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Sample records for labeled glucopyranosyl triazole

  1. C-Glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles As New Potent Inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors are considered as potential antidiabetic agents. 3-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles were prepared by acylation of O-perbenzoylated N1-tosyl-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl formamidrazone and subsequent removal of the protecting groups. The best inhibitor was 3-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)-1,2,4-triazole (Ki = 0.41 μM against rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b). PMID:24900719

  2. Synthesis of some new 1,3/ or 1,4-bis(glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthio)propanes/ or butanes as potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ashraf A; Khalil, Nasser S A M

    2005-01-01

    Glucosidation of the appropriate 1,3 or 1,4-bis(4-amino or arylideneamino-2,4-dihydro-3-thioxo-3H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthio)propanes or butanes with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide followed by chromatographic separation gave the corresponding N-, S-, and N,S-bis(glucosides). Chemical transformation leading to new functionalities has been achieved. Antimicrobial screening of 10 selected compounds resulted in their activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium italicum, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli.

  3. Photoluminescence and labelling for microcrack bone of N-salicylidene-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Ma, Chang-Yan; Chen, Wen-Bin; Ou-Yang, Zhi-Jian; Feng, Wei-Jin; Dong, Wen

    2015-02-05

    A new Schiff base of N-salicylidene-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (SAT) was synthesized and its photoluminescent, photochromic and thermochromic properties were characterized and demonstrated. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of SAT were measured and the microcrack bone imaging using SAT as a fluorescent label was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The absorption spectrum of SAT was demonstrated using DFT/TD-DFT calculation.

  4. Photoluminescence and labelling for microcrack bone of N-salicylidene-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Ma, Chang-Yan; Chen, Wen-Bin; Ou-Yang, Zhi-Jian; Feng, Wei-Jin; Dong, Wen

    2015-02-01

    A new Schiff base of N-salicylidene-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (SAT) was synthesized and its photoluminescent, photochromic and thermochromic properties were characterized and demonstrated. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of SAT were measured and the microcrack bone imaging using SAT as a fluorescent label was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The absorption spectrum of SAT was demonstrated using DFT/TD-DFT calculation.

  5. A study of 15N- 15N and 15N- 13C spin couplings in some 15N labeled mesoionic 1-oxa and 1-thia-2,3,4-triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaźwiński, J.; Staszewska, O.; Stefaniak, L.; Webb, G. A.

    1996-03-01

    15N- 15N and 15N- 13C spin-spin couplings are reported for seven 15N labeled 1-oxa and 1-thia-2,3,4-triazoles and three sydnonimines. For the former class of compounds the spin-spin coupling data show a close similarity between the N2N3 and N3N4 bonds which had not previously been suspected from chemical shift measurements.

  6. Isolation, characterization and sensory evaluation of a Hexa beta-D-glucopyranosyl diterpene from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2013-11-01

    From the extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a diterpene glycoside was isolated which was identified as 13-[(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1). The complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of 1 is reported for the first time, from extensive NMR (1H and 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectral data. Also, we report the sensory evaluation of 1 against sucrose for the sweetness property of this molecule.

  7. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[(18)F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SFBTMGMB): a residualizing label for (18)F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2016-01-28

    Residualizing labeling methods for internalizing peptides and proteins are designed to trap the radionuclide inside the cell after intracellular degradation of the biomolecule. The goal of this work was to develop a residualizing label for the (18)F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules based on a template used successfully for radioiodination. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[(18)F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(bis-Boc-guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([(18)F]SFBTMGMB-Boc2) was synthesized by a click reaction of an azide precursor and [(18)F]fluorohexyne in 8.5 ± 2.8% average decay-corrected radiochemical yield (n = 15). An anti-HER2 nanobody 5F7 was labeled with (18)F using [(18)F]SFBTMGMB ([(18)F]RL-I), obtained by the deprotection of [(18)F]SFBTMGMB-Boc2, in 31.2 ± 6.7% (n = 5) conjugation efficiency. The labeled nanobody had a radiochemical purity of >95%, bound to HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast cancer cells with an affinity of 4.7 ± 0.9 nM, and had an immunoreactive fraction of 62-80%. In summary, a novel residualizing prosthetic agent for labeling biomolecules with (18)F has been developed. An anti-HER2 nanobody was labeled using this prosthetic group with retention of affinity and immunoreactivity to HER2.

