monitor hESC metabolism during differentiation, which can have applications in high throughput analysis, drug screening, functional metabolomics and induced pluripotent stem cell generation.

  15. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stringari, Chiara; Sierra, Robert; Donovan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a label-free optical technique to image and discriminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from their differentiating progenies in vitro. Using intrinsic cellular fluorophores, we perform fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) and phasor analysis to obtain hESC metabolic signatures. We identify two optical biomarkers to define the differentiation status of hESCs: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lipid droplet-associated granules (LDAGs). These granules have a unique lifetime signature and could be formed by the interaction of reactive oxygen species and unsaturated metabolic precursor that are known to be abundant in hESC. Changes in the relative concentrations of these two intrinsic biomarkers allow for the discrimination of undifferentiated hESCs from differentiating hESCs. During early hESC differentiation we show that NADH concentrations increase, while the concentration of LDAGs decrease. These results are in agreement with a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation rate. Single-cell phasor FLIM signatures reveal an increased heterogeneity in the metabolic states of differentiating H9 and H1 hESC colonies. This technique is a promising noninvasive tool to monitor hESC metabolism during differentiation, which can have applications in high throughput analysis, drug screening, functional metabolomics and induced pluripotent stem cell generation. PMID:22559690

  16. Label-free screening of niche-to-niche variation in satellite stem cells using functionalized pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Matthew R.; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Conboy, Michael J.; Mohanty, Swomitra; Jabart, Eric; Huang, Haiyan; Hack, James; Conboy, Irina M.; Sohn, Lydia L.

    2012-02-01

    Combinations of surface markers are currently used to identify muscle satellite cells. Using pores functionalized with specific antibodies and measuring the transit time of cells passing through these pores, we discovered remarkable heterogeneity in the expression of these markers in muscle (satellite) stem cells that reside in different single myofibers. Microniche-specific variation in stem cells of the same organ has not been previously described, as bulk analysis does not discriminate between separate myofibers or even separate hind-leg muscle groups. We found a significant population of Sca-1+ satellite cells that form myotubes, thereby demonstrating the myogenic potential of Sca-1+ cells, which are currently excluded in bulk sorting. Finally, using our label-free pore screening technique, we have been able to quantify directly surface expression of Notch1 without activation of the Notch pathway. We show for the first time Notch1-expression heterogeneity in unactivated satellite cells. The discovery of fiber-to-fiber variations prompts new research into the reasons for such diversity in muscle stem cells.

  17. Label-free detection of DNA with interdigitated micro-electrodes in a fluidic cell.

    PubMed

    Berdat, Daniel; Martin Rodríguez, Ana C; Herrera, Fernando; Gijs, Martin A M

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the analytical performance of an interdigitated electrode sensor for the label-free detection of DNA, by monitoring the complex impedance of 5 microm wide interdigitated Pt microelectrodes on a glass substrate. We detect the hybridization of unlabeled 38-mer target ssDNA with a complementary probe that is bound on the glass in between the electrodes by a disuccinimidyl terephtalate and aminosilane immobilization procedure. The sensor is mounted in a microfluidic flow cell, in which hybridization is monitored and in situ compared with a reference. After hybridization, the cell is perfused with deionised water and the dependence of the measured conductance due to the immobilized target DNA layer, to target DNA concentrations down to 1 nM is demonstrated. Subsequently, we apply our sensor to the detection of pathogen DNA from Salmonella choleraesuis in dairy food.

  18. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  19. Direct high-resolution label-free imaging of cellular nanostructure dynamics in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Sohee; Lee, Si Young; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Minah

    2013-06-01

    We report the application of an optical microscope equipped with a high-resolution dark-field condenser for detecting dynamic responses of cellular nanostructures in real time. Our system provides an easy-to-use technique to visualize biological specimens without any staining. This system can visualize the dynamic behavior of nanospheres and nanofibers, such as F-actin, at the leading edges of adjacent neuronal cells. We confirmed that the nanofibers imaged with this high-resolution optical microscopic technique are F-actin by using fluorescence microscopy after immunostaining the F-actin of fixed cells. Furthermore, cellular dynamics are enhanced by applying noncontact electric field stimulation through a transparent graphene electric field stimulator. High-resolution label-free optical microscopy enables the visualization of nanofiber dynamics initiated by filopodial nanofiber contacts. In conclusion, our optical microscopy system allows the visualization of nanoscale cellular dynamics under various external stimuli in real time without specific staining.

  20. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  1. Chemotaxis of cancer cells in three-dimensional environment monitored label-free by quantitative phase digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the capabilities of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for label-free quantification of the response of living single cells to chemical stimuli in 3D assays. Fibro sarcoma cells were observed in a collagen matrix inside 3D chemotaxis chambers with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based DHM setup. From the obtained series of quantitative phase images, the migration trajectories of single cells were retrieved by automated cell tracking and subsequently analyzed for maximum migration distance and motility. Our results demonstrate DHM as a highly reliable and efficient tool for label-free quantification of chemotaxis in 2D and 3D environments.

  2. A label-free cytosensor for the enhanced electrochemical detection of cancer cells using polydopamine-coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Lanfang; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-03-21

    An electrochemical, label-free method was developed to detect folate receptor positive tumor cells by specific recognition of a polydopamine-coated carbon nanotubes-folate nanoprobe to cell-surface folate receptors. This strategy offers great promise to extend its application in studying the interaction of ligand and cell-surface receptor.

  3. Label-Free Recognition of Drug Resistance via Impedimetric Screening of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Arnaud; Mehta, Kapil; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel study on label-free recognition and distinction of drug resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7 DOX) from their parental cells (MCF-7 WT) via impedimetric measurements. Drug resistant cells exhibited significant differences in their dielectric properties compared to wild-type cells, exerting much higher extracellular resistance (Rextra). Immunostaining revealed that MCF-7 DOX cells gained a much denser F-actin network upon acquiring drug resistance indicating that remodeling of actin cytoskeleton is probably the reason behind higher Rextra, providing stronger cell architecture. Moreover, having exposed both cell types to doxorubicin, we were able to distinguish these two phenotypes based on their substantially different drug response. Interestingly, impedimetric measurements identified a concentration-dependent and reversible increase in cell stiffness in the presence of low non-lethal drug doses. Combined with a profound frequency analysis, these findings enabled distinguishing distinct cellular responses during drug exposure within four concentration ranges without using any labeling. Overall, this study highlights the possibility to differentiate drug resistant phenotypes from their parental cells and to assess their drug response by using microelectrodes, offering direct, real-time and noninvasive measurements of cell dependent parameters under drug exposure, hence providing a promising step for personalized medicine applications such as evaluation of the disease progress and optimization of the drug treatment of a patient during chemotherapy. PMID:23483910

  4. High Throughput Label Free Measurement of Cancer Cell Adhesion Kinetics Under Hemodynamic Flow.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Adrianne; Baker, Aaron B

    2016-01-27

    The kinetics of receptor-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and adherent cell monolayers plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis. Within this process the presence of fluidic shear forces is a key regulator of binding equilibrium and kinetics of cell adhesion. Current techniques to examine the kinetics of cell adhesion are either performed in the absence of flow or are low throughput, limiting their application to pharmacological compound screening or the high throughput investigation of biological mechanisms. We developed a high throughput flow device that applies flow in a multi-well format and interfaced this system with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to allow label free detection of cell adhesion. We demonstrate that this combined system is capable of making real time measurements of cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and immobilized platelets. In addition, we examined the dependence of the kinetics of binding of cancer cells on the level of shear stress and in the presence of small molecule inhibitors to adhesion-related pathways. This versatile system is broadly adaptable to the high throughput study of cell adhesion kinetics for many applications including drug screening and the investigation of the mechanisms of cancer metastasis.

  5. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  6. High Throughput Label Free Measurement of Cancer Cell Adhesion Kinetics Under Hemodynamic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Adrianne; Baker, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of receptor-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and adherent cell monolayers plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis. Within this process the presence of fluidic shear forces is a key regulator of binding equilibrium and kinetics of cell adhesion. Current techniques to examine the kinetics of cell adhesion are either performed in the absence of flow or are low throughput, limiting their application to pharmacological compound screening or the high throughput investigation of biological mechanisms. We developed a high throughput flow device that applies flow in a multi-well format and interfaced this system with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to allow label free detection of cell adhesion. We demonstrate that this combined system is capable of making real time measurements of cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and immobilized platelets. In addition, we examined the dependence of the kinetics of binding of cancer cells on the level of shear stress and in the presence of small molecule inhibitors to adhesion-related pathways. This versatile system is broadly adaptable to the high throughput study of cell adhesion kinetics for many applications including drug screening and the investigation of the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. PMID:26816215

  7. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, J.; Gleichmann, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2016-09-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1 μm and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35 pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20 μm in size. Further, the magnification of the optical system used for cell detection was increased. Redesign of the optical path allows for collision-free addressing of any flat substrate since no compartment protrudes below the nozzle of the dispenser chip anymore. The improved system allows for deterministic isolation of individual bacterial cells. A single-cell printing efficiency of 93% was obtained as shown by printing fluorescent labeled E. coli. A 96-well plate filled with growth medium is inoculated with single bacteria cells on average within about 8 min. Finally, individual bacterial cells from a heterogeneous sample of E. coli and E. faecalis were isolated for clonal culturing directly on agar plates in user-defined array geometry.

  8. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J.; Gleichmann, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1 μm and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35 pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20 μm in size. Further, the magnification of the optical system used for cell detection was increased. Redesign of the optical path allows for collision-free addressing of any flat substrate since no compartment protrudes below the nozzle of the dispenser chip anymore. The improved system allows for deterministic isolation of individual bacterial cells. A single-cell printing efficiency of 93% was obtained as shown by printing fluorescent labeled E. coli. A 96-well plate filled with growth medium is inoculated with single bacteria cells on average within about 8 min. Finally, individual bacterial cells from a heterogeneous sample of E. coli and E. faecalis were isolated for clonal culturing directly on agar plates in user-defined array geometry. PMID:27596612

  9. Microfluidic devices for label-free separation of cells through transient interaction with asymmetric receptor patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Singh, R.; Hollatz, M. H.; Lee, C.-H.; Karp, J.; Karnik, R.

    2012-02-01

    Cell sorting serves an important role in clinical diagnosis and biological research. Most of the existing microscale sorting techniques are either non-specific to antigen type or rely on capturing cells making sample recovery difficult. We demonstrate a simple; yet effective technique for isolating cells in an antigen specific manner by using transient interactions of the cell surface antigens with asymmetric receptor patterned surface. Using microfluidic devices incorporating P-selectin patterns we demonstrate separation of HL60 cells from K562 cells. We achieved a sorting purity above 90% and efficiency greater than 85% with this system. We also present a mathematical model incorporating flow mediated and adhesion mediated transport of cells in the microchannel that can be used to predict the performance of these devices. Lastly, we demonstrate the clinical significance of the method by demonstrating single step separation of neutrophils from whole blood. When whole blood is introduced in the device, the granulocyte population gets separated exclusively yielding neutrophils of high purity (<10% RBC contamination). To our knowledge, this is the first ever demonstration of continuous label free sorting of neutrophils from whole blood. We believe this technology will be useful in developing point-of-care diagnostic devices and also for a host of cell sorting applications.

  10. Label-Free Raman Hyperspectral Imaging of Single Cells Cultured on Polymer Substrates.

    PubMed

    Sinjab, Faris; Sicilia, Giovanna; Shipp, Dustin W; Marlow, Maria; Notingher, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    While Raman hyperspectral imaging has been widely used for label-free mapping of biomolecules in cells, these measurements require the cells to be cultured on weakly Raman scattering substrates. However, many applications in biological sciences and engineering require the cells to be cultured on polymer substrates that often generate large Raman scattering signals. Here, we discuss the theoretical limits of the signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra of cells in the presence of polymer signals and how optical aberrations may affect these measurements. We show that Raman spectra of cells cultured on polymer substrates can be obtained using automatic subtraction of the polymer signals and demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in two important applications: tissue engineering and in vitro toxicology screening of drugs. Apart from their scientific and technological importance, these applications are examples of the two most common measurement configurations: (1) cells cultured on an optically thick polymer substrate measured using an immersion/dipping objective; and (2) cells cultured on a transparent polymer substrate and measured using an inverted optical microscope. In these examples, we show that Raman hyperspectral data sets with sufficient quality can be successfully acquired to map the distribution of common biomolecules in cells, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, as well as detecting the early stages of apoptosis. We also discuss strategies for further improvements that could expand the application of Raman hyperspectral imaging on polymer substrates even further in biomedical sciences and engineering.

  11. Chronic label-free volumetric photoacoustic microscopy of melanoma cells in scaffolds in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Kim, Chulhong; Choi, Sung-Wook; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Current imaging modalities have limitations. Microscopy, including confocal microscopy, cannot penetrate deeply (> 300 μm) into the scaffolds; X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) requires staining of the structure with a toxic agent such as osmium tetroxide. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of melanoma cells inside three-dimensionally porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Melanoma cells have a strong intrinsic contrast which is easily imaged by label-free PAM with high sensitivity. Spatial distributions of the cells in the scaffold were well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, we chronically imaged the same cell/scaffold constructs at different time points over 2 weeks. The number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the PAM volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with that obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We believe that PAM will become a useful imaging modality for tissue engineering applications, especially when thick scaffold constructs are involved, and that this modality can also be extended to image other cell types labeled with contrast agents.

  12. Highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer cell with a label-free electrochemical cytosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiyang; Qin, Yinan; Li, Dan; Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2013-03-15

    Electrochemical methods have attracted considerable attention for developing cytosensing system since they can decrease the cost and time requirement for cell detection with simple instrumentation. Herein, a label-free electrochemical cytosensor with surface-confined ferrocene as signal indicator was developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer cell. With layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique, positively charged poly(ethylene imine) functionalized with ferrocene (Fc-PEI) and negatively charged single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were alternately assembled on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) modified gold substrate. Folic acid (FA) was covalently bonded onto SWNTs surface to specifically recognize cancer cells according to the high affinity of FA for folate receptor (FR) on cellular surface. The developed cytosensor presented high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell. By using fast-response differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method, a wide detection range from 10 to 10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL was reached even in the presence of a large amount of non-cancerous cells.

  13. Non-contact, Label-free Monitoring of Cells and Extracellular Matrix using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Miriam; Carvajal Berrio, Daniel A.; Pudlas, Marieke; Walles, Heike; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive, non-contact and label-free technologies to monitor cell and tissue cultures are needed in the field of biomedical research.1-5 However, currently available routine methods require processing steps and alter sample integrity. Raman spectroscopy is a fast method that enables the measurement of biological samples without the need for further processing steps. This laser-based technology detects the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light.6 As every chemical vibration is assigned to a specific Raman band (wavenumber in cm-1), each biological sample features a typical spectral pattern due to their inherent biochemical composition.7-9 Within Raman spectra, the peak intensities correlate with the amount of the present molecular bonds.1 Similarities and differences of the spectral data sets can be detected by employing a multivariate analysis (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA)).10 Here, we perform Raman spectroscopy of living cells and native tissues. Cells are either seeded on glass bottom dishes or kept in suspension under normal cell culture conditions (37 °C, 5% CO2) before measurement. Native tissues are dissected and stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 4 °C prior measurements. Depending on our experimental set up, we then either focused on the cell nucleus or extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as elastin and collagen. For all studies, a minimum of 30 cells or 30 random points of interest within the ECM are measured. Data processing steps included background subtraction and normalization. PMID:22688496

  14. Label-Free Imaging of Umbilical Cord Tissue Morphology and Explant-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paesen, Rik; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Stinissen, Piet

    2016-01-01

    In situ detection of MSCs remains difficult and warrants additional methods to aid with their characterization in vivo. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (TPM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) could fill this gap. Both techniques enable the detection of cells and extracellular structures, based on intrinsic properties of the specific tissue and intracellular molecules under optical irradiation. TPM imaging and SHG imaging have been used for label-free monitoring of stem cells differentiation, assessment of their behavior in biocompatible scaffolds, and even cell tracking in vivo. In this study, we show that TPM and SHG can accurately depict the umbilical cord architecture and visualize individual cells both in situ and during culture initiation, without the use of exogenously applied labels. In combination with nuclear DNA staining, we observed a variance in fluorescent intensity in the vessel walls. In addition, antibody staining showed differences in Oct4, αSMA, vimentin, and ALDH1A1 expression in situ, indicating functional differences among the umbilical cord cell populations. In future research, marker-free imaging can be of great added value to the current antigen-based staining methods for describing tissue structures and for the identification of progenitor cells in their tissue of origin. PMID:27746820

  15. A silicon-based peptide biosensor for label-free detection of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Nicola M.; Rea, Ilaria; Ruggiero, Immacolata; Terracciano, Monica; De Stefano, Luca; Migliaccio, Nunzia; Dardano, Principia; Arcari, Paolo; Rendina, Ivo; Lamberti, Annalisa

    2015-05-01

    Sensitive and accurate detection of cancer cells plays a crucial role in diagnosis of cancer and minimal residual disease, so being one of the most hopeful approaches to reduce cancer death rates. In this paper, a strategy for highly selective and sensitive detection of lymphoma cells on planar silicon-based biosensor has been evaluated. In this setting an Idiotype peptide, able to specifically bind the B-cell receptor (BCR) of A20 cells in mice engrafted with A20 lymphoma, has been covalently linked to the sensor active surface and used as molecular probe. The biochip here presented showed a coverage efficiency of 85% with a detection efficiency of 8.5×10-3 cells/μm2. The results obtained suggested an efficient way for specific label-free cell detection by using a silicon-based peptide biosensor. In addition, the present recognition strategy, besides being useful for the development of sensing devices capable of monitoring minimal residual disease, could be used to find and characterize new specific receptor-ligand interactions through the screening of a recombinant phage library.

  16. Rare-cell enrichment by a rapid, label-free, ultrasonic isopycnic technique for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Syed, Abeer; Reboud, Julien; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Barrett, Michael P; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2014-05-26

    One significant challenge in medical diagnostics lies in the development of label-free methods to separate different cells within complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a generic, low-power ultrasonic separation technique, able to enrich different cell types based upon their physical properties. For malaria, we differentiate between infected and non-infected red blood cells in a fingerprick-sized drop of blood. We are able to achieve an enrichment of circulating cells infected by the ring stage of the parasite over nonparasitized red blood cells by between two and three orders of magnitude in less than 3 seconds (enabling detection at parasitemia levels as low as 0.0005%). In a second example, we also show that our methods can be used to enrich different cell types, concentrating Trypanosoma in blood at very low levels of infection, on disposable, low-cost chips. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Label free detection of pseudorabies virus infection in Vero cells using laser force analysis.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Colin G; Hart, Sean J; Terray, Alex

    2014-03-21

    The rapid and robust identification of viral infections has broad implications for a number of fields, including medicine, biotechnology and biodefense. Most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins, to identify the target(s) of interest. These molecules afford great specificity, but are often expensive, labor-intensive, labile and limited in scope. Label free detection methods seek to overcome these limitations by instead using detection methods that rely on intrinsic properties as a basis for identifying and separating species of interest and thus do not rely on specific prior knowledge of the target. Optical chromatography, one such technique, uses the balance between optical and fluidic drag forces within a microfluidic channel to determine the optical force on cells or particles. Here we present the application of individual optical force measurements as a means of investigating pseudorabies virus infection in Vero cells. Optical force differences are seen between cells from uninfected and infected populations at a multiplicity of infection as low as 0.001 and as soon as 2 hours post infection, demonstrating the potential of this technique as a means of detecting viral infection. Through the application of a pattern recognition neural network, individual cell size data are combined with optical force as a means of classifying cell populations. Potential applications include the early detection of bloodborne pathogens for the prevention of sepsis and other diseases as well as the detection of biological threat agents.

  18. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  19. Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vanna, R; Ronchi, P; Lenferink, A T M; Tresoldi, C; Morasso, C; Mehn, D; Bedoni, M; Picciolini, S; Terstappen, L W M M; Ciceri, F; Otto, C; Gramatica, F

    2015-02-21

    In clinical practice, the diagnosis and classification of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) start from the manual examination of stained smears of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) by using an optical microscope. This step is subjective and scarcely reproducible. Therefore, the development of subjective and potentially automatable methods for the recognition of typical AML/MDS cells is necessary. Here we have used Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing myeloblasts, promyelocytes, abnormal promyelocytes and erhytroblasts, which have to be counted for a correct diagnosis and morphological classification of AML and MDS. BM samples from patients affected by four different AML subtypes, mostly characterized by the presence of the four subpopulations selected for this study, were analyzed. First, each cell was scanned by acquiring 4096 spectra, thus obtaining Raman images which demonstrate an accurate description of morphological features characteristic of each subpopulation. Raman imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis permitted the automatic discrimination and localization of the nucleus, the cytoplasm, myeloperoxidase containing granules and haemoglobin. Second, the averaged Raman fingerprint of each cell was analysed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis) in order to study the typical vibrational features of each subpopulation and also for the automatic recognition of cells. The leave-one-out cross validation of a Raman-based classification model demonstrated the correct classification of myeloblasts, promyelocytes (normal/abnormal) and erhytroblasts with an accuracy of 100%. Normal and abnormal promyelocytes were distinguished with 95% accuracy. The overall classification accuracy considering the four subpopulations was 98%. This proof-of-concept study shows that Raman micro-spectroscopy could be a valid approach for developing label-free, objective and automatic

  20. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  1. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry. PMID:24451999

  2. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  3. Label-free imaging of Schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsik; Sharoukhov, Denis; Kassim, Imran; Zhang, Yanqing; Salzer, James L.; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic axon–glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and noncompact myelin domains, including juxtaparanodes, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures, and Cajal bands. Other subcellular features of Schwann cells that escape traditional optical microscopies were also visualized. We tested THGM for morphometry of compact myelin. Unlike current methods based on electron microscopy, g-ratio could be determined along an extended length of myelinated fiber in the physiological condition. The precision of THGM-based g-ratio estimation was corroborated in mouse models of hypomyelination. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of THGM to monitor morphological changes of myelin during postnatal development and degeneration. The outstanding capabilities of THGM may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of myelin formation and pathogenesis. PMID:25453108

  4. Immersion Mirau interferometry for label-free live cell imaging in an epi-illumination geometry

    PubMed Central

    Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In cell biology studies it is often important to avoid the damaging effects caused by fluorescent stains or UV-light. Immersion Mirau Interferometry (IMI) is an epi-illumination label-free imaging technique developed at the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. It is based on the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and represents a novel approach for interferometric imaging of living cells in medium. To accommodate the use of medium, a custom immersion Mirau interferometric attachment was designed and built in-house. The space between the reference mirror and the beam splitter is filled with liquid to ensure identical optical paths in the test and reference arms. The interferometer is mountable onto a microscope objective. The greatest limitation of standard PSI is the sensitivity to environmental vibrations, because it requires consecutive acquisition of several interferograms. We are developing Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry (SIMI), which facilitates simultaneous acquisition of all interferograms and eliminates the effects of vibration. Polarization optics, incorporated into the design, introduces a phase delay to one of the components of the test beam. This enables simultaneous creation and spatial separation of two interferograms, which are combined with the background image to reconstruct the intensity map of the specimen. Our results of imaging live and fixed cells with IMI and SIMI show that this system produces images of a quality that is sufficient to perform targeted cellular irradiation experiments. PMID:24392197

  5. Label-free imaging of gold nanoparticles in single live cells by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chao; Qian, Wei; Shao, Xia; Xie, Zhixing; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored as a model nanostructure in nanomedicine and have been widely used to provide advanced biomedical research tools in diagnostic imaging and therapy. Due to the necessity of targeting AuNPs to individual cells, evaluation and visualization of AuNPs in the cellular level is critical to fully understand their interaction with cellular environment. Currently imaging technologies, such as fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy all have advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we synthesized AuNPs by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation, modified their surface chemistry through sequential bioconjugation, and targeted the functionalized AuNPs with individual cancer cells. Based on their high optical absorption contrast, we developed a novel, label-free imaging method to evaluate and visualize intracellular AuNPs using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Preliminary study shows that the PAM imaging technique is capable of imaging cellular uptake of AuNPs in vivo at single-cell resolution, which provide an important tool for the study of AuNPs in nanomedicine.

  6. Label-free Screening of Multiple Cell-surface Antigens Using a Single Pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Chapman, Matthew; Kesavaraju, Anand; Sohn, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    Microfluidic pores have emerged as versatile tools for performing highly sensitive measurements. Pore functionalization can result in slower particle transit rates, thereby providing insight into the properties of particles that travel through a pore. While enhancing utility, functionalizing with only one species limits the broader applicability of pores for biosensing by restricting the insight gained in a single run. We have developed a method of using variable cross-section pores to create unique electronic signatures for reliable detection and automated data analysis. By defining a single pore into sections using common lithography techniques, we can detect when a cell passes through a given pore segment using resistive-pulse sensing. This offers such advantages as 1) the ability to functionalize each portion of a pore with a different antibody that corresponds to different cell surface receptors, enabling label-free multianalyte detection in a single run; and 2) a unique electronic signature that allows for both an accelerated real-time analysis and an additional level of precision to testing. This is particularly critical for clinical diagnostics where accuracy and reliability of results are crucial for healthcare professionals upon which to act.

  7. Identification of Novel GPR55 Modulators Using Cell-Impedance-Based Label-Free Technology.

    PubMed

    Morales, Paula; Whyte, Lauren S; Chicharro, Roberto; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M Ruth; Goya, Pilar; Irving, Andrew J; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Ross, Ruth A; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-03-10

    The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been proposed as a novel receptor of the endocannabinoid system. However, the validity of this categorization is still under debate mainly because of the lack of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of GPR55. Binding assays are not yet available for GPR55 screening, and discrepancies in GPR55 mediated signaling pathways have been reported. In this context, we have designed and synthesized novel GPR55 ligands based on a chromenopyrazole scaffold. Appraisal of GPR55 activity was accomplished using a label-free cell-impedance-based assay in hGPR55-HEK293 cells. The real-time impedance responses provided an integrative assessment of the cellular consequence to GPR55 stimulation taking into account the different possible signaling pathways. Potent GPR55 partial agonists (14b, 18b, 19b, 20b, and 21-24) have been identified; one of them (14b) being selective versus classical cannabinoid receptors. Upon antagonist treatment, chromenopyrazoles 21-24 inhibited lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) effect. One of these GPR55 antagonists (21) is fully selective versus classic cannabinoid receptors. Compared to LPI, the predicted physicochemical parameters of the new compounds suggest a clear pharmacokinetic improvement.

  8. Intrinsic Indicator of Photodamage during Label-Free Multiphoton Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elisabeth F.; Geiger, Kathrin D.; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton imaging has evolved as an indispensable tool in cell biology and holds prospects for clinical applications. When addressing endogenous signals such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second harmonic generation, it requires intense laser irradiation that may cause photodamage. We report that increasing endogenous fluorescence signal upon multiphoton imaging constitutes a marker of photodamage. The effect was studied on mouse brain in vivo and ex vivo, on ex vivo human brain tissue samples, as well as on glioblastoma cells in vitro, demonstrating that this phenomenon is common to a variety of different systems, both ex vivo and in vivo. CARS microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy were used to analyze the photodamage. The development of a standard easy-to-use model that employs rehydrated cryosections allowed the characterization of the irradiation-induced fluorescence and related it to nonlinear photodamage. In conclusion, the monitoring of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence during label-free multiphoton microscopy enables to estimate damage thresholds ex vivo as well as detect photodamage during in vivo experiments. PMID:25343251

  9. Whole-cell based label-free capacitive biosensor for rapid nanosize-dependent toxicity detection.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Anjum; Pandey, Ashish; Chouhan, Raghuraj S; Gurbuz, Yasar; Niazi, Javed H

    2015-05-15

    Despite intensive studies on examining the toxicity of nanomaterials (NMs), our current understanding on potential toxicity in relation to size and cellular responses has remained limited. In this work, we have developed a whole-cell based capacitive biosensor (WCB) to determine the biological toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) using iron oxide (Fe3O4) NPs as models. This WCB chip comprised of an array of capacitor sensors made of gold interdigitated microelectrodes on which living Escherichia coli cells were immobilized. Cells-on-chip was then allowed to interact with different sizes of Fe3O4 NPs (5, 20 and 100 nm) and concentration-depended cellular-responses were measured in terms of change in dielectric properties (capacitance) as a function of applied AC frequency. The WCB response showed smaller-sized Fe3O4 NPs (5 nm) induced maximum change in surface capacitance because of their effective cellular interaction with E. coli cells-on-chip indicating that the cells suffered from severe cellular deformation, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination. Further our results were validated through their cell viability and E. coli responses at the interface of cell-membrane and NPs as a proof-of-concept. WCB response showed a size-dependent shift in maximum response level from 2 µg/ml of 5 nm sized NPs to 4 µg/ml with NP-sizes greater than 20 nm. The developed WCB offered real-time, label-free and noninvasive detection of cellular responses against Fe3O4 NPs' toxicity with speed, simplicity and sensitivity that can be extended to toxicity screening of various other NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-Free, High-Throughput Purification of Satellite Cells Using Microfluidic Inertial Separation.

    PubMed

    Syverud, Brian C; Lin, Eric; Nagrath, Sunitha; Larkin, Lisa Marie

    2017-09-25

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells have tremendous therapeutic potential in cell therapy or skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Obtaining a sufficiently pure satellite cell population, however, presents a significant challenge. We hypothesized that size differences between satellite cells and fibroblasts, two primary cell types obtained from skeletal muscle dissociation, would allow for label-free, inertial separation in a microfluidic device, termed a "Labyrinth", and that these purified satellite cells could be used to engineer skeletal muscle. Throughout tissue fabrication, Labyrinth purified cells were compared to unsorted controls to assess the efficiency of this novel sorting process and to examine potential improvements in myogenic proliferation, differentiation, and tissue function. Immediately after dissociation and Labyrinth sorting, cells were immunostained to identify myogenic cells and fibroblast progenitors. Remaining cells were cultured for 14 days to form a confluent monolayer that was induced to delaminate and was captured as a 3D skeletal muscle construct. During monolayer development, myogenic proliferation (BrdU assay on Day 4), differentiation and myotube fusion index (α-actinin on Day 11), and myotube structural development (light microscopy on Day 14) were assessed. Isometric tetanic force production was measured in 3D constructs on Day 16. Immediately following sorting, unsorted cells exhibited a myogenic purity of 39.9 ± 3.99%, and this purity was enriched approximately twofold to 75.5 ± 1.59% by microfluidic separation. The BrdU assay on Day 4 similarly showed significantly enhanced myogenic proliferation: in unsorted controls 47.0 ± 2.77% of proliferating cells were myogenic, in comparison to 61.7 ± 2.55% following purification. Myogenic differentiation and fusion, assessed by fusion index quantification, showed improvement from 82.7 ± 3.74% in control to 92.3 ± 2.04% in the purified cell population. Myotube density in unsorted

  11. A novel self-powered and sensitive label-free DNA biosensor in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Asghary, Maryam; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Ojani, Reza

    2016-08-15

    In this work, a novel self-powered, sensitive, low-cost, and label-free DNA biosensor is reported by applying a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a power supply. A graphite electrode and an Au nanoparticles modified graphite electrode (AuNP/graphite electrode) were used as anode and cathode in the MFC system, respectively. The active biocatalyst in the anodic chamber was a mixed culture of microorganisms. The sensing element of the biosensor was fabricated by the well-known Au-thiol binding the ssDNA probe on the surface of an AuNP/graphite cathode. Electrons produced by microorganisms were transported from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, which could be detected by the terminal multi-meter detector. The difference between power densities of the ssDNA probe modified cathode in the absence and presence of complementary sequence served as the detection signal of the DNA hybridization with detection limit of 3.1nM. Thereafter, this biosensor was employed for diagnosis and determination of complementary sequence in a human serum sample. The hybridization specificity studies further revealed that the developed DNA biosensor could distinguish fully complementary sequences from one-base mismatched and non-complementary sequences.

  12. Label-free Isolation and Enrichment of Cells Through Contactless Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, Elizabeth S.; Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Stremler, Mark A.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the phenomenon by which polarized particles in a non-uniform electric field undergo translational motion, and can be used to direct the motion of microparticles in a surface marker-independent manner. Traditionally, DEP devices include planar metallic electrodes patterned in the sample channel. This approach can be expensive and requires a specialized cleanroom environment. Recently, a contact-free approach called contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) has been developed. This method utilizes the classic principle of DEP while avoiding direct contact between electrodes and sample by patterning fluidic electrodes and a sample channel from a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, and has application as a rapid microfluidic strategy designed to sort and enrich microparticles. Unique to this method is that the electric field is generated via fluidic electrode channels containing a highly conductive fluid, which are separated from the sample channel by a thin insulating barrier. Because metal electrodes do not directly contact the sample, electrolysis, electrode delamination, and sample contamination are avoided. Additionally, this enables an inexpensive and simple fabrication process. cDEP is thus well-suited for manipulating sensitive biological particles. The dielectrophoretic force acting upon the particles depends not only upon spatial gradients of the electric field generated by customizable design of the device geometry, but the intrinsic biophysical properties of the cell. As such, cDEP is a label-free technique that avoids depending upon surface-expressed molecular biomarkers that may be variably expressed within a population, while still allowing characterization, enrichment, and sorting of bioparticles. Here, we demonstrate the basics of fabrication and experimentation using cDEP. We explain the simple preparation of a cDEP chip using soft lithography techniques. We discuss the experimental procedure for characterizing

  13. Label-free isolation and enrichment of cells through contactless dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Elvington, Elizabeth S; Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2013-09-03

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the phenomenon by which polarized particles in a non-uniform electric field undergo translational motion, and can be used to direct the motion of microparticles in a surface marker-independent manner. Traditionally, DEP devices include planar metallic electrodes patterned in the sample channel. This approach can be expensive and requires a specialized cleanroom environment. Recently, a contact-free approach called contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) has been developed. This method utilizes the classic principle of DEP while avoiding direct contact between electrodes and sample by patterning fluidic electrodes and a sample channel from a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, and has application as a rapid microfluidic strategy designed to sort and enrich microparticles. Unique to this method is that the electric field is generated via fluidic electrode channels containing a highly conductive fluid, which are separated from the sample channel by a thin insulating barrier. Because metal electrodes do not directly contact the sample, electrolysis, electrode delamination, and sample contamination are avoided. Additionally, this enables an inexpensive and simple fabrication process. cDEP is thus well-suited for manipulating sensitive biological particles. The dielectrophoretic force acting upon the particles depends not only upon spatial gradients of the electric field generated by customizable design of the device geometry, but the intrinsic biophysical properties of the cell. As such, cDEP is a label-free technique that avoids depending upon surface-expressed molecular biomarkers that may be variably expressed within a population, while still allowing characterization, enrichment, and sorting of bioparticles. Here, we demonstrate the basics of fabrication and experimentation using cDEP. We explain the simple preparation of a cDEP chip using soft lithography techniques. We discuss the experimental procedure for characterizing

  14. Label-Free Receptor Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery. PMID:21221420

  15. Label-Free Receptor Assays.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors offer integrated, kinetic and multi-parametric measures of receptor biology and ligand pharmacology in whole cells. Being highly sensitive and pathway-unbiased, label-free receptor assays can be used to probe the systems cell biology including pleiotropic signaling of receptors, and to characterize the functional selectivity and phenotypic pharmacology of ligand molecules. These assays provide a new dimension for elucidating receptor biology and for facilitating drug discovery.

  16. Label-free biosensing of Salmonella enterica serovars at single-cell level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nanotechnology has greatly facilitated the development of label-free biosensors. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the molecular mechanism of the reactions for protein and aptamers. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used in fast detection of various pathogenic bact...

  17. Label-free quantification proteomics reveals novel calcium binding proteins in matrix vesicles isolated from mineralizing Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Genglin; Zhang, Xiumei; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) involved in the initiation of mineralization by deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in their lumen are released by the budding of mineralization-competent cells during skeletogenesis and bone development. To identify additional mineralization-related proteins, MVs were isolated from non-stimulated and stimulated Saos-2 cells in culture via an Exoquick™ approach and the corresponding proteomes were identified and quantified with label-free quantitative proteome technology. The isolated MVs were confirmed by electron microscopy, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), biomarkers, and mineral formation analyses. Label-free quantitative proteome analysis revealed that 19 calcium binding proteins (CaBPs), including Grp94, calnexin, calreticulin, calmodulin, and S100A4/A10, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells upon stimulation of mineralization. This result provides new clues to study the mechanism of the initiation of MV-mediated mineralization.

  18. Sensitive imaging of organelles in label-free cells by surface plasmon resonance in deep-ultraviolet region (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Kikawada, Masakazu; Ono, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    In this research, we demonstrate the enhanced autofluorescence and high-sensitivity bioimaging of intracellular organelles using DUV-SPR. The Kretschmann configuration is used for excitation of DUV-SPR. We used an aluminum thickness of 24 nm. The alumina surface was estimated to be 6 nm by comparison between the experimental and calculated results. Reflectance after culturing of cells was measured. DUV-SPR is excited at an incident angle of 52° after the biological samples are cultured. MC3T3-E1 cells as Label-free cells are directly cultured on an aluminum and glass surfaces, and they were cultured on the both substrates in an incubator. Autofluorescence spectra excited of the label-free MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by 266-nm exictation. The autofluorescence intensity for the aluminum is higher than that for the glass. In the autofluorescence spectra, MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited two fluorescence peaks, which were located around 330 and 500 nm. These 330 and 500 nm emissions indicate aromatic amino acid and mitochondria, respectively. Both of the ehnahcement factors were 8 times. We also observed autofluorescence of aromatic amino acid and mitochondrial NADH in the label-free MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the aluminum and glass surfaces. In the autofluorescence image with DUV-SPR, organelles can be clearly observed in the MC3T3-E1 cells. On the other hand, the autofluorescence intensity is very weak in the image without DUV-SPR. Accordingly, DUV-SPR can facilitate the observation of proteins, DNA in nucleus, and other structures that cannot be excited by visible light. DUV-SPR is shown to be a powerful technique for acquiring high-sensitivity label-free observation of biological samples.

  19. Plasmon-Enhanced Autofluorescence Imaging of Organelles in Label-Free Cells by Deep-Ultraviolet Excitation.

    PubMed

    Kikawada, Masakazu; Ono, Atushi; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-19

    We demonstrate the observation of organelles in label-free cells on an aluminum thin film using deep-ultraviolet surface plasmon resonance (DUV-SPR). In particular, the Kretschmann configuration is used for the excitation of DUV-SPR. MC3T3-E1 cells are directly cultured on the aluminum thin film, and DUV-SPR leads to autofluorescence of in the label-free MC3T3-E1. We found that nucleic acid and mitochondria in these label-free MC3T3-E1 cells quite strongly emit the autofluorescence as a result of DUV-SPR. Yeast cells are also deposited on the aluminum thin film. Tryptophan and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in the yeast cells are subsequently excited, and their autofluorescence is spectrally analyzed in the UV region. On the basis of these results, we conclude that DUV-SPR constitutes a promising technique for the acquisition of highly sensitive autofluorescence images of various organelles in the cells.

  20. Label-free cell phenotypic profiling decodes the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haiyan; Wei, Ying; Deng, Huayun; Xiong, Qiaojie; Li, Min; Lahiri, Joydeep; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Current technologies for studying ion channels are fundamentally limited because of their inability to functionally link ion channel activity to cellular pathways. Herein, we report the use of label-free cell phenotypic profiling to decode the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium ion channel (KATP) in HepG2C3A, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Label-free cell phenotypic agonist profiling showed that pinacidil triggered characteristically similar dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) signals in A431, A549, HT29 and HepG2C3A, but not in HepG2 cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR, RNAi knockdown, and KATP blocker profiling showed that the pinacidil DMR is due to the activation of SUR2/Kir6.2 KATP channels in HepG2C3A cells. Kinase inhibition and RNAi knockdown showed that the pinacidil activated KATP channels trigger signaling through Rho kinase and Janus kinase-3, and cause actin remodeling. The results are the first demonstration of a label-free methodology to characterize the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium ion channel. PMID:24816792

  1. Biocompatible and label-free separation of cancer cells from cell culture lines from white blood cells in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wujun; Cheng, Rui; Lim, So Hyun; Miller, Joshua R; Zhang, Weizhong; Tang, Wei; Xie, Jin; Mao, Leidong

    2017-06-27

    This paper reports a biocompatible and label-free cell separation method using ferrofluids that can separate a variety of low-concentration cancer cells from cell culture lines (∼100 cancer cells per mL) from undiluted white blood cells, with a throughput of 1.2 mL h(-1) and an average separation efficiency of 82.2%. The separation is based on the size difference of the cancer cells and white blood cells, and is conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains not only excellent short-term viabilities but also normal proliferations of 7 commonly used cancer cell lines. A microfluidic device is designed and optimized specifically to shorten the time of live cells' exposure to ferrofluids from hours to seconds, by eliminating time-consuming off-chip sample preparation and extraction steps and integrating them on-chip to achieve a one-step process. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a ferrofluid with 0.26% volume fraction was used in this microfluidic device to separate spiked cancer cells from cell lines at a concentration of ∼100 cells per mL from white blood cells with a throughput of 1.2 mL h(-1). The separation efficiencies were 80 ± 3%, 81 ± 5%, 82 ± 5%, 82 ± 4%, and 86 ± 6% for A549 lung cancer, H1299 lung cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The separated cancer cells' purity was between 25.3% and 28.8%. In addition, the separated cancer cells from this strategy showed an average short-term viability of 94.4 ± 1.3%, and these separated cells were cultured and demonstrated normal proliferation to confluence even after the separation process. Owing to its excellent biocompatibility and label-free operation and its ability to recover low concentrations of cancer cells from white blood cells, this method could lead to a promising tool for rare cell separation.

  2. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications.

  3. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    PubMed Central

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  4. Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-04-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) has been recently proposed for label-free phenotypic identification of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. However, the methods used for measuring the Raman spectra led to acquisition times of minutes per cell, which is prohibitive for rapid cell sorting applications. In this study we evaluated two measurement strategies that could reduce the measurement time by a factor of more than 100. We show that sampling individual cells with a laser beam focused to a line could eliminate the need of cell raster scanning and achieve high prediction accuracies (>95% specificity and >96% sensitivity) with acquisition times ~5 seconds per cell. However, the use of commercially-available higher power lasers could potentially lead to sorting speeds of ~10 cells per s. This would start to progress RMS to the field of cell sorting for applications such as enrichment and purification of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.

  5. Label-Free and Continuous-Flow Ferrohydrodynamic Separation of HeLa Cells and Blood Cells in Biocompatible Ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wujun; Zhu, Taotao; Cheng, Rui; Liu, Yufei; He, Jian; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Lianchun; Nagy, Tamas; Querec, Troy D; Unger, Elizabeth R; Mao, Leidong

    2016-06-14

    In this study, a label-free, low-cost, and fast ferrohydrodynamic cell separation scheme is demonstrated using HeLa cells (an epithelial cell line) and red blood cells. The separation is based on cell size difference, and conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains the viability of cells during and after the assay for downstream analysis. The scheme offers moderate-throughput (≈10(6) cells h(-1) for a single channel device) and extremely high recovery rate (>99%) without the use of any label. It is envisioned that this separation scheme will have clinical applications in settings where rapid cell enrichment and removal of contaminating blood will improve efficiency of screening and diagnosis such as cervical cancer screening based on mixed populations in exfoliated samples.

  6. Label-Free and Continuous-Flow Ferrohydrodynamic Separation of HeLa Cells and Blood Cells in Biocompatible Ferrofluids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wujun; Zhu, Taotao; Cheng, Rui; Liu, Yufei; He, Jian; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Lianchun; Nagy, Tamas; Querec, Troy D.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a label-free, low-cost, and fast ferrohydrodynamic cell separation scheme is demonstrated using HeLa cells (an epithelial cell line) and red blood cells. The separation is based on cell size difference, and conducted in a custom-made biocompatible ferrofluid that retains the viability of cells during and after the assay for downstream analysis. The scheme offers moderate-throughput (≈106 cells h−1 for a single channel device) and extremely high recovery rate (>99%) without the use of any label. It is envisioned that this separation scheme will have clinical applications in settings where rapid cell enrichment and removal of contaminating blood will improve efficiency of screening and diagnosis such as cervical cancer screening based on mixed populations in exfoliated samples. PMID:27478429

  7. When cells divide: Label-free multimodal spectral imaging for exploratory molecular investigation of living cells during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jen-Fang; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, molecular-level investigation of cytokinesis, the climax of the cell cycle, not only deepens our understanding of how life continues, but it will also open up new possibilities of diagnosis/prognosis of cancer cells. Although fluorescence-based methods have been widely employed to address this challenge, they require a fluorophore to be designed for a specific known biomolecule and introduced into the cell. Here, we present a label-free spectral imaging approach based on multivariate curve resolution analysis of Raman hyperspectral data that enables exploratory untargeted studies of mammalian cell cytokinesis. We derived intrinsic vibrational spectra and intracellular distributions of major biomolecular components (lipids and proteins) in dividing and nondividing human colon cancer cells. In addition, we discovered an unusual autofluorescent lipid component that appears predominantly in the vicinity of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. This autofluorescence signal could be utilized as an endogenous probe for monitoring and visualizing cytokinesis in vivo. PMID:26632877

  8. When cells divide: Label-free multimodal spectral imaging for exploratory molecular investigation of living cells during cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jen-Fang; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    In vivo, molecular-level investigation of cytokinesis, the climax of the cell cycle, not only deepens our understanding of how life continues, but it will also open up new possibilities of diagnosis/prognosis of cancer cells. Although fluorescence-based methods have been widely employed to address this challenge, they require a fluorophore to be designed for a specific known biomolecule and introduced into the cell. Here, we present a label-free spectral imaging approach based on multivariate curve resolution analysis of Raman hyperspectral data that enables exploratory untargeted studies of mammalian cell cytokinesis. We derived intrinsic vibrational spectra and intracellular distributions of major biomolecular components (lipids and proteins) in dividing and nondividing human colon cancer cells. In addition, we discovered an unusual autofluorescent lipid component that appears predominantly in the vicinity of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. This autofluorescence signal could be utilized as an endogenous probe for monitoring and visualizing cytokinesis in vivo.