  8. N-Succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(guanidinomethyl)benzoate ([18F]SFBTMGMB): A Residualizing Label for 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; McDougald, Darryl; Choi, Jaeyeon; Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Residualizing labeling methods for internalizing peptides and proteins are designed to trap the radionuclide inside the cell after intracellular degradation of the biomolecule. The goal of this work was to develop a residualizing label for the 18F-labeling of internalizing biomolecules based on a template used successfully for radioiodination. N-succinimidyl 3-((4-(4-[18F]fluorobutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-5-(bis-Boc-guanidinomethyl)benzoate (Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB) was synthesized by click reaction of an azide precursor and [18F]fluorohexyne in 8.5 ± 2.8% average decay-corrected radiochemical yield (n =15). An anti-HER2 nanobody 5F7 was labeled with 18F using [18F]SFBTMGMB ([18F]RL-I), obtained by the deprotection of Boc2-[18F]SFBTMGMB, in 31.2 ± 6.7% (n =5) conjugation efficiency. Thus labeled nanobody had a radiochemical purity of >95%, bound to the HER2-expressing BT474M1 breast cancer cells with an affinity of 4.7 ± 0.9 nM, and had an immunoreactive fraction of 62–80%. In summary, a novel residualizing prosthetic agent for labeling biomolecules with 18F has been developed. An anti-HER2 nanobody was labeled using this prosthetic group with retention of affinity and immunoreactivity to HER2. PMID:26645790

  9. Triazole antifungals: a review.

    PubMed

    Peyton, L R; Gallagher, S; Hashemzadeh, M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections and systemic mycosis, whether from nosocomial infection or immunodeficiency, have been on an upward trend for numerous years. Despite advancements in antifungal medication, treatment in certain patients can still be difficult for reasons such as impaired organ function, limited administration routes or poor safety profiles of the available antifungal medications. The growing number of invasive fungal species becoming resistant to current antifungal medications is of appreciable concern. Triazole compounds containing one or more 1,2,4-triazole rings have been shown to contain some of the most potent antifungal properties. Itracon-azole and fluconazole were some of the first triazoles synthesized, but had limitations associated with their use. Second-generation triazoles such as voriconazole, posa-conazole, albaconazole, efinaconazole, ravuconazole and isavuconazole are all derivatives of either itraconazole or fluconazole, and designed to overcome the deficiencies of their parent drugs. The goal of this manuscript is to review antifungal agents derived from triazole.

  10. Isavuconazole: A New Broad-Spectrum Triazole Antifungal Agent.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Kauffman, Carol A

    2015-11-15

    Isavuconazole is a new extended-spectrum triazole with activity against yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. It is approved for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Advantages of this triazole include the availability of a water-soluble intravenous formulation, excellent bioavailability of the oral formulation, and predictable pharmacokinetics in adults. A randomized, double-blind comparison clinical trial for treatment of invasive aspergillosis found that the efficacy of isavuconazole was noninferior to that of voriconazole. An open-label trial that studied primary as well as salvage therapy of invasive mucormycosis showed efficacy with isavuconazole that was similar to that reported for amphotericin B and posaconazole. In patients in these studies, as well as in normal volunteers, isavuconazole was well tolerated, appeared to have few serious adverse effects, and had fewer drug-drug interactions than those noted with voriconazole. As clinical experience increases, the role of this new triazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infections will be better defined.