  9. Label-free in situ imaging of lignification in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Perera, Pradeep; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Adams, Paul D; Schuck, P James

    2010-11-01

    Meeting growing energy demands safely and efficiently is a pressing global challenge. Therefore, research into biofuels production that seeks to find cost-effective and sustainable solutions has become a topical and critical task. Lignocellulosic biomass is poised to become the primary source of biomass for the conversion to liquid biofuels. However, the recalcitrance of these plant cell wall materials to cost-effective and efficient degradation presents a major impediment for their use in the production of biofuels and chemicals. In particular, lignin, a complex and irregular poly-phenylpropanoid heteropolymer, becomes problematic to the postharvest deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. For example in biomass conversion for biofuels, it inhibits saccharification in processes aimed at producing simple sugars for fermentation. The effective use of plant biomass for industrial purposes is in fact largely dependent on the extent to which the plant cell wall is lignified. The removal of lignin is a costly and limiting factor and lignin has therefore become a key plant breeding and genetic engineering target in order to improve cell wall conversion. Analytical tools that permit the accurate rapid characterization of lignification of plant cell walls become increasingly important for evaluating a large number of breeding populations. Extractive procedures for the isolation of native components such as lignin are inevitably destructive, bringing about significant chemical and structural modifications. Analytical chemical in situ methods are thus invaluable tools for the compositional and structural characterization of lignocellulosic materials. Raman microscopy is a technique that relies on inelastic or Raman scattering of monochromatic light, like that from a laser, where the shift in energy of the laser photons is related to molecular vibrations and presents an intrinsic label-free molecular "fingerprint" of the sample. Raman microscopy can afford non

  10. Label-Free Detection of Rare Cell in Human Blood Using Gold Nano Slit Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Mansoureh Z.; Chen, Huai-Yi; Hou, Hsien-San; Chang, Chou-Yuan-Yuan; Roffler, Steve; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Label-free detection of rare cells in biological samples is an important and highly demanded task for clinical applications and various fields of research, such as detection of circulating tumor cells for cancer therapy and stem cells studies. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) as a label-free method is a promising technology for detection of rare cells for diagnosis or research applications. Short detection depth of SPR (400 nm) provides a sensitive method with minimum interference of non-targets in the biological samples. In this work, we developed a novel microfluidic chip integrated with gold nanoslit SPR platform for highly efficient immunomagnetic capturing and detection of rare cells in human blood. Our method offers simple yet efficient detection of target cells with high purity. The approach for detection consists of two steps. Target cells are firs captured on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with specific antibody I. The suspension containing the captured cells (MNPs-cells) is then introduced into a microfluidic chip integrated with a gold nanoslit film. MNPs-cells bind with the second specific antibody immobilized on the surface of the gold nanoslit and are therefore captured on the sensor active area. The cell binding on the gold nanoslit was monitored by the wavelength shift of the SPR spectrum generated by the gold nanoslits. PMID:25806834

  11. Label-free cancer cell separation from human whole blood using inertial microfluidics at low shear stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Gwon; Shin, Joong Ho; Bae, Chae Yun; Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2013-07-02

    We report a contraction-expansion array (CEA) microchannel device that performs label-free high-throughput separation of cancer cells from whole blood at low Reynolds number (Re). The CEA microfluidic device utilizes hydrodynamic field effect for cancer cell separation, two kinds of inertial effects: (1) inertial lift force and (2) Dean flow, which results in label-free size-based separation with high throughput. To avoid cell damages potentially caused by high shear stress in conventional inertial separation techniques, the CEA microfluidic device isolates the cells with low operational Re, maintaining high-throughput separation, using nondiluted whole blood samples (hematocrit ~45%). We characterized inertial particle migration and investigated the migration of blood cells and various cancer cells (MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC70) in the CEA microchannel. The separation of cancer cells from whole blood was demonstrated with a cancer cell recovery rate of 99.1%, a blood cell rejection ratio of 88.9%, and a throughput of 1.1 × 10(8) cells/min. In addition, the blood cell rejection ratio was further improved to 97.3% by a two-step filtration process with two devices connected in series.

  12. In situ label-free imaging of hemicellulose in plant cell walls using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yining; Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Tucker, Melvin P.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-11-22

    Plant hemicellulose (largely xylan) is an excellent feedstock for renewable energy production and second only to cellulose in abundance. Beyond a source of fermentable sugars, xylan constitutes a critical polymer in the plant cell wall, where its precise role in wall assembly, maturation, and deconstruction remains primarily hypothetical. Effective detection of xylan, particularly by in situ imaging of xylan in the presence of other biopolymers, would provide critical information for tackling the challenges of understanding the assembly and enhancing the liberation of xylan from plant materials. Raman-based imaging techniques, especially the highly sensitive stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, have proven to be valuable tools for label-free imaging. However, due to the complex nature of plant materials, especially those same chemical groups shared between xylan and cellulose, the utility of specific Raman vibrational modes that are unique to xylan have been debated. Here, we report a novel approach based on combining spectroscopic analysis and chemical/enzymatic xylan removal from corn stover cell walls, to make progress in meeting this analytical challenge. We have identified several Raman peaks associated with xylan content in cell walls for label-free in situ imaging xylan in plant cell wall. We demonstrated that xylan can be resolved from cellulose and lignin in situ using enzymatic digestion and label-free SRS microscopy in both 2D and 3D. As a result, we believe that this novel approach can be used to map xylan in plant cell walls and that this ability will enhance our understanding of the role played by xylan in cell wall biosynthesis and deconstruction.

  13. In situ label-free imaging of hemicellulose in plant cell walls using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Yining; Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; ...

    2016-11-22

    Plant hemicellulose (largely xylan) is an excellent feedstock for renewable energy production and second only to cellulose in abundance. Beyond a source of fermentable sugars, xylan constitutes a critical polymer in the plant cell wall, where its precise role in wall assembly, maturation, and deconstruction remains primarily hypothetical. Effective detection of xylan, particularly by in situ imaging of xylan in the presence of other biopolymers, would provide critical information for tackling the challenges of understanding the assembly and enhancing the liberation of xylan from plant materials. Raman-based imaging techniques, especially the highly sensitive stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, have provenmore » to be valuable tools for label-free imaging. However, due to the complex nature of plant materials, especially those same chemical groups shared between xylan and cellulose, the utility of specific Raman vibrational modes that are unique to xylan have been debated. Here, we report a novel approach based on combining spectroscopic analysis and chemical/enzymatic xylan removal from corn stover cell walls, to make progress in meeting this analytical challenge. We have identified several Raman peaks associated with xylan content in cell walls for label-free in situ imaging xylan in plant cell wall. We demonstrated that xylan can be resolved from cellulose and lignin in situ using enzymatic digestion and label-free SRS microscopy in both 2D and 3D. As a result, we believe that this novel approach can be used to map xylan in plant cell walls and that this ability will enhance our understanding of the role played by xylan in cell wall biosynthesis and deconstruction.« less

  14. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C.; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  15. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy.

  16. Label-free 3D refractive-index acquisition by micro-manipulations of cells in suspension (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    Our latest methods for non-invasive label-free acquisition of the three-dimensional (3-D) refractive-index maps of live cells in suspension are reviewed. These methods are based on the acquisition of off-axis interferograms of single or multiple cells in suspension from different angles using an external interferometric module, while fully rotating each cell using micro-manipulations. The interferometric projections are processed via computed tomographic phase microscopy reconstruction technique, which considers optical diffraction effects, into the 3-D refractive-index structure of the suspended cell. Till now, tomographic phase microscopy was obtained by acquiring a series of interferograms of the light transmitted through the sample in different angles by either using an entire sample rotation, or patch clamping a single cell, which is invasive to the cells, or alternatively, using various angles of illumination, which causes a limited acceptance angle, and an incomplete 3-D Fourier spectrum. In contrast, our methods allow fast acquisition with full angular range, and thus obtain an accurate 3-D refractive-index map of the imaged cell. By inspection of the 3-D refractive-index distribution of cells in suspension, the proposed methods can be useful for high-throughput, label-free characterization of biological processes and cellular transformations from healthy to pathological conditions.

  17. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy for high-throughput label-free single-cell analysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    The ability to sift through a large heterogeneous population of cells is of paramount importance in a diverse range of biomedical and green applications. Furthermore, the capability of identifying various features of cells in a label-free manner is useful for high-throughput screening. Here we present optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy for high-throughput label-free single-cell screening. This method is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch microscope for high-speed imaging with a spatial resolution of 800 nm at a frame rate of 10 million frames per second, and a digital image processor for image-based characterization, classification, and statistical analysis of biological cells such as blood cells and microalgae. It provides both the opacity (amplitude) and thickness (phase) content of every cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells per second. This method is expected to be effective for a diverse range of applications such as cancer detection and biofuel production.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Huh-7 cells infected with Dengue virus by label-free LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Pando-Robles, Victoria; Oses-Prieto, Juan A; Rodríguez-Gandarilla, Myriam; Meneses-Romero, Erika; Burlingame, Alma L; Batista, Cesar V F

    2014-12-05

    Dengue is an important and growing public health problem worldwide with an estimated 100million new clinical cases annually. Currently, no licensed drug or vaccine is available. During natural infection in humans, liver cells constitute one of the main targets of dengue virus (DENV) replication. However, a clear understanding of dengue pathogenesis remains elusive. In order to gain a better reading of the cross talk between virus and host cell proteins, we used a proteomics approach to analyze the host response to DENV infection in a hepatic cell line Huh-7. Differences in proteome expression were assayed 24h post-infection using label-free LC-MS. Quantitative analysis revealed 155 differentially expressed proteins, 64 of which were up-regulated and 91 down-regulated. These results reveal an important decrease in the expression of enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, citrate cycle, and pyruvate metabolism. This study provides large-scale quantitative information regarding protein expression in the early stages of infection that should be useful for better compression of the pathogenesis of dengue. Dengue infection involves alterations in the homeostasis of the host cell. Defining the interactions between virus and cell proteins should provide a better understanding of how viruses propagate and cause disease. Here, we present for the first time the proteomic analysis of hepatocytes (Huh-7 cells) infected with DENV-2 by label-free LC-MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive, label-free cell counting and quantitative analysis of adherent cells using digital holography.

    PubMed

    Mölder, A; Sebesta, M; Gustafsson, M; Gisselson, L; Wingren, A Gjörloff; Alm, K

    2008-11-01

    Manual cell counting is time consuming and requires a high degree of skill on behalf of the person performing the count. Here we use a technique that utilizes digital holography, allowing label-free and completely non-invasive cell counting directly in cell culture vessels with adherent viable cells. The images produced can provide both quantitative and qualitative phase information from a single hologram. The recently constructed microscope Holomonitor (Phase Holographic Imaging AB, Lund, Sweden) combines the commonly used phase contrast microscope with digital holography, the latter giving us the possibility of achieving quantitative information on cellular shape, area, confluence and optical thickness. This project aimed at determining the accuracy and repeatability of cell counting measurements using digital holography compared to the conventional manual cell counting method using a haemocytometer. The collected data were also used to determine cell size and cellular optical thickness. The results show that digital holography can be used for non-invasive automatic cell counting as precisely as conventional manual cell counting.

  20. Longitudinal label-free tracking of cell death dynamics in living engineered human skin tissue with a multimodal microscope

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Youbo; Marjanovic, Marina; Chaney, Eric J.; Graf, Benedikt W.; Mahmassani, Ziad; Boppart, Marni D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time, longitudinal, label-free tracking of apoptotic and necrotic cells in living tissue using a multimodal microscope. The integrated imaging platform combines multi-photon microscopy (MPM, based on two-photon excitation fluorescence), optical coherence microscopy (OCM), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Three-dimensional (3-D) co-registered images are captured that carry comprehensive information of the sample, including structural, molecular, and metabolic properties, based on light scattering, autofluorescence intensity, and autofluorescence lifetime, respectively. Different cell death processes, namely, apoptosis and necrosis, of keratinocytes from different epidermal layers are longitudinally monitored and investigated. Differentiation of the two cell death processes in a complex living tissue environment is enabled by quantitative image analysis and high-confidence classification processing based on the multidimensional, cross-validating imaging data. These results suggest that despite the limitations of each individual label-free modality, this multimodal imaging approach holds the promise for studies of different cell death processes in living tissue and in vivo organs. PMID:25360383

  1. Filming a live cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy: label-free imaging of the dynamic morphology in real time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michelle Meng-Ni; Long, Yi-Tao; Ding, Zhifeng

    2012-03-21

    The morphology of a live cell reflects the organization of the cytoskeleton and the healthy status of the cell. We established a label-free platform for monitoring the changing morphology of live cells in real time based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The dynamic morphology of a live human bladder cancer cell (T24) was revealed by time-lapse SECM with dissolved oxygen in the medium solution as the redox mediator. Detailed local movements of cell membrane were presented by time-lapse cross section lines extracted from time-lapse SECM. Vivid dynamic morphology is presented by a movie made of time-lapse SECM images. The morphological change of the T24 cell by non-physiological temperature is in consistence with the morphological feature of early apoptosis. To obtain dynamic cellular morphology with other methods is difficult. The non-invasive nature of SECM combined with high resolution realized filming the movements of live cells.

  2. Ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture for selective label-free detection of colorectal cancer (CT26) cells.

    PubMed

    Hashkavayi, Ayemeh Bagheri; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Kavoosian, Saeid

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective treatment. Therefore, development of new methods for early diagnosis is instantly required. Biological recognition probes such as synthetic receptor and aptamer is one of the candidate recognition layers to detect important biomolecules. In this work, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed by fabricating an aptamer-cell-aptamer sandwich architecture on an SBA-15-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SBA-15-pr-NH2) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified graphite screen printed electrode (GSPE) surface for the selective, label-free detection of CT26 cancer cells. Based on the incubation of the thiolated aptamer with CT26 cells, the electron-transfer resistance of Fe (CN)6(3-/4-) redox couple increased considerably on the aptasensor surface. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies showed that the fabricated aptasensor can specifically identify CT26 cells in the concentration ranges of 10-1.0×10(5)cells/mL and 1.0×10(5)-6.0×10(6) cells/mL, respectively, with a detection limit of 2cells/mL. Applying the thiol terminated aptamer (5TR1) as a recognition layer led to a sensor with high affinity for CT26 cancer cells, compared to control cancer cells of AGS cells, VERO Cells, PC3 cells and SKOV-3 cells. Therefore a simple, rapid, label free, inexpensive, excellent, sensitive and selective electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture was developed for detection of CT26 Cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free determination of the cell cycle phase in human embryonic stem cells by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Schulze, H Georg; Piret, James M; Blades, Michael W; Turner, Robin F B

    2013-10-01

    The cell cycle is a series of integrated and coordinated physiological events that results in cell growth and replication. Besides observing the event of cell division it is not feasible to determine the cell cycle phase without fatal and/or perturbing invasive procedures such as cell staining, fixing, and/or dissociation. Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) is a chemical imaging technique that exploits molecular vibrations as a contrast mechanism; it can be applied to single living cells noninvasively to allow unperturbed analysis over time. We used RMS to determine the cell cycle phase based on integrating the composite 783 cm(-1) nucleic acid band intensities across individual cell nuclei. After correcting for RNA contributions using the RNA 811 cm(-1) band, the measured intensities essentially reflected DNA content. When quantifying Raman images from single cells in a population of methanol-fixed human embryonic stem cells, the histogram of corrected 783 cm(-1) band intensities exhibited a profile analogous to that obtained using flow-cytometry with nuclear stains. The two population peaks in the histogram occur at Raman intensities corresponding to a 1-fold and 2-fold diploid DNA complement per cell, consistent with a distribution of cells with a population peak due to cells at the end of G1 phase (1-fold) and a peak due to cells entering M phase (2-fold). When treated with EdU to label the replicating DNA and block cell division, cells with higher EdU-related fluorescence generally had higher integrated Raman intensities. This provides proof-of-principle of an analytical method for label-free RMS determination in situ of cell cycle phase in adherent monolayers or even single adherent cells.

  4. Cell and Brain Tissue Imaging of the Flavonoid Fisetin Using Label-Free Two-Photon Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Ehren, Jennifer; O’Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Maher, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, we have identified an orally active, novel neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing molecule, the flavonoid fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglia and astrocytes and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their byproducts. However, key questions about its targets and brain penetration remain. In this study, we used label-free two-photon microscopy of intrinsic fisetin fluorescence to examine the localization of fisetin in living nerve cells and the brains of living mice. In cells, fisetin but not structurally related flavonols with different numbers of hydroxyl groups, localized to the nucleoli suggesting that key targets of fisetin may reside in this organelle. In the mouse brain, following intraperitoneal injection and oral administration, fisetin rapidly distributed to the blood vessels of the brain followed by a slower dispersion into the brain parenchyma. Thus, these results provide further support for the effects of fisetin on brain function. In addition, they suggest that label-free two-photon microscopy may prove useful for studying the intracellular and tissue distribution of other intrinsically-fluorescent flavonoids. PMID:26271433

  5. Cell and brain tissue imaging of the flavonoid fisetin using label-free two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krasieva, Tatiana B; Ehren, Jennifer; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J; Maher, Pamela

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years, we have identified an orally active, novel neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing molecule, the flavonoid fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglia and astrocytes and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. However, key questions about its targets and brain penetration remain. In this study, we used label-free two-photon microscopy of intrinsic fisetin fluorescence to examine the localization of fisetin in living nerve cells and the brains of living mice. In cells, fisetin but not structurally related flavonols with different numbers of hydroxyl groups, localized to the nucleoli suggesting that key targets of fisetin may reside in this organelle. In the mouse brain, following intraperitoneal injection and oral administration, fisetin rapidly distributed to the blood vessels of the brain followed by a slower dispersion into the brain parenchyma. Thus, these results provide further support for the effects of fisetin on brain function. In addition, they suggest that label-free two-photon microscopy may prove useful for studying the intracellular and tissue distribution of other intrinsically-fluorescent flavonoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective Label-free Electrokinetic Cell Tracker (SELECT): a novel liquid platform for cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taruvai Kalyana Kumar, Rajeshwari; de Mello Gindri, Izabelle; Kinnamon, David; Kanchustambham, Pradyotha; Rodrigues, Danieli; Prasad, Shalini; BiomaterialsOsseointegration; Novel Engineering Lab Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Characterization and analysis of rare cells provide critical cues for early diagnosis of diseases. Electrokinetic cell separation has been previously established to have greater efficiency when compared to traditional flow cytometry methods. It has been shown by many researchers that buffer solutions in which cells are suspended in, have enormous effects on producing required dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to characterize cells. Most commonly used suspension buffers used are deionized water and cell media. However, these solutions exhibit high level of intrinsic noise, which greatly masks the electrokinetic signals from cells under study. Ionic liquids (ILs) show promise towards the creation of conductive fluids with required electrical properties. The goal of this project is to design and test ILs for enhancing DEP forces on cells while creating an environment for preserving their integrity. We analyzed two methylimidazolium based ILs as suspension medium for cell separation. These dicationic ILs possess slight electrical and structural differences with high thermal stability. The two ILs were tested for cytotoxicity using HeLa and bone cells. The effects of electrical neutrality, free charge screening due to ILs towards enhanced electrokinetic signals from cells were studied with improved system resolution and no harmful effects.

  7. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their cardiac derivatives using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J W; Lieu, D K; Huser, T R; Li, R A

    2008-09-08

    Self-renewable, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs), providing an unlimited source of cells for transplantation therapies. However, unlike certain cell lineages such as hematopoietic cells, CMs lack specific surface markers for convenient identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Identification by immunostaining of cardiac-specific proteins such as troponin requires permeabilization, which renders the cells unviable and non-recoverable. Ectopic expression of a reporter protein under the transcriptional control of a heart-specific promoter for identifying hESC-derived CMs (hESC-CMs) is useful for research but complicates potential clinical applications. The practical detection and removal of undifferentiated hESCs in a graft, which may lead to tumors, is also critical. Here, we demonstrate a non-destructive, label-free optical method based on Raman scattering to interrogate the intrinsic biochemical signatures of individual hESCs and their cardiac derivatives, allowing cells to be identified and classified. By combining the Raman spectroscopic data with multivariate statistical analysis, our results indicate that hESCs, human fetal left ventricular CMs, and hESC-CMs can be identified by their intrinsic biochemical characteristics with an accuracy of 96%, 98% and 66%, respectively. The present study lays the groundwork for developing a systematic and automated method for the non-invasive and label-free sorting of (i) high-quality hESCs for expansion, and (ii) ex vivo CMs (derived from embryonic or adult stem cells) for cell-based heart therapies.

  8. Label-Free Molecular Imaging of Biological Cells and Tissues by Linear and Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Schmitt, Michael; Schie, Iwan W; Cialla-May, Dana; Matthäus, Christian; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-04-10

    Raman spectroscopy is an emerging technique in bioanalysis and imaging of biomaterials owing to its unique capability of generating spectroscopic fingerprints. Imaging cells and tissues by Raman microspectroscopy represents a nondestructive and label-free approach. All components of cells or tissues contribute to the Raman signals, giving rise to complex spectral signatures. Resonance Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering can be used to enhance the signals and reduce the spectral complexity. Raman-active labels can be introduced to increase specificity and multimodality. In addition, nonlinear coherent Raman scattering methods offer higher sensitivities, which enable the rapid imaging of larger sampling areas. Finally, fiber-based imaging techniques pave the way towards in vivo applications of Raman spectroscopy. This Review summarizes the basic principles behind medical Raman imaging and its progress since 2012. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Label-free detection of surface markers on stem cells by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kai-Yin; Sun, Yung-Shin; Landry, James P.; Zhu, Xiangdong; Deng, Wenbin

    2012-01-01

    Conventional fluorescent microscopy is routinely used to detect cell surface markers through fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. However, fluorophore-conjugation of antibodies alters binding properties such as strength and specificity of the antibody in ways often uncharacterized. The binding between antibody and antigen might not be in the native situation after such conjugation. Here, we present an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope as an effective method for label-free, real-time detection of cell surface markers and apply such a technique to analysis of Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 1 (SSEA1) on stem cells. Mouse stem cells express SSEA1 on their surfaces and the level of SSEA1 decreases when the cells start to differentiate. In this study, we immobilized mouse stem cells and non-stem cells (control) on a glass surface as a microarray and reacted the cell microarray with unlabeled SSEA1 antibodies. By monitoring the reaction with an OI-RD microscope in real time, we confirmed that the SSEA1 antibodies only bind to the surface of the stem cells while not to the surface of non-stem cells. From the binding curves, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the antibody with the SSEA1 markers on the stem cell surface. The results concluded that OI-RD microscope can be used to detect binding affinities between cell surface markers and unlabeled antibodies bound to the cells. The information could be another indicator to determine the cell stages. PMID:21781038

  10. Label-free DNA hybridization detection and single base-mismatch discrimination using CE-ICP-MS assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Sun, Shao-kai; Yang, Jia-lin; Jiang, Yan

    2011-12-07

    Detecting a specific DNA sequence and discriminating single base-mismatch is critical to clinical diagnosis, paternity testing, forensic sciences, food and drug industry, pathology, genetics, environmental monitoring, and anti-bioterrorism. To this end, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is developed using the displacing interaction between the target ssDNA and the competitor Hg(2+) for the first time. The thymine-rich capture ssDNA 1 is interacted with the competitor Hg(2+), forming an assembled complex in a hairpin-structure between the thymine bases arrangement at both sides of the capture ssDNA 1. In the presence of a target ssDNA with stronger affinity than that of the competitor Hg(2+), the energetically favorable hybridization between capture ssDNA 1 and the target ssDNA destroys the hairpin-structure and releases the competitor as free Hg(2+), which was then read out and accurately quantified by CE-ICP-MS assay. Under the optimal CE separation conditions, free Hg(2+) ions and its capture ssDNA 1 adduct were baseline separated and detected on-line by ICP-MS; the increased peak intensity of free Hg(2+) against the concentration of perfectly complementary target ssDNA was linear over the concentration range of 30-600 nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8 nmol L(-1) (3s, n = 11) in the pre-incubated mixture containing 1 μmol L(-1) Hg(2+) and 0.2 μmol L(-1) capture ssDNA 1. This new assay method is simple in design since any target ssDNA binding can in principle result in free Hg(2+) release by 6-fold Hg(2+) signal amplification, avoiding oligonucleotide labeling or assistance by excess signal transducer and signal reporter to read out the target. Due to element-specific detection of ICP-MS in our assay procedure, the interference from the autofluorescence of substrata was eliminated.

  11. The xCELLigence system for real-time and label-free monitoring of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ning; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao; Abassi, Yama A

    2011-01-01

    We describe here the use of the xCELLigence system for label-free and real-time monitoring of cell -viability. The xCELLigence system uses specially designed microtiter plates containing interdigitated gold microelectrodes to noninvasively monitor the viability of cultured cells using electrical impedance as the readout. The continuous monitoring of cell viability by the xCELLigence system makes it possible to distinguish between different perturbations of cell viability, such as senescence, cell toxicity (cell death), and reduced proliferation (cell cycle arrest). In addition, the time resolution of the xCELLigence system allows for the determination of optimal time points to perform standard cell viability assays as well as other end-point assays to understand the mode of action. We have used the WST-1 assay (end-point viability readout), the cell index determination (continuous monitoring of viability by xCELLigence), and the DNA fragmentation assay (end-point apoptosis assay) to systematically examine cytotoxic effects triggered by two cytotoxic compounds with different cell-killing kinetics. Good correlation was observed for viability readouts between WST-1 and cell index. The significance of time resolution by xCELLigence readout is exemplified by its ability to pinpoint the optimal time points for conducting end point viability and apoptosis assays.

  12. Unraveling molecular effects of ADAR1 overexpression in HEK293T cells by label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jisheng; Wang, Xiaoyue; Lü, Xin; Jing, Ruirui; Li, Junqiang; Li, CuiLing; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibin; Chen, Xinjun; Wang, Fengqin; Sun, Shengnan; Gong, Jing; Azadzoi, Kazem M; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-06-17

    ADAR1 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) editing enzyme that specifically converts adenosine to inosine. ADAR1 is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes and participate in various cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and immune responses. We report here a new proteomics study of HEK293T cells with and without ADAR1 overexpression. The up- and down-regulated proteins by ADAR1 overexpression are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by label-free protein quantification. Totally 1,495 proteins (FDR < 0.01) are identified, among which 211 are up- and 159 are down-regulated for at least 1.5-fold (n = 3, p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis reveals that these ADAR1-regulated proteins are involved in protein translation and cell cycle regulation. Bioinformatics analysis identifies a closely related network consistent for the protein translation machinery and a tightly connected network through proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interactions. Up-regulation of the proteins in the PCNA-mediated cell proliferation network is confirmed by Western blotting. In addition, ADAR1 overexpression is confirmed to increase cell proliferation in HEK293T cells and A549 cells. We conclude that ADAR1 overexpression modulates the protein translation and cell cycle networks through PCNA-mediated protein-protein interaction to promote cell proliferation in HEK293 cells.

  13. Label free measurement of retinal blood cell flux, velocity, hematocrit and capillary width in the living mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Torres, A.; Joseph, A.; Schallek, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring blood cell dynamics within the capillaries of the living eye provides crucial information regarding the health of the microvascular network. To date, the study of single blood cell movement in this network has been obscured by optical aberrations, hindered by weak optical contrast, and often required injection of exogenous fluorescent dyes to perform measurements. Here we present a new strategy to non-invasively image single blood cells in the living mouse eye without contrast agents. Eye aberrations were corrected with an adaptive optics camera coupled with a fast, 15 kHz scanned beam orthogonal to a capillary of interest. Blood cells were imaged as they flowed past a near infrared imaging beam to which the eye is relatively insensitive. Optical contrast of cells was optimized using differential scatter of blood cells in the split-detector imaging configuration. Combined, these strategies provide label-free, non-invasive imaging of blood cells in the retina as they travel in single file in capillaries, enabling determination of cell flux, morphology, class, velocity, and rheology at the single cell level. PMID:27867728

  14. A label-free proteome analysis strategy for identifying quantitative changes in erythrocyte membranes induced by red cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Pesciotta, Esther N; Sriswasdi, Sira; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica; Speicher, David W

    2012-12-05

    Red blood cells have been extensively studied but many questions regarding membrane properties and pathophysiology remain unanswered. Proteome analysis of red cell membranes is complicated by a very wide dynamic range of protein concentrations as well as the presence of proteins that are very large, very hydrophobic, or heterogeneously glycosylated. This study investigated the removal of other blood cell types, red cell membrane extraction, differing degrees of fractionation using 1-D SDS gels, and label-free quantitative methods to determine optimized conditions for proteomic comparisons of clinical blood samples. The results showed that fractionation of red cell membranes on 1-D SDS gels was more efficient than low-ionic-strength extractions followed by 1-D gel fractionation. When gel lanes were sliced into 30 uniform slices, a good depth of analysis that included the identification of most well-characterized, low-abundance red cell membrane proteins including those present at 500 to 10,000 copies per cell was obtained. Furthermore, the size separation enabled detection of changes due to proteolysis or in vivo protein crosslinking. A combination of Rosetta Elucidator quantitation and subsequent statistical analysis enabled the robust detection of protein differences that could be used to address unresolved questions in red cell disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  15. Evaluation of a novel label-free photonic-crystal biosensor imaging system for the detection of prostate cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuna, Frank; Ding, XiaoFie; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Ye, Jing Yong

    2017-02-01

    Biomarker screening for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the current clinical standard for detection of prostate cancer. However this method has shown many limitations, mainly in its specificity, which can lead to a high false positive rate. Thus, there is a growing need in developing a more specific detection system for prostate cancer. Using a Photonic- Crystal-based biosensor in a Total-Internal-Reflection (PC-TIR) configuration, we demonstrate the use of refractive index (RI) to accomplish label-free detection of prostate cancer cells against non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. The PC-TIR biosensor possesses an open microcavity, which in contrast to traditional closed microcavities, allows for easier access of analyte molecules or cells to interact with its sensing surface. In this study, an imaging system was designed using the PC-TIR biosensor to quantify cell RI as the contrast parameter for prostate cancer detection. Non-cancerous BPH-1 prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer PC-3 cells were placed on a single biosensor and measured concurrently. Recorded image data was then analyzed through a home-built MatLab program. Results demonstrate that RI is a suitable variable for differentiation between prostate cancer cells and non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. Our study shows clinical potential in utilizing RI test for the detection of prostate cancer.

  16. In vivo label-free photoacoustic flow cytography and on-the-spot laser killing of single circulating melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Wang, Lidai; Shi, Junhui; Yao, Junjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruiying; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis causes as many as 90% of cancer-related deaths, especially for the deadliest skin cancer, melanoma. Since hematogenous dissemination of circulating tumor cells is the major route of metastasis, detection and destruction of circulating tumor cells are vital for impeding metastasis and improving patient prognosis. Exploiting the exquisite intrinsic optical absorption contrast of circulating melanoma cells, we developed dual-wavelength photoacoustic flow cytography coupled with a nanosecond-pulsed melanoma-specific laser therapy mechanism. We have successfully achieved in vivo label-free imaging of rare single circulating melanoma cells in both arteries and veins of mice. Further, the photoacoustic signal from a circulating melanoma cell immediately hardware-triggers a lethal pinpoint laser irradiation to kill it on the spot in a thermally confined manner without causing collateral damage. A pseudo-therapy study including both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated the performance and the potential clinical value of our method, which can facilitate early treatment of metastasis by clearing circulating tumor cells from vasculature.

  17. In vivo label-free photoacoustic flow cytography and on-the-spot laser killing of single circulating melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Yun; Wang, Lidai; Shi, Junhui; Yao, Junjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruiying; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis causes as many as 90% of cancer-related deaths, especially for the deadliest skin cancer, melanoma. Since hematogenous dissemination of circulating tumor cells is the major route of metastasis, detection and destruction of circulating tumor cells are vital for impeding metastasis and improving patient prognosis. Exploiting the exquisite intrinsic optical absorption contrast of circulating melanoma cells, we developed dual-wavelength photoacoustic flow cytography coupled with a nanosecond-pulsed melanoma-specific laser therapy mechanism. We have successfully achieved in vivo label-free imaging of rare single circulating melanoma cells in both arteries and veins of mice. Further, the photoacoustic signal from a circulating melanoma cell immediately hardware-triggers a lethal pinpoint laser irradiation to kill it on the spot in a thermally confined manner without causing collateral damage. A pseudo-therapy study including both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated the performance and the potential clinical value of our method, which can facilitate early treatment of metastasis by clearing circulating tumor cells from vasculature. PMID:28000788

  18. Label-free hybridoma cell culture quality control by a chip-based impedance flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Hebeisen, Monika; Mittag, Anja; Bocsi, Jozsef; Di Berardino, Marco; Tarnok, Attila

    2012-11-07

    Impedance flow cytometry (IFC) was evaluated as a possible alternative to fluorescence-based methods for on-line quality monitoring of hybridoma cells. Hybridoma cells were cultured at different cell densities and viability was estimated by means of IFC and fluorescence-based flow cytometry (FCM). Cell death was determined by measuring the impedance phase value at high frequency in low conductivity buffer. IFC data correlate well with reference FCM measurements using AnnexinV and 7-AAD staining. Hybridoma cells growing at different densities in cell culture revealed a density-dependent subpopulation pattern. Living cells of high density cultures show reduced impedance amplitudes, indicating particular cellular changes. Dead cell subpopulations become evident in cultures with increasing cell densities. In addition, a novel intermediate subpopulation, which most probably represents apoptotic cells, was identified. These results emphasize the extraordinary sensitivity of high frequency impedance measurements and their suitability for hybridoma cell culture quality control.

  19. Label-free optical vibrational spectroscopy to detect the metabolic state of M. tuberculosis cells at the site of disease.

    PubMed

    Baron, Vincent O; Chen, Mingzhou; Clark, Simon O; Williams, Ann; Hammond, Robert J H; Dholakia, Kishan; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-08-29

    Tuberculosis relapse is a barrier to shorter treatment. It is thought that lipid rich cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, may play a major role. Most studies investigating relapse use sputum samples although tissue bacteria may play an important role. We developed a non-destructive, label-free technique combining wavelength modulated Raman (WMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence detection (Nile Red staining) to interrogate Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell state. This approach could differentiate single "dormant" (lipid rich, LR) and "non-dormant" (lipid poor, LP) cells with high sensitivity and specificity. We applied this to experimentally infected guinea pig lung sections and were able to distinguish both cell types showing that the LR phenotype dominates in infected tissue. Both in-vitro and ex-vivo spectra correlated well, showing for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, likely to be phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, are present in large numbers in tissue. This is an important step in understanding the pathology of relapse supporting the idea that they may be caused by M. tuberculosis cells with lipid inclusions.

  20. A label-free and high-throughput separation of neuron and glial cells using an inertial microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tiantian; Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Dan; Huang, Xu-Feng; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    While neurons and glial cells both play significant roles in the development and therapy of schizophrenia, their specific contributions are difficult to differentiate because the methods used to separate neurons and glial cells are ineffective and inefficient. In this study, we reported a high-throughput microfluidic platform based on the inertial microfluidic technique to rapidly and continuously separate neurons and glial cells from dissected brain tissues. The optimal working condition for an inertial biochip was investigated and evaluated by measuring its separation under different flow rates. Purified and enriched neurons in a primary neuron culture were verified by confocal immunofluorescence imaging, and neurons performed neurite growth after separation, indicating the feasibility and biocompatibility of an inertial separation. Phencyclidine disturbed the neuroplasticity and neuron metabolism in the separated and the unseparated neurons, with no significant difference. Apart from isolating the neurons, purified and enriched viable glial cells were collected simultaneously. This work demonstrates that an inertial microchip can provide a label-free, high throughput, and harmless tool to separate neurological primary cells.

  1. Probing biochemical mechanisms of action of muscarinic M3 receptor antagonists with label-free whole cell assays.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huayun; Wang, Chaoming; Su, Ming; Fang, Ye

    2012-10-02

    Binding kinetics of drugs is increasingly recognized to be important for their in vivo efficacy and safety profiles. However, little is known about the effect of drug binding kinetics on receptor signaling in native cells. Here we used label-free whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays under persistent and duration-controlled stimulation conditions to investigate the influence of the binding kinetics of four antagonists on the signaling of endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor in native HT-29 cells. Results showed that DMR assays under different conditions differentiated the biochemical mechanisms of action of distinct M3 antagonists. When co-stimulated with acetylcholine, tiotropium, a relatively slow binding antagonist, was found to selectively block the late signaling of the receptor, suggesting that acetylcholine attains its binding equilibrium faster than tiotropium does, thereby still being able to initiate its rapid response until the antagonist draws up and fully blocks the signaling. Furthermore, DMR assays under microfluidics allowed estimation of the residence times of these antagonists acting at the receptor in native cells, which were found to be the determining factor for the blockage efficiency of M3 receptor signaling under duration-controlled conditions. This study demonstrates that DMR assays can be used to elucidate the functional consequence of kinetics-driven antagonist occupancy in native cells.

  2. Constructing Proteome Reference Map of the Porcine Jejunal Cell Line (IPEC-J2) by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Balolong, Marilen P; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-06-28

    In this study, the global proteome of the IPEC-J2 cell line was evaluated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Q Exactive™ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Proteins were isolated from highly confluent IPEC-J2 cells in biological replicates and analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry prior to matching against a porcine genomic dataset. The results identified 1,517 proteins, accounting for 7.35% of all genes in the porcine genome. The highly abundant proteins detected, such as actin, annexin A2, and AHNAK nucleoprotein, are involved in structural integrity, signaling mechanisms, and cellular homeostasis. The high abundance of heat shock proteins indicated their significance in cellular defenses, barrier function, and gut homeostasis. Pathway analysis and annotation using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database resulted in a putative protein network map of the regulation of immunological responses and structural integrity in the cell line. The comprehensive proteome analysis of IPEC-J2 cells provides fundamental insights into overall protein expression and pathway dynamics that might be useful in cell adhesion studies and immunological applications.

  3. Label-free in vitro toxicity and uptake assessment of citrate stabilised gold nanoparticles in three cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable in vitro toxicity testing is needed prior to the commencement of in vivo testing necessary for hazard identification and risk assessment of nanoparticles. In this study, the cytotoxicity and uptake of 14 nm and 20 nm citrate stabilised gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO, and the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 were investigated. Methods Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was assessed via traditional XTT-, LDH-, and ATP-based assays, followed by cell impedance studies. Dark-field imaging and hyperspectral imaging were used to confirm the uptake of AuNPs into the cells. Results Interference of the AuNPs with the XTT- and ATP-based assays was overcome through the use of cell impedance technology. AuNPs were shown to be relatively non-toxic using this methodology; nevertheless CHO cells were the most sensitive cell type with 20 nm AuNPs having the highest toxicity. Uptake of both 14 nm and 20 nm AuNPs was observed in all cell lines in a time- and cell type-dependent manner. Conclusions Using the cell impedance and dark-field hyperspectral imaging technologies, it was possible to study the toxicity of AuNPs in different cell lines and show that these cells could internalize AuNPs with their subsequent intracellular aggregation. It was also possible to show that this toxicity would not correlate with the level of uptake but it would correlate with cell-type and the size of the AuNPs. Therefore, these two label-free methodologies used in this study are suitable for in vitro studies on the effects of AuNPs, and could present themselves as appropriate and valuable methodologies for future nanoparticle toxicity and uptake studies. PMID:24103467

  4. Exploiting serum interactions with cationic biomaterials enables label-free circulating tumor cell isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Carlos

    Herein we investigate the role charged biomaterials and fluid dielectric properties have on microfluidic capture and isolation of circulating tumor cells. We determine that heparan sulfate proteoglycans on cancer cell surfaces are responsible for elevated electric charge of cancer cells compared with white blood cells and that these proteoglycans help mediate adhesive interactions between cells and charged surfaces in albumin-containing fluids. Cancer cell firm adhesion to charged surfaces persists when cells are bathed in up to 1% (w/v) human albumin solution, while white blood cell adhesion is nearly abrogated. As many protocols rely on electrical interactions between cells and biomaterials, our study could reveal a new determinant of efficient adhesion and targeting of specific tissue types in the context of a biological fluid environment.

  5. HoloMonitor M4: holographic imaging cytometer for real-time kinetic label-free live-cell analysis of adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesta, Mikael; Egelberg, Peter J.; Langberg, Anders; Lindskov, Jens-Henrik; Alm, Kersti; Janicke, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    Live-cell imaging enables studying dynamic cellular processes that cannot be visualized in fixed-cell assays. An increasing number of scientists in academia and the pharmaceutical industry are choosing live-cell analysis over or in addition to traditional fixed-cell assays. We have developed a time-lapse label-free imaging cytometer HoloMonitorM4. HoloMonitor M4 assists researchers to overcome inherent disadvantages of fluorescent analysis, specifically effects of chemical labels or genetic modifications which can alter cellular behavior. Additionally, label-free analysis is simple and eliminates the costs associated with staining procedures. The underlying technology principle is based on digital off-axis holography. While multiple alternatives exist for this type of analysis, we prioritized our developments to achieve the following: a) All-inclusive system - hardware and sophisticated cytometric analysis software; b) Ease of use enabling utilization of instrumentation by expert- and entrylevel researchers alike; c) Validated quantitative assay end-points tracked over time such as optical path length shift, optical volume and multiple derived imaging parameters; d) Reliable digital autofocus; e) Robust long-term operation in the incubator environment; f) High throughput and walk-away capability; and finally g) Data management suitable for single- and multi-user networks. We provide examples of HoloMonitor applications of label-free cell viability measurements and monitoring of cell cycle phase distribution.

  6. Enzyme-Activated G-Quadruplex Synthesis for in Situ Label-Free Detection and Bioimaging of Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuoliang; Luo, Xingyu; Li, Zhu; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Wang, Hong-Hui; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2017-02-07

    Fluorogenic probes targeting G-quadruplex structures have emerged as the promising toolkit for functional research of G-quadruplex and biosensor development. However, their biosensing applications are still largely limited in in-tube detection. Herein, we proposed a fluorescent bioimaging method based on enzyme-generated G-quadruplexes for detecting apoptotic cells at the cell and tissue level, namely, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-activated de novo G-quadruplex synthesis (TAGS) assay. The detection target is genomic DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. The TAGS assay can efficiently "tag" DNA fragments via using their DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to initiate the de novo synthesis of G-quadruplexes by TdT with an unmodified G-rich dNTP pool, followed by a rapid fluorescent readout upon the binding of thioflavin T (ThT), a fluorogenic dye highly specific for G-quadruplex. The feasibility of the TAGS assay was proved by in situ sensitive detection of individual apoptotic cells in both cultured cells and tissue sections. The TAGS assay has notable advantages, including being label-free and having quick detection, high sensitivity and contrast, mix-and-read operation without tedious washing, and low cost. This method not only shows the feasibility of G-quadruplex in tissue bioanalysis but also provides a promising tool for basic research of apoptosis and drug evaluation for antitumor therapy.

  7. Label-free cell-substrate adhesion imaging on plasmonic nanocup arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, L. P.; Seo, S.; Kim, S.; Goddard, L. L.; Liu, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a crucial biological and biomedical parameter defining cell differentiation, cell migration, cell survival, and state of disease. Because of its importance in cellular function, several tools have been developed in order to monitor cell adhesion in response to various biochemical and mechanical cues. However, there remains a need to monitor cell adhesion and cell-substrate separation with a method that allows real-time measurements on accessible equipment. In this article, we present a method to monitor cell-substrate separation at the single cell level using a plasmonic extraordinary optical transmission substrate, which has a high sensitivity to refractive index changes at the metal-dielectric interface. We show how refractive index changes can be detected using intensity peaks in color channel histograms from RGB images taken of the device surface with a brightfield microscope. This allows mapping of the nonuniform refractive index pattern of a single cell cultured on the plasmonic substrate and therefore high-throughput detection of cell-substrate adhesion with observations in real time. PMID:28271009

  8. Optofluidic device for label-free cell classification from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    A unique optofluidic lab-on-a-chip device that can detect optically encoded forward scattering signals is demonstrated. With a unique design of a spatial mask that patterns the intensity distribution of the illuminating light, the position and velocity of each travelling cell in the flow can be measured with submicrometer resolution, which enables the generation of a cell distribution plot over the cross section of the channel. The distribution of cells is highly sensitive to its size and stiffness, both being important biomarkers for cell classification without cell labelling. The optical-coding technique offers an easy route to classify cells based on their size and stiffness. Because the stiffness and size of neutrophils are distinct from other types of white blood cells, the number of neutrophils can be detected from other white blood cells and red blood cells. Above all, the enumeration of neutrophil concentration can be obtained from only 5 μL of human blood with a simple blood preparation process saving the usual steps of anticoagulation, centrifugation, antibody labelling, or filtering. The optofluidic system is compact, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate and operate. The system uses a commodity laser diode and a Si PIN photoreceiver and digital signal processing to extract vital information about cells and suppress the noise from the encoded optical scattering signals. The optofluidic device holds promise to be a point-of-care and home care device to measure neutrophil concentration, which is the key indicator of the immune functions for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  9. Cancer-cells on a chip for label-free optic detection of secreted molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthuy, Ophélie I.; Blum, Loïc. J.; Marquette, Christophe A.

    2015-05-01

    To unravel cell complexity, living-cell chips have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli but also measurement of the resulting cellular responses. We have been developing a new concept for multiplexed detection of biomolecules secreted by different cancer cells. In the present report, we are making the proof of concept of cell small populations (from 1 to 100 cells) spotting, culture and secretion detection on a gold surface. For that purpose, antibodies and different cell lines were spotted using a piezoelectric spotter. In order to keep the cells in a hydrated environment during the robotized micropipetting and to address different cell lines on a single chip, a biocompatible alginate polymer was used. This approach enables the encapsulation of the cell in a very small volume (30 nL), directly on the substrate and permits a precise control of the number of cells in each alginate bead. After 24h of culture, the adherent cells are ready for surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) experimentation. To enable the detection of secreted proteins, various antibodies are immobilized in an organized manner on a SPRi sensor and permitted the multiplex detection of different proteins secreted by the different cultured cell lines. Evidence of the real-time detection will be presented for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) secreted by prostate cancer cells following induction by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Different kinetics for the two secreted proteins were then demonstrated and precisely determined using the chip. There is no doubt that our chip will, in a near future, be applied to more multiplexed and complex biological secretion systems for which kinetic data are at the moment not reachable using standard cellular biology tools.

  10. Chronic Label-free Volumetric Photoacoustic Microscopy of Melanoma Cells in Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xin; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

    2010-01-01

    Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Most current imaging modalities either suffer from poor penetration depth or require exogenous contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of seeding and culture methods on the spatial distribution of melanoma cells. Spatial distribution of the cells in the scaffold was well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, the number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the as-obtained volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with what was obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. PMID:20727581

  11. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2016-07-01

    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  12. Label-Free Tracking of Single Organelle Transportation in Cells with Nanometer Precision Using a Plasmonic Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunze; Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xianwei; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-06-24

    Imaging and tracking of nano- and micrometer-sized organelles in cells with nanometer precision is crucial for understanding cellular behaviors at the molecular scale. Because of the fast intracellular dynamic processes, the imaging and tracking method must also be fast. In addition, to ensure that the observed dynamics is relevant to the native functions, it is critical to keep the cells under their native states. Here, a plasmonics-based imaging technique is demonstrated for studying the dynamics of organelles in 3D with high localization precision (5 nm) and temporal (10 ms) resolution. The technique is label-free and can track subcellular structures in the native state of the cells. Using the technique, nanometer steps of organelle (e.g., mitochondria) transportation are observed along neurite microtubules in primary neurons, and the 3D structure of neurite microtubule bundles is reconstructed at the nanometer scale from the tracks of the moving organelles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Liu, Yuxiang; Dolash, Bridget D; Jung, Yookyung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Bergstrom, Donald E; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-12-04

    As interest in the potential biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes increases, there is a need for methods that can image nanotubes in live cells, tissues and animals. Although techniques such as Raman, photoacoustic and near-infrared photoluminescence imaging have been used to visualize nanotubes in biological environments, these techniques are limited because nanotubes provide only weak photoluminescence and low Raman scattering and it remains difficult to image both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes at the same time. Here, we show that transient absorption microscopy offers a label-free method to image both semiconducting and metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes in vitro and in vivo, in real time, with submicrometre resolution. By using appropriate near-infrared excitation wavelengths, we detect strong transient absorption signals with opposite phases from semiconducting and metallic nanotubes. Our method separates background signals generated by red blood cells and this allows us to follow the movement of both types of nanotubes inside cells and in the blood circulation and organs of mice without any significant damaging effects.

  14. Label-free somatic cell cytometry in raw milk using acoustophoresis.

    PubMed

    Grenvall, Carl; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A microfluidic system for cell enumeration in raw milk was developed. The new method, preconditions the milk sample using acoustophoresis that removes lipid particles which are larger than a few micrometers. The acoustophoretic preprocessing eliminates the need for conventional sample preparation techniques, which include chemical solvents, cell labeling and centrifugation, and facilitates rapid cell enumeration using microscopy or coulter counter measurements. By introducing an acoustic standing wave with three pressure nodes in a microchannel at the same time as the milk sample is laminated to the channel center, lipids are acoustically driven to the closest pressure antinode at each side of the channel center and the cells in the milk sample are focused in the central pressure node. The extracted center fraction with cells becomes sufficiently clean from lipid vesicles to enable enumeration of somatic cells without any labeling step either by direct light microscopy or by coulter counting. Obtained lipid free milk fractions clearly revealed the cell fraction when analyzed by Coulter Counting. Cell counting as measured by a Coulter Counter after acoustophoretic lipid depletion aligned with the corresponding data obtained by reference measurements based on fluorescence staining and subsequent flow cytometer analysis. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  15. Label free cell tracking in 3D tissue engineering constructs with high resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. A.; Lam, K.-P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Mazzocchi-Jones, D.; Richardson, J. B.; Yang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering there is an emphasis on studying 3-D live tissue structures. Consequently, to investigate and identify cellular activities and phenotypes in a 3-D environment for all in vitro experiments, including shape, migration/proliferation and axon projection, it is necessary to adopt an optical imaging system that enables monitoring 3-D cellular activities and morphology through the thickness of the construct for an extended culture period without cell labeling. This paper describes a new 3-D tracking algorithm developed for Cell-IQ®, an automated cell imaging platform, which has been equipped with an environmental chamber optimized to enable capturing time-lapse sequences of live cell images over a long-term period without cell labeling. As an integral part of the algorithm, a novel auto-focusing procedure was developed for phase contrast microscopy equipped with 20x and 40x objectives, to provide a more accurate estimation of cell growth/trajectories by allowing 3-D voxels to be computed at high spatiotemporal resolution and cell density. A pilot study was carried out in a phantom system consisting of horizontally aligned nanofiber layers (with precise spacing between them), to mimic features well exemplified in cellular activities of neuronal growth in a 3-D environment. This was followed by detailed investigations concerning axonal projections and dendritic circuitry formation in a 3-D tissue engineering construct. Preliminary work on primary animal neuronal cells in response to chemoattractant and topographic cue within the scaffolds has produced encouraging results.

  16. Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Abarrategi, A; Fernandez-Valle, M E; Desmet, T; Castejón, D; Civantos, A; Moreno-Vicente, C; Ramos, V; Sanz-Casado, J V; Martínez-Vázquez, F J; Dubruel, P; Miranda, P; López-Lacomba, J L

    2012-09-07

    Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds.

  17. Label-free enumeration, collection and downstream cytological and cytogenetic analysis of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Manjima; Pao, Edward; Renier, Corinne; Go, Derek E.; Che, James; Montoya, Rosita; Conrad, Rachel; Matsumoto, Melissa; Heirich, Kyra; Triboulet, Melanie; Rao, Jianyu; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Garon, Edward B.; Goldman, Jonathan; Rao, Nagesh P.; Kulkarni, Rajan; Sollier-Christen, Elodie; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a great potential as indicators of metastatic disease that may help physicians improve cancer prognostication, treatment and patient outcomes. Heterogeneous marker expression as well as the complexity of current antibody-based isolation and analysis systems highlights the need for alternative methods. In this work, we use a microfluidic Vortex device that can selectively isolate potential tumor cells from blood independent of cell surface expression. This system was adapted to interface with three protein-marker-free analysis techniques: (i) an in-flow automated image processing system to enumerate cells released, (ii) cytological analysis using Papanicolaou (Pap) staining and (iii) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the ALK rearrangement. In-flow counting enables a rapid assessment of the cancer-associated large circulating cells in a sample within minutes to determine whether standard downstream assays such as cytological and cytogenetic analyses that are more time consuming and costly are warranted. Using our platform integrated with these workflows, we analyzed 32 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 22 breast cancer patient samples, yielding 60 to 100% of the cancer patients with a cell count over the healthy threshold, depending on the detection method used: respectively 77.8% for automated, 60–100% for cytology, and 80% for immunostaining based enumeration. PMID:27739521

  18. Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Abarrategi, A.; Fernandez-Valle, M. E.; Desmet, T.; Castejón, D.; Civantos, A.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Ramos, V.; Sanz-Casado, J. V.; Martínez-Vázquez, F. J.; Dubruel, P.; Miranda, P.; López-Lacomba, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds. PMID:22442095

  19. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticle for fluorescence cell imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-invasive emission detection of coenzyme in cell on time-resolved confocal microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near-field interaction of flavin adenine dinucleotide with silver substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of emissions by coenzymes from cellular autofluorescence on fluorescence cell imaging. -- Abstract: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  20. Label-free assessment of endothelial cell metabolic state using autofluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Benjamin J.; Nguyen, Tam; Gosnell, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Psaltis, Peter J.

    2016-12-01

    To examine the process of endothelial cell aging we utilised hyperspectral imaging to collect broad autofluorescence emission at the individual cellular level and mathematically isolate the characteristic spectra of nicotinamide and flavin adenine dinucleotides (NADH and FAD, respectively). Quantitative analysis of this data provides the basis for a non-destructive spatial imaging method for cells and tissue. FAD and NADH are important factors in cellular metabolism and have been shown to be involved with the redox state of the cell; with the ratio between the two providing the basis for an `optical redox ratio'.

  1. Label-Free Imaging of Dynamic and Transient Calcium Signaling in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Li, Jinghong

    2015-11-09

    Cell signaling consists of diverse events that occur at various temporal and spatial scales, ranging from milliseconds to hours and from single biomolecules to cell populations. The pathway complexities require the development of new techniques that detect the overall signaling activities and are not limited to quantifying a single event. A plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscope (P-EIM) that can provide such data with excellent temporal and spatial resolution and does not require the addition of any labels for detection has now been developed. The highly dynamic and transient calcium signaling activities at the early stage of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation were thus studied. It could be shown that a subpopulation of cells is more responsive towards agonist stimulation, and the heterogeneity of the local distributions and the transient activities of the ion channels during agonist-activated calcium flux in single HeLa cells were investigated.

  2. Label-free biochemical characterization of bovine sperm cells using Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A. C.; Managò, S.; Ferrara, M. A.; Sirleto, L.; Puglisi, R.; Balduzzi, D.; Galli, A.; Rendina, I.; Ferraro, P.; Coppola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The current study relates to a Raman spectroscopy-based method for addressing the problem of sex assessment in mammals. A direct method for sex predetermination in animals is based on the X- and Y-bearing sperm cells sorting before insemination. Our Raman spectroscope allows distinguishing and characterizing the difference between X- and Y-bearing sperm cells by detecting and analyzing their Raman spectra in a non-invasive and non-destructive way.

  3. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y

    2012-08-31

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  4. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2013-01-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells. PMID:22713456

  5. Impact of label-free technologies in head and neck cancer circulating tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Kulasinghe, Arutha; Kenny, Liz; Perry, Chris; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Jovanovic, Lidija; Vela, Ian; Nelson, Colleen; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to identify high risk head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with disseminated disease prior to presenting with clinically detectable metastases holds remarkable potential. A fraction of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are invasive cancer cells which mediate metastasis by intravasation, survival and extravasation from the blood stream to metastatic sites. CTCs have been cleared by the FDA for use as surrogate markers of overall survival and progression free survival for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using the CellSearch® system. However, the clinical significance of CTCs in head and neck cancer patients has yet to be determined. There has been a significant shift in CTC enrichment platforms, away from exclusively single marker selection, to epitope-independent systems. Methods The aim of this study was to screen advanced stage HNC patients by the CellSearch® platform and utilise two other epitope-independent approaches, ScreenCell® (microfiltration device) and RosetteSep™ (negative enrichment), to determine how a shift to such methodologies would enable CTC enrichment and detection. Results In advanced stage HNC patients, single CTCs were detected in 8/43 (18.6%) on CellSearch®, 13/28 (46.4%) on ScreenCell® and 16/25 (64.0%) by RosetteSep™ (the latter could also detect CTC clusters). Notably, in patients with suspicious lung nodules, too small to biopsy, CTCs were found upon presentation. Moreover, CTCs were readily detected in advanced stage HNC patients. Conclusion The epitope-independent platforms detected higher CTC numbers and clusters. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether CTCs can be used as independent prognostic markers for HNCs. PMID:27655722

  6. Fast, label-free super-resolution live-cell imaging using rotating coherent scattering (ROCS) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jünger, Felix; Olshausen, Philipp V.; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Living cells are highly dynamic systems with cellular structures being often below the optical resolution limit. Super-resolution microscopes, usually based on fluorescence cell labelling, are usually too slow to resolve small, dynamic structures. We present a label-free microscopy technique, which can generate thousands of super-resolved, high contrast images at a frame rate of 100 Hertz and without any post-processing. The technique is based on oblique sample illumination with coherent light, an approach believed to be not applicable in life sciences because of too many interference artefacts. However, by circulating an incident laser beam by 360° during one image acquisition, relevant image information is amplified. By combining total internal reflection illumination with dark-field detection, structures as small as 150 nm become separable through local destructive interferences. The technique images local changes in refractive index through scattered laser light and is applied to living mouse macrophages and helical bacteria revealing unexpected dynamic processes.

  7. Fast, label-free super-resolution live-cell imaging using rotating coherent scattering (ROCS) microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jünger, Felix; Olshausen, Philipp v.; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Living cells are highly dynamic systems with cellular structures being often below the optical resolution limit. Super-resolution microscopes, usually based on fluorescence cell labelling, are usually too slow to resolve small, dynamic structures. We present a label-free microscopy technique, which can generate thousands of super-resolved, high contrast images at a frame rate of 100 Hertz and without any post-processing. The technique is based on oblique sample illumination with coherent light, an approach believed to be not applicable in life sciences because of too many interference artefacts. However, by circulating an incident laser beam by 360° during one image acquisition, relevant image information is amplified. By combining total internal reflection illumination with dark-field detection, structures as small as 150 nm become separable through local destructive interferences. The technique images local changes in refractive index through scattered laser light and is applied to living mouse macrophages and helical bacteria revealing unexpected dynamic processes. PMID:27465033

  8. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  9. Label-free method for cell counting in crude biological samples via paramagnetic bead aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Xiao, Li; Haverstick, Doris M; Dewald, Alison; Columbus, Linda; Kelly, Kimberly; Landers, James P

    2013-12-03

    Under chaotropic conditions, DNA released from lysed cells causes the aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field in a manner that is independent of the presence of other cellular components. The extent of aggregation correlates with the mass of DNA in a quantitative manner (Leslie, D. C. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 5689-96), and from this, the number of DNA-containing cells in the sample can be enumerated. Microbial growth testing is demonstrated by monitoring bead aggregation with E. coli in the presence of ampicillin. Without the need for fluorescent labeling or Coulter counting, the white blood cell count can be defined directly from a microliter of crude whole blood. Specificity is brought to the process by coupling bead-based immunocapture with DNA-bead aggregation allowing for the enumeration of CD4+ T cells from human blood samples. The results of DNA-induced bead aggregation had a 95% correlation with those generated by flow cytometry. With the process requiring only inexpensive, widely available benchtop laboratory hardware, a digital camera, and a simple algorithm, this provided a highly accessible alternative to more expensive cell-counting techniques.

  10. Label-free multiphoton imaging and photoablation of preinvasive cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Wu, Guizhu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    Detection and treatment of early lesions in epithelial tissue offer several possibilities for curing cancer, but it is challenging. Here, we present an optical technique, the combination of multiphoton imaging and absorption, to label-freely detect and ablate preinvasive cancer cells in epithelial tissue. We find that multiphoton imaging can label-freely visualize the principal features of nuclear atypia associated with epithelial precancerous lesions, and the spatial localization of multiphoton absorption can perform targeted ablation of preinvasive cancer cells with micrometer-sized volume precision. These results indicate that this optical technique has the capability to label-freely visualize and remove preinvasive cancer cells in epithelial tissue. This study highlights the potential of this technique as a "seek-and-treat" tool for early lesions in epithelial tissue.

  11. A microfluidic device for label-free, physical capture of circulating tumor cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, A Fatih; Aceto, Nicola; Kojic, Nikola; Donaldson, Maria C; Zeinali, Mahnaz; Hamza, Bashar; Engstrom, Amanda; Zhu, Huili; Sundaresan, Tilak K; Miyamoto, David T; Luo, Xi; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Shioda, Toshi; Ting, David T; Stott, Shannon L; Kapur, Ravi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cells metastasize through the bloodstream either as single migratory circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or as multicellular groupings (CTC clusters). Existing technologies for CTC enrichment are designed to isolate single CTCs, and although CTC clusters are detectable in some cases, their true prevalence and significance remain to be determined. Here we developed a microchip technology (the Cluster-Chip) to capture CTC clusters independently of tumor-specific markers from unprocessed blood. CTC clusters are isolated through specialized bifurcating traps under low-shear stress conditions that preserve their integrity, and even two-cell clusters are captured efficiently. Using the Cluster-Chip, we identified CTC clusters in 30-40% of patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer or with melanoma. RNA sequencing of CTC clusters confirmed their tumor origin and identified tissue-derived macrophages within the clusters. Efficient capture of CTC clusters will enable the detailed characterization of their biological properties and role in metastasis.

  12. Label-free isolation of a prostate cancer cell among blood cells and the single-cell measurement of drug accumulation using an integrated microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Khamenehfar, A.; Beischlag, T. V.; Russell, P. J.; Ling, M. T. P.; Nelson, C.; Li, P. C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of patients with cancer. Although these cells are rare, they can provide useful information for chemotherapy. However, isolation of these rare cells from blood is technically challenging because they are small in numbers. An integrated microfluidic chip, dubbed CTC chip, was designed and fabricated for conducting tumor cell isolation. As CTCs usually show multidrug resistance (MDR), the effect of MDR inhibitors on chemotherapeutic drug accumulation in the isolated single tumor cell is measured. As a model of CTC isolation, human prostate cancer cells were mixed with mouse blood cells and the label-free isolation of the tumor cells was conducted based on cell size difference. The major advantages of the CTC chip are the ability for fast cell isolation, followed by multiple rounds of single-cell measurements, suggesting a potential assay for detecting the drug responses based on the liquid biopsy of cancer patients. PMID:26594265

  13. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as label free evanescent cell sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Mads B.; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens H.; Mortensen, Niels A.; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2009-08-01

    Dye doped polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers are applied for evanescent wave sensing of cells. The lasers are rectangular shaped slab waveguides of dye doped polymer on a glass substrate, where a photonic crystal is formed by 100 nm deep air-holes in the surface of the 375 nm high waveguides. The lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP) in Ormocore hybrid polymer doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. The lasers emit in the chip plane at a wavelength around 595 nm when pumped with 5 ns pulses from a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. We investigate the sensitivity of photonic crystal band-edge lasers to partial coverage with HeLa cells. The lasers are chemically activated with a flexible UV activated anthraquinone based linker molecule, which enables selective binding of cells and molecules. When measuring in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), which has a refractive index close to that of the cells, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the cell density on the sensor surface. Our results demonstrate that nanostructured hybrid polymer lasers, which are cheap to fabricate and very simple to operate, can be selectively chemically activated with UV sensitive photolinkers for further bioanalytical applications. This opens the possibility to functionalize arrays of optofluidic laser sensors with different bio-recognition molecules for multiplexed sensing. The linear relationship between cell coverage and wavelength indicates that the slight refractive index perturbation from the partial coverage of the sensor influences the entire optical mode, rather than breaking down the photonic crystal feedback.

  14. Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick; Rai, Shesh N; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. Single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester functionalization method. Following functionalization, plain buffy coat and MCF7 cell spiked buffy coats were adsorbed on to the nanotube device and electrical signatures were recorded for differences in interaction between samples. A statistical classifier for the 'liquid biopsy' was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain (control) or spiked buffy coats (case). In training test, the device electrical signals originating from buffy versus spiked buffy samples were classified with ∼100% sensitivity, ∼91% specificity and ∼96% accuracy. In the blinded test, the signals were classified with ∼91% sensitivity, ∼82% specificity and ∼86% accuracy. A heatmap was generated to visually capture the relationship between electrical signatures and the sample condition. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified as spiked buffy coats based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells, their attachment to the device and overexpression of EpCAM receptors. The cell numbers were counted to be ∼1-17 cells per 5 μl per device suggesting single cell sensitivity in spiked buffy coats that is scalable to higher volumes using the micro-arrays.

  15. Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick; Rai, Shesh N; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. Single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester functionalization method. Following functionalization, plain buffy coat and MCF7 cell spiked buffy coats were adsorbed on to the nanotube device and electrical signatures were recorded for differences in interaction between samples. A statistical classifier for the ‘liquid biopsy’ was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain (control) or spiked buffy coats (case). In training test, the device electrical signals originating from buffy versus spiked buffy samples were classified with ~100% sensitivity, ~91% specificity and ~96% accuracy. In the blinded test, the signals were classified with ~91% sensitivity, ~82% specificity and ~86% accuracy. A heatmap was generated to visually capture the relationship between electrical signatures and the sample condition. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified as spiked buffy coats based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells, their attachment to the device and overexpression of EpCAM receptors. The cell numbers were counted to be ~1—17 cells per 5 µl per device suggesting single cell sensitivity in spiked buffy coats that is scalable to higher volumes using the micro-arrays. PMID:26901310

  16. Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick; Rai, Shesh N.; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. Single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester functionalization method. Following functionalization, plain buffy coat and MCF7 cell spiked buffy coats were adsorbed on to the nanotube device and electrical signatures were recorded for differences in interaction between samples. A statistical classifier for the ‘liquid biopsy’ was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain (control) or spiked buffy coats (case). In training test, the device electrical signals originating from buffy versus spiked buffy samples were classified with ˜100% sensitivity, ˜91% specificity and ˜96% accuracy. In the blinded test, the signals were classified with ˜91% sensitivity, ˜82% specificity and ˜86% accuracy. A heatmap was generated to visually capture the relationship between electrical signatures and the sample condition. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified as spiked buffy coats based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells, their attachment to the device and overexpression of EpCAM receptors. The cell numbers were counted to be ˜1-17 cells per 5 μl per device suggesting single cell sensitivity in spiked buffy coats that is scalable to higher volumes using the micro-arrays.

  17. Label-free impedance detection of cancer cells from whole blood on an integrated centrifugal microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Glennon, Thomas; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J; Ducrée, Jens

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical Lab-on-a-Disc (eLoaD) platform for the automated quantification of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) from whole blood is reported. This centrifugal microfluidic system combines complex sample handling, i.e., blood separation and cancer cell extraction from plasma, with specific capture and sensitive detection using label-free electrochemical impedance. Flow control is facilitated using rotationally actuated valving strategies including siphoning, capillary and centrifugo-pneumatic dissolvable-film (DF) valves. For the detection systems, the thiol-containing amino acid, L-Cysteine, was self-assembled onto smooth gold electrodes and functionalized with anti-EpCAM. By adjusting the concentration of buffer electrolyte, the thickness of the electrical double layer was extended so the interfacial electric field interacts with the bound cells. Significant impedance changes were recorded at 117.2 Hz and 46.5 Hz upon cell capture. Applying AC amplitude of 50 mV at 117.2 Hz and open circuit potential, a minimum of 214 captured cells/mm(2) and 87% capture efficiency could be recorded. The eLoaD platform can perform five different assays in parallel with linear dynamic range between 16,400 and (2.6±0.0003)×10(6) cancer cells/mL of blood, i.e. covering nearly three orders of magnitude. Using the electrode area of 15.3 mm(2) and an SKOV3 cell radius of 5 µm, the lower detection limit is equivalent to a fractional surface coverage of approximately 2%, thus making eLoaD a highly sensitive and efficient prognostic tool that can be developed for clinical settings where ease of handling and minimal sample preparation are paramount.

  18. Label-free cell-based assays with optical biosensors in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2006-10-01

    Once viewed solely as a tool for low throughput and kinetic analysis of biomolecular interactions, optical biosensors are gaining widespread uses in drug discovery because of recent advances in instrumentation and experimental design. These advances have expanded the capabilities of optical biosensors to meet the needs at many points in the drug discovery process. Concurrent shifts in drug discovery paradigms have seen the growing use of whole cell systems for drug screens, thus creating both a need in drug discovery and a solution in optical biosensors. This article reviews important advances in optical biosensor instrumentation, and highlights the potential of optical biosensors for drug discovery with an emphasis on whole cell sensing in both high throughput and high content fashions.

  19. A microfluidic device for label-free, physical capture of circulating tumor cell-clusters

    PubMed Central

    Sarioglu, A. Fatih; Aceto, Nicola; Kojic, Nikola; Donaldson, Maria C.; Zeinali, Mahnaz; Hamza, Bashar; Engstrom, Amanda; Zhu, Huili; Sundaresan, Tilak K.; Miyamoto, David T.; Luo, Xi; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Shioda, Toshi; Ting, David T.; Stott, Shannon L.; Kapur, Ravi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells metastasize through the bloodstream either as single migratory circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or as multicellular groupings (CTC-clusters). Existing technologies for CTC enrichment are designed primarily to isolate single CTCs, and while CTC-clusters are detectable in some cases, their true prevalence and significance remain to be determined. Here, we developed a microchip technology (Cluster-Chip) specifically designed to capture CTC-clusters independent of tumor-specific markers from unprocessed blood. CTC-clusters are isolated through specialized bifurcating traps under low shear-stress conditions that preserve their integrity and even two-cell clusters are captured efficiently. Using the Cluster-Chip, we identify CTC-clusters in 30–40% of patients with metastatic cancers of the breast, prostate and melanoma. RNA sequencing of CTC-clusters confirms their tumor origin and identifies leukocytes within the clusters as tissue-derived macrophages. Together, the development of a device for efficient capture of CTC-clusters will enable detailed characterization of their biological properties and role in cancer metastasis. PMID:25984697

  20. Longitudinal, label-free, quantitative tracking of cell death and viability in a 3D tumor model with OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yookyung; Klein, Oliver J.; Wang, Hequn; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro tumor models are highly useful tools for studying tumor growth and treatment response of malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Existing viability and treatment assessment assays, however, face shortcomings when applied to these large, complex, and heterogeneous culture systems. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, label-free, optical imaging technique that can visualize live cells and tissues over time with subcellular resolution and millimeters of optical penetration depth. Here, we show that OCT is capable of carrying out high-content, longitudinal assays of 3D culture treatment response. We demonstrate the usage and capability of OCT for the dynamic monitoring of individual and combination therapeutic regimens in vitro, including both chemotherapy drugs and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for ovarian cancer. OCT was validated against the standard LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Assay in small tumor spheroid cultures, showing excellent correlation with existing standards. Importantly, OCT was shown to be capable of evaluating 3D spheroid treatment response even when traditional viability assays failed. OCT 3D viability imaging revealed synergy between PDT and the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic carboplatin that evolved over time. We believe the efficacy and accuracy of OCT in vitro drug screening will greatly contribute to the field of cancer treatment and therapy evaluation.

  1. Longitudinal, label-free, quantitative tracking of cell death and viability in a 3D tumor model with OCT

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yookyung; Klein, Oliver J.; Wang, Hequn; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro tumor models are highly useful tools for studying tumor growth and treatment response of malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Existing viability and treatment assessment assays, however, face shortcomings when applied to these large, complex, and heterogeneous culture systems. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, label-free, optical imaging technique that can visualize live cells and tissues over time with subcellular resolution and millimeters of optical penetration depth. Here, we show that OCT is capable of carrying out high-content, longitudinal assays of 3D culture treatment response. We demonstrate the usage and capability of OCT for the dynamic monitoring of individual and combination therapeutic regimens in vitro, including both chemotherapy drugs and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for ovarian cancer. OCT was validated against the standard LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Assay in small tumor spheroid cultures, showing excellent correlation with existing standards. Importantly, OCT was shown to be capable of evaluating 3D spheroid treatment response even when traditional viability assays failed. OCT 3D viability imaging revealed synergy between PDT and the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic carboplatin that evolved over time. We believe the efficacy and accuracy of OCT in vitro drug screening will greatly contribute to the field of cancer treatment and therapy evaluation. PMID:27248849

  2. Development of a Microfluidic-Based Optical Sensing Device for Label-Free Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Through Their Lactic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lei, Kin-Fong; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Wang, Hung-Ming; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a microfluidic-based optical sensing device for label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), a rare cell species in blood circulation. Based on the metabolic features of cancer cells, live CTCs can be quantified indirectly through their lactic acid production. Compared with the conventional schemes for CTC detection, this label-free approach could prevent the biological bias due to the heterogeneity of the surface antigens on cancer cells. In this study, a microfluidic device was proposed to generate uniform water-in-oil cell-encapsulating micro-droplets, followed by the fluorescence-based optical detection of lactic acid produced within the micro-droplets. To test its feasibility to quantify cancer cells, experiments were carried out. Results showed that the detection signals were proportional to the number of cancer cells within the micro-droplets, whereas such signals were insensitive to the existence and number of leukocytes within. To further demonstrate its feasibility for cancer cell detection, the cancer cells with known cell number in a cell suspension was detected based on the method. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the detected number and the real number of cancer cells. As a whole, the proposed method opens up a new route to detect live CTCs in a label-free manner. PMID:25808775

  3. Development of a microfluidic-based optical sensing device for label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through their lactic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lei, Kin-Fong; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Wang, Hung-Ming; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-03-19

    This study reports a microfluidic-based optical sensing device for label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), a rare cell species in blood circulation. Based on the metabolic features of cancer cells, live CTCs can be quantified indirectly through their lactic acid production. Compared with the conventional schemes for CTC detection, this label-free approach could prevent the biological bias due to the heterogeneity of the surface antigens on cancer cells. In this study, a microfluidic device was proposed to generate uniform water-in-oil cell-encapsulating micro-droplets, followed by the fluorescence-based optical detection of lactic acid produced within the micro-droplets. To test its feasibility to quantify cancer cells, experiments were carried out. Results showed that the detection signals were proportional to the number of cancer cells within the micro-droplets, whereas such signals were insensitive to the existence and number of leukocytes within. To further demonstrate its feasibility for cancer cell detection, the cancer cells with known cell number in a cell suspension was detected based on the method. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the detected number and the real number of cancer cells. As a whole, the proposed method opens up a new route to detect live CTCs in a label-free manner.

  4. Label-free high-resolution imaging of live cells with deconvolved spatial light interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Justin P; Wang, Zhuo; Popescu, Gabriel; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a powerful new quantitative phase optical imaging technique that can be used for studying live cells without the need for exogenous contrast agents. This paper proposes a novel deconvolution-based approach to reconstructing SLIM data, which dramatically improves the visual quality of the images. The proposed deconvolution formulation is tailored to the physics of SLIM imaging of biological samples, and a new fast algorithm is designed for computationally-efficient image reconstruction in this setting. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that deconvolution can reduce the width of the point-spread function by at least 20%, and can significantly improve the contrast of high-resolution features. Temporally-resolved SLIM imaging with the high spatial resolution enabled by deconvolution provides new opportunities for studying the dynamics of cellular and sub-cellular processes.

  5. Label-free mass spectrometry exploits dozens of detected peptides to quantify lamins in wildtype and knockdown cells.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joe; Harada, Takamasa; Buxboim, Amnon; Shin, Jae-Won; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Speicher, David W; Discher, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Label-free quantitation and characterization of proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) is now feasible, especially for moderately expressed structural proteins such as lamins that typically yield dozens of tryptic peptides from tissue cells. Using standard cell culture samples, we describe general algorithms for quantitative analysis of peptides identified in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The algorithms were foundational to the discovery that the absolute stoichiometry of A-type to B-type lamins scales with tissue stiffness (Swift et al., Science 2013). Isoform dominance helps make sense of why mutations and changes with age of mechanosensitive lamin-A,C only affect "stiff" tissues such as heart, muscle, bone, or even fat, but not brain. A Peak Ratio Fingerprinting (PRF) algorithm is elaborated here through its application to lamin-A,C knockdown. After demonstrating the large dynamic range of PRF using calibrated mixtures of human and mouse lysates, we validate measurements of partial knockdown with standard cell biology analyses using quantitative immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Optimal sets of MS-detected peptides as determined by PRF demonstrate that the strongest peptide signals are not necessarily the most reliable for quantitation. After lamin-A,C knockdown, PRF computes an invariant set of "housekeeping" proteins as part of a broader proteomic analysis that also shows the proteome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is more broadly perturbed than that of a human epithelial cancer line (A549s), with particular variation in nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins. These methods offer exciting prospects for basic and clinical studies of lamin-A,C as well as other MS-detectable proteins.

  6. Discovering the infectome of human endothelial cells challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus applying a mass spectrometry label-free approach.

    PubMed

    Curty, N; Kubitschek-Barreira, P H; Neves, G W; Gomes, D; Pizzatti, L; Abdelhay, E; Souza, G H M F; Lopes-Bezerra, L M

    2014-01-31

    Blood vessel invasion is a key feature of invasive aspergillosis. This angioinvasion process contributes to tissue thrombosis, which can impair the access of leukocytes and antifungal drugs to the site of infection. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are activated and assume a prothrombotic phenotype following contact with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae or germlings, a process that is independent of fungus viability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this pathogen can activate endothelial cells, together with the endothelial pathways that are involved in this process, remain unknown. Using a label-free approach by High Definition Mass Spectrometry (HDMS(E)), differentially expressed proteins were identified during HUVEC-A. fumigatus interaction. Among these, 89 proteins were determined to be up- or down-regulated, and another 409 proteins were exclusive to one experimental condition: the HUVEC control or HUVEC:AF interaction. The in silico predictions provided a general view of which biological processes and/or pathways were regulated during HUVEC:AF interaction, and they mainly included cell signaling, immune response and hemostasis pathways. This work describes the first global proteomic analysis of HUVECs following interaction with A. fumigatus germlings, the fungus morphotype that represents the first step of invasion and dissemination within the host. A. fumigatus causes the main opportunistic invasive fungal infection related to neutropenic hematologic patients. One of the key steps during the establishment of invasive aspergillosis is angioinvasion but the mechanism associated with the interaction of A. fumigatus with the vascular endothelium remains unknown. The identification of up- and down-regulated proteins expressed by human endothelial cells in response to the fungus infection can contribute to reveal the mechanism of endothelial response and, to understand the physiopathology of this high mortality

  7. Ultrasensitive label-free photothermal imaging, spectral identification, and quantification of cytochrome c in mitochondria, live cells, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brusnichkin, Anton V.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Vladimirov, Yuri A.; Shevtsova, Elena F.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Light-absorbing endogenous cellular proteins, in particular cytochrome c, are used as intrinsic biomarkers for studies of cell biology and environment impacts. To sense cytochrome c against real biological backgrounds, we combined photothermal (PT) thermal-lens single channel schematic in a back-synchronized measurement mode and a multiplex thermal-lens schematic in a transient high resolution (ca. 350 nm) imaging mode. These multifunctional PT techniques using continuous-wave (cw) Ar+ laser and a nanosecond pulsed optical parametric oscillator in the visible range demonstrated the capability for label-free spectral identification and quantification of trace amounts of cytochrome c in a single mitochondrion alone or within a single live cell. PT imaging data were verified in parallel by molecular targeting and fluorescent imaging of cellular cytochrome c. The detection limit of cytochrome c in a cw mode was 5 × 10−9 mol/L (80 attomols in the signal-generation zone); that is ca. 103 lower than conventional absorption spectroscopy. Pulsed fast PT microscopy provided the detection limit for cytochrome c at the level of 13 zmol (13 × 10−21 mol) in the ultra-small irradiated volumes limited by optical diffraction effects. For the first time, we demonstrate a combination of high resolution PT imaging with PT spectral identification and ultrasensitive quantitative PT characterization of cytochrome c within individual mitochondria in single live cells. A potential of far-field PT microscopy to sub-zeptomol detection thresholds, resolution beyond diffraction limit, PT Raman spectroscopy, and 3D imaging are further highlighted. PMID:20572284

  8. Label-free enumeration of colorectal cancer cells from lymphocytes performed at a high cell-loading density by using interdigitated ring-array microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoxing; Poon, Randy Y C; Wong, Cesar S C; Yobas, Levent

    2014-11-15

    We report the label-free enumeration of human colorectal-carcinoma cells from blood lymphocytes by using interdigitated ring-array microelectrodes; this enumeration was based on the dielectrophoretic selection of cells. Because of the novel design of the device, a continuous flow of cells is uniformly distributed into parallel streams through 300 rings (~40 μm in diameter each) that are integrated into the electrode digits. Using this array, 82% of cancer cells were recovered and 99% of blood lymphocytes were removed. Most of the cancer cells recovered were viable (94%) and could be cultivated for >8 days, during which period they retained their normal cell morphology and proliferation rates. The recovery rate correlated closely with cancer-cell loadings in spiked samples and this relationship was linear over a range of at least 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, because of the 3D structure of the rings, these results were obtained at a high cell-loading concentration (10(7)cells/mL). The rings could be further optimized for use in accurate label-free identification and measurement of circulating tumor cells in cancer research and disease management.

  9. An impedance-based cytotoxicity assay for real-time and label-free assessment of T-cell-mediated killing of adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Peper, Janet Kerstin; Schuster, Heiko; Löffler, Markus W; Schmid-Horch, Barbara; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The in vitro assessment of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity plays an important and increasingly relevant role both in preclinical target evaluation and during immunomonitoring to accompany clinical trials employing targeted immunotherapies. For a long time, the gold standard for this purpose has been the chromium release assay (CRA). This end point assay, however, shows several disadvantages including the inevitable use of radioactivity. Based on electrical impedance measurements (using the xCELLigence system), we have established a label-free assay, facilitating the real-time monitoring of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The coculture of peptide-specific T-cell lines with peptide-loaded target cells reproducibly led to a decrease in impedance due to induced apoptosis and detachment of target cells. Comparing our results to the standard CRA assay, we could demonstrate that impedance-based measurements show comparable results after short incubation periods (6h) but outperform the CRA both in reproducibility and sensitivity after prolonged incubation (24h), enabling the detection of target cell lysis with an effector to target ratio as low as 0.05:1. The impedance-based assay represents a valuable and highly sensitive tool for label-free real-time high throughput analysis of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  10. Label-Free Determination of the Number of Biomolecules Attached to Cells by Measurement of the Cell's Electrophoretic Mobility in a Microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Aki, Atsushi; Nair, Baiju G.; Morimoto, Hisao; Kumar, D. Sakthi; Maekawa, Toru

    2010-01-01

    We developed a label-free method for a determination of the number of biomolecules attached to individual cells by measuring the electrophoretic mobility of the cells in a microchannel. The surface of a biological cell, which is dispersed in aqueous solution, is normally electrically charged and the charge quantity at the cell's surface is slightly changed once antibody molecules are attached to the cell, based on which we detect the attachment of antibody molecules to the surface of individual red blood cells by electrophoretic mobility measurement. We also analyzed the number of antibody molecules attached to the cell's surface using a flow cytometer. We found that there is a clear correlation between the number of antibody molecules attached to the individual cells and the electophoretic mobility of the cells. The present technique may well be utilized not only in the field of cell biology but also in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:21206908

  11. Real-time label-free monitoring of adipose-derived stem cell differentiation with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing

    PubMed Central

    Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Drummond, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of stem cells (SCs) differentiation will be critical to scale-up SC technologies, while label-free techniques will be desirable to quality-control SCs without precluding their therapeutic potential. We cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on top of multielectrode arrays and measured variations in the complex impedance Z* throughout induction of ADSCs toward osteoblasts and adipocytes. Z* was measured up to 17 d, every 180 s, over a 62.5–64kHz frequency range with an ECIS Zθ instrument. We found that osteogenesis and adipogenesis were characterized by distinct Z* time-courses. Significant differences were found (P = 0.007) as soon as 12 h post induction. An increase in the barrier resistance (Rb) up to 1.7 ohm·cm2 was associated with early osteo-induction, whereas Rb peaked at 0.63 ohm·cm2 for adipo-induced cells before falling to zero at t = 129 h. Dissimilarities in Z* throughout early induction (<24 h) were essentially attributed to variations in the cell-substrate parameter α. Four days after induction, cell membrane capacitance (Cm) of osteo-induced cells (Cm = 1.72 ± 0.10 μF/cm2) was significantly different from that of adipo-induced cells (Cm = 2.25 ± 0.27 μF/cm2), indicating that Cm could be used as an early marker of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated long-term monitoring and measured a shift in the complex plane in the middle frequency range (1 kHz to 8 kHz) between early (t = 100 h) and late induction (t = 380 h). This study demonstrated that the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages have distinct dielectric properties and that such differences can be used to perform real-time label-free quantitative monitoring of adult stem cell differentiation with impedance sensing. PMID:21464296

  12. A novel electrochemical biosensor based on polyadenine modified aptamer for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; He, Meng-Qi; Zhai, Fu-Heng; He, Rong-Huan; Yu, Yong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of cancer cells plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. A sandwich electrochemical biosensor was developed based on polyadenine (polydA)-aptamer modified gold electrode (GE) and polydA-aptamer functionalized gold nanoparticles/graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) hybrid for the label-free and selective detection of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) via a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. Due to the intrinsic affinity between multiple consecutive adenines of polydA sequences and gold, polydA modified aptamer instead of thiol terminated aptamer was immobilized on the surface of GE and AuNPs/GO. The label-free MCF-7 cells could be recognized by polydA-aptamer and self-assembled onto the surface of GE. The polydA-aptamer functionalized AuNPs/GO hybrid could further bind to MCF-7 cells to form a sandwich sensing system. Characterization of the surface modified GE was carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as a redox probe. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit of 8 cellsmL(-1) (3σ/slope) was obtained for MCF-7 cells by the present electrochemical biosensor, along with a linear range of 10-10(5) cellsmL(-1). By virtue of excellent sensitivity, specificity and repeatability, the present electrochemical biosensor provides a potential application in point-of-care cancer diagnosis.

  13. Label-free identification and characterization of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Samir; Matthews, Dennis L.; Li, Ronald A.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs) are a potentially unlimited source of cardiomyocytes (CMs) for cardiac transplantation therapies. The establishment of pure PSCCM populations is important for this application, but is hampered by a lack of CM-specific surface markers suitable for their identification and sorting. Contemporary purification techniques are either non-specific or require genetic modification. We report a second harmonic generation (SHG) signal detectable in PSC-CMs that is attributable to sarcomeric myosin, dependent on PSC-CM maturity, and retained while PSCCMs are in suspension. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a SHG-activated flow cytometer for the noninvasive purification of PSC-CMs. Second harmonic generation (SHG) from sarcomeric myosin can be used to identify human plutipotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs) in suspension and discriminate groups of PSC-CMs according to maturity. PMID:22083829

  14. Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M; Simon, George R; Chin, Steve H; Chen, Ray T

    2013-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate label-free photonic crystal (PC) microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to detect the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factor, ZEB1, in minute volumes of sample. Multiplexed specific detection of ZEB1 in lysates from NCI-H358 lung cancer cells down to an estimated concentration of 2 cells per micro-liter is demonstrated. L13 photonic crystal microcavities, coupled to W1 photonic crystal waveguides, are employed in which resonances show high Q in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS). When the sensor surface is derivatized with a specific antibody, the binding of the corresponding antigen from a complex whole-cell lysate generates a change in refractive index in the vicinity of the photonic crystal microcavity, leading to a change in the resonance wavelength of the resonance modes of the photonic crystal microcavity. The shift in the resonance wavelength reveals the presence of the antigen. The sensor cavity has a surface area of ∼11μm(2). Multiplexed sensors permit simultaneous detection of many binding interactions with specific immobilized antibodies from the same bio-sample at the same instant of time. Specificity was demonstrated using a sandwich assay which further amplifies the detection sensitivity at low concentrations. The device represents a proof-of-concept demonstration of label-free, high throughput, multiplexed detection of cancer cells with specificity and sensitivity on a silicon chip platform.

  15. Multiplexed Specific Label-Free Detection of NCI-H358 Lung Cancer Cell Line Lysates with Silicon Based Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Drabkin, Harry A.; Gemmill, Robert M.; Simon, George R.; Chin, Steve H.; Chen, Ray T.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate label-free photonic crystal (PC) microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to detect the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factor, ZEB1, in minute volumes of sample. Multiplexed specific detection of ZEB1 in lysates from NCI-H358 lung cancer cells down to an estimated concentration of 2 cells per micro-liter is demonstrated. L13 photonic crystal microcavities, coupled to W1 photonic crystal waveguides, are employed in which resonances show high Q in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS). When the sensor surface is derivatized with a specific antibody, the binding of the corresponding antigen from a complex whole-cell lysate generates a change in refractive index in the vicinity of the photonic crystal microcavity, leading to a change in the resonance wavelength of the resonance modes of the photonic crystal microcavity. The shift in the resonance wavelength reveals the presence of the antigen. The sensor cavity has a surface area of ~11 μm2. Multiplexed sensors permit simultaneous detection of many binding interactions with specific immobilized antibodies from the same bio-sample at the same instant of time. Specificity was demonstrated using a sandwich assay which further amplifies the detection sensitivity at low concentrations. The device represents a proof-of-concept demonstration of label-free, high throughput, multiplexed detection of cancer cells with specificity and sensitivity on a silicon chip platform. PMID:23274197

  16. Detection of soluble ERBB2 in breast cancer cell lysates using a combined label-free/fluorescence platform based on Bloch surface waves.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Sampaoli, Camilla; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Sibilio, Leonardo; Sonntag, Frank; Occhicone, Agostino; Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Giacomini, Patrizio; Michelotti, Francesco

    2017-06-15

    We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of ERBB2/neu/Her2 in cell lysates. ERBB2 is a pivotal breast cancer biomarker and targetable oncogenic driver associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To quantitate soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical platform that combines label-free and fluorescence detection modes. Such platform makes use of a sandwich assay in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are tailored with a monoclonal antibody for highly specific biological recognition (BSW biochip). In a second step, a second antibody to ERBB2 quantitatively detects the bound analyte. The strategy of the present approach takes advantage of the combination of label-free and fluorescence techniques, making bio-recognition more robust and sensitive. In the fluorescence operation mode, the platform can attain the limit of detection 0.3ng/mL (1.5pM) for ERBB2 in cell lysates. Such resolution meets the international guidelines and recommendations (15ng/mL) for diagnostic ERBB2 assays that in the future may help to more precisely assign therapies counteracting cancer cell proliferation and metastatic spread.

  17. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  18. Label-Free Proteomics Reveals Decreased Expression of CD18 and AKNA in Peripheral CD4+ T Cells from Patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Yang, Peizeng; Hou, Shengping; Li, Fuzhen; Kijlstra, Aize

    2011-01-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease. CD4+ T cells have been shown to be involved in autoimmune diseases including VKH syndrome. To screen aberrantly expressed membrane proteins in CD4+ T cell from patients with active VKH syndrome, blood samples were taken from five patients with active VKH syndrome and five healthy individuals. A label-free quantitative proteomic strategy was used to identify the differently expressed proteins between the two groups. The results revealed that the expression of 102 peptides was significantly altered (p<0.05) between two groups and matched amino acid sequences of proteins deposited in the international protein index (ipi.HUMAN.v3.36.fasta). The identified peptides corresponded to 64 proteins, in which 30 showed more than a 1.5-fold difference between the two groups. The decreased expression of CD18 and AKNA transcription factor (AKNA), both being three-fold lower than controls in expression identified by the label-free method, was further confirmed in an additional group of five active VKH patients and six normal individuals using the Western blot technique. A significantly decreased expression of CD18 and AKNA suggests a role for both proteins in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. PMID:21297967

  19. High-Throughput, Label-Free Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells on the Basis of Cell Adhesion Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanqing; Wu, Minhao; Han, Xin; Wang, Ping; Qin, Lidong

    2015-09-07

    Herein we report a microfluidics method that enriches cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells on the basis of cell adhesion properties. In our on-chip enrichment system, cancer cells were driven by hydrodynamic forces to flow through microchannels coated with basement membrane extract. Highly adhesive cells were captured by the functionalized microchannels, and less adhesive cells were collected from the outlets. Two heterogeneous breast cancer cell lines (SUM-149 and SUM-159) were successfully separated into enriched subpopulations according to their adhesive capacity, and the enrichment of the cancer stem cells was confirmed by flow cytometry biomarker analysis and tumor-formation assays. Our findings show that the less adhesive phenotype is associated with a higher percentage of CSCs, higher cancer-cell motility, and higher resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

  20. Cell-Sorting System with On-Chip Imaging for Label-Free Shape-Based Selection of Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Masahito; Kim, Hyonchol; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a novel cell-sorting system involving microscopic imaging using a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based microfluidic chip with a pair of gel electrodes and real-time image-processing procedures for the quantification of cell shapes. The features of this system are as follows. 1) It can recognize cells both by microscopic cell imaging with a 10,000 event/s high-speed camera and by the photodetection of fluorescence. 2) Multistage sorting is used to reduce errors to an infinitesimally low level by using a pair of wide agarose-gel electrodes. 3) Carry-over-free analysis can be performed using a disposable microfluidic chip. 4) An field programmable gate array (FPGA) 10,000 event/s real-time image analysis unit for quantifying the cell images in cell sorting. To separate the target cells from other cells on the basis of the cell shape, we adopted an index of roughness for the cell surface R, which compares the actual perimeter of cell surface and the estimated perimeter of cross-sectional view of cell shape by approximating the cell as a sphere. Sample cells flowing through microchannels on the chip were distinguished by the dual recognition system involving optical analysis and a fluorescence detector, and then separated. Target cells could be sorted automatically by applying an electrophoretic force, and the sorting ability depended on the precision with which cells were shifted within the laminar flow. These results indicate that the cell-sorting system with on-chip imaging is practically applicable for biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Biopatterning for label-free detection.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Julie M; Mandal, Sudeep; Nugen, Sam R; Baeumner, Antje J; Erickson, David

    2010-03-01

    We present a biopatterning technique suitable for applications which demand a high degree of surface cleanliness, such as immobilization of biological recognition elements onto label-free biosensors. In the case of label-free biosensing, the mechanism of signal transduction is based on surface bound matter, making them highly sensitive to surface contamination including residues left during the biopatterning process. In this communication we introduce a simple, rapid processing step that removes 98% of the residues that often remain after standard parylene lift-off patterning. Residue-free parylene biopatterning is combined with microfluidics to localize biomolecule immobilization onto the sensing region and to enable multiplexed biopatterning. We demonstrate the applicability of this method to multiplexed label-free detection platforms by patterning nucleic acid capture probes corresponding to the four different serotypes of Dengue virus onto parallel 1D photonic crystal resonator sensors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to quantify surface cleanliness and uniformity. In addition to label-free biosensors, this technique is well suited to other nanobiotechnology patterning applications which demand a pristine, residue-free surface, such as immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, growth factors, or cell cultures.