  11. Synthesis of a D-Glucopyranosyl Azide: Spectroscopic Evidence for Stereochemical Inversion in the S[subscript N]2 Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesoye, Olumuyiwa G.; Mills, Isaac N.; Temelkoff, David P.; Jackson, John A.; Norris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Stereospecific S[subscript N]2 conversion of configurationally pure acetobromoglucose (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide) to the corresponding beta-D-glucopyranosyl azide is a useful exercise in the advanced organic undergraduate teaching laboratory. The procedure is safe and suitable for small-scale implementation, and firm…

  12. Synthesis of a D-Glucopyranosyl Azide: Spectroscopic Evidence for Stereochemical Inversion in the S[subscript N]2 Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesoye, Olumuyiwa G.; Mills, Isaac N.; Temelkoff, David P.; Jackson, John A.; Norris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Stereospecific S[subscript N]2 conversion of configurationally pure acetobromoglucose (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide) to the corresponding beta-D-glucopyranosyl azide is a useful exercise in the advanced organic undergraduate teaching laboratory. The procedure is safe and suitable for small-scale implementation, and firm…

  13. Enzymic synthesis of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-d-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K. W.

    1965-01-01

    1. The enzymic synthesis of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-d-galactose has been described and evidence for the structure presented. 2. It has been shown that the transglycosylase of A. niger provides a convenient means of synthesizing (1→6)-linked disaccharides. PMID:14340044

  14. Click Triazoles for Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tianqing; Rouhanifard, Sara H.; Jalloh, Abubakar S.

    2014-01-01

    Click Chemistry is a set of rapid, selective and robust reactions that give near-quantitative yield of the desired product in aqueous solutions. The Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) that forms 1,4-disubstituted triazoles is a prototypical example of click chemistry that features exquisite selectivity and bioorthogonality—that is, non-interacting with biological components while proceeding under physiological conditions. Over the past ten years, CuAAC has found extensive applications in the field of chemical biology. In this chapter, we describe the discovery of Cu(I) catalysts for this transformation and the recent development of the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition that eliminate the use of copper. We also highlight several recent applications toward conjugating biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and glycans, with biophysical probes for both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:25431628

  15. Identification of a naturally-occurring 8-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]daidzein from cultivated kudzu root.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Dao; Min, Byoung-Cheol; Kyung, Myung-Ok; Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Byong Hoon; Choi, Chung-Hyo; Seo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ro; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Wan; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Kudzu root (Radix puerariae) is a rich source of isoflavones that are effective in preventing osteoporosis, heart disease and symptoms associated with menopause. The major isoflavonoids in kudzu root extracts were reported as puerarin, daidzin and daidzein. Recently, an unknown isoflavonoid (compound 1) was detected from one-year-old kudzu root cultivated in Vietnam. To identify a novel compound 1 in kudzu root extract and determine the structure of the compound by ESI(+) TOF MS-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR and enzymatic hydrolysis. Samples were prepared by extraction of one-year-old kudzu root with 50% ethanol and the isoflavonoids were purified using recycling preparative HPLC. Unknown compound 1 was detected using UV-light at 254 nm in TLC and HPLC analyses. The molecular weight of 1 was determined using a TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The structure of 1 was determined from the (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra recorded at 100.40 and 400.0 MHz, respectively. ESI(+) TOF MS-MS analysis shows that 1 is a puerarin diglycoside. The interglycosidic linkage of diglycoside determined by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, and enzymatic hydrolysis suggests that 1 has a glucosyl residue linked to puerarin by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond. This compound is the first naturally-occurring 8-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]daidzein in kudzu root. The concentration of glucosyl-alpha-1,6-puerarin in kudzu root was 2.3 mg/g as determined by HPLC. The results indicate that puerarin diglycoside is one of the major isoflavonoids in kudzu root and has a significant impact on the preparation of highly water-soluble glycosylated puerarin.

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Screening of Novel Thioglycosides and Acyclonucleoside Analogs Carrying 1,2,3-Triazole and 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties.

    PubMed

    Aouad, M R

    2016-01-01

    The solvent-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate (1) with 2-chlorophenyl azide (2) afforded 1,2,3-triazole diester 3 that upon hydrazinolysis, furnished the corresponding bis-acid hydrazide 4. The treatment of compound 4 with carbon disulfide in a refluxing potassium hydroxide solution furnished the desired bis-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione 5 tethered to a 1,2,3-triazole moiety. The respective SOx-glycosides 9-11 were obtained by glycosylation of bis-oxadiazole 5 with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide (6), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-galactopyranosyl bromide (7), and 2-acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranosyl chloride (8) in dry acetone in the presence of Et3N, which acted as a base. However, alkylation of 5 with halogeno-alkanol 12 or 13, chloroglycerol 14, bromoethers 20 or 21, and epichlohydrin 22 in the presence of K2CO3 in DMF yielded the corresponding acyclonucleoside analogs 16-18 and 23-25. The isopropylidenes 19 and acetyl derivatives 26-28 of the products were also prepared. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR, and mass spectra. The compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. A number of the tested compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity compared to the reference drugs.