  2. Biopatterning for label-free detection

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Julie M.; Mandal, Sudeep; Nugen, Sam R.; Baeumner, Antje J.; Erickson, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a biopatterning technique suitable for applications which demand a high degree of surface cleanliness, such as immobilization of biological recognition elements onto label-free biosensors. In the case of label-free biosensing, the mechanism of signal transduction is based on surface bound matter, making them highly sensitive to surface contamination including residues left during the biopatterning process. In this communication we introduce a simple, rapid processing step that removes 98% of the residues that often remain after standard parylene lift-off patterning. Residue-free parylene biopatterning is combined with microfluidics to localize biomolecule immobilization onto the sensing region and to enable multiplexed biopatterning. We demonstrate the applicability of this method to multiplexed label-free detection platforms by patterning nucleic acid capture probes corresponding to the four different serotypes of Dengue virus onto parallel 1D photonic crystal resonator sensors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to quantify surface cleanliness and uniformity. In addition to label-free biosensors, this technique is well suited to other nanobiotechnology patterning applications which demand a pristine, residue-free surface, such as immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, growth factors, or cell cultures. PMID:19939644

  3. A label-free impedance-based whole cell assay revealed a new G protein-coupled receptor ligand for mouse microglial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasufumi; Okino, Nozomu; Furuya, Shigeki; Ito, Makoto

    2016-09-16

    We report the usefulness of an impedance-based label-free whole cell assay to identify new ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in microglial cell migration. Authentic GPCR ligands were subjected to the impedance-based cell assay in order to examine the responses of ligands for MG5 mouse microglial cells. Complement component 5 (C5a), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) were found to elicit different cellular impedance patterns, i.e. C5a, ADP, and UTP caused a transient increase in cellular impedance, while LPA and LysoPS decreased it. The responses for C5a and ADP were abolished by pertussis toxin (PTX), but not rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, indicating that C5a and ADP elicited responses through the Gαi pathway. On the other hand, the response for UTP, LPA or LysoPS was not cancelled by PTX or Y-27632. In a modified Boyden chamber assay, C5a and ADP, but not UTP, LPA, or LysoPS, induced the migration of MG5 cells. These results suggest that PTX-sensitive increase in cellular impedance with the assay is characteristic for ligands of GPCRs involved in microglial cell migration. We found using this assay that 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is a new chemoattractant inducing microglial cell migration through the activation of Gαi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring change in refractive index of cytosol of animal cells on affinity surface under osmotic stimulus for label-free measurement of viability.

    PubMed

    Park, Jina; Jin, Sung Il; Kim, Hyung Min; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrated that a metal-clad waveguide (MCW)-based biosensor can be applied to label-free measurements of viability of adherent animal cells with osmotic stimulation in real time. After Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) cells were attached to a Concanavalin A (Con A)-modified sensor surface, the magnitudes of cell responses to non-isotonic stimulation were compared between live and dead cells. The live cells exhibited a change in the refractive index (RI) of the cytosol caused by a redistribution of water through the cell membrane, which was induced by the osmotic stimulus, but the dead cells did not. Moreover, the normalized change in the RI measured via the MCW sensor was linearly proportional to the viability of attached cells and the resolution in monitoring cell viability was about 0.079%. Therefore, the viability of attached animal cells can be measured without labels by observing the relative differences in the RI of cytosol in isotonic and non-isotonic buffers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yao, Da-Kang; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-02-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has achieved submicron lateral resolution in showing subcellular structures; however, relatively few endogenous subcellular contrasts have so far been imaged. Given that the hemeprotein, mostly cytochromes in general cells, is optically absorbing around the Soret peak (~420 nm), we implemented label-free PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm for the first time. By measuring the photoacoustic spectra of the oxidized and reduced states of fibroblast lysate and fitting the difference spectrum with three types of cytochromes, we found that the three cytochromes account for more than half the optical absorption in the cell lysate at 420 nm wavelength. Fixed fibroblasts on slides were imaged by PAM at 422 and 250 nm wavelengths to reveal cytoplasms and nuclei, respectively, as confirmed by standard staining histology. PAM was also applied to label-free histology of mouse ear sections by showing cytoplasms and nuclei of various cells. PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm is expected to be a high-throughput, label-free technique for studying live cell functions, which cannot be accomplished by conventional histology.

  6. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of cytochromes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yao, Da-Kang; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-02-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has achieved submicron lateral resolution in showing subcellular structures; however, relatively few endogenous subcellular contrasts have so far been imaged. Given that the hemeprotein, mostly cytochromes in general cells, is optically absorbing around the Soret peak (˜420 nm), we implemented label-free PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm for the first time. By measuring the photoacoustic spectra of the oxidized and reduced states of fibroblast lysate and fitting the difference spectrum with three types of cytochromes, we found that the three cytochromes account for more than half the optical absorption in the cell lysate at 420 nm wavelength. Fixed fibroblasts on slides were imaged by PAM at 422 and 250 nm wavelengths to reveal cytoplasms and nuclei, respectively, as confirmed by standard staining histology. PAM was also applied to label-free histology of mouse ear sections by showing cytoplasms and nuclei of various cells. PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm is expected to be a high-throughput, label-free technique for studying live cell functions, which cannot be accomplished by conventional histology.

  7. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of cytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Yao, Da-Kang; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has achieved submicron lateral resolution in showing subcellular structures; however, relatively few endogenous subcellular contrasts have so far been imaged. Given that the hemeprotein, mostly cytochromes in general cells, is optically absorbing around the Soret peak (∼420  nm), we implemented label-free PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm for the first time. By measuring the photoacoustic spectra of the oxidized and reduced states of fibroblast lysate and fitting the difference spectrum with three types of cytochromes, we found that the three cytochromes account for more than half the optical absorption in the cell lysate at 420 nm wavelength. Fixed fibroblasts on slides were imaged by PAM at 422 and 250 nm wavelengths to reveal cytoplasms and nuclei, respectively, as confirmed by standard staining histology. PAM was also applied to label-free histology of mouse ear sections by showing cytoplasms and nuclei of various cells. PAM of cytochromes in cytoplasm is expected to be a high-throughput, label-free technique for studying live cell functions, which cannot be accomplished by conventional histology. PMID:23370407

  8. Integrating cell phone imaging with magnetic levitation (i-LEV) for label-free blood analysis at the point-of-living

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W.; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, we present a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, we introduce an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, we show that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications. PMID:26523938

  9. Integrating Cell Phone Imaging with Magnetic Levitation (i-LEV) for Label-Free Blood Analysis at the Point-of-Living.

    PubMed

    Baday, Murat; Calamak, Semih; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-03-02

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive, and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use, and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system is presented in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis is introduced. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, it is shown that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single-cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications.

  10. A label-free and high-efficient GO-based aptasensor for cancer cells based on cyclic enzymatic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunyi; Liu, Juan; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Song; Kong, Jilie

    2017-05-15

    A label-free and high-efficient graphene oxide (GO)-based aptasensor was developed for the detection of low quantity cancer cells based on cell-triggered cyclic enzymatic signal amplification (CTCESA). In the absence of target cells, hairpin aptamer probes (HAPs) and dye-labeled linker DNAs stably coexisted in solution, and the fluorescence was quenched by the GO-based FÖrster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. In the presence of target cells, the specific binding of HAPs with the target cells triggered a conformational alternation, which resulted in linker DNA complementary pairing and cleavage by nicking endonuclease-strand scission cycles. Consequently, more cleaved fragments of linker DNAs with more the terminal labeled dyes could show the enhanced fluorescence because these cleaved DNA fragments hardly combine with GOs and prevent the FRET process. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that this GO-based aptasensor exhibited selective and sensitive response to the presence of target CCRF-CEM cells in the concentration range from 50 to 10(5) cells. The detection limit of this method was 25 cells, which was approximately 20 times lower than the detection limit of normal fluorescence aptasensors without amplification. With high sensitivity and specificity, it provided a simple and cost-effective approach for early cancer diagnosis.

  11. Electrostatic surface plasmon resonance: Direct electric field-induced hybridization and denaturation in monolayer nucleic acid films and label-free discrimination of base mismatches

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Richard J.; Peterson, Alexander W.; Georgiadis, Rosina M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that in situ optical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy can be used to monitor hybridization kinetics for unlabeled DNA in tethered monolayer nucleic acid films on gold in the presence of an applied electrostatic field. The dc field can enhance or retard hybridization and can also denature surface-immobilized DNA duplexes. Discrimination between matched and mismatched hybrids is achieved by simple adjustment of the electrode potential. Although the electric field at the interface is extremely large, the tethered single-stranded DNA thiol probes remain bound and can be reused for subsequent hybridization reactions without loss of efficiency. Only capacitive charging currents are drawn; redox reactions are avoided by maintaining the gold electrode potential within the ideally polarizable region. Because of potential-induced changes in the shape of the surface plasmon resonance curve, we account for the full curve rather than simply the shift in the resonance minimum. PMID:11259682

  12. Evaluating the Equilibrium Association Constant between ArtinM Lectin and Myeloid Leukemia Cells by Impedimetric and Piezoelectric Label Free Approaches.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernanda C; Martins, Denise C; Santos, Adriano; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Bueno, Paulo R

    2014-12-01

    Label-free methods for evaluating lectin-cell binding have been developed to determine the lectin-carbohydrate interactions in the context of cell-surface oligosaccharides. In the present study, mass loading and electrochemical transducer signals were compared to characterize the interaction between lectin and cellular membranes by measuring the equilibrium association constant, Ka , between ArtinM lectin and the carbohydrate sites of NB4 leukemia cells. By functionalizing sensor interfaces with ArtinM, it was possible to determine Ka over a range of leukemia cell concentrations to construct analytical curves from impedimetric and/or mass-associated frequency shifts with analytical signals following a Langmuir pattern. Using the Langmuir isotherm-binding model, the Ka obtained were (8.9 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) mL/cell and (1.05 ± 0.09) × 10(-6) mL/cell with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods, respectively. The observed differences were attributed to the intrinsic characteristic sensitivity of each method in following Langmuir isotherm premises.

  13. Label-free high-throughput detection and quantification of circulating melanoma tumor cell clusters by linear-array-based photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Ruiying; Ma, Jun; Li, Yang; Shao, Jin-Yu; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters, arising from multicellular groupings in a primary tumor, greatly elevate the metastatic potential of cancer compared with single CTCs. High-throughput detection and quantification of CTC clusters are important for understanding the tumor metastatic process and improving cancer therapy. Here, we applied a linear-array-based photoacoustic tomography (LA-PAT) system and improved the image reconstruction for label-free high-throughput CTC cluster detection and quantification in vivo. The feasibility was first demonstrated by imaging CTC cluster ex vivo. The relationship between the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and the number of cells in melanoma tumor cell clusters was investigated and verified. Melanoma CTC clusters with a minimum of four cells could be detected, and the number of cells could be computed from the CNR. Finally, we demonstrated imaging of injected melanoma CTC clusters in rats in vivo. Similarly, the number of cells in the melanoma CTC clusters could be quantified. The data showed that larger CTC clusters had faster clearance rates in the bloodstream, which agreed with the literature. The results demonstrated the capability of LA-PAT to detect and quantify melanoma CTC clusters in vivo and showed its potential for tumor metastasis study and cancer therapy.

  14. Mechanisms of kidney repair by human mesenchymal stromal cells after ischemia: a comprehensive view using label-free MS(E).

    PubMed

    da Costa, Milene R; Pizzatti, Luciana; Lindoso, Rafael S; Sant'Anna, Julliana Ferreira; DuRocher, Barbara; Abdelhay, Eliana; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2014-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the more frequent and lethal pathological conditions seen in intensive care units. Currently available treatments are not totally effective but stem cell-based therapies are emerging as promising alternatives, especially the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), although the signaling pathways involved in their beneficial actions are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to identify signaling networks and key proteins involved in the repair of ischemia by MSC. Using an in vitro model of AKI to investigate paracrine interactions and label-free high definition 2D-NanoESI-MS(E) , differentially expressed proteins were identified in a human renal proximal tubule cell lineage (HK-2) exposed to human MSC (hMSC) after an ischemic insult. In silico analysis showed that hMSC stimulated antiapoptotic activity, normal ROS handling, energy production, cytoskeleton organization, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation. The proteomic data were validated by parallel experiments demonstrating reduced apoptosis in HK-2 cells and recovery of intracellular ATP levels. qRT-PCR for proteins implicated in the above processes revealed that hMSC exerted their effects by stimulating translation, not transcription. Western blotting of proteins associated with ROS and energy metabolism confirmed their higher abundance in HK-2 cells exposed to hMSC.

  15. Interfacing antibody-based microarrays and digital holography enables label-free detection for loss of cell volume

    PubMed Central

    El-Schich, Zahra; Nilsson, Emmy; Gerdtsson, Anna S; Wingren, Christer; Wingren, Anette Gjörloff

    2015-01-01

    Background: We introduce the combination of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and antibody microarrays as a powerful tool to measure morphological changes in specifically antibody-captured cells. The aim of the study was to develop DHM for analysis of cell death of etoposide-treated suspension cells. Results/methodology: We demonstrate that the cell number, mean area, thickness and volume were noninvasively measured by using DHM. The cell number was stable over time, but the two cell lines showed changes of cell area and cell irregularity after treatment. The cell volume in etoposide-treated cells was decreased, whereas untreated cells showed stable volume. Conclusion: Our results provide proof of concept for using DHM combined with antibody-based microarray technology for detecting morphological changes in captured cells. PMID:28031876

  16. Label-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells based on extension reaction and intercalation of Ru(phen)3 (2.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Yang, Linlin; Yue, Guiyin; Chen, Lifen; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-10-01

    Telomerase is one of the most common markers of human malignant tumors, such as uterine, stomach, esophageal, breast, colorectal, laryngeal squamous cell, thyroid, bladder, and so on. It is necessary to develop some sensitive but convenient detection methods for telomerase activity determination. In this study, a label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been fabricated to detect the activity of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Thiolated telomerase substrate (TS) primer was immobilized on the gold electrode surface through gold-sulfur (Au-S) interaction and then elongated by telomerase specifically. Then, it was hybridized with complementary DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments on the electrode surface, and Ru(phen)3 (2+) has been intercalated into the dsDNA grooves to act as the ECL probe. The enhanced ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the number of HeLa cells in the range of 5∼5000 and with a detection limit of 2 HeLa cells. The proposed ECL biosensor has high specificity to telomerase in the presence of common interferents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5 % at 100 HeLa cells. The proposed method provides a convenient approach for telomerase-related cancer screening or diagnosis.

  17. A signal-on fluorescent aptasensor based on single-stranded DNA-sensitized luminescence of terbium (III) for label-free detection of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuxian; Li, Guangwen; Zhang, Xi; Xia, Yaokun; Chen, Mei; Wu, Dongzhi; Chen, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant tumor in women. Recently, it has been shown that detection of breast cancer tumor cells outside the primitive tumor is an effective early diagnosis with great prognostic and clinical utility. For this purpose, we developed a signal-on fluorescence aptasensor for label-free, facile and sensitive detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Due to target-aptamer specific recognition and single-stranded DNA-sensitized luminescence of terbium (III), the proposed aptasensor exhibits excellent sensitivity with detection limit as low as 70 cells mL(-1). Compared with common organic dyes and the emerging nano-technological probes, the combination of terbium (III) and single-stranded DNA signal probe (Tb(3+)-SP) serves as a more powerful bio-probe because of its stable optical property, good biocompatibility and free from complex synthesis. The feasibility investigations have illustrated the potential applicability of this aptasensor for selective and sensitive detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, this proposed aptasensor can be also extended for the determination of other tumor cancers or bio-molecules by altering corresponding aptamers. Taken together, this easy-to-perform aptasensor may represent a promising way for early screening and detection of tumor cancers or other bio-molecules in clinical diagnosis.

  18. Label-free and real-time cell-based kinase assay for screening selective and potent receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors using microelectronic sensor array.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Josephine M; Yu, Naichen; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao; Abassi, Yama

    2006-09-01

    Kinases are the 2nd largest group of therapeutic targets in the human genome. In this article, a label-free and real-time cell-based receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) assay that addresses limitation of existing kinase assays and can be used for high-throughput screening and lead optimization studies was validated and characterized. Using impedance, growth factor-induced morphological changes were quantitatively assessed in real time and used as a measure of RTK activity. COS7 cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin results in a rapid increase in cell impedance. Assessment of these growth factor-induced morphological changes and levels of receptor autophosphorylation using fluorescent microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, demonstrates that these changes correlate with changes in impedance. This assay was used to screen, identify, and characterize a potent EGF receptor inhibitor from a compound library. This report describes an assay that is simple in that it does not require intensive optimization or special reagents such as peptides, antibodies, or probes. More important, because the assay is cell based, the studies are done in a physiologically relevant environment, allowing for concurrent assessment of a compound's solubility, stability, membrane permeability, cytotoxicity, and off-target interaction effects.

  19. Silicon photonic crystal microarrays for high throughput label-free detection of lung cancer cell line lysates with sensitivity and specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Gemmill, Robert M.; Chen, Ray T.

    2013-03-01

    Detection of biomolecules on microarrays based on label-free on-chip optical biosensors is very attractive since this format avoids complex chemistries caused by steric hindrance of labels. Application areas include the detection of cancers and allergens, and food-borne pathogens to name a few. We have demonstrated photonic crystal microcavity biosensors with high sensitivity down to 1pM concentrations (67pg/ml). High sensitivities were achieved by slow light engineering which reduced the radiation loss and increased the stored energy in the photonic crystal microcavity resonance mode. Resonances with high quality factor Q~26,760 in liquid ambient, coupled with larger optical mode volumes allowed enhanced interaction with the analyte biomolecules which resulted in sensitivities down to 10 cells per micro-liter to lung cancer cell lysates. The specificity of detection was ensured by multiplexed detections from multiple photonic crystal microcavities arrayed on the arms of a multimode interference power splitter. Specific binding interactions and control experiments were performed simultaneously at the same instant of time with the same 60 microliter sample volume. Specificity is further ensured by sandwich assay methods in the multiplexed experiment. Sandwich assay based amplification increased the sensitivity further resulting in the detection of lung cancer cell lysates down to concentrations of 2 cells per micro-liter. The miniaturization enabled by photonic crystal biosensors coupled with waveguide interconnected layout thus offers the potential of high throughput proteomics with high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Label-free multimodal microspectroscopic differentiation of glioblastoma tumor model cell lines combined with multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, Edwin; Boldrini, Barbara; Luckow, Sabrina; Kessler, Rudolf W.

    2012-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme represents a highly lethal brain tumor. A tumor model has been developed based on the U-251 MG cell line from a human explant. The tumor model simulates different malignancies by controlled expression of the tumor suppressor proteins PTEN and TP53 within the cell lines derived from the wild type. The cells from each different malignant cell line are grown on slides, followed by a paraformaldehyde fixation. UV / VIS and IR spectra are recorded in the cell nuclei. For the differentiation of the cell lines a principal component analysis (PCA) is performed. The PCA demonstrates a good separation of the tumor model cell lines both with UV / VIS spectroscopy and with IR spectroscopy.

  1. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junsheng; Sun, Jinyang; Song, Yongxin; Xu, Yongyi; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-01-01

    Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina) were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis. PMID:24287532

  2. A lab-on-chip cell-based biosensor for label-free sensing of water toxicants.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Nordin, A N; Li, F; Voiculescu, I

    2014-04-07

    This paper presents a lab-on-chip biosensor containing an enclosed fluidic cell culturing well seeded with live cells for rapid screening of toxicants in drinking water. The sensor is based on the innovative placement of the working electrode for the electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique as the top electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator. Cell damage induced by toxic water will cause a decrease in impedance, as well as an increase in the resonant frequency. For water toxicity tests, the biosensor's unique capabilities of performing two complementary measurements simultaneously (impedance and mass-sensing) will increase the accuracy of detection while decreasing the false-positive rate. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were used as toxicity sensing cells. The effects of the toxicants, ammonia, nicotine and aldicarb, on cells were monitored with both the QCM and the ECIS technique. The lab-on-chip was demonstrated to be sensitive to low concentrations of toxicants. The responses of BAECs to toxic samples occurred during the initial 5 to 20 minutes depending on the type of chemical and concentrations. Testing the multiparameter biosensor with aldicarb also demonstrated the hypothesis that using two different sensors to monitor the same cell monolayer provides cross validation and increases the accuracy of detection. For low concentrations of aldicarb, the variations in impedance measurements are insignificant in comparison with the shifts of resonant frequency monitored using the QCM resonator. A highly linear correlation between signal shifts and chemical concentrations was demonstrated for each toxicant.

  3. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Local Exocytosis Outside Pancreatic β Cells Using Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui-Qiong; Wei, Fang; Huang, Shu-Shi; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Shan-Lei; Mo, Wen-Qing; Liu, Hong; Rong, Xi

    2016-12-09

    The examination of insulin (Ins) exocytosis at the single-cell level by conventional methods, such as electrophysiological approaches, total internal reflection imaging, and two-photon imaging technology, often requires an invasive microelectrode puncture or label. In this study, high concentrations of glucose and potassium chloride were used to stimulate β cell Ins exocytosis, while low concentrations of glucose and calcium channel blockers served as the blank and negative control, respectively. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to capture the possible Raman scattering signal from a local zone outside of the cell edge. The results show that the frequencies of the strong signals from the local zones outside the cellular edge in the stimulated groups are greater than those of the control. The Raman spectra from the cellular edge, Ins and cell membrane were compared. Thus, local Ins exocytosis activity outside pancreatic β cells might be observed indirectly using LTRS, a non-invasive optical method.

  4. High-Throughput Epitope Binning Assays on Label-Free Array-Based Biosensors Can Yield Exquisite Epitope Discrimination That Facilitates the Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies with Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Miles, Adam; Eckman, Josh; Foletti, Davide; Van Blarcom, Thomas J.; Yeung, Yik Andy; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate how array-based label-free biosensors can be applied to the multiplexed interaction analysis of large panels of analyte/ligand pairs, such as the epitope binning of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this application, the larger the number of mAbs that are analyzed for cross-blocking in a pairwise and combinatorial manner against their specific antigen, the higher the probability of discriminating their epitopes. Since cross-blocking of two mAbs is necessary but not sufficient for them to bind an identical epitope, high-resolution epitope binning analysis determined by high-throughput experiments can enable the identification of mAbs with similar but unique epitopes. We demonstrate that a mAb's epitope and functional activity are correlated, thereby strengthening the relevance of epitope binning data to the discovery of therapeutic mAbs. We evaluated two state-of-the-art label-free biosensors that enable the parallel analysis of 96 unique analyte/ligand interactions and nearly ten thousand total interactions per unattended run. The IBIS-MX96 is a microarray-based surface plasmon resonance imager (SPRi) integrated with continuous flow microspotting technology whereas the Octet-HTX is equipped with disposable fiber optic sensors that use biolayer interferometry (BLI) detection. We compared their throughput, versatility, ease of sample preparation, and sample consumption in the context of epitope binning assays. We conclude that the main advantages of the SPRi technology are its exceptionally low sample consumption, facile sample preparation, and unparalleled unattended throughput. In contrast, the BLI technology is highly flexible because it allows for the simultaneous interaction analysis of 96 independent analyte/ligand pairs, ad hoc sensor replacement and on-line reloading of an analyte- or ligand-array. Thus, the complementary use of these two platforms can expedite applications that are relevant to the discovery of therapeutic mAbs, depending

  5. High-resolution, label-free imaging of living cells with direct electron-beam-excitation-assisted optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-06-01

    High spatial resolution microscope is desired for deep understanding of cellular functions, in order to develop medical technologies. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging of un-labelled organelles in living cells, in which live cells on a 50 nm thick silicon nitride membrane are imaged by autofluorescence excited with a focused electron beam through the membrane. Electron beam excitation enables ultrahigh spatial resolution imaging of organelles, such as mitochondria, nuclei, and various granules. Since the autofluorescence spectra represent molecular species, this microscopy allows fast and detailed investigations of cellular status in living cells.

  6. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-04-11

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  7. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Dan; Lange, Sigrun; Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Inal, Jameel

    2014-10-24

    Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36×10(6)MVs, was calculated to be 23ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5×10(7)MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235pg per MV.

  8. Filamin C, a dysregulated protein in cancer revealed by label-free quantitative proteomic analyses of human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jie; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Chen, Si-Jie; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Peng, Gang; Fang, Cai-Yun; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-20

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth and fifth most common cancer in men and women, respectively. We identified 2,750 proteins at false discovery rates of 1.3% (protein) and 0.03% (spectrum) by comparing the proteomic profiles of three GC and a normal gastric cell lines. Nine proteins were significantly dysregulated in all three GC cell lines, including filamin C, a muscle-specific filamin and a large actin-cross-linking protein. Downregulation of filamin C in GC cell lines and tissues were verified using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Data-mining using public microarray datasets shown that filamin C was significantly reduced in many human primary and metastasis cancers. Transient expression or silencing of filamin C affected the proliferation and colony formation of cancer cells. Silencing of endogenous filamin C enhanced cancer cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of filamin C had opposing effects. Silencing of filamin C increased the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2 and improved the metastasis of prostate cancer in a zebrafish model. High filamin C associated with better prognosis of prostate cancer, leukemia and breast cancer patients. These findings establish a functional role of filamin C in human cancers and these data will be valuable for further study of its mechanisms.

  9. Label-free measurement of cell-electrode cleft gap distance with high spatial resolution surface plasmon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toma, Koji; Kano, Hiroshi; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-12-23

    Understanding the interface between cells or tissues and artificial materials is of critical importance for a broad range of areas. For example, in neurotechnology, the interfaces between neurons and external devices create a link between technical and the nervous systems by stimulating or recording from neural tissue. Here, a more effective interface is required to enhance the electrical characteristics of neuronal recordings and stimulations. Up to now, the lack of a systematic characterization of cell-electrode interaction turns out to be the major bottleneck. In this work, we employed a recently developed surface plasmon microscope (SPM) to monitor in real-time the cell-metal interface and to measure in situ the gap distance of the cleft with the spatial resolution reaching to the optical diffraction limit. The SPM allowed determination of the distance of human embryonic kidney 293 cells cultured on gold surfaces coated with various peptides or proteins without any labeling. This method can dramatically simplify the interaction investigation at metal-living cell interface and should be incorporated into systematic characterization methods.

  10. Examination of pathways involved in leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-induced cell growth arrest using label-free proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Azmal; Kaur, Gurjeet; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Sudarshan

    2017-09-25

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a multifunctional highly glycosylated protein, synthesized and secreted in various body tissues. Besides the abundance in multiple organs, the molecular mechanism underlying the LIF interactions for cell survival and polarity is poorly understood. In the present study, high-resolution LC-MS/MS based LFQ approach identified 2083 proteins with the overall PSM as 16,032. This proteomics data reviles that LIF promotes the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. It induces cell growth arrest by an intracellular pathways loop to increase the half-life of the cell. Bioinformatics-based enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of LIF interacting partners in cell survival through increasing the cell cycle length. The anti-proliferative effect of LIF was confirmed by BrdU, MTT and Caspase 3/7 assays and further validated by RT-qPCR. Till date to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that elucidates LIF-mediated cascade of activation of MEK/ERK, Ras, mTOR, Hippo, and RAP1 pathways. This study further expands the repertoire of signaling pathways known to be subject to activation by LIF. These multiple involvements of pathways through autocrine-paracrine mediated cell cycle arrest additionally suggests a novel means for amplification of a growth arrest stimulus from LIF and its homolog's receptors. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is the polyfunctional cytokine and highly pleiotropic member of the interleukin-6 family. It utilizes a receptor that consists of the LIF receptor b and gp130 and displays diverse effects on target cells. Despite well-known signal transduction mechanisms (JAK/STAT, MAPK, and PI3K) LIF also contains paradoxically opposing influences in several cell types which includes cellular stimulation, inhibition, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. LIF1 is also undergoing clinical trials as a driving force for the embryo implantation in the uterus in women who fail to become pregnant. As LIF can act on the broad

  11. Label-free microfluidic enrichment of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells using non-inertial hydrodynamic lift.

    PubMed

    Geislinger, Thomas M; Chan, Sherwin; Moll, Kirsten; Wixforth, Achim; Wahlgren, Mats; Franke, Thomas

    2014-09-20

    Understanding of malaria pathogenesis caused by Plasmodium falciparum has been greatly deepened since the introduction of in vitro culture system, but the lack of a method to enrich ring-stage parasites remains a technical challenge. Here, a novel way to enrich red blood cells containing parasites in the early ring stage is described and demonstrated. A simple, straight polydimethylsiloxane microchannel connected to two syringe pumps for sample injection and two height reservoirs for sample collection is used to enrich red blood cells containing parasites in the early ring stage (8-10 h p.i.). The separation is based on the non-inertial hydrodynamic lift effect, a repulsive cell-wall interaction that enables continuous and label-free separation with deformability as intrinsic marker. The possibility to enrich red blood cells containing P. falciparum parasites at ring stage with a throughput of ~12,000 cells per hour and an average enrichment factor of 4.3 ± 0.5 is demonstrated. The method allows for the enrichment of red blood cells early after the invasion by P. falciparum parasites continuously and without any need to label the cells. The approach promises new possibilities to increase the sensitivity of downstream analyses like genomic- or diagnostic tests. The device can be produced as a cheap, disposable chip with mass production technologies and works without expensive peripheral equipment. This makes the approach interesting for the development of new devices for field use in resource poor settings and environments, e.g. with the aim to increase the sensitivity of microscope malaria diagnosis.

  12. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-transformed 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juanling; Yao, Biyun; Jia, Yongrui; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Xuehui; Dong, Lisha; Gao, Ya; Liu, Wenli; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Zongcan

    2016-02-05

    To screen potential biomarkers of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer, the proteomic profiles of BaP-transformed 16HBE cell line T-16HBE-C1 cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera were compared with those of 16HBE group by utilizing label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. By employing nano-LC-MS/MS technology followed by MaxQuant and Perseus processing, 489 differentially expressed proteins were identified between T-16HBE-C1 and 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant, and 49 significantly up-regulated proteins were identified in T-16HBE-C1 xenografted nude mice sera. Three proteins neuropilin-2 (NRP2), clusterin (CLU) and A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) were up-regulated in the serum-free culture supernatant of T-16HBE-C1 cells. These 3 human proteins were present in the sera of nude mice xenografted with T-16HBE-C1 cells, but were undetectable in mice xenografted with 16HBE cells. The proteomic results of NRP2 and AKAP12 were confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Moreover, the serum NRP2 levels were significantly elevated at the 4th day after tumor cell implantation and showed good positive correlation with tumor growth characterized by tumor volume. In conclusion, serum NRP2, CLU and AKAP12 could be potential biomarkers of BaP-induced lung cancer. The proteomic results will gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis.

  13. Study of acetowhitening mechanisms in live mammalian cells with label-free subcellular-level multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Teh, Sengkhoon; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    The tissue acetowhitening effect in acetic acid instillation procedure is a simple and economic method for neoplasia detection and has been clinically utilized since 1925. It is suspected that the optical property (e.g. scattering) change in acetowhitening is due to coagulation of intracellular proteins, but no experimental proof has been reported yet. In this work, we use third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) to investigate the acetowhitening phenomenon induced by acidic acid in live mammalian cells without labeling. We studied the acetowhitening effect with different acetic acid concentrations and the co-localized TPEF and THG imaging on tryptophan and NADH at subcellular-level reveals that the acetowhitening phenomenon is highly related with proteins involved in metabolic pathways in the nucleus and cytoplasm in live cells.

  14. Label-free imaging of trabecular meshwork cells using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tim C.; Ammar, David A.; Masihzadeh, Omid; Gibson, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To image the human trabecular meshwork (TM) using a non-invasive, non-destructive technique without the application of exogenous label. Methods Flat-mounted TM samples from a human cadaver eye were imaged using two nonlinear optical techniques: coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon autofluorescence (TPAF). In TPAF, two optical photons are simultaneously absorbed and excite molecules in the sample that then emit a higher energy photon. The signal is predominately from collagen and elastin. The CARS technique uses two laser frequencies to specifically excite carbon-hydrogen bonds, allowing the visualization of lipid-rich cell membranes. Multiple images were taken along an axis perpendicular to the surface of the TM for subsequent analysis. Results Analysis of multiple TPAF images of the TM reveals the characteristic overlapping bundles of collagen of various sizes. Simultaneous CARS imaging revealed elliptical structures of ~7×10 µm in diameter populating the meshwork which were consistent with TM cells. Irregularly shaped objects of ~4 µm diameter appeared in both the TPAF and CARS channels, and are consistent with melanin granules. Conclusions CARS techniques were successful in imaging live TM cells in freshly isolated human TM samples. Similar images have been obtained with standard histological techniques, however the method described here has the advantage of being performed on unprocessed, unfixed tissue free from the potential distortions of the fine tissue morphology that can occur due to infusion of fixatives and treatment with alcohols. CARS imaging of the TM represents a new avenue for exploring details of aqueous outflow and TM cell physiology. PMID:22025898

  15. Label-free, high-throughput measurements of dynamic changes in cell nuclei using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chalut, Kevin J; Chen, Sulin; Finan, John D; Giacomelli, Michael G; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Wax, Adam

    2008-06-01

    Accurate measurements of nuclear deformation, i.e., structural changes of the nucleus in response to environmental stimuli, are important for signal transduction studies. Traditionally, these measurements require labeling and imaging, and then nuclear measurement using image analysis. This approach is time-consuming, invasive, and unavoidably perturbs cellular systems. Light scattering, an emerging biophotonics technique for probing physical characteristics of living systems, offers a promising alternative. Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI), a novel light scattering technique, was developed to quantify nuclear morphology for early cancer detection. In this study, a/LCI is used for the first time to noninvasively measure small changes in nuclear morphology in response to environmental stimuli. With this new application, we broaden the potential uses of a/LCI by demonstrating high-throughput measurements and by probing aspherical nuclei. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, two distinct models relevant to current investigations in cell and tissue engineering research are used. Structural changes in cell nuclei due to subtle environmental stimuli, including substrate topography and osmotic pressure, are profiled rapidly without disrupting the cells or introducing artifacts associated with traditional measurements. Accuracy > or = 3% is obtained for the range of nuclear geometries examined here, with the greatest deviations occurring for the more complex geometries. Given the high-throughput nature of the measurements, this deviation may be acceptable for many biological applications that seek to establish connections between morphology and function.

  16. PCR-free and label-free fluorescent detection of telomerase activity at single-cell level based on triple amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanfang; Xu, Jing; Li, Baoxin; Jin, Yan

    2016-07-15

    As a universal biomarker for cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutics, telomerase has attracted extensive attention concerning its detection and discovery of its inhibitors. Herein, we developed a PCR-free and label-free fluorescent strategy for facile, reliable and highly sensitive assay of human telomerase activity from crude cancer cell extracts. A G-quadruplex-selective fluorescent dye, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), was utilized as signal probe. Two hairpin probes with hidden G-quadruplex strand in their stem were designed as assembly components of strand displacement reaction (SDR). In this strategy, one telomerase elongation product contains several hexamer repeats which can hybridize with numerous assistant DNA to release a lot of trigger DNA (T-DNA) of SDR for achieving first step amplification. Then, strand displacement reaction led to the formation of G-quadruplex at the both end of two hairpin DNA probes for realizing second step amplification. Finally, the re-released T-DNA initiated another cycle of SDR, resulting in a significant increase in the fluorescence intensity of NMM. By taking advantage of triple signal amplification, the telomerase activity in the HeLa extracts equivalent to 1-3000 cells was detected in homogeneous solution. Telomerase activities of different cell lines, including cancer cells and normal cell, were also successfully evaluated. Meanwhile, the inhibition effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) was also investigated. Therefore, it offers a simple and reliable method for detecting telomerase activity at single-cell level without complex pre-modification of probe and enzyme auxiliary signal amplification, which has the merits of simplicity, rapid response, low cost and high reliability.

  17. Label-free multiphoton fluorescence imaging monitors metabolism in living primary human cells used for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leng-Chun; Lloyd, William R.; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence redox imaging was employed to monitor the metabolic activity of primary human oral keratinocytes prior to the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Keratinocytes with controlled culture conditions were treated with varying levels of chemical stimuli, resulting in differing cellular morphology, growth rate, and metabolic activity. Fluorescence images of keratinocytes were noninvasively acquired from endogenous intracellular metabolic fluorophores NAD(P)H and FAD. A redox ratio quantitatively analyzed each pair of images, showing that fluorescence redox imaging may be a novel technique to characterize live cell viability

  18. Label-free characterization of vitrification-induced morphology changes in single-cell embryos with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnescu, Livia; Leung, Michael C.; Abeyta, Michael; Sudkamp, Helge; Baer, Thomas; Behr, Barry; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2015-09-01

    Vitrification is an increasingly popular method of embryo cryopreservation that is used in assisted reproductive technology. Although vitrification has high post-thaw survival rates compared to other freezing techniques, its long-term effects on embryo development are still poorly understood. We demonstrate an application of full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) to visualize the effects of vitrification on live single-cell (2 pronuclear) mouse embryos without harmful labels. Using FF-OCT, we observed that vitrification causes a significant increase in the aggregation of structures within the embryo cytoplasm, consistent with reports in literature based on fluorescence techniques. We quantify the degree of aggregation with an objective metric, the cytoplasmic aggregation (CA) score, and observe a high degree of correlation between the CA scores of FF-OCT images of embryos and of fluorescence images of their mitochondria. Our results indicate that FF-OCT shows promise as a label-free assessment of the effects of vitrification on embryo mitochondria distribution. The CA score provides a quantitative metric to describe the degree to which embryos have been affected by vitrification and could aid clinicians in selecting embryos for transfer.

  19. Label-free study of the function of ion channel protein on a microfluidic optical sensor integrated with artificial cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Tang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Jianmin

    2014-01-21

    A label-free optical sensor was constructed by integrating pH sensing material and supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) in a microfluidic chip. The pH sensing material was composed of a double layer structure consisting of chitosan hydrogel and electrochemically etched porous silicon. The pH change in the microchip could induce a reversible swelling of the chitosan hydrogel layer and consequently caused a shift in effective optical thickness (EOT) of the double layer, which could be observed by Fourier transformed reflectometric interference spectroscopy (FT-RIS). After phospholipid bilayers (PLBs) were self-assembled on the sensing layer, the EOT almost remained constant during the cycling of pH from 7.4 to 6.2, indicating the blockage of H(+) translocation by the PLBs. For studying the behavior of ion channel protein, gramicidin A, a typical ion channel protein, was inserted in the SPBs for mimicking the ion transportation function of cell membrane. Due to the H(+) transportation capability of gramicidin A, the optical response to pH change could partially recover. In the presence of Ca(2+), the pore of the ion channel protein was blocked, causing a significant decrease in the EOT response upon pH change. The bio-functionalized microfluidic sensor fabricated in this work will provide a reliable platform for studying the function of ion channel protein, which is an important class of drug targets.

  20. Label-free cell phenotypic assessment of the biased agonism and efficacy of agonists at the endogenous muscarinic M3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Efficacy describes the property of a ligand that enables the receptor to change its behavior towards the host cell, while biased agonism defines the ability of a ligand to differentially activate some of the vectorial pathways over others mediated through the receptor. However, little is known about the molecular basis defining the efficacy of ligands at G protein-coupled receptors. Here we characterize the biased agonism and cell phenotypic efficacy of seven agonists at the endogenous muscarinic M3 receptors in six different cell lines including HT-29, PC-3, HeLa, SF268, CCRF-CEM and HCT-15 cells. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR and multiple label-free whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays were used to determine the functional muscarinic receptors in each cell line. DMR pathway deconvolution assay was used to determine the pathway biased activity of the muscarinic agonists. Operational agonism model was used to quantify the pathway bias, while macro-kinetic data reported in literature was used to analyze the biochemical mechanism of action of these agonists. Results Quantitative real-time PCR and ligand pharmacology studies showed that all the native cell lines endogenously express functional M3 receptors. Furthermore, different agonists triggered distinct DMR signals in a specific cell line as well as in different cell lines. DMR pathway deconvolution using known G protein modulators revealed that the M3 receptor in all the six cell lines signals through multiple G protein-mediated pathways, and certain agonists display biased agonism in a cell line-dependent manner. The whole cell efficacy and potency of these agonists were found to be sensitive to the assay time as well as the cell background. Correlation analysis suggested that the whole cell efficacy of agonists is correlated well with their macro-dissociation rate constants. Discussion This study implicates that the endogenous M3 receptors are coupled to multiple pathways, and

  1. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Dan; Lange, Sigrun; Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Inal, Jameel

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Microvesiculating cells record loss of mass on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. • Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance microvesicles are measured at 0.24 pg. • The QCM-D reveals loss in viscoelastic properties in microvesiculating cells. - Abstract: Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60 min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250 nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7 min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20 Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36 × 10{sup 6} MVs, was calculated to be 23 ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24 pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5 × 10{sup 7} MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235 pg per MV.

  2. Linear-array-based photoacoustic tomography for label-free high-throughput detection and quantification of circulating melanoma tumor cell clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Ruiying; Ma, Jun; Li, Yang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters arise from multicellular grouping in the primary tumor and elevate the metastatic potential by 23 to 50 fold compared to single CTCs. High throughout detection and quantification of CTC clusters is critical for understanding the tumor metastasis process and improving cancer therapy. In this work, we report a linear-array-based photoacoustic tomography (LA-PAT) system capable of label-free high-throughput CTC cluster detection and quantification in vivo. LA-PAT detects CTC clusters and quantifies the number of cells in them based on the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of photoacoustic signals. The feasibility of LA-PAT was first demonstrated by imaging CTC clusters ex vivo. LA-PAT detected CTC clusters in the blood-filled microtubes and computed the number of cells in the clusters. The size distribution of the CTC clusters measured by LA-PAT agreed well with that obtained by optical microscopy. We demonstrated the ability of LA-PAT to detect and quantify CTC clusters in vivo by imaging injected CTC clusters in rat tail veins. LA-PAT detected CTC clusters immediately after injection as well as when they were circulating in the rat bloodstreams. Similarly, the numbers of cells in the clusters were computed based on the CNRs of the photoacoustic signals. The data showed that larger CTC clusters disappear faster than the smaller ones. The results prove the potential of LA-PAT as a promising tool for both preclinical tumor metastasis studies and clinical cancer therapy evaluation.

  3. Label-free based quantitative proteomics analysis of primary neonatal porcine Leydig cells exposed to the persistent contaminant 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, Shewit; Granum, Cesilie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Groseth, Per Kristian; Verhaegen, Steven; Connolly, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio; Ropstad, Erik

    2016-03-30

    Evidence that persistent environmental pollutants may target the male reproductive system is increasing. The male reproductive system is regulated by secretion of testosterone by testicular Leydig cells, and perturbation of Leydig cell function may have ultimate consequences. 3-Methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) is a potent adrenal toxicants formed from the persistent insecticide DDT. Although studies have revealed the endocrine disruptive effect of 3-MeSO2-DDE, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level in steroidogenic Leydig cells remains to be established. The current study addresses the effect of 3-MeSO2-DDE on viability, hormone production and proteome response of primary neonatal porcine Leydig cells. The AlamarBlue™ assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Solid phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure concentration of hormones produced by both unstimulated and Luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated Leydig cells following 48h exposure. Protein samples from Leydig cells exposed to a non-cytotoxic concentration of 3-MeSO2-DDE (10 μM) were subjected to nano-LC-MS/MS and analyzed on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer and quantified using label-free quantitative algorithm. Gene Ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were carried out for functional annotation and identification of protein interaction networks. 3-MeSO2-DDE regulated Leydig cell steroidogenesis differentially depending on cell culture condition. Whereas its effect on testosterone secretion at basal condition was stimulatory, the effect on LH-stimulated cells was inhibitory. From triplicate experiments, a total of 6804 proteins were identified in which the abundance of 86 proteins in unstimulated Leydig cells and 145 proteins in LH-stimulated Leydig cells was found to be significantly regulated in response to 3-MeSO2-DDE exposure. These proteins not only are the first reported in relation to 3-MeSO2-DDE exposure, but also display small number of proteins shared between culture conditions

  4. A novel graphene-based label-free fluorescence `turn-on' nanosensor for selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species in biological samples and living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yaotang; Garg, Bhaskar; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2016-02-01

    A novel label-free fluorescence `turn-on' nanosensor has been developed for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species (Ps) in biological samples and living cells. The design strategy relies on the use of Ti4+-immobilized polydopamine (PDA) coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PDA-Ti4+) that serves as an attractive platform to bind riboflavin 5'-monophosphate molecules (FMNs) through ion-pair interactions between phosphate groups and Ti4+. The as-prepared rGO@PDA-Ti4+-FMNs (nanosensor), fluoresce only weakly due to the ineffective Förster resonance energy transfer between the FMNs and rGO@PDA-Ti4+. The experimental findings revealed that the microwave-assisted interaction of the nanosensor with α-, β-casein, ovalbumin, human serum, non-fat milk, egg white, and living cells (all containing Ps) releases FMNs (due to the high formation constant between phosphate groups and Ti4+), leading to an excellent fluorescence `turn-on' response. The fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry were used to detect Ps both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under the optimized conditions, the nanosensor showed a detection limit of ca. 118.5, 28.9, and 54.8 nM for the tryptic digests of α-, β-casein and ovalbumin, respectively. Furthermore, the standard addition method was used as a bench-mark proof for phosphopeptide quantification in egg white samples. We postulate that the present quantitative assay for Ps holds tremendous potential and may pave the way to disease diagnostics in the near future.A novel label-free fluorescence `turn-on' nanosensor has been developed for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species (Ps) in biological samples and living cells. The design strategy relies on the use of Ti4+-immobilized polydopamine (PDA) coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PDA-Ti4+) that serves as an attractive platform to bind riboflavin 5'-monophosphate molecules (FMNs) through ion-pair interactions

  5. A novel graphene-based label-free fluorescence 'turn-on' nanosensor for selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species in biological samples and living cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yaotang; Garg, Bhaskar; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2016-02-28

    A novel label-free fluorescence 'turn-on' nanosensor has been developed for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species (Ps) in biological samples and living cells. The design strategy relies on the use of Ti(4+)-immobilized polydopamine (PDA) coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PDA-Ti(4+)) that serves as an attractive platform to bind riboflavin 5'-monophosphate molecules (FMNs) through ion-pair interactions between phosphate groups and Ti(4+). The as-prepared rGO@PDA-Ti(4+)-FMNs (nanosensor), fluoresce only weakly due to the ineffective Förster resonance energy transfer between the FMNs and rGO@PDA-Ti(4+). The experimental findings revealed that the microwave-assisted interaction of the nanosensor with α-, β-casein, ovalbumin, human serum, non-fat milk, egg white, and living cells (all containing Ps) releases FMNs (due to the high formation constant between phosphate groups and Ti(4+)), leading to an excellent fluorescence 'turn-on' response. The fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry were used to detect Ps both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under the optimized conditions, the nanosensor showed a detection limit of ca. 118.5, 28.9, and 54.8 nM for the tryptic digests of α-, β-casein and ovalbumin, respectively. Furthermore, the standard addition method was used as a bench-mark proof for phosphopeptide quantification in egg white samples. We postulate that the present quantitative assay for Ps holds tremendous potential and may pave the way to disease diagnostics in the near future.

  6. Label-free molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Ruliang; Huang, Guoliang

    2014-03-01

    Optical microscopy technology has achieved great improvements in the 20th century. The detection limit has reached about twenty nanometers (with near-field optics, STED, PALM and STORM). But in the application areas such as life science, medical science, clinical treatment and especially in vivo dynamic measurement, mutual restrictions still exist between numeric aperture/magnification and working distance, fluorescent dependent, and between resolution and frame rate/field size, etc. This paper explores a hyperspectral scanning super-resolution label free molecules imaging method based on the white light interferometry. The vertical detection resolution was approximate to 1 nm which is the thickness of a single molecular layer and dynamic measuring range of thickness reaches to 10 μm. The spectrum-shifting algorithm is developed for robust restructure of images when the pixels are overlapped. Micro-biochip with protein binding and DNA amplification could be detected by using this spectral scanning super-resolution molecules imaging in label free. This method has several advantages as following: Firstly, the decoding and detecting steps are combined into one step. It makes tests faster and easier. Secondly, we used thickness-coded, minimized chips instead of a large microarray chip to carry the probes. This accelerates the interaction of the biomolecules. Thirdly, since only one kind of probes are attached to our thickness-coded, minimized chip, users can only pick out the probes they are interested in for a test without wasting unnecessary probes and chips.

  7. Label-Free Raman Imaging to Monitor Breast Tumor Signatures.

    PubMed

    Manciu, Felicia S; Ciubuc, John D; Parra, Karla; Manciu, Marian; Bennet, Kevin E; Valenzuela, Paloma; Sundin, Emma M; Durrer, William G; Reza, Luis; Francia, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Although not yet ready for clinical application, methods based on Raman spectroscopy have shown significant potential in identifying, characterizing, and discriminating between noncancerous and cancerous specimens. Real-time and accurate medical diagnosis achievable through this vibrational optical method largely benefits from improvements in current technological and software capabilities. Not only is the acquisition of spectral information now possible in milliseconds and analysis of hundreds of thousands of data points achieved in minutes, but Raman spectroscopy also allows simultaneous detection and monitoring of several biological components. Besides demonstrating a significant Raman signature distinction between nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) and tumorigenic (MCF-7) breast epithelial cells, our study demonstrates that Raman can be used as a label-free method to evaluate epidermal growth factor activity in tumor cells. Comparative Raman profiles and images of specimens in the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor show important differences in regions attributed to lipid, protein, and nucleic acid vibrations. The occurrence, which is dependent on the presence of epidermal growth factor, of new Raman features associated with the appearance of phosphothreonine and phosphoserine residues reflects a signal transduction from the membrane to the nucleus, with concomitant modification of DNA/RNA structural characteristics. Parallel Western blotting analysis reveals an epidermal growth factor induction of phosphorylated Akt protein, corroborating the Raman results. The analysis presented in this work is an important step toward Raman-based evaluation of biological activity of epidermal growth factor receptors on the surfaces of breast cancer cells. With the ultimate future goal of clinically implementing Raman-guided techniques for the diagnosis of breast tumors (e.g., with regard to specific receptor activity), the current results just lay the foundation for

  8. Reproducible E. coli detection based on label-free SERS and mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danting; Zhou, Haibo; Haisch, Christoph; Niessner, Reinhard; Ying, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The biosensing for rapid detection of bacteria based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely explored for recent years. It is still a challenge to achieve a high sensitive, reproducible label free detection method for bacteria. In this work, a label-free SERS detection method of Escherichia coli based on incubation with silver colloid was reported. Optimized incubation conditions including shaking speed, time and temperature were used to help construct a rapid SERS method for E. coli analysis. It was found that the enhancement of the Raman signal of E. coli could be achieved to 1.8×10(4) cps (counts per second) with high reproducibility. Three strains of E. coli DSM 1116/498/5695 could be successfully discriminated using such SERS method combining discriminant analysis. Finally, the lowest concentration of E. coli at 1×10(5) cell/mL can be detected by SERS mapping. Thus, our detection method offers higher sensitivity and reproducibility compared to previously reported label free simple-mixing methods, opening an avenue for developing various SERS-based biosensor.

  9. Label-Free Cytotoxicity Screening Assay by Digital Holographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z′-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose–response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

  10. Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre; Turcatti, Gerardo

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z'-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose-response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy.

  11. Label-free functional selectivity assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Ann M; Goral, Vasiliy; Wang, Chaoming; Fang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest class of drug targets. Ligand-directed functional selectivity or biased agonism opens new possibility for discovering GPCR drugs with better efficacy and safety profiles. However, quantification of ligand bias is challenging. Herein, we present five different label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) approaches to assess ligand bias acting at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Multiparametric analysis of the DMR agonist profiles reveals divergent pharmacology of a panel of β2AR agonists. DMR profiling using catechol as a conformational probe detects the presence of multiple conformations of the β2AR. DMR assays under microfluidics, together with chemical biology tools, discover ligand-directed desensitization of the receptor. DMR antagonist reverse assays manifest biased antagonism. DMR profiling using distinct probe-modulated cells detects the biased agonism in the context of self-referenced pharmacological activity map.

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the effects of a GalNAc/Man-specific lectin CSL on yeast cells by label-free LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Linge; Tong, Changqing; Zhao, Qiancheng; Lukyanov, Pavel A; Chernikov, Oleg V; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A Ca(2+)-dependent GalNAc/Man-specific lectin (CSL) from Cyclina sinensis was isolated, and its stimulatory action was characterized in yeast. CSL showed a potent effect on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, the changes in the protein expression profiles of S. cerevisiae after 24h of incubation with CSL were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. A total of 1410 proteins were identified, but only 117 proteins showed significant differences in normalized volume (p<0.05). Among the latter proteins, 24 proteins were up-regulated, and 93 were down-regulated. Analysis of the proteome revealed that CSL triggered changes in the concentrations of some enzymes, such as increased expression of hexokinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase and decreased expression of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results indicate that CSL can cause some changes in the metabolic pathway involved in ethanol synthesis in S. cerevisiae. These data may help us understand the stimulatory mechanism of lectin in the fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Label-Free Protein-RNA Interactome Analysis Identifies Khsrp Signaling Downstream of the p38/Mk2 Kinase Complex as a Critical Modulator of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Anna; Riabinska, Arina; Thelen, Lisa; Peifer, Martin; Leeser, Uschi; Nuernberg, Peter; Altmueller, Janine; Gaestel, Matthias; Dieterich, Christoph; Reinhardt, H. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a key role for RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in genome stability programs. Additionally, recent developments in RNA sequencing technologies, as well as mass-spectrometry techniques, have greatly expanded our knowledge on protein-RNA interactions. We here use full transcriptome sequencing and label-free LC/MS/MS to identify global changes in protein-RNA interactions in response to etoposide-induced genotoxic stress. We show that RBPs have distinct binding patterns in response to genotoxic stress and that inactivation of the RBP regulator module, p38/MK2, can affect the entire spectrum of protein-RNA interactions that take place in response to stress. In addition to validating the role of known RBPs like Srsf1, Srsf2, Elavl1 in the genotoxic stress response, we add a new collection of RBPs to the DNA damage response. We identify Khsrp as a highly regulated RBP in response to genotoxic stress and further validate its role as a driver of the G1/S transition through the suppression of Cdkn1aP21 transcripts. Finally, we identify KHSRP as an indicator of overall survival, as well as disease free survival in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:25993413

  14. Quantitative, Label-Free Characterization of Stem Cell Differentiation at the Single-Cell Level by Broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Jong; Vega, Sebastián L.; Patel, Parth J.; Aamer, Khaled A.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    We use broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) microscopy to characterize lineage commitment of individual human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in adipogenic, osteogenic, and basal culture media. We treat hyperspectral images obtained by BCARS in two independent ways, obtaining robust metrics for differentiation. In one approach, pixel counts corresponding to functional markers, lipids, and minerals, are used to classify individual cells as belonging to one of the three lineage groups: adipocytes, osteoblasts, and undifferentiated stem cells. In the second approach, we use multivariate analysis of Raman spectra averaged exclusively over cytosol regions of individual cells to classify the cells into the same three groups, with consistent results. The exceptionally high speed of spectral imaging with BCARS allows us to chemically map a large number of cells with high spatial resolution, revealing not only the phenotype of individual cells, but also population heterogeneity in the degree of phenotype commitment. PMID:24224876

  15. Quantitative non-invasive cell characterisation and discrimination based on multispectral autofluorescence features

    PubMed Central

    Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Menon Perinchery, Sandeep; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol A.; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous autofluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from autofluorescence imaging has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent. Label-free classifications are validated by the analysis of Classification Determinant (CD) antigen expression. The versatility of our method is illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. PMID:27029742

  16. Label-Free Morphology-Based Prediction of Multiple Differentiation Potentials of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Early Evaluation of Intact Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Okada, Mai; Sawada, Rumi; Kanie, Kei; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Precise quantification of cellular potential of stem cells, such as human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), is important for achieving stable and effective outcomes in clinical stem cell therapy. Here, we report a method for image-based prediction of the multiple differentiation potentials of hBMSCs. This method has four major advantages: (1) the cells used for potential prediction are fully intact, and therefore directly usable for clinical applications; (2) predictions of potentials are generated before differentiation cultures are initiated; (3) prediction of multiple potentials can be provided simultaneously for each sample; and (4) predictions of potentials yield quantitative values that correlate strongly with the experimental data. Our results show that the collapse of hBMSC differentiation potentials, triggered by in vitro expansion, can be quantitatively predicted far in advance by predicting multiple potentials, multi-lineage differentiation potentials (osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic) and population doubling potential using morphological features apparent during the first 4 days of expansion culture. In order to understand how such morphological features can be effective for advance predictions, we measured gene-expression profiles of the same early undifferentiated cells. Both senescence-related genes (p16 and p21) and cytoskeleton-related genes (PTK2, CD146, and CD49) already correlated to the decrease of potentials at this stage. To objectively compare the performance of morphology and gene expression for such early prediction, we tested a range of models using various combinations of features. Such comparison of predictive performances revealed that morphological features performed better overall than gene-expression profiles, balancing the predictive accuracy with the effort required for model construction. This benchmark list of various prediction models not only identifies the best morphological feature conversion

  17. Label-free imaging of the dynamics of cell-to-cell string-like structure bridging in the free-space by low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2013-03-01

    We succeeded in utilizing our low-coherent quantitative phase microscopy (LC-QPM) to achieve label-free and three-dimensional imaging of string-like structures bridging the free-space between live cells. In past studies, three dimensional morphology of the string-like structures between cells had been investigated by electron microscopies and fluorescence microscopies and these structures were called "membrane nanotubes" or "tunneling nanotubes." However, use of electron microscopy inevitably kills these cells and fluorescence microscopy is itself a potentially invasive method. To achieve noninvasive imaging of live cells, we applied our LC-QPM which is a reflection-type, phase resolved and full-field interference microscope employing a low-coherent light source. LC-QPM is able to visualize the three-dimensional morphology of live cells without labeling by means of low-coherence interferometry. The lateral (diffraction limit) and longitudinal (coherence-length) spatial resolution of LC-QPM were respectively 0.49 and 0.93 micrometers and the repeatability of the phase measurement was 0.02 radians (1.0 nm). We successfully obtained three-dimensional morphology of live cultured epithelial cells (cell type: HeLa, derived from cervix cancer) and were able to clearly observe the individual string-like structures interconnecting the cells. When we performed volumetric imaging, a 80 micrometer by 60 micrometer by 6.5 micrometer volume was scanned every 5.67 seconds and 70 frames of a three-dimensional movie were recorded for a duration of 397 seconds. Moreover, the optical phase images gave us detailed information about the three-dimensional morphology of the string-like structure at sub-wavelength resolution. We believe that our LC-QPM will be a useful tool for the study of three-dimensional morphology of live cells.

  18. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    PubMed

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages (MFs) are closely related immune cells that differ in their main functions. These specific functions are, to a considerable degree, determined by the differences in the adhesion behavior of the cells. To study the inherently and essentially dynamic aspects of the adhesion of monocytes, DCs, and MFs, dynamic cell adhesion assays were performed with a high-throughput label-free optical biosensor [Epic BenchTop (BT)] on surfaces coated with either fibrinogen (Fgn) or the biomimetic copolymer PLL-g-PEG-RGD. Cell adhesion profiles typically reached their maximum at ∼60 min after cell seeding, which was followed by a monotonic signal decrease, indicating gradually weakening cell adhesion. According to the biosensor response, cell types could be ordered by increasing adherence as monocytes, MFs, and DCs. Notably, all three cell types induced a larger biosensor signal on Fgn than on PLL-g-PEG-RGD. To interpret this result, the molecular layers were characterized by further exploiting the potentials of the biosensor: by measuring the adsorption signal induced during the surface coating procedure, the authors could estimate the surface density of adsorbed molecules and, thus, the number of binding sites potentially presented for the adhesion receptors. Surfaces coated with PLL-g-PEG-RGD presented less RGD sites, but was less efficient in promoting cell spreading than those coated with Fgn; hence, other binding sites in Fgn played a more decisive role in determining cell adherence. To support the cell adhesion data obtained with the biosensor, cell adherence on Fgn-coated surfaces 30-60 min after cell seeding was measured with three complementary techniques, i.e., with (1) a fluorescence-based classical adherence assay, (2) a shear flow chamber applying hydrodynamic shear stress to wash cells away, and (3) an automated micropipette using vacuum-generated fluid flow to lift cells up. These techniques confirmed the results

  19. Issues and Applications in Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Lianshui; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    To address the challenges associated with differential expression proteomics, label-free mass spectrometric protein quantification methods have been developed as alternatives to array-based, gel-based, and stable isotope tag or label-based approaches. In this paper, we focus on the issues associated with label-free methods that rely on quantitation based on peptide ion peak area measurement. These issues include chromatographic alignment, peptide qualification for quantitation, and normalization. In addressing these issues, we present various approaches, assembled in a recently developed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry platform, that overcome these difficulties and enable comprehensive, accurate, and reproducible protein quantitation in highly complex protein mixtures from experiments with many sample groups. As examples of the utility of this approach, we present a variety of cases where the platform was applied successfully to assess differential protein expression or abundance in body fluids, in vitro nanotoxicology models, tissue proteomics in genetic knock-in mice, and cell membrane proteomics. PMID:23401775

  20. Multimodal discrimination of immune cells using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McReynolds, Naomi; Cooke, Fiona G. M.; Chen, Mingzhou; Powis, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-03-01

    The ability to identify and characterise individual cells of the immune system under label-free conditions would be a significant advantage in biomedical and clinical studies where untouched and unmodified cells are required. We present a multi-modal system capable of simultaneously acquiring both single point Raman spectra and digital holographic images of single cells. We use this combined approach to identify and discriminate between immune cell populations CD4+ T cells, B cells and monocytes. We investigate several approaches to interpret the phase images including signal intensity histograms and texture analysis. Both modalities are independently able to discriminate between cell subsets and dual-modality may therefore be used a means for validation. We demonstrate here sensitivities achieved in the range of 86.8% to 100%, and specificities in the range of 85.4% to 100%. Additionally each modality provides information not available from the other providing both a molecular and a morphological signature of each cell.

  1. Label-free characterization of living human induced pluripotent stem cells by subcellular topographic imaging technique using full-field quantitative phase microscopy coupled with interference reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Norikazu; Asai, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kataoka, Takuji; Ikeda, Takahiro; Iwai, Hidenao; Sakurai, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori

    2012-09-01

    There is a need for a noninvasive technique to monitor living pluripotent stem cell condition without any labeling. We present an optical imaging technique that is able to capture information about optical path difference through the cell and cell adhesion properties simultaneously using a combination of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) and interference reflection microscopy (IRM) techniques. As a novel application of QPM and IRM, this multimodal imaging technique demonstrated its ability to distinguish the undifferentiated status of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells quantitatively based on the variation of optical path difference between the nucleus and cytoplasm as well as hiPS cell-specific cell adhesion properties.

  2. Label-free characterization of living human induced pluripotent stem cells by subcellular topographic imaging technique using full-field quantitative phase microscopy coupled with interference reflection microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Norikazu; Asai, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kataoka, Takuji; Ikeda, Takahiro; Iwai, Hidenao; Sakurai, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for a noninvasive technique to monitor living pluripotent stem cell condition without any labeling. We present an optical imaging technique that is able to capture information about optical path difference through the cell and cell adhesion properties simultaneously using a combination of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) and interference reflection microscopy (IRM) techniques. As a novel application of QPM and IRM, this multimodal imaging technique demonstrated its ability to distinguish the undifferentiated status of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells quantitatively based on the variation of optical path difference between the nucleus and cytoplasm as well as hiPS cell-specific cell adhesion properties. PMID:23024911

  3. Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Reveals a Role for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA2 Pathway in Exporting Solute Binding Proteins and Mce Transporters to the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Feltcher, Meghan E; Gunawardena, Harsha P; Zulauf, Katelyn E; Malik, Seidu; Griffin, Jennifer E; Sassetti, Christopher M; Chen, Xian; Braunstein, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an example of a bacterial pathogen with a specialized SecA2-dependent protein export system that contributes to its virulence. Our understanding of the mechanistic basis of SecA2-dependent export and the role(s) of the SecA2 pathway in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the proteins exported by the pathway. Here, we set out to identify M. tuberculosis proteins that use the SecA2 pathway for their export from the bacterial cytoplasm to the cell wall. Using label-free quantitative proteomics involving spectral counting, we compared the cell wall and cytoplasmic proteomes of wild type M. tuberculosis to that of a ΔsecA2 mutant. This work revealed a role for the M. tuberculosis SecA2 pathway in the cell wall localization of solute binding proteins that work with ABC transporters to import solutes. Another discovery was a profound effect of SecA2 on the cell wall localization of the Mce1 and Mce4 lipid transporters, which contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence. In addition to the effects on solute binding proteins and Mce transporter export, our label-free quantitative analysis revealed an unexpected relationship between SecA2 and the hypoxia-induced DosR regulon, which is associated with M. tuberculosis latency. Nearly half of the transcriptionally controlled DosR regulon of cytoplasmic proteins were detected at higher levels in the ΔsecA2 mutant versus wild type M. tuberculosis. By increasing the list of M. tuberculosis proteins known to be affected by the SecA2 pathway, this study expands our appreciation of the types of proteins exported by this pathway and guides our understanding of the mechanism of SecA2-dependent protein export in mycobacteria. At the same time, the newly identified SecA2-dependent proteins are helpful for understanding the significance of this pathway to M. tuberculosis virulence and physiology.

  4. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  5. Label Free Cell-Tracking and Division Detection Based on 2D Time-Lapse Images For Lineage Analysis of Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Gutwein, Michelle; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Geiger, Davi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report a database and a series of techniques related to the problem of tracking cells, and detecting their divisions, in time-lapse movies of mammalian embryos. Our contributions are: (1) a method for counting embryos in a well, and cropping each individual embryo across frames, to create individual movies for cell tracking; (2) a semi-automated method for cell tracking that works up to the 8-cell stage, along with a software implementation available to the public (this software was used to build the reported database); (3) an algorithm for automatic tracking up to the 4-cell stage, based on histograms of mirror symmetry coefficients captured using wavelets; (4) a cell-tracking database containing 100 annotated examples of mammalian embryos up to the 8-cell stage; (5) statistical analysis of various timing distributions obtained from those examples. PMID:24873887

  6. Label-free identification and characterization of murine hair follicle stem cells located in thin tissue sections with Raman micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Short, Michael A; McLean, David I; Zeng, Haishan; McElwee, Kevin; Lui, Harvey

    2014-06-07

    Stem cells offer tremendous opportunities for regenerative medicine. Over the past decade considerable research has taken place to identify and characterize the differentiation states of stem cells in culture. Raman micro-spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal technology since it is fast, nondestructive, and does not require potentially toxic dyes. Raman spectroscopy systems can also be incorporated into confocal microscope imaging systems allowing spectra to be obtained from below the tissue surface. Thus there is significant potential for monitoring stem cells in living tissue. Stem cells that reside in hair follicles are suitable for testing this possibility since they are close to the skin surface, and typically clustered around the bulge area. One of the first steps needed would be to obtain Raman micro-spectra from stem cells located in thin sections of tissue, and then see whether these spectra are clearly different from those of the surrounding differentiated cells. To facilitate this test, standard 5 μm thick sections of murine skin tissue were stained to identify the location of hair follicle stem cells and their progeny. Raman spectra were then obtained from adjacent cells in a subsequent unstained 10 μm thick section. The spectra revealed significant differences in peak intensities associated with nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and amino acids. Statistical analyses of the Raman micro-spectra identified stem cells with 98% sensitivity and 94% specificity, as compared with a CD34 immunostaining gold standard. Furthermore analyses of the spectral variance indicated differences in cellular dynamics between the two cell groups. This study shows that Raman micro-spectroscopy has a potential role in identifying adult follicle stem cells, laying the groundwork for future applications of hair follicle stem cells and other somatic stem cells in situ.

  7. Label-free distinguishing between neurons and glial cells based on two-photon excited fluorescence signal of neuron perinuclear granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huiping; Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Liu, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shu; Zheng, Liqin; Li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Neurons and glial cells are two critical cell types of brain tissue. Their accurate identification is important for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, distinguishing between neurons and glial cells by using the two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals of intracellular intrinsic sources was performed. TPEF microscopy combined with TUJ-1 and GFAP immunostaining and quantitative image analysis demonstrated that the perinuclear granules of neurons in the TPEF images of brain tissue and the primary cultured cortical cells were a unique characteristic of neurons compared to glial cells which can become a quantitative feature to distinguish neurons from glial cells. With the development of miniaturized TPEF microscope (‘two-photon fiberscopes’) imaging devices, TPEF microscopy can be developed into an effective diagnostic and monitoring tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.

  8. Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Song, Siyu; Shuai, Qi; Pei, Yihan; Aastrup, Teodor; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to the study of binding thermodynamics and kinetics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed, in which binding events take place at the cell surface, more closely mimicking a biologically relevant environment. In this study, colon adenocarcinoma cells (KM-12) and ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV-3) grew on the optimized polystyrene-coated biosensor chip without fixation. The association and dissociation between the cell surface carbohydrates and a range of lectins, including WGA, Con A, UEA-I, GS-II, PNA and SBA, were monitored in real time and without label for evaluation of cell surface glycosylation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the interaction between lectins and cell surface glycan were studied, providing detailed information about the interactions, such as the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, affinity constant, as well as the changes of entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This application provides an insight into the cell surface glycosylation and the complex molecular recognition on the intact cell surface, which may have impacts on disease diagnosis and drug discovery. PMID:26369583

  9. Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueming; Song, Siyu; Shuai, Qi; Pei, Yihan; Aastrup, Teodor; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2015-09-15

    A novel approach to the study of binding thermodynamics and kinetics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed, in which binding events take place at the cell surface, more closely mimicking a biologically relevant environment. In this study, colon adenocarcinoma cells (KM-12) and ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV-3) grew on the optimized polystyrene-coated biosensor chip without fixation. The association and dissociation between the cell surface carbohydrates and a range of lectins, including WGA, Con A, UEA-I, GS-II, PNA and SBA, were monitored in real time and without label for evaluation of cell surface glycosylation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the interaction between lectins and cell surface glycan were studied, providing detailed information about the interactions, such as the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, affinity constant, as well as the changes of entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This application provides an insight into the cell surface glycosylation and the complex molecular recognition on the intact cell surface, which may have impacts on disease diagnosis and drug discovery.

  10. Label-free optical activation of astrocyte in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Yoon, Jonghee; Ku, Taeyun; Choi, Kyungsun; Choi, Chulhee

    2011-07-01

    As the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, astrocyte has been one of main research topics in neuroscience. Although various tools have been developed, at present, there is no tool that allows noninvasive activation of astrocyte in vivo without genetic or pharmacological perturbation. Here we report a noninvasive label-free optical method for physiological astrocyte activation in vivo using a femtosecond pulsed laser. We showed the laser stimulation robustly induced astrocytic calcium activation in vivo and further verified physiological relevance of the calcium increase by demonstrating astrocyte mediated vasodilation in the brain. This novel optical method will facilitate noninvasive physiological study on astrocyte function.

  11. In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yin, Linliang; Gonzalez-Malerva, Laura; Wang, Shaopeng; Yu, Xiaobo; Eaton, Seron; Zhang, Shengtao; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Labaer, Joshua; Tao, Nongjian

    2014-10-01

    Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is Herceptin, a popular monoclonal antibody drug for breast cancer by specifically targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Here we demonstrate a quantitative binding kinetics analysis of drug-target interactions to investigate the molecular scale origin of drug resistance. Using a surface plasmon resonance imaging, we measured the in situ Herceptin-Her2 binding kinetics in single intact cancer cells for the first time, and observed significantly weakened Herceptin-Her2 interactions in Herceptin-resistant cells, compared to those in Herceptin-sensitive cells. We further showed that the steric hindrance of Mucin-4, a membrane protein, was responsible for the altered drug-receptor binding. This effect of a third molecule on drug-receptor interactions cannot be studied using traditional purified protein methods, demonstrating the importance of the present intact cell-based binding kinetics analysis.

  12. Live-Cell, Label-Free Identification of GABAergic and Non-GABAergic Neurons in Primary Cortical Cultures Using Micropatterned Surface

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Sho; Kushida, Takatoshi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio; Tanii, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct roles in cortical dynamics. Here we present a novel method for identifying inhibitory GABAergic neurons from non-GABAergic neurons, which are mostly excitatory glutamatergic neurons, in primary cortical cultures. This was achieved using an asymmetrically designed micropattern that directs an axonal process to the longest pathway. In the current work, we first modified the micropattern geometry to improve cell viability and then studied the axon length from 2 to 7 days in vitro (DIV). The cell types of neurons were evaluated retrospectively based on immunoreactivity against GAD67, a marker for inhibitory GABAergic neurons. We found that axons of non-GABAergic neurons grow significantly longer than those of GABAergic neurons in the early stages of development. The optimal threshold for identifying GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons was evaluated to be 110 μm at 6 DIV. The method does not require any fluorescence labelling and can be carried out on live cells. The accuracy of identification was 98.2%. We confirmed that the high accuracy was due to the use of a micropattern, which standardized the development of cultured neurons. The method promises to be beneficial both for engineering neuronal networks in vitro and for basic cellular neuroscience research. PMID:27513933

  13. Raman spectroscopy for discrimination of neural progenitor cells and their lineages (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Keren; Ong, William; Chew, Sing Yian; Liu, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Neurological diseases are one of the leading causes of adult disability and they are estimated to cause more deaths than cancer in the elderly population by 2040. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential in treating neurological diseases. However, before cell therapy can be widely adopted in the long term, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including the fundamental research about cellular development of neural progenitor cells. To facilitate the fundamental research of neural progenitor cells, many methods have been developed to identify neural progenitor cells. Although great progress has been made, there is still lack of an effective method to achieve fast, label-free and noninvasive differentiation of neural progenitor cells and their lineages. As a fast, label-free and noninvasive technique, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been conducted to characterize many types of stem cells including neural stem cells. However, to our best knowledge, it has not been studied for the discrimination of neural progenitor cells from specific lineages. Here we report the differentiation of neural progenitor cell from their lineages including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of system parameters during spectral acquisition on the quality of measured Raman spectra and the accuracy of classification using the spectra, which yield a set of optimal system parameters facilitating future studies.

  14. Interferometric label-free biomolecular detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradetzky, David; Mueller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2006-07-01

    This work presents a simple evanescent wave sensing system based on an interferometric approach, suitable to meet the requirements of label-free sensor systems for detecting biomolecular interactions. It represents a basic concept towards label-free detection systems in various applications. The basic objectives of transducers for evanescent wave sensing are discussed. An optical detection system based on a interferometric approach using Young's double slit configuration is discussed, set-up and characterized. With refractometric measurements of various sucrose dilutions, the performance of the pure optical set-up is evaluated. A mean resolution of the effective refractive index of 3\\sigma (\\overline {\\Delta n}_{\\mathrm {eff}})=0.9 \\times 10^{-6} without averaging was obtained and a reproducibility below σr(neff) = 0.1 × 10-6 was achieved. Furthermore basic experiments were carried out, for proofing the concept's suitability as a highly sensitive biosensor by detecting the hybridization of 21-mer DNA with an immobilized counterpart on the surface.

  15. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Label-free and depth resolved optical sectioning of iron-complex deposits in sickle cell disease splenic tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, Genevieve D.; Adami, Alexander J.; Ahmed, Tahsin; Khan, Aamir; Chapman, Sarah; Andemariam, Biree; Thrall, Roger S.; Howard, Scott S.

    2015-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is performed on humanized sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model splenic tissue. Distinct morphological and spectral features associated with SCD are identified and discussed in terms of diagnostic relevance. Specifically, spectrally unique splenic iron-complex deposits are identified by MPM; this finding is supported by TPEF spectroscopy and object size to standard histopathological methods. Further, iron deposits are found at higher concentrations in diseased tissue than in healthy tissue by all imaging methods employed here including MPM, and therefore, may provide a useful biomarker related to the disease state. These newly characterized biomarkers allow for further investigations of SCD in live animals as a means to gain insight into the mechanisms impacting immune dysregulation and organ malfunction, which are currently not well understood.

  17. Quantification of Rac1 and Rac1b in serum of non small cell lung cancer by label free real time assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Vishal; Gupta, Abhishek; Kumar, Rahul; Gupta, Tarang; Mohan, Anant; Dey, Sharmistha

    2016-09-01

    Rac proteins play a major role in tumorogenesis. We quantified Rac1 and Rac1b in serum of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The blood of 77 NSCLC patients and 52 healthy controls were collected and quantified the concentration of Rac1 and Rac1b mainly by surface plasmon resonance and it was verify by Western blot analysis. Rac1 and Rac1b were found to be significantly over expressed in serum of NSCLC patients compare to healthy controls. The level of Rac proteins were found to be increased in all stages of cancer. Despite the low survival rate, we managed to collect serum sample of the 18 follow up patients after the therapy, where 11 patients' of CR+PR group showed down regulation of the Rac protein after chemotherapy and unfortunately 80% patients died during the study period. The high specificity and sensitivity obtained from ROC analysis for Rac1 and Rac1b envisaged it to be used as a serum diagnostic marker in the early stage of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Label-free surface plasmon sensing towards cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, Goutham

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a conventional, home-built SPR bio-sensor to demonstrate bio-sensing applications. This emphasizes the understanding of basic concepts of Surface Plasmon Resonance and various interrogation techniques. Intensity Modulation was opted to perform the label-free SPR bio-sensing experiments due to its cost-efficient and compact setup. Later, label-free surface plasmon sensing was carried out to study and understand the bio-molecular interactions between (1). BSA and Anti BSA molecules and (2). Exosome/Liposome on thin metal (Au) films. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles present in bodily fluids like blood, saliva, urine, epididymal fluid containing miRNAs, RNA, proteins, etc., at stable quantities during normal health conditions. The exosomes comprise varied constituents based on their cell origin from where they are secreted and is specific to that particular origin. However an exacerbated release is observed during tumor or cancer conditions. This increased level of exosomes present in the sample, can be detected using the SPR bio-sensor demonstrated in this thesis and effective thickness of adsorption on Au surface can be estimated. Also, chemically synthesized liposome particles were studied to determine if they can generate an equivalent sensor response to that of exosomes to consider them as an alternate. Finally a 10ppb Mercury (Hg) sensing was performed as part of Environment Monitoring application and results have been tabulated and compared.

  19. Label-Free Detection of Breast Masses Using Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zhu, Weifeng; Qiu, Jingting; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Histopathology forms the gold standard for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been proposed to be a potentially powerful adjunct to current histopathological techniques. A label-free imaging based on two- photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation is developed for differentiating normal breast tissues, benign, as well as breast cancer tissues. Human breast biopsies (including human normal breast tissues, benign as well as breast cancer tissues ) that are first imaged (fresh, unfixed, and unstained) with MPM and are then processed for routine H-E histopathology. Our results suggest that the MPM images, obtained from these unprocessed biopsies, can readily distinguish between benign lesions and breast cancers. In the tissues of breast cancers, MPM showed that the tumor cells displayed marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. The tumor cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, infiltrated into disrupted connective tissue, leading to the loss of second-harmonic generation signals. For breast cancer, MPM diagnosis was 100% correct because the tissues of breast cancers did not have second-harmonic generation signals in MPM imaging. On the contrary, in benign breast masses, second-harmonic generation signals could be seen easily in MPM imaging. These observations indicate that MPM could be an important potential tool to provide label-free noninvasive diagnostic impressions that can guide surgeon in biopsy and patient management. PMID:23755295

  20. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaojun; Gou, Honglei; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yun; Ji, Yuetong; Huang, Wei E.; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named “ramanome”, which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%. Moreover, the ramanomes upon six chemical compounds from three categories, including antibiotics of ampicillin and kanamycin, alcohols of ethanol and n-butanol and heavy metals of Cu2+ and Cr6+, were analyzed and 31 marker Raman bands were revealed which distinguish stress-responses via cytotoxicity mechanism and variation of inter-cellular heterogeneity. Furthermore, specificity, reproducibility and mechanistic basis of ramanome were validated by tracking stress-induced dynamics of metabolites and by contrasting between cells with and without genes that convey stress resistance. Thus ramanome enables rapid prediction and mechanism-based screening of cytotoxicity and stress-response programs at single-cell resolution. PMID:27756907

  1. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  2. The development of label-free cellular assays for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2011-12-01

    The need to improve drug research and development productivity continues to drive innovation in pharmacological assays. Technologies that can leverage the advantages of both molecular and phenotypic assays would hold great promise for discovery of new medicines. This article briefly reviews current label-free platforms for cell-based assays and is primarily focused on fundamental aspects of these assays using dynamic mass redistribution technology as an example. The article also presents strategies for relating label-free profiles to molecular modes of actions of drugs. Emerging evidence suggests that label-free cellular assays are phenotypic in nature, yet permit molecular mechanistic deconvolution. Together with unique competency in throughput, sensitivity and pathway coverages, label-free cellular assays allow users to screen drugs against endogenous receptors in native cells (including disease relevant primary cells) and determine the molecular modes of action of drug molecules. However, there are challenges for label-free in both basic research and drug discovery: the deconvolution of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the biosensor signatures of receptor-drug interactions, new methodologies for data analysis and the development of new biosensor technologies. These challenges will need to be met for the wide adoption of these assays in drug discovery.

  3. Label-Free Dopamine Imaging in Live Rat Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission has been investigated extensively, yet direct optical probing of dopamine has not been possible in live cells. Here we image intracellular dopamine with sub-micrometer three-dimensional resolution by harnessing its intrinsic mid-ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence. Two-photon excitation with visible light (540 nm) in conjunction with a non-epifluorescent detection scheme is used to circumvent the UV toxicity and the UV transmission problems. The method is established by imaging dopamine in a dopaminergic cell line and in control cells (glia), and is validated by mass spectrometry. We further show that individual dopamine vesicles/vesicular clusters can be imaged in cultured rat brain slices, thereby providing a direct visualization of the intracellular events preceding dopamine release induced by depolarization or amphetamine exposure. Our technique opens up a previously inaccessible mid-ultraviolet spectral regime (excitation ∼ 270 nm, emission < 320 nm) for label-free imaging of native molecules in live tissue. PMID:24661118

  4. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs. PMID:22355552

  5. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β(2)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Ann M; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β(2)-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs.

  6. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-07-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs.

  7. Extracting histones for the specific purpose of label-free MS.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Elisabeth; Van Steendam, Katleen; Scheerlinck, Ellen; Vossaert, Liesbeth; Meert, Paulien; Stella, Martina; Willems, Sander; De Clerck, Laura; Dhaenens, Maarten; Deforce, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Extracting histones from cells is the first step in studies that aim to characterize histones and their post-translational modifications (hPTMs) with MS. In the last decade, label-free quantification is more frequently being used for MS-based histone characterization. However, many histone extraction protocols were not specifically designed for label-free MS. While label-free quantification has its advantages, it is also very susceptible to technical variation. Here, we adjust an established histone extraction protocol according to general label-free MS guidelines with a specific focus on minimizing sample handling. These protocols are first evaluated using SDS-PAGE. Hereafter, a selection of extraction protocols was used in a complete histone workflow for label-free MS. All protocols display nearly identical relative quantification of hPTMs. We thus show that, depending on the cell type under investigation and at the cost of some additional contaminating proteins, minimizing sample handling can be done during histone isolation. This allows analyzing bigger sample batches, leads to reduced technical variation and minimizes the chance of in vitro alterations to the hPTM snapshot. Overall, these results allow researchers to determine the best protocol depending on the resources and goal of their specific study. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002885.

  8. Spectroscopic Methods for Label-Free Optical Nanoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, John E.

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the nanoscale organization and structure of macromolecules play a significant role in determining the function and properties of biological systems. To understand the relationships between biological structure and function at nanometer length scales, there is a need for methods which enable imaging of intact nanoscale biological structure. An ideal technique for these applications is sensitive to nanoscale structure below the resolution limit of conventional optical microscopy ( 200 nm), achieves label-free contrast, is non-perturbing to biological samples, is quantitative, is capable of molecular specificity, is high-throughput, and finally is simple, enabling widespread utilization. Existing techniques meet some of these criteria, but all have limitations. For example, super-resolution optical microscopy methods achieve molecular-specific nanoscale resolution well below the resolution limit of conventional optical microscopes, however, they rely on fluorescent labels often at high densities that can be toxic and can often require potentially damaging illumination intensities for imaging. As a result, there remains a need for label-free optical techniques to study the nanoscale structural properties of cells. To address this need, the development of instrumentation and algorithms for Partial Wave Spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy will be described. PWS is a spectroscopic, label-free, nanoscale sensitive microscope which, senses rather than resolves structure below the resolution limit of conventional microscopes ( 200nm). First, PWS has shown utility as a diagnostic screening tool for cancer due to nanoscale structural alterations that occur in cells as part of the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Instrumentation and algorithms developed to enable high-throughput cancer screening applications will be described. Further enhancement of data acquisition and analysis speed will then be described through the development of new

  9. Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shirale, Dhammanand J.; Bangar, Mangesh A.; Park, Miso; Yates, Marylynn V.; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V.

    2012-01-01

    We report development, characterization and testing of chemiresistive immunosensors based on single polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowire for highly sensitive, specific, label free, and direct detection of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires were electrochemically polymerized into alumina template and single nanowire based devices were assembled on a pair of gold electrodes by ac dielectrophoretic alignment and anchored using maskless electrodeposition. Anti-T7 or anti-MS2 antibodies were immobilized on single Ppy nanowire using EDC-NHS chemistry to fabricate nano-biosensor for the detection of corresponding bacteriophage. The biosensors showed excellent sensitivity with a lower detection limit of 10−3 plaque forming unit (PFU) in 10 mM phosphate buffer, wide dynamic range and excellent selectivity. The immunosensors were successfully applied for the detection of phages in spiked untreated lake water samples. The results show the potential of these sensors in health care, environmental monitoring, food safety and homeland security for sensitive, specific, rapid and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. PMID:21058664

  10. On-Chip Integrated Label-Free Optical Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendowski, Jacob Benjamin

    This thesis investigates the design and implementation of a label-free optical biosensing system utilizing a robust on-chip integrated platform. The goal has been to transition optical micro-resonator based label-free biosensing from a laborious and delicate laboratory demonstration to a tool for the analytical life scientist. This has been pursued along four avenues: (1) the design and fabrication of high-Q integrated planar microdisk optical resonators in silicon nitride on silica, (2) the demonstration of a high speed optoelectronic swept frequency laser source, (3) the development and integration of a microfluidic analyte delivery system, and (4) the introduction of a novel differential measurement technique for the reduction of environmental noise. The optical part of this system combines the results of two major recent developments in the field of optical and laser physics: the high- Q optical resonator and the phase-locked electronically controlled swept-frequency semiconductor laser. The laser operates at a wavelength relevant for aqueous sensing, and replaces expensive and fragile mechanically-tuned laser sources whose frequency sweeps have limited speed, accuracy and reliability. The high-Q optical resonator is part of a monolithic unit with an integrated optical waveguide, and is fabricated using standard semiconductor lithography methods. Monolithic integration makes the system significantly more robust and flexible compared to current, fragile embodiments that rely on the precarious coupling of fragile optical fibers to resonators. The silicon nitride on silica material system allows for future manifestations at shorter wavelengths. The sensor also includes an integrated microfluidic flow cell for precise and low volume delivery of analytes to the resonator surface. We demonstrate the refractive index sensing action of the system as well as the specific and nonspecific adsorption of proteins onto the resonator surface with high sensitivity. Measurement

  11. Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fa-Ke; Calligaris, David; Olubiyi, Olutayo I.; Norton, Isaiah; Yang, Wenlong; Santagata, Sandro; Xie, X. Sunney; Golby, Alexandra J.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor removal without injuring critical brain structures. Achieving this goal is challenging since it can be difficult to distinguish tumor from non-tumor tissue. While standard histopathology provides information that could assist tumor delineation, it cannot be performed iteratively during surgery as freezing, sectioning, and staining of the tissue require too much time. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a powerful label-free chemical imaging technology that enables rapid mapping of lipids and proteins within a fresh specimen. This information can be rendered into pathology-like images. Although this approach has been used to assess the density of glioma cells in murine orthotopic xenografts models and human brain tumors, tissue heterogeneity in clinical brain tumors has not yet been fully evaluated with SRS imaging. Here we profile 41 specimens resected from 12 patients with a range of brain tumors. By evaluating large-scale stimulated Raman imaging data and correlating this data with current clinical gold standard of histopathology for 4,422 fields of view, we capture many essential diagnostic hallmarks for glioma classification. Notably, in fresh tumor samples we observe additional features, not seen by conventional methods, including extensive lipid droplets within glioma cells, collagen deposition in gliosarcoma, and irregularity and disruption of myelinated fibers in areas infiltrated by oligodendroglioma cells. This data is freely available in a public resource to foster diagnostic training and to permit additional interrogation. Our work establishes the methodology and provides a significant collection of reference images for label-free neurosurgical pathology. PMID:27197198

  12. Label-free detection of biomolecular interactions using BioLayer interferometry for kinetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Joy; Witte, Krista; Wartchow, Charles; Choo, Sae; Yao, Danfeng; Persson, Henrik; Wei, Jing; Li, Pu; Heidecker, Bettina; Ma, Weilei; Varma, Ram; Zhao, Lian-She; Perillat, Donald; Carricato, Greg; Recknor, Michael; Du, Kevin; Ho, Huddee; Ellis, Tim; Gamez, Juan; Howes, Michael; Phi-Wilson, Janette; Lockard, Scott; Zuk, Robert; Tan, Hong

    2009-09-01

    The analysis of biomolecular interactions is key in the drug development process. Label-free biosensor methods provide information on binding, kinetics, concentration, and the affinity of an interaction. These techniques provide real-time monitoring of interactions between an immobilized ligand (such as a receptor) to an analyte in solution without the use of labels. Advances in biosensor design and detection using BioLayer Interferometry (BLI) provide a simple platform that enables label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions without the use of flow cells. We review the applications of BLI in a wide variety of research and development environments for quantifying antibodies and proteins and measuring kinetics parameters.

  13. Label-free high-throughput imaging flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Chen, C.; Niazi, K. R.; Rabizadeh, S.; Jalali, B.

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is an optical method for studying cells based on their individual physical and chemical characteristics. It is widely used in clinical diagnosis, medical research, and biotechnology for analysis of blood cells and other cells in suspension. Conventional flow cytometers aim a laser beam at a stream of cells and measure the elastic scattering of light at forward and side angles. They also perform single-point measurements of fluorescent emissions from labeled cells. However, many reagents used in cell labeling reduce cellular viability or change the behavior of the target cells through the activation of undesired cellular processes or inhibition of normal cellular activity. Therefore, labeled cells are not completely representative of their unaltered form nor are they fully reliable for downstream studies. To remove the requirement of cell labeling in flow cytometry, while still meeting the classification sensitivity and specificity goals, measurement of additional biophysical parameters is essential. Here, we introduce an interferometric imaging flow cytometer based on the world's fastest continuous-time camera. Our system simultaneously measures cellular size, scattering, and protein concentration as supplementary biophysical parameters for label-free cell classification. It exploits the wide bandwidth of ultrafast laser pulses to perform blur-free quantitative phase and intensity imaging at flow speeds as high as 10 meters per second and achieves nanometer-scale optical path length resolution for precise measurements of cellular protein concentration.

  14. Rapid Identification of Biotherapeutics with Label-Free Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Siddhanta, Soumik; Strouse, Robert; McGivney, James B; Larkin, Christopher; Barman, Ishan

    2016-04-19

    Product identification is a critical and required analysis for biotheraputics. In addition to regulatory requirements for identity testing on final drug products, in-process identity testing is implemented to reduce business risks associated with fill operations and can also be used as a tool against counterfeiting. Biotherapeutics, in particular monoclonal antibodies, represent a challenging cohort for identity determination because of their similarity in chemical structure. Traditional methods used for product identification can be time and labor intensive, creating a need for quick, inexpensive and reliable methods of drug identification. Here, driven by its molecular-specific and nonperturbative nature, we present Raman spectroscopy as an alternate analytical tool for identity testing. By exploiting subtle differences in vibrational modes of the biologics, we have developed partial least-squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithms that offer excellent differentiation capability using spontaneous Raman spectra as well as label-free plasmon-enhanced Raman spectra. Coupled with the robustness to spurious correlations due to its high information content, our results highlight the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a powerful method for rapid, on-site biotherapeutic product identification.

  15. Label-free monitoring of individual DNA hybridization using SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ji; Zeng, Jianbo; Zhao, Fusheng; Santos, Greggy M.; Lin, Steven Hsesheng; Raja, Balakrishnan; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Sequence-specific detection of DNA hybridization at the single-molecule level has been instrumental and gradually become a ubiquitous tool in a wide variety of biological and biomedical applications such as clinical diagnostics, biosensors, and drug development. Label-free and amplification-free schemes are of particular interest because they could potentially provide in situ monitoring of individual hybridization events, which may lead to techniques for discriminating subtle variations due to single-base modification without stringency control or repetitive thermal cycling. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for molecular detection and identification by exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance effect when the target molecules are near gold or silver nanostructures. However, effective and robust SERS assays have yet become a reality for trace detection. Recently, we have developed a SERS substrate by shaping nanoporous gold thin films into monolithic submicron disks, called nanoporous gold disks (NPGD). Here we demonstrate in situ monitoring of the same immobilized ssDNA molecules and their individual hybridization events.

  16. Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Fa-Ke; Basu, Srinjan; Igras, Vivien; ...