  17. Antioxidant properties of 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Rie; Abe, Shigeki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of a provitamin C agent, 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2betaG), was compared to that of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and ascorbic acid (AA) using four in vitro methods, 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(*+))-scavenging assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis inhibition assay. AA-2betaG slowly and continuously scavenged DPPH radicals and ABTS(*+) in roughly the same reaction profiles as AA-2G, whereas AA quenched these radicals immediately. In the ORAC assay and the hemolysis inhibition assay, AA-2betaG showed similar overall activities to AA-2G and to AA, although the reactivity of AA-2betaG against the peroxyl radical generated in both assays was lower than that of AA-2G and AA. These data indicate that AA-2betaG had roughly the same radical-scavenging properties as AA-2G, and a comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity of AA-2betaG appeared to be comparable not only to that of AA-2G but also to that of AA.

  18. 4(5)-Aryl-2-C-glucopyranosyl-imidazoles as New Nanomolar Glucose Analogue Inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylases may lead to pharmacological treatments of diseases in which glycogen metabolism plays an important role: first of all in diabetes, but also in cardiovascular and tumorous disorders. C-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl) isoxazole, pyrazole, thiazole, and imidazole type compounds were synthesized, and the latter showed the strongest inhibition against rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b. Most efficient was 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4(5)-(2-naphthyl)-imidazole (11b, Ki = 31 nM) representing the best nanomolar glucose derived inhibitor of the enzyme. PMID:26713107

  19. Synthesis, enzyme kinetics and computational evaluation of N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) oxadiazolecarboxamides as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Mária; Varga, Gergely; Szilágyi, Bence; Juhász, László; Docsa, Tibor; Gergely, Pál; Begum, Jaida; Hayes, Joseph M; Somsák, László

    2013-09-15

    All possible isomers of N-β-D-glucopyranosyl aryl-substituted oxadiazolecarboxamides were synthesised. O-Peracetylated N-cyanocarbonyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamine was transformed into the corresponding N-glucosyl tetrazole-5-carboxamide, which upon acylation gave N-glucosyl 5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-carboxamides. The nitrile group of the N-cyanocarbonyl derivative was converted to amidoxime which was ring closed by acylation to N-glucosyl 5-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-carboxamides. A one-pot reaction of protected β-D-glucopyranosylamine with oxalyl chloride and then with arenecarboxamidoximes furnished N-glucosyl 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-5-carboxamides. Removal of the O-acetyl protecting groups by the Zemplén method produced test compounds which were evaluated as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Best inhibitors of these series were N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 5-(naphth-1-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-carboxamide (Ki = 30 μM), N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 5-(naphth-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-carboxamide (Ki =33 μM), and N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) 3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-carboxamide (Ki = 104 μM). ADMET property predictions revealed these compounds to have promising oral drug-like properties without any toxicity.

  20. Delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside): a novel anthocyanin identified in Beluga black lentils.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T; Tamura, Hirotoshi; Harden, Leslie A

    2005-06-15

    A major anthocyanin was isolated from the acidified methanolic extract of Beluga black lentils by XAD7 column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. By means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, its structure was determined to be delphinidin 3-O-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside).

  1. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security.