    2015-08-31

    Label-free DNA imaging is highly desirable in biology and medicine to perform live imaging without affecting cell function and to obtain instant histological tissue examination during surgical procedures. Here we show a label-free DNA imaging method with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy for visualization of the cell nuclei in live animals and intact fresh human tissues with subcellular resolution. Relying on the distinct Raman spectral features of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in DNA, the distribution of DNA is retrieved from the strong background of proteins and lipids by linear decomposition of SRS images at three optimally selected Raman shifts. Based onmore » changes on DNA condensation in the nucleus, we were able to capture chromosome dynamics during cell division both in vitro and in vivo. We tracked mouse skin cell proliferation, induced by drug treatment, through in vivo counting of the mitotic rate. Moreover, we demonstrated a label-free histology method for human skin cancer diagnosis that provides comparable results to other conventional tissue staining methods such as H&E. In conclusion, our approach exhibits higher sensitivity than SRS imaging of DNA in the fingerprint spectral region. Compared with spontaneous Raman imaging of DNA, our approach is three orders of magnitude faster, allowing both chromatin dynamic studies and label-free optical histology in real time.« less

  17. Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fa-Ke; Basu, Srinjan; Igras, Vivien; Hoang, Mai P.; Ji, Minbiao; Fu, Dan; Holtom, Gary R.; Neel, Victor A.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Fisher, David E.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2015-01-01

    Label-free DNA imaging is highly desirable in biology and medicine to perform live imaging without affecting cell function and to obtain instant histological tissue examination during surgical procedures. Here we show a label-free DNA imaging method with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy for visualization of the cell nuclei in live animals and intact fresh human tissues with subcellular resolution. Relying on the distinct Raman spectral features of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in DNA, the distribution of DNA is retrieved from the strong background of proteins and lipids by linear decomposition of SRS images at three optimally selected Raman shifts. Based on changes on DNA condensation in the nucleus, we were able to capture chromosome dynamics during cell division both in vitro and in vivo. We tracked mouse skin cell proliferation, induced by drug treatment, through in vivo counting of the mitotic rate. Furthermore, we demonstrated a label-free histology method for human skin cancer diagnosis that provides comparable results to other conventional tissue staining methods such as H&E. Our approach exhibits higher sensitivity than SRS imaging of DNA in the fingerprint spectral region. Compared with spontaneous Raman imaging of DNA, our approach is three orders of magnitude faster, allowing both chromatin dynamic studies and label-free optical histology in real time. PMID:26324899

  18. Label-Free Proteome Profiling of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae LC-MS/MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-12

    Title Carbapenem- resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae LC-MS/MS Description A comprehensive analysis of proteome changes in CRKP cells in response to...the sub-MIC doses of antibiotics was performed by using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Sample Processing Protocol The pellets were

  19. Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fa-Ke; Basu, Srinjan; Igras, Vivien; Hoang, Mai P; Ji, Minbiao; Fu, Dan; Holtom, Gary R; Neel, Victor A; Freudiger, Christian W; Fisher, David E; Xie, X Sunney

    2015-09-15

    Label-free DNA imaging is highly desirable in biology and medicine to perform live imaging without affecting cell function and to obtain instant histological tissue examination during surgical procedures. Here we show a label-free DNA imaging method with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy for visualization of the cell nuclei in live animals and intact fresh human tissues with subcellular resolution. Relying on the distinct Raman spectral features of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in DNA, the distribution of DNA is retrieved from the strong background of proteins and lipids by linear decomposition of SRS images at three optimally selected Raman shifts. Based on changes on DNA condensation in the nucleus, we were able to capture chromosome dynamics during cell division both in vitro and in vivo. We tracked mouse skin cell proliferation, induced by drug treatment, through in vivo counting of the mitotic rate. Furthermore, we demonstrated a label-free histology method for human skin cancer diagnosis that provides comparable results to other conventional tissue staining methods such as H&E. Our approach exhibits higher sensitivity than SRS imaging of DNA in the fingerprint spectral region. Compared with spontaneous Raman imaging of DNA, our approach is three orders of magnitude faster, allowing both chromatin dynamic studies and label-free optical histology in real time.

  20. A reusable sensor for the label-free detection of specific oligonucleotides by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nöll, Gilbert; Su, Qiang; Heidel, Björn; Yu, Yaming

    2014-01-01

    The development of a reusable molecular beacon (MB)-based sensor for the label-free detection of specific oligonucleotides using surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) as the readout method is described. The MBs are chemisorbed at planar gold surfaces serving as fluorescence quenching units. Target oligonucleotides of 24 bases can be detected within a few minutes at high single-mismatch discrimination rates.

  1. Label-free and high-sensitive detection for genetic point mutation based on hyperspectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongxin; Li, Qi; Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Ruliang; Lin, Xue; Xue, Ning; Su, Ya; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-10-01

    Label free point mutation detection is particularly momentous in the area of biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since gene mutations naturally occur and bring about highly fatal diseases. In this paper, a label free and high sensitive approach is proposed for point mutation detection based on hyperspectral interferometry. A hybridization strategy is designed to discriminate a single-base substitution with sequence-specific DNA ligase. Double-strand structures will take place only if added oligonucleotides are perfectly paired to the probe sequence. The proposed approach takes full use of the inherent conformation of double-strand DNA molecules on the substrate and a spectrum analysis method is established to point out the sub-nanoscale thickness variation, which benefits to high sensitive mutation detection. The limit of detection reach 4pg/mm2 according to the experimental result. A lung cancer gene point mutation was demonstrated, proving the high selectivity and multiplex analysis capability of the proposed biosensor.

  2. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

  3. Microchannel DNA Sequencing by End-Labelled Free Solution Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, A.

    2005-09-29

    The further development of End-Labeled Free-Solution Electrophoresis will greatly simplify DNA separation and sequencing on microfluidic devices. The development and optimization of drag-tags is critical to the success of this research.

  4. Photonic crystal microcapsules for label-free multiplex detection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Baofen; Ding, Haibo; Cheng, Yao; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-05-28

    A novel suspension array, which possesses the joint advantages of photonic crystal encoded technology, bioresponsive hydrogels, and photonic crystal sensors with capability of full multiplexing label-free detection is developed.

  5. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in “digital” diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM’s development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity. PMID:26343684

  6. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T

    2015-08-28

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in "digital" diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM's development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity.

  7. Fast label-free detection of Legionella spp. in biofilms by applying immunomagnetic beads and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kusić, Dragana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Legionellae colonize biofilms, can form a biofilm by itself and multiply intracellularly within the protozoa commonly found in water distribution systems. Approximately half of the known species are pathogenic and have been connected to severe multisystem Legionnaires' disease. The detection methods for Legionella spp. in water samples are still based on cultivation, which is time consuming due to the slow growth of this bacterium. Here, we developed a cultivation-independent, label-free and fast detection method for legionellae in a biofilm matrix based on the Raman spectroscopic analysis of isolated single cells via immunomagnetic separation (IMS). A database comprising the Raman spectra of single bacterial cells captured and separated from the biofilms formed by each species was used to build the identification method based on a support vector machine (SVM) discriminative classifier. The complete method allows the detection of Legionella spp. in 100 min. Cross-reactivity of Legionella spp. specific immunomagnetic beads to the other studied genera was tested, where only small cell amounts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli compared to the initial number of cells were isolated by the immunobeads. Nevertheless, the Raman spectra collected from isolated non-targeted bacteria were well-discriminated from the Raman spectra collected from isolated Legionella cells, whereby the Raman spectra of the independent dataset of Legionella strains were assigned with an accuracy of 98.6%. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was also used to differentiate between isolated Legionella species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Label-free proteomic analysis of breast cancer molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Panis, Carolina; Pizzatti, Luciana; Herrera, Ana Cristina; Corrêa, Stephany; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2014-11-07

    To better characterize the cellular pathways involved in breast cancer molecular subtypes, we performed a proteomic study using a label-free LC-MS strategy for determining the proteomic profile of Luminal A, Luminal-HER2, HER2-positive, and triple-negative (TN) breast tumors compared with healthy mammary tissue. This comparison aimed to identify the aberrant processes specific for each subtype and might help to refine our understanding regarding breast cancer biology. Our results address important molecular features (both specific and commonly shared) that explain the biological behavior of each subtype. Changes in proteins related to cytoskeletal organization were found in all tumor subtypes, indicating that breast tumors are under constant structural modifications to invade and metastasize. We also found changes in cell-adhesion processes in all molecular subtypes, corroborating that invasiveness is a common property of breast cancer cells. Luminal-HER2 and HER2 tumors also presented altered cell cycle regulation, as shown by the several DNA repair-related proteins. An altered immune response was also found as a common process in the Luminal A, Luminal-HER2, and TN subtypes, and complement was the most important pathway. Analysis of the TN subtype revealed blood coagulation as the most relevant biological process.

  9. Label-free detection of antigens using implantable SERS nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Honggang; Baum, Caitlin E.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2005-11-01

    Monitoring the presence, production and transport of proteins inside individual living cells can provide vital information about cellular signaling pathways and the overall biological response of an organism. For example, cellular response to external stimuli, such as biological warfare (BW) agents, can be monitored by measuring interleukin-II (IL-2) expression inside T-cells as well as other chemical species associated with T-cell activation. By monitoring such species, pre-symptomatic detection of exposure to BW agents can be achieved, leading to significantly increased post-exposure survival rates. To accomplish such monitoring, we have developed and optimized implantable nanosphere-based nanosensors for the intracellular analysis of specific proteins in a label-free fashion. These sensors consist of 300-520 nm diameter silica spheres that have been coated with silver and antibodies to allow for trace protein detection via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). They have been optimized for SERS response by evaluating the size of the nanospheres best suited to 632.8 nm laser excitation, as well as the various nanosensor fabrication steps (i.e., silver deposition process, antibody binding, etc.). During usage, the presence of the specific protein of interest is monitored by either directly measuring SERS signals associated with the protein and/or changes in the SERS spectrum of the antibodies resulting from conformational changes after antigen binding. In this work, human insulin was used as a model compound for initial studies into the sensitivity of these optimized nanosensors.

  10. High-throughput screening based on label-free detection of small molecule microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chenggang; Fei, Yiyan; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2017-02-01

    Based on small-molecule microarrays (SMMs) and oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) scanner, we have developed a novel high-throughput drug preliminary screening platform based on label-free monitoring of direct interactions between target proteins and immobilized small molecules. The screening platform is especially attractive for screening compounds against targets of unknown function and/or structure that are not compatible with functional assay development. In this screening platform, OI-RD scanner serves as a label-free detection instrument which is able to monitor about 15,000 biomolecular interactions in a single experiment without the need to label any biomolecule. Besides, SMMs serves as a novel format for high-throughput screening by immobilization of tens of thousands of different compounds on a single phenyl-isocyanate functionalized glass slide. Based on the high-throughput screening platform, we sequentially screened five target proteins (purified target proteins or cell lysate containing target protein) in high-throughput and label-free mode. We found hits for respective target protein and the inhibition effects for some hits were confirmed by following functional assays. Compared to traditional high-throughput screening assay, the novel high-throughput screening platform has many advantages, including minimal sample consumption, minimal distortion of interactions through label-free detection, multi-target screening analysis, which has a great potential to be a complementary screening platform in the field of drug discovery.

  11. Quantitative label-free phosphoproteomics strategy for multifaceted experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Soderblom, Erik J; Philipp, Melanie; Thompson, J Will; Caron, Marc G; Moseley, M Arthur

    2011-05-15

    Protein phosphorylation is a critical regulator of signaling in nearly all eukaryotic cellular pathways and dysregulated phosphorylation has been implicated in an array of diseases. The majority of MS-based quantitative phosphorylation studies are currently performed from transformed cell lines because of the ability to generate large amounts of starting material with incorporated isotopically labeled amino acids during cell culture. Here we describe a general label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic strategy capable of directly analyzing relatively small amounts of virtually any biological matrix, including human tissue and biological fluids. The strategy utilizes a TiO(2) enrichment protocol in which the selectivity and recovery of phosphopeptides were optimized by assessing a twenty-point condition matrix of binding modifier concentrations and peptide-to-resin capacity ratios. The quantitative reproducibility of the TiO(2) enrichment was determined to be 16% RSD through replicate enrichments of a wild-type Danio rerio (zebrafish) lysate. Measured phosphopeptide fold-changes from alpha-casein spiked into wild-type zebrafish lysate backgrounds were within 5% of the theoretical value. Application to a morpholino induced knock-down of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) in zebrafish embryos resulted in the quantitation of 719 phosphorylated peptides corresponding to 449 phosphorylated proteins from 200 μg of zebrafish embryo lysates.

  12. Multimodal discrimination of immune cells using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McReynolds, Naomi; Cooke, Fiona G. M.; Chen, Mingzhou; Powis, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to identify and characterise individual cells of the immune system under label-free conditions would be a significant advantage in biomedical and clinical studies where untouched and unmodified cells are required. We present a multi-modal system capable of simultaneously acquiring both single point Raman spectra and digital holographic images of single cells. We use this combined approach to identify and discriminate between immune cell populations CD4+ T cells, B cells and monocytes. We investigate several approaches to interpret the phase images including signal intensity histograms and texture analysis. Both modalities are independently able to discriminate between cell subsets and dual-modality may therefore be used a means for validation. We demonstrate here sensitivities achieved in the range of 86.8% to 100%, and specificities in the range of 85.4% to 100%. Additionally each modality provides information not available from the other providing both a molecular and a morphological signature of each cell. PMID:28256551

  13. Phase sensitive spectral domain interferometry for label free biomolecular interaction analysis and biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirvi, Sajal

    Biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA) plays vital role in wide variety of fields, which include biomedical research, pharmaceutical industry, medical diagnostics, and biotechnology industry. Study and quantification of interactions between natural biomolecules (proteins, enzymes, DNA) and artificially synthesized molecules (drugs) is routinely done using various labeled and label-free BIA techniques. Labeled BIA (Chemiluminescence, Fluorescence, Radioactive) techniques suffer from steric hindrance of labels on interaction site, difficulty of attaching labels to molecules, higher cost and time of assay development. Label free techniques with real time detection capabilities have demonstrated advantages over traditional labeled techniques. The gold standard for label free BIA is surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) that detects and quantifies the changes in refractive index of the ligand-analyte complex molecule with high sensitivity. Although SPR is a highly sensitive BIA technique, it requires custom-made sensor chips and is not well suited for highly multiplexed BIA required in high throughput applications. Moreover implementation of SPR on various biosensing platforms is limited. In this research work spectral domain phase sensitive interferometry (SD-PSI) has been developed for label-free BIA and biosensing applications to address limitations of SPR and other label free techniques. One distinct advantage of SD-PSI compared to other label-free techniques is that it does not require use of custom fabricated biosensor substrates. Laboratory grade, off-the-shelf glass or plastic substrates of suitable thickness with proper surface functionalization are used as biosensor chips. SD-PSI is tested on four separate BIA and biosensing platforms, which include multi-well plate, flow cell, fiber probe with integrated optics and fiber tip biosensor. Sensitivity of 33 ng/ml for anti-IgG is achieved using multi-well platform. Principle of coherence multiplexing for multi

  14. Magnetic bead-based label-free electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Kawde, A N; Erdem, A; Salazar, M

    2001-11-01

    Magnetic bead capture has been used for eliminating non-specific adsorption effects hampering label-free detection of DNA hybridization based on stripping potentiometric measurements of the target guanine at graphite electrodes. In particular, the efficient magnetic separation has been extremely useful for discriminating against unwanted constituents, including a large excess of co-existing mismatched and non-complementary oligomers, chromosomal DNA, RNA and proteins. The new protocol involves the attachment of biotinylated oligonucleotide probes onto streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, followed by the hybridization event, dissociation of the DNA hybrid from the beads, and potentiometric stripping measurements at a renewable graphite pencil electrode. Such coupling of magnetic hybridization surfaces with renewable graphite electrode transducers and label-free electrical detection results in a greatly simplified protocol and offers great promise for centralized and decentralized genetic testing. A new magnetic carbon-paste transducer, combining the solution-phase magnetic separation with an instantaneous magnetic collection of the bead-captured hybrid, is also described. The characterization, optimization and advantages of the genomagnetic label-free electrical protocol are illustrated below for assays of DNA sequences related to the breast-cancer BRCA1 gene.

  15. Label-Free Microcavity Biosensors: Steps towards Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Amarie, Dragos; Glazier, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized medicine has the potential to improve our ability to maintain health and treat disease, while ameliorating continuously rising healthcare costs. Translation of basic research findings to clinical applications within regulatory compliance is required for personalized medicine to become the new foundation for practice of medicine. Deploying even a few of the thousands of potential diagnostic biomarkers identified each year as part of personalized treatment workflows requires clinically efficient biosensor technologies to monitor multiple biomarkers in patients in real time. This paper discusses a critical component of a regulatory system, a microcavity optical biosensor for label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions at physiologically-relevant concentrations. While most current biosensor research focuses on improving sensitivity, this paper emphasizes other characteristics a biosensor technology requires to be practical in a clinical setting, presenting robust microcavity biosensors which are easy to manufacture and integrate with microfluidics into flexible and redesignable platforms making the microcavity biosensors deployable for continuous monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids in the clinic, in dense 2D random arrays for high-throughput applications like drug-library screening in interactomics, and of the secretory behavior of single cells in the laboratory. PMID:23443397

  16. Label-free imaging of cellular malformation using high resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Li, Bingbing; Yang, Sihua

    2014-09-01

    A label-free high resolution photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system for imaging cellular malformation is presented. The carbon fibers were used to testify the lateral resolution of the PAM. Currently, the lateral resolution is better than 2.7 μm. The human normal red blood cells (RBCs) were used to prove the imaging capability of the system, and a single red blood cell was mapped with high contrast. Moreover, the iron deficiency anemia RBCs were clearly distinguished from the cell morphology by using the PAM. The experimental results demonstrate that the photoacoustic microscopy system can accomplish label-free photoacoustic imaging and that it has clinical potential for use in the detection of erythrocytes and blood vessels malformation.

  17. 2D light scattering label-free cytometry using light-sheet illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiai; Su, Xuantao

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) light scattering cytometry has been demonstrated as an effective label-free technology for cell analysis. Here we develop the light-sheet illumination in 2D light scattering static cytometry. In our cytometer, a cylindrical lens is used to form the light-sheet for better excitation of the static cells under an inverted microscope. The thickness of the light-sheet measured in fluorescent solution is about 13 μm. Two-dimensional light scattering patterns of standard microspheres and yeast cells are obtained by using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector via a low numerical aperture (NA 0.4) optical objective. The experimental patterns characterized with fringe structures agree well with Mie theory simulated ones. Our results suggest that the light-sheet illumination is an effective excitation method for 2D light scattering label-free cytometry.

  18. Photonic crystal microring resonator for label-free biosensing.

    PubMed

    Lo, Stanley M; Hu, Shuren; Gaur, Girija; Kostoulas, Yiorgos; Weiss, Sharon M; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2017-03-20

    A label-free optical biosensor based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal microring resonator with enhanced light-matter interaction is demonstrated. More than a 2-fold improvement in volumetric and surface sensing sensitivity is achieved compared to conventional microring sensors. The experimental bulk detection sensitivity is ~248nm/RIU and label-free detection of DNA and proteins is reported at the nanomolar scale. With a minimum feature size greater than 100nm, the photonic crystal microring resonator biosensor can be fabricated with the same standard lithographic techniques used to mass fabricate conventional microring resonators.

  19. Gold nanopyramidal plasmonic crystals for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pei-Yu; Lin, Tzung-Hua; Schultz, Gregory; Jiang, Peng; Batich, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    We developed a wafer-scale 3D plasmonic crystal consisting of gold nanopyramid arrays using a colloidal templating technique. These surface plasmons in the arrays allow us to obtain real-time, label-free and high sensitivity biomolecular binding measurements. In our research, we found the sensing capabilities improved while the detection limit of the alcohol dehydrogenase sensing was down to pM. The features of low cost fabrication and real-time, label-free, specific and quantitative measurement capabilities suggest promise for the gold nanopyramid arrays in both biological and chemically based analytical detection systems.

  20. Label-free all-electronic biosensing in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Michael A.

    Label-free, all-electronic detection techniques offer great promise for advancements in medical and biological analysis. Electrical sensing can be used to measure both interfacial and bulk impedance changes in conducting solutions. Electronic sensors produced using standard microfabrication processes are easily integrated into microfluidic systems. Combined with the sensitivity of radiofrequency electrical measurements, this approach offers significant advantages over competing biological sensing methods. Scalable fabrication methods also provide a means of bypassing the prohibitive costs and infrastructure associated with current technologies. We describe the design, development and use of a radiofrequency reflectometer integrated into a microfluidic system towards the specific detection of biologically relevant materials. We developed a detection protocol based on impedimetric changes caused by the binding of antibody/antigen pairs to the sensing region. Here we report the surface chemistry that forms the necessary capture mechanism. Gold-thiol binding was utilized to create an ordered alkane monolayer on the sensor surface. Exposed functional groups target the N-terminus, affixing a protein to the monolayer. The general applicability of this method lends itself to a wide variety of proteins. To demonstrate specificity, commercially available mouse anti- Streptococcus Pneumoniae monoclonal antibody was used to target the full-length recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A, type 2 strain D39 expressed by Streptococcus Pneumoniae. We demonstrate the RF response of the sensor to both the presence of the surface decoration and bound SPn cells in a 1x phosphate buffered saline solution. The combined microfluidic sensor represents a powerful platform for the analysis and detection of cells and biomolecules.

  1. Emerging applications of label-free optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Giuliano; Lanfranco, Roberta; Giavazzi, Fabio; Bellini, Tommaso; Buscaglia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Innovative technical solutions to realize optical biosensors with improved performance are continuously proposed. Progress in material fabrication enables developing novel substrates with enhanced optical responses. At the same time, the increased spectrum of available biomolecular tools, ranging from highly specific receptors to engineered bioconjugated polymers, facilitates the preparation of sensing surfaces with controlled functionality. What remains often unclear is to which extent this continuous innovation provides effective breakthroughs for specific applications. In this review, we address this challenging question for the class of label-free optical biosensors, which can provide a direct signal upon molecular binding without using secondary probes. Label-free biosensors have become a consolidated approach for the characterization and screening of molecular interactions in research laboratories. However, in the last decade, several examples of other applications with high potential impact have been proposed. We review the recent advances in label-free optical biosensing technology by focusing on the potential competitive advantage provided in selected emerging applications, grouped on the basis of the target type. In particular, direct and real-time detection allows the development of simpler, compact, and rapid analytical methods for different kinds of targets, from proteins to DNA and viruses. The lack of secondary interactions facilitates the binding of small-molecule targets and minimizes the perturbation in single-molecule detection. Moreover, the intrinsic versatility of label-free sensing makes it an ideal platform to be integrated with biomolecular machinery with innovative functionality, as in case of the molecular tools provided by DNA nanotechnology.

  2. Label-free characterization of biomembranes: from structure to dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Reviakine, Ilya; Heeren, Ron M A; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-02-07

    We review recent progress in the study of the structure and dynamics of phospholipid membranes and associated proteins, using novel label-free analytical tools. We describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. Recent advances in applying such techniques to biological and model membranes for biophysical studies and biosensing applications are presented, and future prospects are discussed.

  3. Label-free multi-photon imaging of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Mehravar, Soroush; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Chatrath, Hemant; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Patel, Krunal; Patel, Charmi; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Kieu, Khanh

    2015-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic disorder where dysplastic and early cancerous changes are invisible to the naked eye and where the practice of blind biopsy is hampered by large sampling errors. Multi-photon microscopy (MPM) has emerged as an alternative solution for fast and label-free diagnostic capability for identifying the histological features with sub-micron accuracy. We developed a compact, inexpensive MPM system by using a handheld mode-locked fiber laser operating at 1560nm to study mucosal biopsies of BE. The combination of back-scattered THG, back-reflected forward THG and SHG signals generate images of cell nuclei and collagen, leading to label-free diagnosis in Barrett’s. PMID:26819824

  4. Nanostructured plasmonic interferometers for ultrasensitive label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongkang

    Optical biosensors that utilize surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to analyze the biomolecular interactions have been extensively explored in the last two decades and have become the gold standard for label-free biosensing. These powerful sensing tools allow fast, highly-sensitive monitoring of the interaction between biomolecules in real time, without the need for laborious fluorescent labeling, and have found widely ranging applications from biomedical diagnostics and drug discovery, to environmental sensing and food safety monitoring. However, the prism-coupling SPR geometry is complex and bulky, and has severely limited the integration of this technique into low-cost portable biomedical devices for point-of-care diagnostics and personal healthcare applications. Also, the complex prism-coupling scheme prevents the use of high numerical aperture (NA) optics to increase the spatial resolution for multi-channel, high-throughput detection in SPR imaging mode. This dissertation is focused on the design and fabrication of a promising new class of nanopatterned interferometric SPR sensors that integrate the strengths of miniaturized nanoplasmonic architectures with sensitive optical interferometry techniques to achieve bold advances in SPR biosensing. The nanosensor chips developed provide superior sensing performance comparable to conventional SPR systems, but employing a far simpler collinear optical transmission geometry, which largely facilitates system integration, miniaturization, and low-cost production. Moreover, the fabricated nanostructure-based SPR sensors feature a very small sensor footprint, allowing massive multiplexing on a chip for high-throughput detection. The successful transformation of SPR technique from bulky prism-coupling setup into this low-cost compact plasmonic platform would have a far-reaching impact on point-of-care diagnostic tools and also lead to advances in high-throughput sensing applications in proteomics, immunology, drug

  5. An exclusion list based label-free proteome quantification approach using an LTQ Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Muntel, Jan; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2012-03-30

    Label-based mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for large-scale protein identification and quantification. However, it requires the chemical or metabolic incorporation of the labeled compound(s) which can be difficult to attain, e.g. for non-cultivable organisms or scarce sample, such as biopsies. Therefore, we set out to develop and validate an efficient label-free liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) workflow based on optimized instrument settings and incremental exclusion lists. To increase the number of quantified peptides an incremental exclusion list was incorporated along with optimized instrument settings for the used LTQ Orbitrap. As a proof of concept, label-free quantification data from this optimized approach were compared to the results of control measurements without exclusion lists and of an in vivo metabolic labeling GeLC/MS/MS experiment. The data were drawn from Staphylococcus aureus whole cell lysates of non-stressed and nitric oxide (NO)-stressed cells. Compared to MS analysis without exclusion lists the new approach resulted in an increased number of identified peptides, enabling label-free quantification of more than 990 S. aureus proteins. With respect to the number of quantified proteins and differences in protein levels between the control and NO-treated samples the results of the new method were consistent with those of the GeLC/MS/MS experiment. The application of exclusion lists and optimized instrument settings in LC/MS/MS analysis significantly enhances the sensitivity and resolution of label-free protein identification and quantification. Therefore, the new workflow is a powerful alternative to label-based quantification methods. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Discrimination and classification of liver cancer cells and proliferation states by Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Tolstik, T; Marquardt, C; Matthäus, C; Bergner, N; Bielecki, C; Krafft, C; Stallmach, A; Popp, J

    2014-11-21

    Discrimination of nodular lesions in cirrhotic liver is a challenge in the histopathologic diagnostics. For this reason, there is an urgent need for new detection methods to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of liver cancer. Raman imaging allows to determine the spatial distribution of a variety of molecules in cells or tissue label-free and to correlate this molecular information with the morphological structures at the same sample location. This study reports investigations of two liver cancer cell lines, - HepG2 and SK-Hep1, - as well as HepG2 cells in different cellular growth phases using Raman micro-spectroscopic imaging. Spectral data of all cells were recorded as a color-coded image and subsequentially analyzed by hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis. A support vector machine-based classification algorithm reliably predicts previously unknown cancer cells and cell cycle phases. By including selectively the Raman spectra of the cytoplasmic lipids in the classifier, the accuracy has been improved. The main spectral differences that were found in the comparative analysis can be attributed to a higher expression of unsaturated fatty acids in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells and during the proliferation phase. This corresponds to the already examined de novo lipogenesis in cells of liver cancer.

  7. Label-free detection of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Heym, Roland G; Hornberger, Wilfried B; Lakics, Viktor; Terstappen, Georg C

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of drug-target interaction kinetics is becoming increasingly important during the drug-discovery process to investigate selectivity of a drug and predict in vivo target occupancy. To date, it remains challenging to obtain kinetic information for interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and small-molecule ligands in a label-free manner. Often GPCRs need to be solubilized or even stabilized by mutations which can be difficult and is time consuming. In addition, it is often unclear if the native conformation of the receptors is sustained. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) technologies have been used to detect ligand binding to the GPCR chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expressed in lipoparticles. We first evaluated different strategies to immobilize CXCR4-expressing lipoparticles. The highest small-molecule binding signal in SPR and SAW was achieved with a matrix-free carboxymethylated sensor chip coated with wheat germ agglutinin for lipoparticle capturing. Next, the binding kinetics of the anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 raised against a conformational epitope (k(on)=1.83×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=2.79×10(-4) s(-1)) and the small molecule AMD3100 (k(on)=5.46×10(5)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=1.01×10(-2)s(-1)) were assessed by SAW. Our kinetic and affinity data are consistent with previously published radioligand-binding experiments using cells and label-free experiments with solubilized CXCR4. This is the first study demonstrating label-free kinetic characterization of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment. The presented method holds the potential to greatly facilitate label-free assay development for GPRCs that can be expressed at high levels in lipoparticles.

  8. Cytotoxicity and mitogenicity assays with real-time and label-free monitoring of human granulosa cells with an impedance-based signal processing technology intergrating micro-electronics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Lack, Nathan A; Akin, Nazli; Yakar, Feridun; Urman, Defne; Guzel, Yilmaz; Balaban, Basak; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    A recently developed technology (xCelligence) integrating micro-electronics and cell biology allows real-time, uninterrupted and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity by measuring the electrical impedance of the cell population in the wells without using any labeling agent. In this study we investigated if this system is a suitable model to analyze the effects of mitogenic (FSH) and cytotoxic (chemotherapy) agents with different toxicity profiles on human granulosa cells in comparison to conventional methods of assessing cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. The system generated the real-time growth curves of the cells, and determined their doubling times, mean cell indices and generated dose-response curves after exposure to cytotoxic and mitogenic stimuli. It accurately predicted the gonadotoxicity of the drugs and distinguished less toxic agents (5-FU and paclitaxel) from more toxic ones (cisplatin and cyclophosphamide). This platform can be a useful tool for specific end-point assays in reproductive toxicology.

  9. Discrimination of micromass-induced chondrocytes from human mesenchymal stem cells by focal plane array-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chonanant, Chirapond; Bambery, Keith R; Jearanaikoon, Nichada; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Tobin, Mark J; Heraud, Philip; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and sensitive methods for identifying stem cell differentiation state are required for facilitating future stem cell therapies. We aimed to evaluate the capability of focal plane array-Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopy for characterising the differentiation of chondrocytes from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Successful induction was validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis for collagen and aggrecan expression as chondrocyte markers in parallel with the spectroscopy. Spectra derived from chondrocyte-induced cells revealed strong IR absorbance bands attributed to collagen near 1338 and 1234 cm(-1) and proteoglycan at 1245 and 1175-960 cm(-1) compared to the non-induced cells. In addition, spectra from control and induced cells are segregated into separate clusters in partial least squares discriminant analysis score plots at the very early stages of induction and discrimination of an independent set of validation spectra with 100% accuracy. The predominant bands responsible for this discrimination were associated with collagen and aggrecan protein concordant with those obtained from RT-PCR and Western blot techniques. Our findings support the capability of FPA-FTIR microspectroscopy as a label-free tool for stem cell characterization allowing rapid and sensitive detection of macromolecular changes during chondrogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Campanella, Clarissa Martina; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-03-01

    For a number of years, the scientific community has been paying growing attention to the monitoring and enhancement of public health and the quality of life through the detection of all dangerous agents for the human body, including gases, proteins, virus, and bacterial agents. When these agents are detected through label-free biochemical sensors, the molecules are not modified structurally or functionally by adding fluorescent or radioactive dyes. This work focuses on label-free optical ring resonator-based configurations suited for bio-chemical sensing, highlighting their physical aspects and specific applications. Resonant wavelength shift and the modal splitting occurring when the analyte interacts with microresonant structures are the two major physical aspects analyzed in this paper. Competitive optical platforms proposed in the literature are also illustrated together with their properties and performance.

  11. Hybrid label-free multiphoton and optoacoustic microscopy (MPOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Dominik; Tserevelakis, George J.; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Many biological applications require a simultaneous observation of different anatomical features. However, unless potentially harmful staining of the specimens is employed, individual microscopy techniques do generally not provide multi-contrast capabilities. We present a hybrid microscope integrating optoacoustic microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, including second-harmonic generation, into a single device. This combined multiphoton and optoacoustic microscope (MPOM) offers visualization of a broad range of structures by employing different contrast mechanisms and at the same time enables pure label-free imaging of biological systems. We investigate the relative performance of the two microscopy modalities and demonstrate their multi-contrast abilities through the label-free imaging of a zebrafish larva ex vivo, simultaneously visualizing muscles and pigments. This hybrid microscopy application bears great potential for developmental biology studies, enabling more comprehensive information to be obtained from biological specimens without the necessity of staining.

  12. Low cost flatbed scanner label-free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Ugur; Avci, Oguzhan; Seymour, Elif; Sevenler, Derin D.; Urey, Hakan; Ünlü, M. Selim; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate utilization of a commercial flatbed document scanner as a label-free biosensor for highthroughput imaging of DNA and protein microarrays. We implemented an interferometric sensing technique through use of a silicon/oxide layered substrate, and easy to implement hardware modifications such as re-aligning moving parts and inserting a custom made sample plate. With a cost as low as 100USD, powered by a USB cable, and scan speed of 30 seconds for a 4mm x 4 mm area with ~10μm lateral resolution, the presented system offers a super low cost, easy to use alternative to commercially available label-free systems.

  13. Plasmonic nanorainbow for label-free biomolecule sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang L.; Anderson, Erik H.; Liddle, James A.; Lee, Luke P.

    2005-03-01

    A gold nanowire array that we call nanorainbow SPR sensor array can be chemically functionalized and used to capture biomolecules. The localized plasmon resonance wavelength of the gold nanowires shifts on the biomolecule binding and reaction sites. The plasmon resonance shift of the gold nanorainbow is sensitive to the biomolecule immobilization in sub-nM concentration. As an application example, label-free oligonucleotide hybridizations are detected on the nanorainbow sensor in a multiplexed microfluidic chip.

  14. Label-Free Biomarker Detection from Whole Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    David J. Mooney4, Mark A. Reed2,5* and Tarek M. Fahmy1,6* Label-free nanosensors can detect disease markers to provide point-of-care diagnosis that is...rapid translation to clinical settings. Biomarkers have emerged as potentially important diagnostic tools for cancer and many other diseases . Continuing... disease states. Thus, parallel detection of biomarker arrays is essential for translation from benchtop discovery to clinical vali- dation. Such a

  15. Label-free intracellular transport measured by spatial light interference microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry; Chan, Vincent; Ding, Huafeng; Gillette, Martha U.; Bashir, Rashid; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We show that applying the Laplace operator to a speckle-free quantitative phase image reveals an unprecedented level of detail in cell structure, without the gradient artifacts associated with differential interference contrast microscopy, or photobleaching and phototoxicity limitations common in fluorescence microscopy. This method, referred to as Laplace phase microscopy, is an efficient tool for tracking vesicles and organelles in living cells. The principle is demonstrated by tracking organelles in cardiomyocytes and vesicles in neurites of hippocampal neurons, which to our knowledge are the first label-free diffusion measurements of the organelles in such cells. PMID:21361703

  16. Label-free intracellular transport measured by spatial light interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry; Chan, Vincent; Ding, Huafeng; Gillette, Martha U; Bashir, Rashid; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    We show that applying the Laplace operator to a speckle-free quantitative phase image reveals an unprecedented level of detail in cell structure, without the gradient artifacts associated with differential interference contrast microscopy, or photobleaching and phototoxicity limitations common in fluorescence microscopy. This method, referred to as Laplace phase microscopy, is an efficient tool for tracking vesicles and organelles in living cells. The principle is demonstrated by tracking organelles in cardiomyocytes and vesicles in neurites of hippocampal neurons, which to our knowledge are the first label-free diffusion measurements of the organelles in such cells.

  17. Label-free intracellular transport measured by spatial light interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry; Chan, Vincent; Ding, Huafeng; Gillette, Martha U.; Bashir, Rashid; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    We show that applying the Laplace operator to a speckle-free quantitative phase image reveals an unprecedented level of detail in cell structure, without the gradient artifacts associated with differential interference contrast microscopy, or photobleaching and phototoxicity limitations common in fluorescence microscopy. This method, referred to as Laplace phase microscopy, is an efficient tool for tracking vesicles and organelles in living cells. The principle is demonstrated by tracking organelles in cardiomyocytes and vesicles in neurites of hippocampal neurons, which to our knowledge are the first label-free diffusion measurements of the organelles in such cells.

  18. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  19. Real-Time Discrimination between Proliferation and Neuronal and Astroglial Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rimi; Kim, Il-Sun; Han, Nalae; Yun, Seokhwan; Park, Kook In; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by a capacity for self-renewal, differentiation into multiple neural lineages, all of which are considered to be promising components for neural regeneration. However, for cell-replacement therapies, it is essential to monitor the process of in vitro NSC differentiation and identify differentiated cell phenotypes. We report a real-time and label-free method that uses a capacitance sensor array to monitor the differentiation of human fetal brain-derived NSCs (hNSCs) and to identify the fates of differentiated cells. When hNSCs were placed under proliferation or differentiation conditions in five media, proliferating and differentiating hNSCs exhibited different frequency and time dependences of capacitance, indicating that the proliferation and differentiation status of hNSCs may be discriminated in real-time using our capacitance sensor. In addition, comparison between real-time capacitance and time-lapse optical images revealed that neuronal and astroglial differentiation of hNSCs may be identified in real-time without cell labeling. PMID:25204726

  20. Novel optical approaches for label-free quantification of nano-cytotoxic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mues, Sarah; Antunovic, Jan; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Commonly used cytotoxicity assays to determine the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell viability or cell death are often affected by applied nanomaterials, which lead to false-positive or false-negative results. Thus, novel nanomaterial toxicity testing strategies that allow for high nanomaterial doses to determine Low Effect Levels (LOEL) even of low toxic materials are of high interest. We demonstrate novel approaches to quantify cytotoxic effects with new parameter sets such as cellular refractive index, volume, density and dry mass that are obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Furthermore, we correlate results obtained from spherical (NM 300) and rod shaped (NM 302) silver nanomaterials with established cell viability and cell death assays. Moreover, in a label-free flow cytometry configuration, cell-nanoparticle-interaction-kinetics were determined by side scatter signal analysis. We demonstrate that silver spheres show a higher cytotoxicity than silver rods and found that this effect correlates with a decrease of the intracellular refractive index and a decreased temporal development of dry mass and cell covered surface area indicating reduced cell viability and increased cell death. Results from side scatter analysis suggest a dose-dependent uptake kinetics of both materials that correlates with cytotoxicity data of the established assays. Taken together, our results demonstrate DHM and flow cytometry as promising novel label-free tools for nanomaterial toxicity and cell particle interaction studies.

  1. Label-free imaging of heme proteins with two-photon excited photothermal lens microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sijia; Min, Wei; Chong, Shasha; Holtom, Gary R.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2010-03-01

    Heme proteins, such as hemoglobins and cytochromes, play important roles in various biological processes. Here we employ the two-photon excited photothermal effect as a contrast mechanism to map heme proteins distribution. Particularly, both a thermal lens scheme and a high-frequency modulation are utilized to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate label-free imaging of individual red blood cells, subcellular distribution of cytochromes in live mammalian cells, and the microvascular networks in mouse ear tissue and in a zebrafish gill.

  2. Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja, Simon; Hilgenberg, Jill D.; Collins, Julie L.; Shah, Anna A.; Wawro, Debra; Zimmerman, Shelby; Magnusson, Robert; Koulen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Ovarian carcinoma has the highest lethality rate of gynecologic tumors, largely attributed to the late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Reliable tools for both accurate diagnosis and early detection of disease onset are lacking, and presently less than 20% of ovarian cancers are detected at an early stage. Protein biomarkers that allow the discrimination of early and late stages of ovarian serous carcinomas are urgently needed as they would enable monitoring pre-symptomatic aspects of the disease, disease progression, and the efficacy of intervention therapies. We compare the absolute and relative protein levels of six protein biomarkers for ovarian cancer in five different established ovarian cancer cell lines, utilizing both quantitative immunoblot analysis and a guided-mode resonance (GMR) bioassay detection system that utilizes a label-free optical biosensor readout. The GMR sensor approach provided highly accurate, consistent, and reproducible quantification of protein biomarkers as validated by quantitative immunoblotting, as well as enhanced sensitivity, and is therefore suitable for quantification and detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer. We identified fibronectin, apolipoprotein A1, and TIMP3 as potential protein biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of primary versus metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Future studies are needed to confirm the suitability of protein biomarkers tested herein in patient samples.

  3. Label-free imaging and temporal signature in phenotypic cellular assays: a new approach to high-content screening.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julio

    2010-09-01

    Some drug targets are not amenable to screening because of the lack of a practical or validated biological assay. Likewise, some screening assays may not be predictive of compound activity in a more disease-relevant scenario, or assay development may demand excessive allocation of resources (i.e., time, money or personnel) with limited knowledge of the actual tractability of the target. Label-free methodologies, implemented in microtiter plate format, may help address these issues and complement, simplify, or facilitate assays. Label-free biosensors, based on grating resonance or electrical impedance, are versatile platforms for detecting phenotypic changes in both engineered and native cells. Their non-invasive nature allows for the kinetic monitoring of multiple real-time cellular responses to external stimuli, as well as for the use of successive pharmacological challenges. The temporal signature recorded for a particular stimulus is characteristic of the cell type and the signaling pathway activated upon binding of a ligand to its receptor. Cellular label-free technology is an important technical advance in the study of functional pharmacological selectivity. Described in this overview are some of the hurdles encountered in modern drug discovery and the ways in which label-free technologies can be used to overcome these obstacles.

  4. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Gawel, Kamila; Barriet, David; Sletmoen, Marit; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications. PMID:22399885

  5. Development of Label-Free Bioaffinity Sensor Using a Lumped-Constant Microwave Resonator Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Noriaki; Nishino, Taito; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Cho, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    A novel label-free bioaffinity sensor using a lumped-constant microwave resonator was developed. A gold probe with a spherical tip immobilizing anti-chicken egg albumin antibody or anti-human albumin antibody on its surface was connected to the resonator and inserted into a flow cell to monitor the target antigen binding. The sensor showed specific sensitivity against its target antigen evidenced by the change of resonance frequency after the antigen injection. The large frequency shift observed during the injection of antigen solution was ascribed to the change of solution dielectric constant which showed a systematic increase with antigen concentration.

  6. A label-free, impedance-based real time assay to identify drug-induced toxicities and differentiate cytostatic from cytotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Kustermann, S; Boess, F; Buness, A; Schmitz, M; Watzele, M; Weiser, T; Singer, T; Suter, L; Roth, A

    2013-08-01

    Cell-based assays are key tools in drug safety assessment. However, they usually provide only limited information about time-kinetics of a toxic effect and implementing multiple measurements is often complex. To overcome these issues we established an impedance-based approach which is able to differentiate cytostatic from cytotoxic drugs by recording time-kinetics of compound-effects on cells. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded on xCELLigence® E-plates and impedance was continuously measured over 5 days. The obtained results reflected cytotoxicity and cell proliferation, as confirmed by neutral red uptake in vitro. Based on known toxicants, we established an algorithm able to discriminate cytostatic, cytotoxic and non-toxic compounds based on the shape of the impedance curves. Analyzing impedance curve patterns of additional 37 compounds allowed the identification and differentiation of these distinct effects as results correlated well with previous in vivo findings. We show that impedance-based real-time cell analysis is a convenient tool to characterize and discriminate effects of compounds on cells in a time-dependent and label-free manner. The presented impedance assay could be used to further characterize toxicities observed in vivo or in vitro. Due to the ease of performance it may also be a suitable screening tool.

  7. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm2, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated.

  8. Label-free disposable immunosensor for detection of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Belkhamssa, Najet; Justino, Celine I L; Santos, Patrícia S M; Cardoso, Susana; Lopes, Isabel; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the construction of a fast, disposable, and label-free immunosensor for the determination of atrazine. The immunosensor is based on a field effect transistor (FET) where a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) acts as the conductor channel, constituting carbon nanotubes field effect transistors (CNTFETs). Anti-atrazine antibodies were adsorbed onto the SWCNTs and subsequently the SWCNTs were protected with Tween 20 to prevent the non-specific binding of bacteria or proteins. The principle of the immunoreaction consists in the direct adsorption of atrazine specific antibodies (anti-atrazine) to SWCNTs networks. After exposed to increasing concentrations of atrazine, the CNTFETs could be used as useful label-free platforms to detect atrazine. Under the optimal conditions, a limit of detection as low as 0.001 ng mL(-1) was obtained, which is lower than that of other methods for the atrazine detection, and in a working range between 0.001 and 10 ng mL(-1). The average recoveries obtained for real water samples spiked with atrazine varied from 87.3% to 108.0%. The results show that the constructed sensors display a high sensitivity and could be useful tools for detecting pesticides like atrazine at low concentrations. They could be also applied to the determination of atrazine in environmental aqueous samples, such as seawater and riverine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Label-Free Aptasensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Rhouati, Amina; Catanante, Gaelle; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Various methodologies have been reported in the literature for the qualitative and quantitative monitoring of mycotoxins in food and feed samples. Based on their enhanced specificity, selectivity and versatility, bio-affinity assays have inspired many researchers to develop sensors by exploring bio-recognition phenomena. However, a significant problem in the fabrication of these devices is that most of the biomolecules do not generate an easily measurable signal upon binding to the target analytes, and signal-generating labels are required to perform the measurements. In this context, aptamers have been emerged as a potential and attractive bio-recognition element to design label-free aptasensors for various target analytes. Contrary to other bioreceptor-based approaches, the aptamer-based assays rely on antigen binding-induced conformational changes or oligomerization states rather than binding-assisted changes in adsorbed mass or charge. This review will focus on current designs in label-free conformational switchable design strategies, with a particular focus on applications in the detection of mycotoxins. PMID:27999353

  10. Label-Free Electrical Detection of Enzymatic Reactions in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chuanhua; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Kim, Dong-Kwon; Brown, Christopher M; Craik, Charles S; Majumdar, Arun

    2016-08-23

    We report label-free electrical detection of enzymatic reactions using 2-D nanofluidic channels and investigate reaction kinetics of enzymatic reactions on immobilized substrates in nanoscale-confined spaces. Trypsin proteolysis is chosen for demonstration of the detection scheme. When trypsin cleaves poly-l-lysine coated on the surface of silica nanochannels, the resulting change of surface charge density can be detected by monitoring the ionic conductance of the nanochannels. Our results show that detection of such surface enzymatic reactions is faster than detection of surface binding reactions in nanochannels for low-concentration analytes. Furthermore, the nanochannel sensor has a sensitivity down to 5 ng/mL, which statistically corresponds to a single enzyme per nanochannel. Our results also suggest that enzyme kinetics in nanochannels is fundamentally different from that in bulk solutions or plain surfaces. Such enzymatic reactions form two clear self-propagating reaction fronts inside the nanochannels, and the reaction fronts follow square-root time dependences at high enzyme concentrations due to significant nonspecific adsorption. However, at low enzyme concentrations when nonspecific adsorption is negligible, the reaction fronts propagate linearly with time, and the corresponding propagation speed is related to the channel geometry, enzyme concentration, catalytic reaction constant, diffusion coefficient, and substrate surface density. Optimization of this nanochannel sensor could lead to a quick-response, highly sensitive, and label-free sensor for enzyme assay and kinetic studies.

  11. Antibody mimetic receptor proteins for label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Raina, M; Sharma, R; Deacon, S E; Tiede, C; Tomlinson, D; Davies, A G; McPherson, M J; Wälti, C

    2015-02-07

    The development of high sensitivity biosensors, for example for clinical diagnostics, requires the identification of suitable receptor molecules which offer high stability, specificity and affinity, even when embedded into solid-state biosensor transducers. Here, we present an electrochemical biosensor employing small synthetic receptor proteins (Mw < 15 kDa) which emulate antibodies but with improved stability, sensitivity and molecular recognition properties, in particular when immobilized on a solid sensor surface. The synthetic receptor protein is a non-antibody-based protein scaffold with variable peptide regions inserted to provide the specific binding, and was designed to bind anti-myc tag antibody (Mw ∼ 150 kDa), as a proof-of-principle exemplar. Both the scaffold and the selected receptor protein were found to have high thermostability with melting temperatures of 101 °C and 85 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the secondary structures of the receptor protein were found to be very similar to that of the original native scaffold, despite the insertion of variable peptide loops that create the binding sites. A label-free electrochemical sensor was fabricated by functionalising a microfabricated gold electrode with the receptor protein. A change in the phase of the electrochemical impedance was observed when the biosensor was subjected to anti-myc tag antibodies at concentrations between 6.7 pM and 6.7 nM. These findings demonstrate that these non-antibody receptor proteins are excellent candidates for recognition molecules in label-free biosensors.

  12. An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Kerman, Kagan; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliability at a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensors use a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface, interactions with the target protein and the molecular recognition layer. Traditionally, redox enzymes have provided the molecular recognition elements from which target proteins have interacted with. This necessitates that the redox-active enzymes couple with electrode surfaces and usually requires the participation of added diffusional components, or assembly of the enzymes in functional chemical matrices. These complications, among many others, have seen a trend towards non-enzymatic-based electrochemical protein sensors. Several electrochemical detection approaches have been exploited. Basically, these have fallen into two categories: labeled and label-free detection systems. The former rely on a redox-active signal from a reporter molecule or a label, which changes upon the interaction of the target protein. In this review, we discuss the label-free electrochemical detection of proteins, paying particular emphasis to those that exploit intrinsic redox-active amino acids.

  13. Label-free quantitation, an extension to 2DB.

    PubMed

    Allmer, Jens

    2010-04-01

    Determining the differential expression of proteins under different conditions is of major importance in proteomics. Since mass spectrometry-based proteomics is often used to quantify proteins, several labelling strategies have been developed. While these are generally more precise than label-free quantitation approaches, they imply specifically designed experiments which also require knowledge about peptides that are expected to be measured and need to be modified. We recently designed the 2DB database which aids storage, analysis, and publication of data from mass spectrometric experiments to identify proteins. This database can aid identifying peptides which can be used for quantitation. Here an extension to the database application, named MSMAG, is presented which allows for more detailed analysis of the distribution of peptides and their associated proteins over the fractions of an experiment. Furthermore, given several biological samples in the database, label-free quantitation can be performed. Thus, interesting proteins, which may warrant further investigation, can be identified en passant while performing high-throughput proteomics studies.

  14. Multiplexed label-free optical biosensor for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottazzi, Barbara; Fornasari, Lucia; Frangolho, Ana; Giudicatti, Silvia; Mantovani, Alberto; Marabelli, Franco; Marchesini, Gerardo; Pellacani, Paola; Therisod, Rita; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new multiplexed label-free biosensor. The detection technology is based on nanostructured gold-polymer surfaces. These surfaces support surface plasmon resonance modes that can be probed by a miniaturized optical setup. The optical characterization of the sensing chip shows the sensitivity and the limit-of-detection to refractive index changes. Moreover, by studying the progressive adhesion of molecular monolayers of polyelectrolytes, the decay of the plasmonic mode electric field above the surface has been reconstructed. A multiplexed label-free biosensing device is then described and characterized in terms of sensitivity, lateral resolution, and sensitivity to a model biological assay. The sensitivity in imaging mode of the device is of the order of 10-6 refractive index units, while the measured lateral resolution is 6.25 μm within a field of view of several tenths of mm, making the instrument unique in terms of multiplexing capability. Finally, the proof-of-concept application of the technology as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for an inflammatory marker is demonstrated.

  15. Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Klemic, James F; Routenberg, David A; Wyrembak, Pauline N; Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Hamilton, Andrew D; LaVan, David A; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to function as highly sensitive and selective sensors for the label-free detection of low concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Successful solution-phase nanowire sensing has been demonstrated for ions, small molecules, proteins, DNA and viruses; however, 'bottom-up' nanowires (or similarly configured carbon nanotubes) used for these demonstrations require hybrid fabrication schemes, which result in severe integration issues that have hindered widespread application. Alternative 'top-down' fabrication methods of nanowire-like devices produce disappointing performance because of process-induced material and device degradation. Here we report an approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor compatible technology and hence demonstrate the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. This approach eliminates the need for hybrid methods and enables system-scale integration of these sensors with signal processing and information systems. Additionally, the ability to monitor antibody binding and sense the cellular immune response in real time with readily available technology should facilitate widespread diagnostic applications.

  16. Multimodal label-free in vitro toxicity testing with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommel, Christina E.; Dierker, Christian; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Common in vitro toxicity tests of drugs, chemicals or nanomaterials involves the measurement of cellular endpoints like stress response, cell viability, proliferation or cell death. The assay systems determine enzyme activity or protein expression by optical read out of enzyme substrates or marker protein labeling. These standard procedures have several disadvantages. Cellular processes have to be stopped at a distinct time point for the read out, where usually only parts of the cells were affected by the treatment with substances. Typically, only one parameter is analyzed and detection of cellular processes requires several time consuming incubations and washing steps. Here we have applied digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for a multimodal label-free analysis of drug toxicity. NIH 3T3 cells were incubated with 1 μM Taxol for 24 h. The recorded quantitative phase images were analyzed for cell thickness, cell volume, dry mass and cell migration. Taxol treated cells showed rapidly decreasing cell motility as measure of cell viability. A short increase in cell thickness and dry mass indicated cell division and growth in control cells, whereas Taxol treatment resulted in a continuous increase in cell height followed by a rapid decrease and a decrease of dry mass as indicators of cell death. Multimodal DHM analysis of drug treatment by multiple parameters allows direct and label-free detection of several toxicity parameters in parallel. DHM can quantify cellular reactions minimally invasive over a long time period and analyze kinetics of delayed cellular responses. Our results demonstrate digital holographic microscopy as a valuable tool for multimodal toxicity testing.

  17. Label-free detection of telomerase activity using guanine electrochemical oxidation signal.

    PubMed

    Eskiocak, Ugur; Ozkan-Ariksoysal, Dilsat; Ozsoz, Mehmet; Oktem, Huseyin Avni

    2007-11-15

    Telomerase is an important biomarker for cancer cells and its activation in 85% of all cancer types confers a clinical diagnostic value. A label-free electrochemical assay based on guanine oxidation signal to measure telomerase activity is described. This developed technology combined with a disposable sensor, carbon graphite electrode (CGE), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed by using PCR amplicons with/without telomeric repeats as the guanine oxidation signal observed at +1.0 V measured after the immobilization of PCR products. Guanine oxidation signal was chosen as a measure of telomerase activity because a substantial increase in the number of guanines was introduced by the action of telomerase which adds hexameric repeats (TTAGGG)n that contain 50% guanine. The developed assay was shown to specifically measure telomerase activity from cell extracts, and elongation rates increased linearly in a concentration dependent manner. Telomerase activity could be detected in cell extracts containing as low as 100 ng/microL of protein. All of the electrochemical measurements were also confirmed with the conventional TRAP-silver staining assay. Rapidity, simplicity, and the label-free nature of the developed assay make it suitable for practical use in quantitative determination of telomerase activity from clinical samples for diagnosis of cancer.

  18. Benchmarking quantitative label-free LC-MS data processing workflows using a complex spiked proteomic standard dataset.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Claire; Hovasse, Agnès; Marcellin, Marlène; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Mouton-Barbosa, Emmanuelle; Bouyssié, David; Vaca, Sebastian; Carapito, Christine; Chaoui, Karima; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Cianférani, Sarah; Ferro, Myriam; Van Dorssaeler, Alain; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Schaeffer, Christine; Couté, Yohann; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne

    2016-01-30

    Proteomic workflows based on nanoLC-MS/MS data-dependent-acquisition analysis have progressed tremendously in recent years. High-resolution and fast sequencing instruments have enabled the use of label-free quantitative methods, based either on spectral counting or on MS signal analysis, which appear as an attractive way to analyze differential protein expression in complex biological samples. However, the computational processing of the data for label-free quantification still remains a challenge. Here, we used a proteomic standard composed of an equimolar mixture of 48 human proteins (Sigma UPS1) spiked at different concentrations into a background of yeast cell lysate to benchmark several label-free quantitative workflows, involving different software packages developed in recent years. This experimental design allowed to finely assess their performances in terms of sensitivity and false discovery rate, by measuring the number of true and false-positive (respectively UPS1 or yeast background proteins found as differential). The spiked standard dataset has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange repository with the identifier PXD001819 and can be used to benchmark other label-free workflows, adjust software parameter settings, improve algorithms for extraction of the quantitative metrics from raw MS data, or evaluate downstream statistical methods. Bioinformatic pipelines for label-free quantitative analysis must be objectively evaluated in their ability to detect variant proteins with good sensitivity and low false discovery rate in large-scale proteomic studies. This can be done through the use of complex spiked samples, for which the "ground truth" of variant proteins is known, allowing a statistical evaluation of the performances of the data processing workflow. We provide here such a controlled standard dataset and used it to evaluate the performances of several label-free bioinformatics tools (including MaxQuant, Skyline, MFPaQ, IRMa-hEIDI and Scaffold) in

  19. Label-free optical imaging of lymphatic vessels within tissue beds in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are a part of circulatory system in vertebrates that maintain tissue fluid homeostasis and drain excess fluid and large cells that cannot easily find their way back into venous system. Due to the lack of non-invasive monitoring tools, lymphatic vessels are known as forgotten circulation. However, lymphatic system plays an important role in diseases such as cancer and inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we start to briefly review the current existing methods for imaging lymphatic vessels, mostly involving dye/targeting cell injection. We then show the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for label-free non-invasive in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and nodes. One of the advantages of using OCT over other imaging modalities is its ability to assess label-free blood flow perfusion that can be simultaneously observed along with lymphatic vessels for imaging the microcirculatory system within tissue beds. Imaging the microcirculatory system including blood and lymphatic vessels can be utilized for imaging and better understanding pathologic mechanisms and treatment technique development in some critical diseases such as inflammation, malignant cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:25642129

  20. Label-free optical imaging of lymphatic vessels within tissue beds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Siavash; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are a part of circulatory system in vertebrates that maintain tissue fluid homeostasis and drain excess fluid and large cells that cannot easily find their way back into venous system. Due to the lack of non-invasive monitoring tools, lymphatic vessels are known as forgotten circulation. However, lymphatic system plays an important role in diseases such as cancer and inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we start to briefly review the current existing methods for imaging lymphatic vessels, mostly involving dye/targeting cell injection. We then show the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for label-free non-invasive in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and nodes. One of the advantages of using OCT over other imaging modalities is its ability to assess label-free blood flow perfusion that can be simultaneously observed along with lymphatic vessels for imaging the microcirculatory system within tissue beds. Imaging the microcirculatory system including blood and lymphatic vessels can be utilized for imaging and better understanding pathologic mechanisms and treatment technique development in some critical diseases such as inflammation, malignant cancer angiogenesis and metastasis.

  1. Electrochemical lectin based biosensors as a label-free tool in glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Bertók, Tomáš; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Glycans and other saccharide moieties attached to proteins and lipids, or present on the surface of a cell, are actively involved in numerous physiological or pathological processes. Their structural flexibility (that is based on the formation of various kinds of linkages between saccharides) is making glycans superb “identity cards”. In fact, glycans can form more “words” or “codes” (i.e., unique sequences) from the same number of “letters” (building blocks) than DNA or proteins. Glycans are physicochemically similar and it is not a trivial task to identify their sequence, or - even more challenging - to link a given glycan to a particular physiological or pathological process. Lectins can recognise differences in glycan compositions even in their bound state and therefore are most useful tools in the task to decipher the “glycocode”. Thus, lectin-based biosensors working in a label-free mode can effectively complement the current weaponry of analytical tools in glycomics. This review gives an introduction into the area of glycomics and then focuses on the design, analytical performance, and practical utility of lectin-based electrochemical label-free biosensors for the detection of isolated glycoproteins or intact cells. PMID:27239071

  2. Label-free gold nanoparticles for the determination of neomycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apyari, Vladimir V.; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G.; Arkhipova, Viktoriya V.; Atnagulov, Aydar G.; Gorbunova, Mariya V.; Zolotov, Yury A.

    2013-11-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of neomycin has been developed. The method is based on aggregation of label-free gold nanoparticles leading to change in absorption spectra and color of the solution. Influence of different factors (the concentration of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), pH, the concentrations of neomycin and the nanoparticles) on the aggregation and analytical performance of the method was investigated. EDTA plays an important role not only as a masking agent to eliminate interferences of metal cations but strongly affects the sensitivity of the nanoparticles relative to neomycin. The method allows to determine neomycin with detection limit of 28 ng mL-1. It was applied to analysis of eye- and ear-drops. The sample pretreatment is simply done by diluting the formulation with water.

  3. Label-Free Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging of Neuronal Membrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Zhang, Delong; Jiang, Ying; Wu, Xiangbing; Shih, Pei-Yu; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Bungart, Brittani; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Drenan, Ryan; Bartlett, Edward; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-05-04

    Detecting membrane potentials is critical for understanding how neuronal networks process information. We report a vibrational spectroscopic signature of neuronal membrane potentials identified through hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging of patched primary neurons. High-speed SRS imaging allowed direct visualization of puff-induced depolarization of multiple neurons in mouse brain slices, confirmed by simultaneous calcium imaging. The observed signature, partially dependent on sodium ion influx, is interpreted as ion interactions on the CH3 Fermi resonance peak in proteins. By implementing a dual-SRS balanced detection scheme, we detected single action potentials in electrically stimulated neurons. These results collectively demonstrate the potential of sensing neuronal activities at multiple sites with a label-free vibrational microscope.

  4. Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays.

    PubMed

    Huber, François; Hegner, Martin; Gerber, Christoph; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Hans Peter

    2006-02-15

    We report the measurement of protein interaction with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using cantilever microarray technology. We investigated two different DNA-binding proteins, the transcription factors SP1 and NF-kappaB, using cantilever arrays as they allow label-free measurement of different biomolecular interactions in parallel. Double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing a specific binding site for a transcription factor were sensitized on gold-coated cantilevers. The binding of the transcription factor creates a surface stress, resulting in a bending of the cantilevers. Both transcription factors could be detected independently at concentrations of 80-100 nM. A concentration dependence of the bending signal was measured using concentrations from 100 to 400 nM of NF-kappaB. The experiments show that the recognition sequence of one transcription factor can serve as a reference for the other, highlighting the sequence specificity of transcription factor binding.

  5. Plasmonic biosensor for label-free G-quadruplexes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Suyan; Zhao, Fusheng; Santos, Greggy M.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    G-quadruplex, readily formed by the G-rich sequence, potentially distributes in over 40 % of all human genes, such as the telomeric DNA with the G-rich sequence found at the end of the chromosome. The G-quadruplex structure is supposed to possess a diverse set of critical functions in the mammalian genome for transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and genome stability. However, most of the currently available methods for G-quadruplex identification are restricted to fluorescence techniques susceptible to poor sensitivity. It is essential to propose methods with higher sensitivity to specifically recognize the G-quadruplexes. In this study, we demonstrate a label-free plasmonic biosensor for G-quadruplex detection by relying on the advantages of nanoporous gold (NPG) disks that provide high-density plasmonic hot spots, suitable for molecular recognition capability without the requirement for labeling processes.

  6. Label-free gold nanoparticles for the determination of neomycin.

    PubMed

    Apyari, Vladimir V; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Arkhipova, Viktoriya V; Atnagulov, Aydar G; Gorbunova, Mariya V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2013-11-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of neomycin has been developed. The method is based on aggregation of label-free gold nanoparticles leading to change in absorption spectra and color of the solution. Influence of different factors (the concentration of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), pH, the concentrations of neomycin and the nanoparticles) on the aggregation and analytical performance of the method was investigated. EDTA plays an important role not only as a masking agent to eliminate interferences of metal cations but strongly affects the sensitivity of the nanoparticles relative to neomycin. The method allows to determine neomycin with detection limit of 28ngmL(-1). It was applied to analysis of eye- and ear-drops. The sample pretreatment is simply done by diluting the formulation with water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CEST theranostics: label-free MR imaging of anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Luo, Liangping; McMahon, Michael T.; Vogelstein, Bert; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zhou, Shibin; Liu, Guanshu

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery is of great clinical interest. Here, we explored a direct way, namely CEST theranostics, to detect diamagnetic anticancer drugs simply through their inherent Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI signal, and demonstrated its application in image-guided drug delivery of nanoparticulate chemotherapeutics. We first screened 22 chemotherapeutic agents and characterized the CEST properties of representative agents and natural analogs in three major categories, i.e., pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs, and antifolates, with respect to chemical structures. Utilizing the inherent CEST MRI signal of gemcitabine, a widely used anticancer drug, the tumor uptake of the i.v.-injected, drug-loaded liposomes was successfully detected in CT26 mouse tumors. Such label-free CEST MRI theranostics provides a new imaging means, potentially with an immediate clinical impact, to monitor the drug delivery in cancer. PMID:26837220

  8. Hybrid integrated label-free chemical and biological sensors.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

    2014-03-26

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.

  9. Recognition as a challenging label-free optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly used in application areas of environmental analysis, healthcare and food safety. The quality of the biosensor's results depends on the interaction layer, the detection principles, and evaluation strategies, not only on the biopolymer layer but also especially on recognition elements. Using label-free optical sensing, non-specific interaction between sample and transducer has to be reduced, and the selectivity of recognition elements has to be improved. For this reason, strategies to avoid non-specific interaction even in blood and milk are discussed, a variety of upcoming recognition is given. Based on the classification of direct optical detection methods, some examples for the above mentioned applications are reviewed. Trends as well as advantages of parallel multisport detection for kinetic evaluation are also part of the lecture.

  10. Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-07-01

    Almost all diseases, especially cancer and diabetes, manifest abnormal oxygen metabolism. Accurately measuring the metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2) can be helpful for fundamental pathophysiological studies, and even early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Current techniques either lack high resolution or rely on exogenous contrast. Here, we propose label-free metabolic photoacoustic microscopy (mPAM) with small vessel resolution to noninvasively quantify MRO2 in vivo in absolute units. mPAM is the unique modality for simultaneously imaging all five anatomical, chemical, and fluid-dynamic parameters required for such quantification: tissue volume, vessel cross-section, concentration of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and blood flow speed. Hyperthermia, cryotherapy, melanoma, and glioblastoma were longitudinally imaged in vivo. Counterintuitively, increased MRO2 does not necessarily cause hypoxia or increase oxygen extraction. In fact, early-stage cancer was found to be hyperoxic despite hypermetabolism.

  11. Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, Andrea M.; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Flagan, Richard C.; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2007-08-01

    Current single-molecule detection techniques require labeling the target molecule. We report a highly specific and sensitive optical sensor based on an ultrahigh quality (Q) factor (Q > 108) whispering-gallery microcavity. The silica surface is functionalized to bind the target molecule; binding is detected by a resonant wavelength shift. Single-molecule detection is confirmed by observation of single-molecule binding events that shift the resonant frequency, as well as by the statistics for these shifts over many binding events. These shifts result from a thermo-optic mechanism. Additionally, label-free, single-molecule detection of interleukin-2 was demonstrated in serum. These experiments demonstrate a dynamic range of 1012 in concentration, establishing the microcavity as a sensitive and versatile detector.

  12. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach. PMID:24675757

  13. Nanodroplet chemical microarrays and label-free assays.

    PubMed

    Gosalia, Dhaval; Diamond, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    The microarraying of chemicals or biomolecules on a glass surface allows for dense storage and miniaturized screening experiments and can be deployed in chemical-biology research or drug discovery. Microarraying allows the production of scores of replicate slides. Small molecule libraries are typically stored as 10 mM DMSO stock solutions, whereas libraries of biomolecules are typically stored in high percentages of glycerol. Thus, a method is required to print such libraries on microarrays, and then assay them against biological targets. By printing either small molecule libraries or biomolecule libraries in an aqueous solvent containing glycerol, each adherent nanodroplet remains fixed at a position on the microarray by surface tension without the use of wells, without evaporating, and without the need for chemically linking the compound to the surface. Importantly, glycerol is a high boiling point solvent that is fully miscible with DMSO and water and has the additional property of stabilizing various enzymes. The nanoliter volume of the droplet forms the reaction compartment once additional reagents are metered onto the microarray, either by aerosol spray deposition or by addressable acoustic dispensing. Incubation of the nanodroplet microarray in a high humidity environment controls the final water content of the reaction. This platform has been validated for fluorescent HTS assays of protease and kinases as well as for fluorogenic substrate profiling of proteases. Label-free HTS is also possible by running nanoliter HTS reactions on a MALDI target for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis without the need for desalting of the samples. A method is described for running nanoliter-scale multicomponent homogeneous reactions followed by label-free MALDI MS spectrometry analysis of the reactions.

  14. Real-time label-free monitoring of the cellular response to osmotic stress using conventional and long-range surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Vala, M; Robelek, R; Bocková, M; Wegener, J; Homola, J

    2013-02-15

    Cell volume and its regulation are key factors for cellular integrity and also serve as indicators of various cell pathologies. SPR sensors represent an efficient tool for real-time and label-free observations of changes in cell volume and shape. Here, we extend this concept by employing the use of long-range surface plasmons (LRSP). Due to the enhanced penetration depth of LRSP (~1μm, compared to ~0.4μm of a conventional surface plasmon), the observation of refractive index changes occurring deeper inside the cells is possible. In this work, the responses of a confluent normal rat kidney (NRK) epithelial cell layer to osmotic stress are studied by both conventional and long-range surface plasmons. Experiments are conducted in parallel using cell layers grown and stimulated under the same conditions to enable direct comparison of the results and discrimination of the osmotic stress-induced effects in different parts of the cell. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recognizing different tissues in human fetal femur cartilage by label-free Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstar, Aliz; Leijten, Jeroen; van Leuveren, Stefan; Hilderink, Janneke; Otto, Cees; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the composition of bone and cartilage is determined by standard histological methods. We used Raman microscopy, which provides a molecular "fingerprint" of the investigated sample, to detect differences between the zones in human fetal femur cartilage without the need for additional staining or labeling. Raman area scans were made from the (pre)articular cartilage, resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones of growth plate and endochondral bone within human fetal femora. Multivariate data analysis was performed on Raman spectral datasets to construct cluster images with corresponding cluster averages. Cluster analysis resulted in detection of individual chondrocyte spectra that could be separated from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) spectra and was verified by comparing cluster images with intensity-based Raman images for the deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) band. Specific dendrograms were created using Ward's clustering method, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the separated and averaged Raman spectra of cells and ECM of all measured zones. Overall (dis)similarities between measured zones were effectively visualized on the dendrograms and main spectral differences were revealed by PCA allowing for label-free detection of individual cartilaginous zones and for label-free evaluation of proper cartilaginous matrix formation for future tissue engineering and clinical purposes.

  16. Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Label-Free Tissue Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Blatter, Cedric; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    Information about tissue perfusion and the vascular structure is certainly most important for assessment of tissue state or personal health and the diagnosis of any pathological conditions. It is therefore of key medical interest to have tools available for both quantitative blood flow assessment as well as qualitative vascular imaging. The strength of optical techniques is the unprecedented level of detail even for small capillary structures or microaneurysms and the possibility to combine different techniques for additional tissue spectroscopy giving insight into tissue metabolism. There is an immediate diagnostic and pharmacological demand for high-resolution, label-free, tissue angiography and flow assessment that in addition allow for precise depth gating of flow information. The most promising candidate is Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) being noncontact, label free, and without employing hazardous radiation. DOCT provides fully quantitative volumetric information about blood flow together with the vascular and structural anatomy. Besides flow quantification, analysis of OCT signal fluctuations allows to contrast moving scatterers in tissue such as red blood cells from static tissue. This allows for non-invasive optical angiography and yields high resolution even for smallest capillaries. Because of the huge potential of DOCT and lable-free optical angiography for diagnosis, the last years saw a rapid increase of publications in this field with many different approaches. The present chapter gives an overview over existing Doppler OCT approaches and angiography techniques. It furthermore discusses limitations and noise issues, and gives examples for angiography in the eye and the skin.

  17. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  18. Comparison and applications of label-free absolute proteome quantification methods on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arike, L; Valgepea, K; Peil, L; Nahku, R; Adamberg, K; Vilu, R

    2012-09-18

    Three different label-free proteome quantification methods--APEX, emPAI and iBAQ--were evaluated to measure proteome-wide protein concentrations in the cell. All the methods were applied to a sample from Escherichia coli chemostat culture. A Pearson squared correlation of approximately 0.6 among the three quantification methods was demonstrated. Importantly, the sum of quantified proteins by iBAQ and emPAI corresponded with the Lowry total protein quantification, demonstrating applicability of label-free methods for an accurate calculation of protein concentrations at the proteome level. The iBAQ method showed the best correlation between biological replicates, a normal distribution among all protein abundances, and the lowest variation among ribosomal protein abundances, which are expected to have equal amounts. Absolute quantitative proteome data enabled us to evaluate metabolic cost for protein synthesis and apparent catalytic activities of enzymes by integration with flux analysis. All the methods demonstrated similar ATP costs for protein synthesis for different cellular processes and that costs for expressing biomass synthesis related proteins were higher than those for energy generation. Importantly, catalytic activities of energy metabolism enzymes were an order or two higher than those of monomer synthesis. Interestingly, a staircase-like protein expression was demonstrated for most of the transcription units.

  19. Label-Free Protein Quantification for Plant Golgi Protein Localization and Abundance1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nikolovski, Nino; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Gatto, Laurent; Dupree, Paul; Lilley, Kathryn S.

    2014-01-01

    The proteomic composition of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Golgi apparatus is currently reasonably well documented; however, little is known about the relative abundances between different proteins within this compartment. Accurate quantitative information of Golgi resident proteins is of great importance: it facilitates a better understanding of the biochemical processes that take place within this organelle, especially those of different polysaccharide synthesis pathways. Golgi resident proteins are challenging to quantify because the abundance of this organelle is relatively low within the cell. In this study, an organelle fractionation approach targeting the Golgi apparatus was combined with a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (data-independent acquisition method using ion mobility separation known as LC-IMS-MSE [or HDMSE]) to simultaneously localize proteins to the Golgi apparatus and assess their relative quantity. In total, 102 Golgi-localized proteins were quantified. These data show that organelle fractionation in conjunction with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry is a powerful and relatively simple tool to access protein organelle localization and their relative abundances. The findings presented open a unique view on the organization of the plant Golgi apparatus, leading toward unique hypotheses centered on the biochemical processes of this organelle. PMID:25122472

  20. Label-Free Determination of Hemodynamic Parameters in the Microcirculaton with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Steffen; Pircher, Joachim; Nekolla, A. Katharina; Gull, Mazhar; Brändli, André W.; Pohl, Ulrich; Rehberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Determination of blood flow velocity and related hemodynamic parameters is an important aspect of physiological studies which in many settings requires fluorescent labeling. Here we show that Third Harmonic Generation (THG) microscopy is a suitable tool for label-free intravital investigations of the microcirculation in widely-used physiological model systems. THG microscopy is a non-fluorescent multi-photon scanning technique combining the advantages of label-free imaging with restriction of signal generation to a focal spot. Blood flow was visualized and its velocity was measured in adult mouse cremaster muscle vessels, non-invasively in mouse ear vessels and in Xenopus tadpoles. In arterioles, THG line scanning allowed determination of the flow pulse velocity curve and hence the heart rate. By relocating the scan line we obtained velocity profiles through vessel diameters, allowing shear rate calculations. The cell free layer containing the glycocalyx was also visualized. Comparison of the current microscopic resolution with theoretical, diffraction limited resolution let us conclude that an about sixty-fold THG signal intensity increase may be possible with future improved optics, optimized for 1200–1300 nm excitation. THG microscopy is compatible with simultaneous two-photon excited fluorescence detection. It thus also provides the opportunity to determine important hemodynamic parameters in parallel to common fluorescent observations without additional label. PMID:24933027

  1. Label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via immobilized antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zong-Mu; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2015-05-01

    A novel label-free strategy for the detection of bacteria was developed by using a specific antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-functionalized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode. This electrode interface was successfully applied to detect pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on the specific affinity between the small synthetic antimicrobial peptide and the bacterial cell of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. The concentrations of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 were sensitively measured by the frequency response of the QCM with a detection limit of 0.4 cfu μL(-1). The detection can be fulfilled within 10 min because it does not require germiculture process. On the other hand, if the specific antimicrobial peptides were immobilized on a gold electrode, this label-free strategy can also be performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with QCM technique, the EIS measurement gives a lower sensitivity and needs a longer assay time. The combination of antimicrobial peptides with the real-time responses of QCM, as well as electronic read-out monitoring of EIS, may open a new way for the direct detection of bacteria.

  2. Potential of label-free detection in high-content-screening applications.

    PubMed

    Proll, Guenther; Steinle, Lutz; Pröll, Florian; Kumpf, Michael; Moehrle, Bernd; Mehlmann, Martin; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2007-08-17

    The classical approach of high-content screening (HCS) is based on multiplexed, functional cell-based screening and combines several analytical technologies that have been used before separately to achieve a better level of automation (scale-up) and higher throughput. New HCS methods will help to overcome the bottlenecks, e.g. in the present development chain for lead structures for the pharmaceutical industry or during the identification and validation process of new biomarkers. In addition, there is a strong need in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry for functional high-content assays which can be provided by different hyphenated techniques. This review discusses the potential of a label-free optical biosensor based on reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) as a bridging technology for different HCS approaches. Technical requirements of RIfS are critically assessed by means of selected applications and compared to the performance characteristics of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which is currently the leading technology in the area of label-free optical biosensors.

  3. A label-free bioluminescent sensor for real-time monitoring polynucleotide kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiao; Xu, Qinfeng; Lu, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2014-08-19

    Polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays a crucial role in maintaining the genomic stability of cells and is becoming a potential target in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancers. The fluorescent method is usually used to measure the PNK activity, but it is impossible to obtain the real-time monitoring without the employment of the labeled DNA probes. Here, we report a label-free bioluminescent sensor for PNK activity assay through real-time monitoring of the phosphorylation-dependent DNA ligation reaction. In this bioluminescent sensor, two hairpin DNA probes with 5'-protruding terminal are designed as the phosphate acceptor, and the widely used phosphate donor of ATP is substituted by dCTP. In the absence of PNK, the ligation reaction cannot be triggered due to the lack of 5'-phosphoryl groups in the probes, and the background signal is negligible. With the addition of PNK, the phosphorylation-ligation reaction of the probes is initiated with the release of AMP, and the subsequent conversion of AMP to ATP leads to the generation of distinct bioluminescence signal. The PNK activity assay can be performed in real time by continuously monitoring the bioluminescence signal. This bioluminescent sensor is much simpler, label-free, cost-effective, and free from the autofluorescence interference of biological matrix, and can be further used for quantitative, kinetic, and inhibition assay.

  4. Noninvasive label-free nanoplasmonic optical imaging for real-time monitoring of in vitro amyloid fibrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Luke P.

    2014-03-01

    It is important to develop a noninvasive label-free detection method to monitor dynamic phenomena in biology and medicine. Here, we utilize nanoplasmonic optical imaging as the noninvasive and label-free method in order to monitor in vitro amyloid fibrogenesis in real-time, which is considered as the primary pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Using Rayleigh scattering of gold nanoplasmonic probes (GNPs), which have an enhanced scattering optical cross-section due to the surface plasmon resonance, we accomplished efficient tracking of the random movements of the GNPs in Aβ solution, and quantified the kinetics of the fibrogenesis. We expect that this noninvasive and label-free in vitro method can be utilized in monitoring in a wide range of other research fields as well. As future applications, we can envision long-term monitoring in neuronal cells to elucidate the mechanism of amyloid growth and NIR-based in vivo imaging with nanoplasmonic optical antennas for gene delivery, photonic gene circuits, and monitoring toward the theranostics of neurodegenerative diseases.It is important to develop a noninvasive label-free detection method to monitor dynamic phenomena in biology and medicine. Here, we utilize nanoplasmonic optical imaging as the noninvasive and label-free method in order to monitor in vitro amyloid fibrogenesis in real-time, which is considered as the primary pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Using Rayleigh scattering of gold nanoplasmonic probes (GNPs), which have an enhanced scattering optical cross-section due to the surface plasmon resonance, we accomplished efficient tracking of the random movements of the GNPs in Aβ solution, and quantified the kinetics of the fibrogenesis. We expect that this noninvasive and label-free in vitro method can be utilized in monitoring in a wide range of other research fields as well. As future applications, we can envision long-term monitoring in neuronal cells to elucidate the mechanism of

  5. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells. PMID:24578634

  6. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Label-Free and 8-Plex iTRAQ Approach for Quantitative Tissue Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Latosinska, Agnieszka; Vougas, Konstantinos; Makridakis, Manousos; Klein, Julie; Mullen, William; Abbas, Mahmoud; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Merseburger, Axel S.; Zoidakis, Jerome; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Vera

    2015-01-01

    High resolution proteomics approaches have been successfully utilized for the comprehensive characterization of the cell proteome. However, in the case of quantitative proteomics an open question still remains, which quantification strategy is best suited for identification of biologically relevant changes, especially in clinical specimens. In this study, a thorough comparison of a label-free approach (intensity-based) and 8-plex iTRAQ was conducted as applied to the analysis of tumor tissue samples from non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For the latter, two acquisition strategies were tested including analysis of unfractionated and fractioned iTRAQ-labeled peptides. To reduce variability, aliquots of the same protein extract were used as starting material, whereas to obtain representative results per method further sample processing and MS analysis were conducted according to routinely applied protocols. Considering only multiple-peptide identifications, LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 910, 1092 and 332 proteins by label-free, fractionated and unfractionated iTRAQ, respectively. The label-free strategy provided higher protein sequence coverage compared to both iTRAQ experiments. Even though pre-fraction of the iTRAQ labeled peptides allowed for a higher number of identifications, this was not accompanied by a respective increase in the number of differentially expressed changes detected. Validity of the proteomics output related to protein identification and differential expression was determined by comparison to existing data in the field (Protein Atlas and published data on the disease). All methods predicted changes which to a large extent agreed with published data, with label-free providing a higher number of significant changes than iTRAQ. Conclusively, both label-free and iTRAQ (when combined to peptide fractionation) provide high proteome coverage and apparently valid predictions in terms of differential expression

  8. Label-free optical detection of action potential in mammalian neurons

    PubMed Central

    Batabyal, Subrata; Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Bui, Loan; Kim, Young-Tae; Mohanty, Samarendra; Bachoo, Robert; Davé, Digant P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an optical technique for label-free detection of the action potential in cultured mammalian neurons. Induced morphological changes due to action potential propagation in neurons are optically interrogated with a phase sensitive interferometric technique. Optical recordings composed of signal pulses mirror the electrical spike train activity of individual neurons in a network. The optical pulses are transient nanoscale oscillatory changes in the optical path length of varying peak magnitude and temporal width. Exogenous application of glutamate to cortical neuronal cultures produced coincident increase in the electrical and optical activity; both were blocked by application of a Na-channel blocker, Tetrodotoxin. The observed transient change in optical path length in a single optical pulse is primarily due to physical fluctuations of the neuronal cell membrane mediated by a yet unknown electromechanical transduction phenomenon. Our analysis suggests a traveling surface wave in the neuronal cell membrane is responsible for the measured optical signal pulses. PMID:28856044

  9. Photonic Crystal Surfaces as a General Purpose Platform for Label-Free and Fluorescent Assays.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-04-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces can be designed to provide a wide range of functions that are used to perform biochemical and cell-based assays. Detection of the optical resonant reflections from photonic crystal surfaces enables high sensitivity label-free biosensing, while the enhanced electromagnetic fields that occur at resonant wavelengths can be used to enhance the detection sensitivity of any surface-based fluorescence assay. Fabrication of photonic crystals from inexpensive plastic materials over large surface areas enables them to be incorporated into standard formats that include microplates, microarrays, and microfluidic channels. This report reviews the design of photonic crystal biosensors, their associated detection instrumentation, and biological applications. Applications including small molecule high throughput screening, cell membrane integrin activation, gene expression analysis, and protein biomarker detection are highlighted. Recent results in which photonic crystal surfaces are used for enhancing the detection of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and the development of high resolution photonic crystal-based laser biosensors are also described.

  10. Gold surface supported spherical liposome-gold nano-particle nano-composite for label free DNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Bhuvana, M; Narayanan, J Shankara; Dharuman, V; Teng, W; Hahn, J H; Jayakumar, K

    2013-03-15

    Immobilization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) liposome-gold nano-particle (DOPE-AuNP) nano-composite covalently on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on gold surface is demonstrated for the first time for electrochemical label free DNA sensing. Spherical nature of the DOPE on the MPA monolayer is confirmed by the appearance of sigmoidal voltammetric profile, characteristic behavior of linear diffusion, for the MPA-DOPE in presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) redox probes. The DOPE liposome vesicle fusion is prevented by electroless deposition of AuNP on the hydrophilic amine head groups of the DOPE. Immobilization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is made via simple gold-thiol linkage for DNA hybridization sensing in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-). The sensor discriminates the hybridized (complementary target hybridized), un-hybridized (non-complementary target hybridized) and single base mismatch target hybridized surfaces sensitively and selectively without signal amplification. The lowest target DNA concentration detected is 0.1×10(-12)M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques are used for DNA sensing on DOPE-AuNP nano-composite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) spectroscopic techniques are used to understand the interactions between the DOPE, AuNP and ssDNA. The results indicate the presence of an intact and well defined spherical DOPE-AuNP nano-composite on the gold surface. The method could be applied for fabrication of the surface based liposome-AuNP-DNA composite for cell transfection studies at reduced reagents and costs.

  11. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging for label-free differentiation of lung cancerous lesions from normal and desmoplastic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Jie; Thrall, Michael J.; Liu, Zhengfan; Wang, Xi; Wong, Stephen T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, and non-small cell carcinoma accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases. One major characteristic of non-small cell carcinoma is the appearance of desmoplasia and deposition of dense extracellular collagen around the tumor. The desmoplastic response provides a radiologic target but may impair sampling during traditional image-guided needle biopsy and is difficult to differentiate from normal tissues using single label free imaging modality; for translational purposes, label-free techniques provide a more promising route to clinics. We thus investigated the potential of using multimodal, label free optical microscopy that incorporates Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), Two-Photon Excited AutoFluorescence (TPEAF), and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) techniques for differentiating lung cancer from normal and desmoplastic tissues. Lung tissue samples from patients were imaged using CARS, TPEAF, and SHG for comparison and showed that the combination of the three non-linear optics techniques is essential for attaining reliable differentiation. These images also illustrated good pathological correlation with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the same tissue samples. Automated image analysis algorithms were developed for quantitative segmentation and feature extraction to enable lung tissue differentiation. Our results indicate that coupled with automated morphology analysis, the proposed tri-modal nonlinear optical imaging technique potentially offers a powerful translational strategy to differentiate cancer lesions reliably from surrounding non-tumor and desmoplastic tissues. PMID:24409386

  12. Synergizing nucleic acid aptamers with 1-dimensional nanostructures as label-free field-effect transistor biosensors.

    PubMed

    Lung Khung, Yit; Narducci, Dario

    2013-12-15

    Since the introduction by Gold et al. in 1990, nucleic acid aptamers had evolved to become a true contender in biosensors for protein and cell detections. Aptamers are short strands of synthetically designed DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can be self-assembled into unique 3-dimensional structures and can bind to different proteins, cells or even small molecules at a high level of specificity and affinity. In recent years, there had been many reports in literature in using aptamers in place of conventional antibodies as capture biomolecules on the surface. This is mainly due to the better thermal stability properties and ease in production. Consequently, also these characteristics allowed the aptamers to find use in field effect transistors (FETs) based upon 1D nanostructured (1D-NS) as label-free biosensing. In terms of designing label-free platforms for biosensors applications, 1D-NS FET had been an attractive option due to reported high sensitivities toward protein targets arising from the large surface area for detection as well as to their label-free nature. Since the first aptamer-based 1D-NS FET biosensor had surfaced in 2005, there had been many more improvements in the overall design and sensitivity in recent years. In this review, the latest developments in synergizing these two interesting areas of research (aptamers and 1D-NS FET) will be discussed for a range of different nanowire types as well as for the detection results.

  13. Label-free DNA sequencing using Millikan detection.

    PubMed

    Dettloff, Roger; Leiske, Danielle; Chow, Andrea; Farinas, Javier

    2015-10-15

    A label-free method for DNA sequencing based on the principle of the Millikan oil drop experiment was developed. This sequencing-by-synthesis approach sensed increases in bead charge as nucleotides were added by a polymerase to DNA templates attached to beads. The balance between an electrical force, which was dependent on the number of nucleotide charges on a bead, and opposing hydrodynamic drag and restoring tether forces resulted in a bead velocity that was a function of the number of nucleotides attached to the bead. The velocity of beads tethered via a polymer to a microfluidic channel and subjected to an oscillating electric field was measured using dark-field microscopy and used to determine how many nucleotides were incorporated during each sequencing-by-synthesis cycle. Increases in bead velocity of approximately 1% were reliably detected during DNA polymerization, allowing for sequencing of short DNA templates. The method could lead to a low-cost, high-throughput sequencing platform that could enable routine sequencing in medical applications.

  14. Label-Free DNA Sequencing Using Millikan Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dettloff, Roger; Leiske, Danielle; Chow, Andrea; Farinas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A label-free method for DNA sequencing based on the principle of the Millikan oil drop experiment was developed. This sequencing-by-synthesis approach sensed increases in bead charge as nucleotides were added by a polymerase to DNA templates attached to beads. The balance between an electrical force, which was dependent on the number of nucleotide charges on a bead, and opposing hydrodynamic drag and restoring tether forces resulted in a bead velocity that was a function of the number of nucleotides attached to the bead. The velocity of beads tethered via a polymer to a microfluidic channel and subjected to an oscillating electric field was measured using dark-field microscopy and used to determine how many nucleotides were incorporated during each sequencing-by-synthesis cycle. Increases in bead velocity of ~ 1% were reliably detected during DNA polymerization allowing for sequencing of short DNA templates. The method could lead to a low-cost, high-throughput sequencing platform that could enable routine sequencing in medical applications. PMID:26151683

  15. Recyclable optical microcavities for label-free sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Heather K.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2011-10-01

    High-sensitivity, label-free biosensors, such as optical microcavities, have shown tremendous potential in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation, particularly when paired with a biochemical recognition element that grants high specificity towards a target of interest. Their primary limitation is that these systems are single-use, unless the recognition element can be regenerated. Therefore, the ability to selectively functionalize the optical microcavity for a specific target molecule and then recycle the system, without degrading device performance, is extremely important. Here, we present a bioconjugation strategy that not only imparts specificity to optical microcavities, but also allows for biosensor recycling. In this approach, we selectively functionalize the surface of silica microtoroids with a biotin recognition element. We then use a non-destructive O2 plasma treatment to remove the surface chemistry, refresh the recognition element, and recycle the device. The surface chemistry and optical performance of the functionalized and recycled devices are characterized by microcavity analysis, and typical spectroscopic techniques, respectively. The resulting devices can be recycled several times without performance degradation, and show high density surface coverage of biologically active recognition elements. This work represents one of the first examples of a recyclable, bioconjugation strategy for optical microtoroid resonators.

  16. Label-free structural photoacoustic tomography of intact mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Capitalizing on endogenous hemoglobin contrast, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a deep-tissue highresolution imaging modality, has drawn increasing interest in neuro-imaging. However, most existing studies are limited to functional imaging on the cortical surface, and the deep-brain structural imaging capability of PACT has never been demonstrated. Here, we explicitly studied the limiting factors of deep-brain PACT imaging. We found that the skull distorted the acoustic signal and blood suppressed the structural contrast from other chromophores. When the two effects are mitigated, PACT can provide high-resolution label-free structural imaging through the entire mouse brain. With 100 μm in-plane resolution, we can clearly identify major structures of the brain, and the image quality is comparable to that of magnetic resonance microscopy. Spectral PACT studies indicate that structural contrasts mainly originate from cytochrome and lipid. The feasibility of imaging the structure of the brain in vivo has also been discussed. Our results demonstrate that PACT is a promising modality for both structural and functional brain imaging.

  17. Diatom-based label-free optical biosensor for biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Viji, S; Anbazhagi, M; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Jeyanthi, S; Santhanam, P; Devi, A Shenbaga; Viswanathan, C

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae, which fabricates ornate biosilica shells called frustules that possess a surface rich in reactive silanol (Si-OH) groups. The intrinsic patterned porous structure of diatom frustules at nanoscale can be exploited in the effective detection of biomolecules. In this study, the frustules of a specific diatom Amphora sp. has been functionalized to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA). The functionalization of the diatom frustule substrate is achieved by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed an ornately patterned surface of the frustule valve ordered at nanoscale. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the N-H bending and stretching of the amine group after amine functionalization. The emission peaks in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the amine-functionalized diatom biosilica selectively enhanced the intensity by a factor of ten when compared to that of a bare diatom biosilica. The result showed a significant quenching of PL intensity of BSA at around 445 nm due to the interaction of amine-functionalized diatom-BSA protein complex. The detection limit was found to be 3 × 10(-5) M of BSA protein. Hence, the study proves that the functionalized frustule of Amphora sp. is an effective quantitative analytical tool for optical label-free biosensing applications.

  18. Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Melinda S; Domier, Leslie L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2012-01-15

    Viruses represent a continual threat to humans through a number of mechanisms, which include disease, bioterrorism, and destruction of both plant and animal food resources. Many contemporary techniques used for the detection of viruses and viral infections suffer from limitations such as the need for extensive sample preparation or the lengthy window between infection and measurable immune response, for serological methods. In order to develop a method that is fast, cost-effective, and features reduced sample preparation compared to many other virus detection methods, we report the application of silicon photonic microring resonators for the direct, label-free detection of intact viruses in both purified samples as well as in a complex, real-world analytical matrix. As a model system, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bean pod mottle virus, a pathogen of great agricultural importance, with a limit of detection of 10 ng/mL. By simply grinding a small amount of leaf sample in buffer with a mortar and pestle, infected leaves can be identified over a healthy control with a total analysis time of less than 45 min. Given the inherent scalability and multiplexing capability of the semiconductor-based technology, we feel that silicon photonic microring resonators are well-positioned as a promising analytical tool for a number of viral detection applications.