  2. Development and Characterization of Synthetic Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant System as a Vaccine Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Guderian, Jeff A.; Windish, Hillarie Plessner; Baldwin, Susan L.; Laughlin, Elsa M.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Fox, Christopher B.; Carter, Darrick; Friede, Martin; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Reed, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune responses to vaccine adjuvants based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls, are driven by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and adaptor proteins including MyD88 and TRIF, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons, and chemokines. We report here on the characterization of a synthetic hexaacylated lipid A derivative, denoted as glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA). We assessed the effects of GLA on murine and human dendritic cells (DC) by combining microarray, mRNA and protein multiplex assays and flow cytometry analyses. We demonstrate that GLA has multifunctional immunomodulatory activity similar to naturally-derived monophosphory lipid A (MPL) on murine DC, including the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, DC maturation and antigen-presenting functions. In contrast, hexaacylated GLA was overall more potent on a molar basis than heterogeneous MPL when tested on human DC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). When administered in vivo, GLA enhanced the immunogenicity of co-administered recombinant antigens, producing strong cell-mediated immunity and a qualitative TH1 response. We conclude that the GLA adjuvant stimulates and directs innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing DC maturation and the concomitant release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with immune cell trafficking, activities which have important implications for the development of future vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21298114

  3. Development and characterization of synthetic glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant system as a vaccine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Coler, Rhea N; Bertholet, Sylvie; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Guderian, Jeff A; Windish, Hillarie Plessner; Baldwin, Susan L; Laughlin, Elsa M; Duthie, Malcolm S; Fox, Christopher B; Carter, Darrick; Friede, Martin; Vedvick, Thomas S; Reed, Steven G

    2011-01-26

    Innate immune responses to vaccine adjuvants based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, are driven by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and adaptor proteins including MyD88 and TRIF, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons, and chemokines. We report here on the characterization of a synthetic hexaacylated lipid A derivative, denoted as glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA). We assessed the effects of GLA on murine and human dendritic cells (DC) by combining microarray, mRNA and protein multiplex assays and flow cytometry analyses. We demonstrate that GLA has multifunctional immunomodulatory activity similar to naturally-derived monophosphory lipid A (MPL) on murine DC, including the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, DC maturation and antigen-presenting functions. In contrast, hexaacylated GLA was overall more potent on a molar basis than heterogeneous MPL when tested on human DC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). When administered in vivo, GLA enhanced the immunogenicity of co-administered recombinant antigens, producing strong cell-mediated immunity and a qualitative T(H)1 response. We conclude that the GLA adjuvant stimulates and directs innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing DC maturation and the concomitant release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with immune cell trafficking, activities which have important implications for the development of future vaccine adjuvants.

  4. Isavuconazole: a new extended spectrum triazole for invasive mold diseases.

    PubMed

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Isavuconazole is the first broad spectrum prodrug triazole with efficacy against invasive fungal diseases including aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Characteristics include linear dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, intravenous and oral formulations allowing therapeutic streamlining, once daily dosing, absence of nephrotoxic solubilizing agents and excellent oral bioavailability independent of prandial status and gastric acidity. An open label noncomparator study demonstrated encouraging results for isavuconazole as primary or salvage therapy for a range of fungi including mucormycosis. Isavuconazole had fewer premature drug discontinuations and adverse events in the eye, hepatobiliary and psychiatry systems than the comparator agent, voriconazole in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Cross-resistance of isavuconazole best correlates with voriconazole. In vitro resistance is not invariably predictive of clinical failure. Isavuconazole signals progress in pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and toxicity/tolerability supported by clinical efficacy from Phase III trials.

  5. Oxidant-induced intramolecular triazole formation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Maria L; Schulze, A Carina; Korthaus, Alexander; Oppel, Iris M

    2013-12-07

    C3-symmetric ligands carrying a rigid triaminoguanidinium backbone are important building blocks for the preparation of supramolecular coordination cages as tetrahedra or trigonal bipyramides. Coordination of Eu(III)- or Gd(III)-ions leads to 1,2,4-triazole formation, which has been reported only rarely. Using Pd(II)-complexes as a model system, this triazole formation could be analyzed in more detail. The preparation of Pd(II)-coordination compounds can be easily done under stoichiometric control. These complexes could be transformed into 1,2,4-triazoles using O2 or H2O2 as an oxidation reagent. The steric demand of the PR3-coligand seems to play a key role in the cyclisation reaction.

  6. Synthesis of N4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-asparagine analogues: succinamide, L-2-hydroxysuccinamide, and L-2-hydroxysuccinamic acid hydrazide analogues.