  19. Label-Free Pyrophosphate Recognition with Functionalized Asymmetric Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Ramirez, Patricio; Nasir, Saima; Niemeyer, Christof M; Mafe, Salvador; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The label-free detection of pyrophosphate (PPi) anions with a nanofluidic sensing device based on asymmetric nanopores is demonstrated. The pore surface is functionalized with zinc complexes based on two di(2-picolyl)amine [bis(DPA)] moieties using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The complexation of zinc (Zn(2+) ) ion is achieved by exposing the modified pore to a solution of zinc chloride to form bis(Zn(2+) -DPA) complexes. The chemical functionalization is demonstrated by recording the changes in the observed current-voltage (I-V) curves before and after pore modification. The bis(Zn(2+) -DPA) complexes on the pore walls serve as recognition sites for pyrophosphate anion. The experimental results show that the proposed nanofluidic sensor has the ability to sense picomolar concentrations of PPi anion in the surrounding environment. On the contrary, it does not respond to other phosphate anions, including monohydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate. The experimental results are described theoretically by using a model based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  1. Symmetric curvature descriptors for label-free analysis of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Buzio, Renato; Repetto, Luca; Giacopelli, Francesca; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Valbusa, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution microscopy techniques such as electron microscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy represent well-established, powerful tools for the structural characterization of adsorbed DNA molecules at the nanoscale. Notably, the analysis of DNA contours allows mapping intrinsic curvature and flexibility along the molecular backbone. This is particularly suited to address the impact of the base-pairs sequence on the local conformation of the strands and plays a pivotal role for investigations relating the inherent DNA shape and flexibility to other functional properties. Here, we introduce novel chain descriptors aimed to characterize the local intrinsic curvature and flexibility of adsorbed DNA molecules with unknown orientation. They consist of stochastic functions that couple the curvatures of two nanosized segments, symmetrically placed on the DNA contour. We show that the fine mapping of the ensemble-averaged functions along the molecular backbone generates characteristic patterns of variation that highlight all pairs of tracts with large intrinsic curvature or enhanced flexibility. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for DNA chains imaged by atomic force microscopy. Our approach paves the way for the label-free comparative analysis of duplexes, aimed to detect nanoscale conformational changes of physical or biological relevance in large sample numbers. PMID:25248631

  2. Bioplasmonic calligraphy for multiplexed label-free biodetection

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Limei; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Hyun Park, Sang; Liu, Keng-Ku; Morrissey, Jeremiah J.; Kharasch, Evan D.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    Printable multi-marker biochips that enable simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple target biomarkers in point-of-care and resource-limited settings are a holy grail in the field of biodiagnostics. However, preserving the functionality of biomolecules, which are routinely employed as recognition elements, during conventional printing approaches remains challenging. In this article, we introduce a simple yet powerful approach, namely plasmonic calligraphy, for realizing multiplexed label-free bioassays. Plasmonic calligraphy involves a regular ballpoint pen filled with biofunctionalized gold nanorods as plasmonic ink for creating isolated test domains on paper substrates. Biofriendly plasmonic calligraphy approach serves as a facile method to miniaturize the test domain size to few mm2, which significantly improves the sensitivity of the plasmonic biosensor compared to bioplasmonic paper fabricated using immersion approach. Furthermore, plasmonic calligraphy also serves as a simple and efficient means to isolate multiple test domains on a single test strip, which facilitates multiplexed biodetection and multi-marker biochips. Plasmonic calligraphy, which can be potentially automated by implementing with a robotic arm, serves as an alternate path forward to overcome the limitations of conventional ink-jet printing. PMID:24727607

  3. Bioplasmonic calligraphy for multiplexed label-free biodetection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Limei; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Park, Sang Hyun; Liu, Keng-Ku; Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Kharasch, Evan D; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2014-09-15

    Printable multi-marker biochips that enable simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple target biomarkers in point-of-care and resource-limited settings are a holy grail in the field of biodiagnostics. However, preserving the functionality of biomolecules, which are routinely employed as recognition elements, during conventional printing approaches remains challenging. In this article, we introduce a simple yet powerful approach, namely plasmonic calligraphy, for realizing multiplexed label-free bioassays. Plasmonic calligraphy involves a regular ballpoint pen filled with biofunctionalized gold nanorods as plasmonic ink for creating isolated test domains on paper substrates. Biofriendly plasmonic calligraphy approach serves as a facile method to miniaturize the test domain size to few mm(2), which significantly improves the sensitivity of the plasmonic biosensor compared to bioplasmonic paper fabricated using immersion approach. Furthermore, plasmonic calligraphy also serves as a simple and efficient means to isolate multiple test domains on a single test strip, which facilitates multiplexed biodetection and multi-marker biochips. Plasmonic calligraphy, which can be potentially automated by implementing with a robotic arm, serves as an alternate path forward to overcome the limitations of conventional ink-jet printing.

  4. Interpretation of interference signals in label free integrated interferometric biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, Hanna; Wang, Meng; Okkonen, Matti; Hast, Jukka; Myllylä, Risto

    2006-02-01

    In the future fast, simple and reliable biosensors will be needed to detect various analytes from different biosamples. This is due to fact that the needs of traditional health care are changing. In the future homecare of patients and peoples' responsibility for their own health will increase. Also, different wellness applications need new parameters to be analysed, reducing costs of traditional health care, which are increasing rapidly. One fascinating and promising sensor type for these applications is an integrated optical interferometric immunosensor, which is manufactured using organic materials. The use of organic materials opens up enormous possibilities to develop different biochemical functions. In label free biosensors the measurement is based on detecting changes in refractive index, which typically are in the range of 10 -6-10 -8 [1]. In this research, theoretically generated interferograms are used to compare various signal processing methods. The goal is to develop an efficient method to analyse the interferogram. Different time domain signal processing methods are studied to determine the measuring resolution and efficiency of these methods. A low cost CCD -element is used in detecting the interferogram dynamics. It was found that in most of the signal processing methods the measuring resolution was mainly limited by pixel size. With calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient, subpixel resolution was achieved which means that nanometer range optical path differences can be measured. This results in the refractive index resolution of the order of 10 -7.

  5. Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Sridharan, Shamira; Liang, Jon; Luo, Zelun; Han, Kevin; Macias, Virgilia; Shah, Anish; Patel, Roshan; Tangella, Krishnarao; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    The current practice of surgical pathology relies on external contrast agents to reveal tissue architecture, which is then qualitatively examined by a trained pathologist. The diagnosis is based on the comparison with standardized empirical, qualitative assessments of limited objectivity. We propose an approach to pathology based on interferometric imaging of "unstained" biopsies, which provides unique capabilities for quantitative diagnosis and automation. We developed a label-free tissue scanner based on "quantitative phase imaging," which maps out optical path length at each point in the field of view and, thus, yields images that are sensitive to the "nanoscale" tissue architecture. Unlike analysis of stained tissue, which is qualitative in nature and affected by color balance, staining strength and imaging conditions, optical path length measurements are intrinsically quantitative, i.e., images can be compared across different instruments and clinical sites. These critical features allow us to automate the diagnosis process. We paired our interferometric optical system with highly parallelized, dedicated software algorithms for data acquisition, allowing us to image at a throughput comparable to that of commercial tissue scanners while maintaining the nanoscale sensitivity to morphology. Based on the measured phase information, we implemented software tools for autofocusing during imaging, as well as image archiving and data access. To illustrate the potential of our technology for large volume pathology screening, we established an "intrinsic marker" for colorectal disease that detects tissue with dysplasia or colorectal cancer and flags specific areas for further examination, potentially improving the efficiency of existing pathology workflows.

  6. Label-free bead-based metallothionein electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Nejdl, Lukas; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Masarik, Michal; Hynek, David; Heger, Zbynek; Lundberg, Karin; Erikson, Kristofer; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-08-01

    A novel microfluidic label-free bead-based metallothionein immunosensors was designed. To the surface of superparamagnetic agarose beads coated with protein A, polyclonal chicken IgY specifically recognizing metallothionein (MT) were immobilized via rabbit IgG. The Brdicka reaction was used for metallothionein detection in a microfluidic printed 3D chip. The assembled chip consisted of a single copper wire coated with a thin layer of amalgam as working electrode. Optimization of MT detection using designed microfluidic chip was performed in stationary system as well as in the flow arrangement at various flow rates (0-1800 μL/min). In stationary arrangement it is possible to detect MT concentrations up to 30 ng/mL level, flow arrangement allows reliable detection of even lower concentration (12.5 ng/mL). The assembled miniature flow chip was subsequently tested for the detection of MT elevated levels (at approx. level 100 μg/mL) in samples of patients with cancer. The stability of constructed device for metallothionein detection in flow arrangement was found to be several days without any maintenance needed.

  7. Label-free biosensor based on long period grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Chiavaioli, Francesco; Giannetti, Ambra; Brenci, Massimo; Trono, Cosimo

    2013-03-01

    Long period gratings have been recently proposed as label-free optical devices for biochemical sensing. A biochemical interaction along the grating region changes the biolayer refractive index and a change in the fiber transmission spectrum occurs. The fiber biofunctionalization was performed with a novel chemistry using Eudragit L100 copolymer as opposed to the commonly-used silanization procedure. An IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was carried out for studying the antigen/antibody interaction. The biosensor was fully characterized, monitoring the kinetics during the antibody immobilization and achieving the calibration curve of the assay. To compare the biosensor performance, two LPG-based biosensors with distinct grating periods were characterized following the same bioassay protocol. Experimental results demonstrated an enhancement of the biosensor performance when the fundamental core mode of a single-mode fiber couples with a higher order cladding mode. Considering an LPG manufactured on a bare optical fiber, in which the coupling occurs with the 7-th cladding mode, a dynamic signal range of 0.33 nm, a working range of 1.7 - 1450 mg L-1 and a LOD of 500 μg L-1 were achieved

  8. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of myocardial sheet architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Cheng, Ya-Jian; Chen, Junjie; Wickline, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Cardiac myofibers are organized into sheet architectures, which contribute to up to 40% of the heart wall thickening for ejection of blood for circulation. It is important to delineate the sheet architecture for a better understanding of cardiac mechanisms. However, current sheet imaging technologies are limited by fixation-induced dehydration/deformation and low spatial resolution. Here we implemented high-resolution label-free photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the myocardial sheet architecture. With high endogenous optical-absorption contrast originating mainly from cytochrome, myoglobin, and melanin, PAM can image the unfixed, unstained and unsliced heart without introducing deformation artifacts. A fresh blood-free mouse heart was imaged by PAM ex vivo. The three-dimensional branching sheets were clearly identified within 150 [micro sign]m depth. Various morphological parameters were derived from the PAM image. The sheet thickness (80 ± 10 μm) and the cleavage height (11 ± 1 μm) were derived from an undehydrated heart for the first time. Therefore, PAM has the potential for the functional imaging of sheet architecture in ex vivo perfused and viable hearts.

  9. Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Melinda S.; Domier, Leslie L; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses represent a continual threat to humans through a number of mechanisms, which include disease, bioterrorism, and destruction of both plant and animal food resources. Many contemporary techniques used for the detection of viruses and viral infections suffer from limitations such as the need for extensive sample preparation or the lengthy window between infection and measurable immune response, for serological methods. In order to develop a method that is fast, cost-effective, and features reduced sample preparation compared to many other virus detection methods, we report the application of silicon photonic microring resonators for the direct, label-free detection of intact viruses in both purified samples as well as in a complex, real-world analytical matrix. As a model system, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bean pod mottle virus, a pathogen of great agricultural importance, with a limit of detection of 10 ng/mL. By simply grinding a small amount of leaf sample in buffer with a mortar and pestle, infected leaves can be identified over a healthy control with a total analysis time of less than 45 min. Given the inherent scalability and multiplexing capability of the semiconductor-based technology, we feel that silicon photonic microring resonators are well-positioned as a promising analytical tool for a number of viral detection applications. PMID:22138465

  10. Label-Free Optical Ring Resonator Bio/Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    Optical micro-ring resonator sensors are an emerging category of label-free optical sensors for bio/chemical sensing that have recently been under intensive investigation. Researchers of this technology have been motivated by a tremendous breadth of different applications, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, homeland security, and food quality control, which require sensitive analytical tools. Ring resonator sensors use total internal reflection to support circulating optical resonances called whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGMs have an evanescent field of several hundred nanometers into the surrounding medium, and can therefore detect the refractive index change induced when the analyte binds to the resonator surface. Despite the small physical size of a resonator, the circulating nature of the WGM creates extremely long effective lengths, greatly increasing light-matter interaction and improving its sensing performance. Moreover, only small sample volume is needed for detection because the sensors can be fabricated in sizes well below 100 μm. The small footprint allows integration of those ring resonator sensors onto lab-on-a-chip types of devices for multiplexed detection.

  11. Detection of microRNA in clinical tumor samples by isothermal enzyme-free amplification and label-free graphene oxide-based SYBR Green I fluorescence platform.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Debin; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Wenge; Lu, Suqin; Xing, Xiaobo

    2015-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of small molecules that involve in many important life activities. They have higher expression levels in many kinds of cancers. In this study, we developed an isothermal enzyme-free amplification (EFA) and label-free graphene oxide (GO)-based SYBR Green I fluorescence platform for detection of miRNA. MiRNA-21 was used as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Results show that the sensitivity of miRNA-21 is 1pM, and the linearity range is from 1pM to 1nM. The method can specifically discriminate miRNA-21 from miRNA-210 and miRNA-214. Three tumor cell lines of A549, HepG2 and MCF7 were detected by the method. The sensitivities of them were 10(2) cells, 10(3) cells and 10(3) cells respectively. Clinical tumor samples were also tested by this method, and 29 of 40 samples gave out positive signals. The method holds great promise in miRNA detection due to its convenience, rapidness, inexpensive and specificity.

  12. Performance limitations of label-free sensors in molecular diagnosis using complex samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    Label-free biosensors promised a paradigm involving direct detection of biomarkers from complex samples such as serum without requiring multistep sample processing typical of labelled methods such as ELISA or immunofluorescence assays. Label-free sensors have witnessed decades of development with a veritable zoo of techniques available today exploiting a multitude of physical effects. It is appropriate now to critically assess whether label-free technologies have succeeded in delivering their promise with respect to diagnostic applications, particularly, ambitious goals such as early cancer detection using serum biomarkers, which require low limits of detection (LoD). Comparison of nearly 120 limits of detection (LoD) values reported by labelled and label-free sensing approaches over a wide range of detection techniques and target molecules in serum revealed that labeled techniques achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude better LoDs. Data from experiments where labelled and label-free assays were performed simultaneously using the same assay parameters also confirm that the LoD achieved by labelled techniques is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude better than that by label-free techniques. Furthermore, label-free techniques required significant signal amplification, for e.g. using nanoparticle conjugated secondary antibodies, to achieve LoDs comparable to labelled methods substantially deviating from the original "direct detection" paradigm. This finding has important implications on the practical limits of applying label-free detection methods for molecular diagnosis.

  13. Label-free functional nucleic acid sensors for detecting target agents

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-13

    A general methodology to design label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors using a vacant site approach and an abasic site approach is described. In one example, a method for designing label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors (e.g., those that include a DNAzyme, aptamer or aptazyme) that have a tunable dynamic range through the introduction of an abasic site (e.g., dSpacer) or a vacant site into the functional nucleic acids. Also provided is a general method for designing label-free fluorescent aptamer sensors based on the regulation of malachite green (MG) fluorescence. A general method for designing label-free fluorescent catalytic and molecular beacons (CAMBs) is also provided. The methods demonstrated here can be used to design many other label-free fluorescent sensors to detect a wide range of analytes. Sensors and methods of using the disclosed sensors are also provided.

  14. Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaliang; Li, Fuhai; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J; Shen, Steven S; Wong, Kelvin K; Wong, Stephen T C

    2011-08-01

    We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. PMID:22399927

  16. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  17. Coherent total internal reflection dark-field microscopy: label-free imaging beyond the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    von Olshausen, Philipp; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    Coherent imaging is barely applicable in life-science microscopy due to multiple interference artifacts. Here, we show how these interferences can be used to improve image resolution and contrast. We present a dark-field microscopy technique with evanescent illumination via total internal reflection that delivers high-contrast images of coherently scattering samples. By incoherent averaging of multiple coherent images illuminated from different directions we can resolve image structures that remain unresolved by conventional (incoherent) fluorescence microscopy. We provide images of 190 nm beads revealing resolution beyond the diffraction limit and slightly increased object distances. An analytical model is introduced that accounts for the observed effects and which is confirmed by numerical simulations. Our approach may be a route to fast, label-free, super-resolution imaging in live-cell microscopy.

  18. Rational Conversion of Affinity Reagents into Label-Free Sensors for Peptide Motifs by Designed Allostery

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jin; Koide, Shohei

    2010-05-25

    Optical biosensors for short peptide motifs, an important class of biomarkers, have been developed based on 'affinity clamps', a new class of recombinant affinity reagents. Affinity clamps are engineered by linking a peptide-binding domain and an antibody mimic domain based on the fibronectin type III scaffold, followed by optimization of the interface between the two. This two-domain architecture allows for the design of allosteric coupling of peptide binding to fluorescence energy transfer between two fluorescent proteins attached to the affinity clamp. Coupled with high affinity and specificity of the underlying affinity clamps and rationally designed mutants with different sensitivity, peptide concentrations in crude cell lysate were determined with a low nanomolar detection limit and over 3 orders of magnitude. Because diverse affinity clamps can be engineered, our strategy provides a general platform to generate a repertoire of genetically encoded, label-free sensors for peptide motifs.

  19. Label-free image-based detection of drug resistance with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Lei, Cheng; Mao, Ailin; Jiang, Yiyue; Guo, Baoshan; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a fundamental predicament in cancer therapy. Early detection of drug-resistant cancer cells during or after treatment is expected to benefit patients from unnecessary drug administration and thus play a significant role in the development of a therapeutic strategy. However, the development of an effective method of detecting drug-resistant cancer cells is still in its infancy due to their complex mechanism in drug resistance. To address this problem, we propose and experimentally demonstrate label-free image-based drug resistance detection with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy using leukemia cells (K562 and K562/ADM). By adding adriamycin (ADM) to both K562 and K562/ADM (ADM-resistant K562 cells) cells, both types of cells express unique morphological changes, which are subsequently captured by an optofluidic time-stretch microscope. These unique morphological changes are extracted as image features and are subjected to supervised machine learning for cell classification. We hereby have successfully differentiated K562 and K562/ADM solely with label-free images, which suggests that our technique is capable of detecting drug-resistant cancer cells. Our optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of a time-stretch microscope with a high spatial resolution of 780 nm at a 1D frame rate of 75 MHz and a microfluidic device that focuses and orders cells. We compare various machine learning algorithms as well as various concentrations of ADM for cell classification. Owing to its unprecedented versatility of using label-free image and its independency from specific molecules, our technique holds great promise for detecting drug resistance of cancer cells for which its underlying mechanism is still unknown or chemical probes are still unavailable.

  20. Protein analysis of atrial fibrosis via label-free proteomics in chronic atrial fibrillation patients with mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peide; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xu; Song, Yunhu; Han, Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrosis, as a hallmark of atrial structure remodeling, plays an important role in maintenance of chronic atrial fibrillation, but interrelationship of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation is uncertain. Label-free proteomics can implement high throughput screening for finding and analyzing pivotal proteins related to the disease.. Therefore, we used label-free proteomics to explore and analyze differentially proteins in chronic atrial fibrillation patients with mitral valve disease. Left and right atrial appendages obtained from patients with mitral valve disease were both in chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF, AF≥6 months, n = 6) and in sinus rhythm (SR, n = 6). One part of the sample was used for histological analysis and fibrosis quantification; other part were analyzed by label-free proteomic combining liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we utilized bioinformatics analysis to identify differential proteins. Degree of atrial fibrosis was higher in CAF patients than that of SR patients. 223 differential proteins were detected between two groups. These proteins mainly had vital functions such as cell proliferation, stress response, focal adhesion apoptosis. We evaluated that serine/threonine protein kinase N2 (PKN2), dermatopontin (DP), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) and discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2) played important roles in fibrotic process related to atrial fibrillation. The study presented differential proteins responsible for atrial fibrosis in chronic atrial fibrillation patients through label-free proteomic analysis. We assessed some vital proteins including their characters and roles. These findings may open up new realm for mechanism research of atrial fibrillation.

  1. Flexible Label-Free Quantitative Assay for Antibodies to Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins ▿

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Paul J.; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Monto, Arnold S.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James

    2010-01-01

    During the initial pandemic influenza H1N1 virus outbreak, assays such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization provided important information on the relative protection afforded by the population's cross-reactivity from prior infections and immunizations with seasonal vaccines. However, these assays continue to be limited in that they are difficult to automate for high throughput, such as in pandemic situations, as well as to standardize between labs. Thus, new technologies are being sought to improve standardization, reliability, and throughput by using chemically defined reagents rather than whole cells and virions. We now report the use of a cell-free and label-free flu antibody biosensor assay (f-AbBA) for influenza research and diagnostics that utilizes recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) in conjunction with label-free biolayer interferometry technology to measure biomolecular interactions between the HA and specific anti-HA antibodies or sialylated ligands. We evaluated f-AbBA to determine anti-HA antibody binding activity in serum or plasma to assess vaccine-induced humoral responses. This assay can reveal the impact of antigenic difference on antibody binding to HA and also measure binding to different subtypes of HA. We also show that the biosensor assay can measure the ability of HA to bind a model sialylated receptor-like ligand. f-AbBA could be used in global surveillance laboratories since preliminary tests on desiccated HA probes showed no loss of activity after >2 months in storage at room temperature, indicating that the same reagent lots could be used in different laboratories to minimize interlaboratory assay fluctuation. Future development of such reagents and similar technologies may offer a robust platform for future influenza surveillance activities. PMID:20660137

  2. Imaging label-free biosensor with microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahns, S.; Glorius, P.; Hansen, M.; Nazirizadeh, Y.; Gerken, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a microfluidic system suitable for parallel label-free detection of several biomarkers utilizing a compact imaging measurement system. The microfluidic system contains a filter unit to separate the plasma from human blood and a functionalized, photonic crystal slab sensor chip. The nanostructure of the photonic crystal slab sensor chip is fabricated by nanoimprint lithography of a period grating surface into a photoresist and subsequent deposition of a TiO2 layer. Photonic crystal slabs are slab waveguides supporting quasi-guided modes coupling to far-field radiation, which are sensitive to refractive index changes due to biomarker binding on the functionalized surface. In our imaging read-out system the resulting resonance shift of the quasi-guided mode in the transmission spectrum is converted into an intensity change detectable with a simple camera. By continuously taking photographs of the sensor surface local intensity changes are observed revealing the binding kinetics of the biomarker to its specific target. Data from two distinct measurement fields are used for evaluation. For testing the sensor chip, 1 μM biotin as well as 1 μM recombinant human CD40 ligand were immobilized in spotsvia amin coupling to the sensor surface. Each binding experiment was performed with 250 nM streptavidin and 90 nM CD40 ligand antibody dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. In the next test series, a functionalized sensor chip was bonded onto a 15 mm x 15 mm opening of the 75 mm x 25 mm x 2 mm microfluidic system. We demonstrate the functionality of the microfluidic system for filtering human blood such that only blood plasma was transported to the sensor chip. The results of first binding experiments in buffer with this test chip will be presented.

  3. Highly Reproducible Label Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of RNA Polymerase Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Amber L.; Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Workman, Jerry L.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative proteomics methods to study protein complexes has the potential to provide in-depth information on the abundance of different protein components as well as their modification state in various cellular conditions. To interrogate protein complex quantitation using shotgun proteomic methods, we have focused on the analysis of protein complexes using label-free multidimensional protein identification technology and studied the reproducibility of biological replicates. For these studies, we focused on three highly related and essential multi-protein enzymes, RNA polymerase I, II, and III from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that label-free quantitation using spectral counting is highly reproducible at the protein and peptide level when analyzing RNA polymerase I, II, and III. In addition, we show that peptide sampling does not follow a random sampling model, and we show the need for advanced computational models to predict peptide detection probabilities. In order to address these issues, we used the APEX protocol to model the expected peptide detectability based on whole cell lysate acquired using the same multidimensional protein identification technology analysis used for the protein complexes. Neither method was able to predict the peptide sampling levels that we observed using replicate multidimensional protein identification technology analyses. In addition to the analysis of the RNA polymerase complexes, our analysis provides quantitative information about several RNAP associated proteins including the RNAPII elongation factor complexes DSIF and TFIIF. Our data shows that DSIF and TFIIF are the most highly enriched RNAP accessory factors in Rpb3-TAP purifications and demonstrate our ability to measure low level associated protein abundance across biological replicates. In addition, our quantitative data supports a model in which DSIF and TFIIF interact with RNAPII in a dynamic fashion in agreement with previously published reports. PMID

  4. Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Jessica C; Littlejohn, George R; Seymour, Mark P; Lind, Rob J; Perfect, Sarah; Moger, Julian

    2013-05-21

    The growing world population puts ever-increasing demands on the agricultural and agrochemical industries to increase agricultural yields. This can only be achieved by investing in fundamental plant and agrochemical research and in the development of improved analytical tools to support research in these areas. There is currently a lack of analytical tools that provide noninvasive structural and chemical analysis of plant tissues at the cellular scale. Imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy provide label-free chemically specific image contrast based on vibrational spectroscopy. Over the past decade, these techniques have been shown to offer clear advantages for a vast range of biomedical research applications. The intrinsic vibrational contrast provides label-free quantitative functional analysis, it does not suffer from photobleaching, and it allows near real-time imaging in 3D with submicrometer spatial resolution. However, due to the susceptibility of current detection schemes to optical absorption and fluorescence from pigments (such as chlorophyll), the plant science and agrochemical research communities have not been able to benefit from these techniques and their application in plant research has remained virtually unexplored. In this paper, we explore the effect of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorption in CARS and SRS microscopy. We show that with the latter it is possible to use phase-sensitive detection to separate the vibrational signal from the (electronic) absorption processes. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of SRS for a range of in planta applications by presenting in situ chemical analysis of plant cell wall components, epicuticular waxes, and the deposition of agrochemical formulations onto the leaf surface.

  5. Label-Free, Electrochemical Quantitation of Potassium Ions from Femtomolar Levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bicheng; Booth, Marsilea A; Woo, Han Young; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2015-10-01

    In this communication, a label-free and sensitive electrochemical method to detect potassium ions is proposed. The conducting polymer polypyrrole was used as both an anchor for the probe and a transducer of the detection event. A K(+)-specific G-rich aptamer was applied as a recognition element, which folded into the G-quadruplex structure in the presence of K(+), and this resulted in an increase in the electrode impedance. The combination of the K(+)-selective aptamer and the porous conducting polymer as a signal transducer afforded a successful sensor platform. The sensor responded approximately logarithmically over a wide dynamic range of K(+) concentrations from 20 fM to 1 mM, with a very low detection limit of 14.7 fM and excellent discrimination against other ions. Additionally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the kinetics of K(+) binding at the conducting polymer-immobilized aptamer surface, which indicated strong binding between the two. This work demonstrates a powerful approach for the sensitive, selective, and direct electrochemical detection of metal ions based on the switching conformation of G-rich aptamers attached to a porous conducting polymer surface. This assay scheme can be expanded to the detection of a wide range of targets by modifying the aptamer structure as a recognizing moiety.

  6. Molecularly resolved label-free sensing of single nucleobase mismatches by interfacial LNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sourav; Lahiri, Hiya; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Mukhopadhyay, Rupa

    2016-01-01

    So far, there has been no report on molecularly resolved discrimination of single nucleobase mismatches using surface-confined single stranded locked nucleic acid (ssLNA) probes. Herein, it is exemplified using a label-independent force-sensing approach that an optimal coverage of 12-mer ssLNA sensor probes formed onto gold(111) surface allows recognition of ssDNA targets with twice stronger force sensitivity than 12-mer ssDNA sensor probes. The force distributions are reproducible and the molecule-by-molecule force measurements are largely in agreement with ensemble on-surface melting temperature data. Importantly, the molecularly resolved detection is responsive to the presence of single nucleobase mismatches in target sequences. Since the labelling steps can be eliminated from protocol, and each force-based detection event occurs within milliseconds' time scale, the force-sensing assay is potentially capable of rapid detection. The LNA probe performance is indicative of versatility in terms of substrate choice - be it gold (for basic research and array-based applications) or silicon (for ‘lab-on-a-chip’ type devices). The nucleic acid microarray technologies could therefore be generally benefited by adopting the LNA films, in place of DNA. Since LNA is nuclease-resistant, unlike DNA, and the LNA-based assay is sensitive to single nucleobase mismatches, the possibilities for label-free in vitro rapid diagnostics based on the LNA probes may be explored. PMID:27025649

  7. Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaske, Martin D.; Foreman, Matthew R.; Vollmer, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Biosensing relies on the detection of molecules and their specific interactions. It is therefore highly desirable to develop transducers exhibiting ultimate detection limits. Microcavities are an exemplary candidate technology for demonstrating such a capability in the optical domain and in a label-free fashion. Additional sensitivity gains, achievable by exploiting plasmon resonances, promise biosensing down to the single-molecule level. Here, we introduce a biosensing platform using optical microcavity-based sensors that exhibits single-molecule sensitivity and is selective to specific single binding events. Whispering gallery modes in glass microspheres are used to leverage plasmonic enhancements in gold nanorods for the specific detection of nucleic acid hybridization, down to single 8-mer oligonucleotides. Detection of single intercalating small molecules confirms the observation of single-molecule hybridization. Matched and mismatched strands are discriminated by their interaction kinetics. Our platform allows us to monitor specific molecular interactions transiently, hence mitigating the need for high binding affinity and avoiding permanent binding of target molecules to the receptors. Sensor lifetime is therefore increased, allowing interaction kinetics to be statistically analysed.

  8. A label-free, fluorescence based assay for microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Sanjun

    DNA chip technology has drawn tremendous attention since it emerged in the mid 90's as a method that expedites gene sequencing by over 100-fold. DNA chip, also called DNA microarray, is a combinatorial technology in which different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules of known sequences are immobilized at specific spots. The immobilized ssDNA strands are called probes. In application, the chip is exposed to a solution containing ssDNA of unknown sequence, called targets, which are labeled with fluorescent dyes. Due to specific molecular recognition among the base pairs in the DNA, the binding or hybridization occurs only when the probe and target sequences are complementary. The nucleotide sequence of the target is determined by imaging the fluorescence from the spots. The uncertainty of background in signal detection and statistical error in data analysis, primarily due to the error in the DNA amplification process and statistical distribution of the tags in the target DNA, have become the fundamental barriers in bringing the technology into application for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, the dye and tagging process are expensive, making the cost of DNA chips inhibitive for clinical testing. These limitations and challenges make it difficult to implement DNA chip methods as a diagnostic tool in a pathology laboratory. The objective of this dissertation research is to provide an alternative approach that will address the above challenges. In this research, a label-free assay is designed and studied. Polystyrene (PS), a commonly used polymeric material, serves as the fluorescence agent. Probe ssDNA is covalently immobilized on polystyrene thin film that is supported by a reflecting substrate. When this chip is exposed to excitation light, fluorescence light intensity from PS is detected as the signal. Since the optical constants and conformations of ssDNA and dsDNA (double stranded DNA) are different, the measured fluorescence from PS changes for the same

  9. A microarray chip for label-free detection of narcotics.

    PubMed

    Klenkar, Goran; Liedberg, Bo

    2008-07-01

    A protein array chip for label-free optical detection of low molecular weight compounds has been developed. As a proof of principle, the chip is proven capable of rapidly (approximately 1 min) determining hits from aqueous cocktails composed of four common narcotics, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, and amphetamine, using imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as the detection principle. The chip is produced by injecting a mixture of antibodies and letting them self-sort and bind to narcotic analog coupled proteins already present in a predefined pattern on the supporting substrate. An indirect detection method, where antibodies are displaced from the surface upon recognition of their corresponding narcotics, is used to obtain the optical contrast and thus a detectable SPR and/or ellipsometric signal. Two types of readouts are possible from the present setup: intensity SPR images and SPR/ellipsometric sensorgrams. Positive hits were routinely obtained for analyte concentrations of 50 pg/microL and the limit of detection, without any parameter optimizations, seems to fall in the range 0.5 pg/microL (1.4 nM) for heroin, 2.5 pg/microL (8.2 nM) for cocaine, and 5 pg/microL for the other two narcotics (26 nM for ecstasy and 37 nM for amphetamine). With improved readout possibilities (sampling frequency), signal evaluation algorithms, and antibody-antigen design strategies, we believe this limit can be further improved. The chip is shown to work for many measurement cycles with excellent reproducibility. Moreover, with a more advanced fluidic system, excess injected antibodies could be collected and reused for many cycles, which could make the running costs of the system very low. The chip is in no way limited to detection of narcotics. Other low molecular weight compounds could easily be detected on the same chip. For example, trinitrotoluene detection has already been demonstrated using our chip. Possible areas of application for the system are therefore envisaged in airport

  10. Chip-LC-MS for label-free profiling of human serum.

    PubMed

    Horvatovich, Peter; Govorukhina, Natalia I; Reijmers, Theo H; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-12-01

    The discovery of biomarkers in easily accessible body fluids such as serum is one of the most challenging topics in proteomics requiring highly efficient separation and detection methodologies. Here, we present the application of a microfluidics-based LC-MS system (chip-LC-MS) to the label-free profiling of immunodepleted, trypsin-digested serum in comparison to conventional capillary LC-MS (cap-LC-MS). Both systems proved to have a repeatability of approximately 20% RSD for peak area, all sample preparation steps included, while repeatability of the LC-MS part by itself was less than 10% RSD for the chip-LC-MS system. Importantly, the chip-LC-MS system had a two times higher resolution in the LC dimension and resulted in a lower average charge state of the tryptic peptide ions generated in the ESI interface when compared to cap-LC-MS while requiring approximately 30 times less (~5 pmol) sample. In order to characterize both systems for their capability to find discriminating peptides in trypsin-digested serum samples, five out of ten individually prepared, identical sera were spiked with horse heart cytochrome c. A comprehensive data processing methodology was applied including 2-D smoothing, resolution reduction, peak picking, time alignment, and matching of the individual peak lists to create an aligned peak matrix amenable for statistical analysis. Statistical analysis by supervised classification and variable selection showed that both LC-MS systems could discriminate the two sample groups. However, the chip-LC-MS system allowed to assign 55% of the overall signal to selected peaks against 32% for the cap-LC-MS system.

  11. Label-free Raman imaging of the macrophage response to the malaria pigment hemozoin.

    PubMed

    Hobro, Alison J; Pavillon, Nicolas; Fujita, Katsumasa; Ozkan, Muge; Coban, Cevayir; Smith, Nicholas I

    2015-04-07

    Hemozoin, the 'malaria pigment', is engulfed by phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, during malaria infection. This biocrystalline substance is difficult to degrade and often accumulates in phagocytes. The macrophage response to hemozoin relates to the severity of the disease and the potential for malaria-related disease complications. In this study we have used Raman spectroscopy as a label-free method to investigate the biochemical changes occurring in macrophages during the first few hours of hemozoin uptake. We found a number of distinct spectral groups, spectrally or spatially related to the presence of the hemozoin inside the cell. Intracellular hemozoin was spectrally identical to extracellular hemozoin, regardless of the location in the cell. A small proportion of hemozoin was found to be associated with lipid-based components, consistent with the uptake of hemozoin into vesicles such as phagosomes and lysosomes. The spatial distribution of the hemozoin was observed to be inhomogeneous, and its presence largely excluded that of proteins and lipids, demonstrating that cells were not able to break down the biocrystals on the time scales studied here. These results show that Raman imaging can be used to answer some of the open questions regarding the role of hemozoin in the immune response. How different combinations of hemozoin and other molecules are treated by macrophages, whether hemozoin can be broken down by the cell, and more importantly, which co-factors or products are involved in the subsequent cell reaction are the expected issues to be elucidated by this technique.

  12. Graphene-Assisted Label-Free Homogeneous Electrochemical Biosensing Strategy based on Aptamer-Switched Bidirectional DNA Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxiao; Ge, Lei; Sun, Ximei; Hou, Ting; Li, Feng

    2015-12-30

    In this contribution, taking the discrimination ability of graphene over single-stranded (ss) DNA/double-stranded (ds) DNA in combination with the electrochemical impedance transducer, we developed a novel label-free homogeneous electrochemical biosensor using graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the sensing platform. To convert the specific aptamer-target recognition into ultrasensitive electrochemical signal output, a novel aptamer-switched bidirectional DNA polymerization (BDP) strategy, capable of both target recycling and exponential signal amplification, was compatibly developed in this study. In this strategy, all the designed DNA structures could be adsorbed on the graphene/GCE and, thus, serve as the electrochemical impedance signal reporter, while the target acts as a trigger of this BDP reaction, in which these designed DNA structures are bound together and, then, converted to long dsDNA duplex. The distinct difference in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy between the designed structures and generated long dsDNA duplex on the graphene/GCE allows label-free and homogeneous detection of target down to femto-gram level. The target can be displaced from aptamer through the polymerization to initiate the next recognition-polymerization cycle. Herein, the design and signaling principle of aptamer-switched BDP amplification system were elucidated, and the working conditions were optimized. This method not only provides a universal platform for electrochemical biosensing but also shows great potential in biological process researches and clinic diagnostics.

  13. Toward a Noninvasive, Label-Free Screening Method for Determining Spore Inoculum Quality of Penicillium chrysogenum Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Karin; Kuligowski, Julia; Ehgartner, Daniela; Ramer, Georg; Koch, Cosima; Ofner, Johannes; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    We report on a label-free, noninvasive method for determination of spore inoculum quality of Penicillium chrysogenum prior to cultivation/germination. Raman microspectroscopy providing direct, molecule-specific information was used to extract information on the viability state of spores sampled directly from the spore inoculum. Based on the recorded Raman spectra, a supervised classification method was established for classification between living and dead spores and thus determining spore inoculum quality for optimized process control. A fast and simple sample preparation method consisting of one single dilution step was employed to eliminate interfering signals from the matrix and to achieve isolation of single spores on the sample carrier (CaF2). Aiming to avoid any influence of the killing procedure in the Raman spectrum of the spore, spores were considered naturally dead after more than one year of storage time. Fluorescence staining was used as reference method. A partial least squares discriminant analysis classifier was trained with Raman spectra of 258 living and dead spores (178 spectra for calibration, 80 spectra for validation). The classifier showed good performance when being applied to a 1 µL droplet taken from a 1:1 mixture of living and dead spores. Of 135 recorded spectra, 51% were assigned to living spores while 49% were identified as dead spores by the classifier. The results obtained in this work are a fundamental step towards developing an automated, label-free, and noninvasive screening method for assessing spore inoculum quality.

  14. In vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of melanoma metastasis by photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongrong; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Cheng; Wang, Xueding; Wei, Xunbin

    2014-02-01

    Melanoma, a malignant tumor of melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer in the world. It accounts for about 80% of deaths of all skin cancer. For cancer detection, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serve as a marker for metastasis development, cancer recurrence, and therapeutic efficacy. Melanoma tumor cells have high content of melanin, which has high light absorption and can serve as endogenous biomarker for CTC detection without labeling. Here, we have developed an in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) to monitor the metastatic process of melanoma cancer by counting CTCs of melanoma tumor bearing mice in vivo. To test in vivo PAFC's capability of detecting melanoma cancer, we have constructed a melanoma tumor model by subcutaneous inoculation of highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10. In order to effectively distinguish the targeting PA signals from background noise, we have used the algorithm of Wavelet denoising method to reduce the background noise. The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the blood stream. Compared with fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC), PAFC technique can be used for in vivo, label-free, and noninvasive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

  15. A quadruple wavelength IR sensor system for label-free tumour screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Witarski, Wojciech; Pastorekova, Silvia; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2009-12-01

    In this contribution, we present a novel quadruple wavelength infrared sensor system for measuring the CH2-symmetric/CH2-antisymmetric stretch ratio of biological cells. This ratio can be used as a marker to distinguish between healthy and carcinoma cells. Compared to common techniques our system does not require specific labelling or staining, or the use of expensive liquid nitrogen cooled IR spectrometers. Two of the four wavelengths, 3.33 and 3.57 µm, are used as reference points and the other two represent CH2-symmetric and CH2-antisymmetric stretch absorption (respectively at 3.51 and 3.42 µm). IR absorbance spectra recordings of healthy (MDCK) and malignant (Caki-1) epithelial kidney cells with a conventional IR spectroscope showed significant differences in the absorbance ratio 3.51 µm/3.42 µm (CH2-symmetric/CH2-antisymmetric stretch). The sensor has been validated by measuring the CH2 stretch ratio of yeast samples both by IR spectroscopy and the sensor system. The methods yielded similar results. The application potential of our system is demonstrated by CH2 stretch measurements on healthy and carcinoma epithelial kidney cells. Measurements on both cell types yielded significant differences in CH2 stretch ratio. The sensor has the potential to be further developed into a fast, low-cost and label-free screening system for suspicious biopsy samples.

  16. A hybrid FLIM-elastic net platform for label free profiling of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, Nur P; Craig, Ana Paula; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-12-07

    We report a label-free fluorescence lifetime profiling strategy to classify breast cancer cells, MCF10CA1h (malignant), MCF10A (nonmalignant), and MCF10AneoT (premalignant) in different stages of malignancy. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was used to record the lifetime of autofluorescence of endogenous flavin in MCF10 cells in different stages of malignancy. Predominant differences in lifetimes ascertained by multi-exponential fitting curves can be attributed to the different forms of flavin protein; flavin mononucleotide (FMN), free flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), semiquinone, and bound FAD. A lifetime map of the metabolite was derived from the contribution of the lifetime of each metabolite by iterative reconvolution fitting of the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) decay curves. Lifetime maps were constructed by mapping the average lifetime values pixel by pixel using MATLAB. The FLIM image (150 × 150 pixels) of each cell was extracted, resized and centered into 100 × 100 pixels using the nearest neighbor algorithm. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in conjunction with Elastic net Analysis (EnA) was then used to classify the different stages of MCF10 cell lines based on average lifetime values. The EnA model provided an excellent classification of the cells at different stages of tumorigenesis yielding 100% accuracy.

  17. Label free high throughput screening for apoptosis inducing chemicals using time-lapse microscopy signal processing.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Obaid; Nazir, Madiha; Fryknäs, Mårten; Hammerling, Ulf; Larsson, Rolf; Gustafsson, Mats G

    2014-09-01

    Label free time-lapse microscopy has opened a new avenue to the study of time evolving events in living cells. When combined with automated image analysis it provides a powerful tool that enables automated large-scale spatiotemporal quantification at the cell population level. Very few attempts, however, have been reported regarding the design of image analysis algorithms dedicated to the detection of apoptotic cells in such time-lapse microscopy images. In particular, none of the reported attempts is based on sufficiently fast signal processing algorithms to enable large-scale detection of apoptosis within hours/days without access to high-end computers. Here we show that it is indeed possible to successfully detect chemically induced apoptosis by applying a two-dimensional linear matched filter tailored to the detection of objects with the typical features of an apoptotic cell in phase-contrast images. First a set of recorded computational detections of apoptosis was validated by comparison with apoptosis specific caspase activity readouts obtained via a fluorescence based assay. Then a large screen encompassing 2,866 drug like compounds was performed using the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116. In addition to many well known inducers (positive controls) the screening resulted in the detection of two compounds here reported for the first time to induce apoptosis.

  18. Label-Free LC-MS/MS Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Identifies Protein/Pathway Alterations and Candidate Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mahlon A; An, Jiyan; Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Thomas P; Bowser, Robert P

    2015-11-06

    Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome has proven valuable to the study of neurodegenerative disorders. To identify new protein/pathway alterations and candidate biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we performed comparative proteomic profiling of CSF from sporadic ALS (sALS), healthy control (HC), and other neurological disease (OND) subjects using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1712 CSF proteins were detected and relatively quantified by spectral counting. Levels of several proteins with diverse biological functions were significantly altered in sALS samples. Enrichment analysis was used to link these alterations to biological pathways, which were predominantly related to inflammation, neuronal activity, and extracellular matrix regulation. We then used our CSF proteomic profiles to create a support vector machines classifier capable of discriminating training set ALS from non-ALS (HC and OND) samples. Four classifier proteins, WD repeat-containing protein 63, amyloid-like protein 1, SPARC-like protein 1, and cell adhesion molecule 3, were identified by feature selection and externally validated. The resultant classifier distinguished ALS from non-ALS samples with 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity in an independent test set. Collectively, our results illustrate the utility of CSF proteomic profiling for identifying ALS protein/pathway alterations and candidate disease biomarkers.

  19. Mobile, Multi-modal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    eyes and image choroidal vessels/capillaries using CARS intravital microscopy Subtask 3: Measure oxy-hemoglobin levels in PBI test and control eyes...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0537 TITLE: Mobile, Multi-modal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mobile, Multimodal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH

  20. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of opioid ligands at the opioid receptor family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro pharmacology of ligands is typically assessed using a variety of molecular assays based on predetermined molecular events in living cells. Many ligands including opioid ligands pose the ability to bind more than one receptor, and can also provide distinct operational bias to activate a specific receptor. Generating an integrative overview of the binding and functional selectivity of ligands for a receptor family is a critical but difficult step in drug discovery and development. Here we applied a newly developed label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) approach to systematically survey the selectivity of a library of fifty-five opioid ligands against the opioid receptor family. All ligands were interrogated using dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays in both recombinant and native cell lines that express specific opioid receptor(s). The cells were modified with a set of probe molecules to manifest the binding and functional selectivity of ligands. DMR profiles were collected and translated to numerical coordinates that was subject to similarity analysis. A specific set of opioid ligands were then selected for quantitative pharmacology determination. Results Results showed that among fifty-five opioid ligands examined most ligands displayed agonist activity in at least one opioid receptor expressing cell line under different conditions. Further, many ligands exhibited pathway biased agonism. Conclusion We demonstrate that the iPOT effectively sorts the ligands into distinct clusters based on their binding and functional selectivity at the opioid receptor family. PMID:23497702

  1. Combined Labelled and Label-free SERS Probes for Triplex Three-dimensional Cellular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Bai, Xiangru; Su, Le; Du, Zhanwei; Shen, Aiguo; Materny, Arnulf; Hu, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Cells are complex chemical systems, where the molecular composition at different cellular locations and specific intracellular chemical interactions determine the biological function. An in-situ nondestructive characterization of the complicated chemical processes (like e.g. apoptosis) is the goal of our study. Here, we present the results of simultaneous and three-dimensional imaging of double organelles (nucleus and membrane) in single HeLa cells by means of either labelled or label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This combination of imaging with and without labels is not possible when using fluorescence microscopy. The SERS technique is used for a stereoscopic description of the intrinsic chemical nature of nuclei and the precise localization of folate (FA) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the membrane under highly confocal conditions. We also report on the time-dependent changes of cell nuclei as well as membrane receptor proteins during apoptosis analyzed by statistical multivariate methods. The multiplex three-dimensional SERS imaging technique allows for both temporal (real time) and spatial (multiple organelles and molecules in three-dimensional space) live-cell imaging and therefore provides a new and attractive 2D/3D tracing method in biomedicine on subcellular level.

  2. Advancing nanostructured porous si-based optical transducers for label free bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Segal, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Optical label-free porous Si-based biosensors for rapid bacteria detection are introduced. The biosensors are designed to directly capture the target bacteria cells onto their surface with no prior sample processing (such as cell lysis). Two types of nanostructured optical transducers based on oxidized porous Si (PSiO(2)) Fabry-Pérot thin films are synthesized and used to construct the biosensors. In the first system, we graft specific monoclonal antibodies (immunoglobulin G's) onto a neat electrochemically-machined PSiO(2) surface, based on well-established silanization chemistry. The second biosensor class consists of a PSiO(2)/hydrogel hybrid. The hydrogel, polyacrylamide, is synthesized in situ within the nanostructured PSiO(2) host and conjugated with specific monoclonal antibodies to provide the active component of the biosensor. Exposure of these modified-surfaces to the target bacteria results in "direct-cell-capture" onto the biosensor surface. These specific binding events induce predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. Our studies demonstrate the applicability of these biosensors for the detection of low bacterial concentrations, in the range of 10(3)-10(5) cell/ml, within minutes. The sensing performance of the two different platforms, in terms of their stability in aqueous media and sensitivity, are compared and discussed. This preliminary study suggests that biosensors based on PSiO(2)/hydrogel hybrid outperform the neat PSiO(2) system.

  3. Antigen-Antibody Affinity for Dry Eye Biomarkers by Label Free Biosensing. Comparison with the ELISA Technique

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Maríafe; Holgado, Miguel; Hern