    PubMed

    De Huang, H; Risley, J M

    2000-11-17

    The syntheses of three analogues of N4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-asparagine are described. N-(2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)succinamide was synthesized by the reaction of pentafluorophenyl succinamate with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine. 2-Acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine was synthesized, and the complete assignment of the 1H NMR spectrum is given. Reaction of the protected beta-D-glycosylamine with L-malic acid chloralid in the presence of a coupling agent (EEDQ) gave N4-(2-acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-malamic acid chloralid that was deprotected two ways: (1) using ammonia, which gave N4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-2-hydroxysuccinamide, and (2) using hydrazine, which gave N4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-2-hydroxysuccinamic acid hydrazide.

  7. Determination of 22 triazole compounds including parent fungicides and metabolites in apples, peaches, flour, and water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Patricia G; Golden, Paul E; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Leimkuehler, William M

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of 14 parent triazole fungicides and 8 of their metabolites found in apples, peaches, flour, raw water, and tap water. The triazole fungicides chosen for this multiresidue method development project included propiconazole, fenbuconazole and its RH-9129 and RH-9130 metabolites, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, tebuconazole and its HWG 2061 metabolite, hexaconazole, bromuconazole (both stereoisomers), epoxiconazole, tetraconazole, triticonazole and its RPA-404886 and RPA-406341 metabolites, triadimefon, triadimenol, and myclobutanil. Of special concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were the metabolites common to all triazole fungicides: free triazole, 1,2,4-triazole (T), and its 2 conjugates: triazolylalanine (TA) and triazolylacetic acid (TAA). These metabolites were the primary focus of this project. All samples we cleaned up by a combination of C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), mixed-mode cationic SPE, and mixed-mode anionic SPE columns. A triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode, was used to determine the compounds of interest. T, TA, and TAA were quantitated using isotopically labeled internal standards (IS), in which the 1,2,4-triazole ring had been synthesized by using 13C and 15N (IS_T, IS_TA, and IS_TAA). These isotopically labeled internal standards were necessary to correct for matrix effects. The T, TA, and TAA metabolites were quantitated at the 25-50 parts-per-billion (ppb) level in food commodities and at 0.50 ppb in water. Recoveries were 70-101% from apples, 60-121% from peaches, 57-118% from flour, 75-99% from raw water, and 79-99% from tap water.

  8. Sensitivity of Texas strains of Ceratocystis fagacearum to triazole fungicides

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; L.B. Forse

    1997-01-01

    Ten geographically diverse Texas strains of the oak wilt fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to five triazole fungicides based on accumulated linear growth, linear growth rates, and dry weight accumulation in response to fungicide concentrations of 0.1 to 600 parts per billion (ppb). None of the triazoles inhibited growth at 0.1...

  9. Stereo- and regio-selective one-pot synthesis of triazole-based unnatural amino acids and β- amino triazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthesis of triazole based unnatural amino acids and β-amino triazole has been described via stereo and regioselective one-pot multi-component reaction of sulfamidates, sodium azide, and alkynes under MW conditions. The developed method is applicable to a broad substrate scope a...

  10. Stereo- and regio-selective one-pot synthesis of triazole-based unnatural amino acids and β- amino triazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthesis of triazole based unnatural amino acids and β-amino triazole has been described via stereo and regioselective one-pot multi-component reaction of sulfamidates, sodium azide, and alkynes under MW conditions. The developed method is applicable to a broad substrate scope a...

  11. Triazole Fungicides Can Induce Cross-Resistance to Medical Triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Schaftenaar, Gijs; Kema, Gert H. J.; van der Lee, Henrich A.; Klaassen, Corné H.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Azoles play an important role in the management of Aspergillus diseases. Azole resistance is an emerging global problem in Aspergillus fumigatus, and may develop through patient therapy. In addition, an environmental route of resistance development has been suggested through exposure to 14α-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs). The main resistance mechanism associated with this putative fungicide-driven route is a combination of alterations in the Cyp51A-gene (TR34/L98H). We investigated if TR34/L98H could have developed through exposure to DMIs. Methods and Findings Thirty-one compounds that have been authorized for use as fungicides, herbicides, herbicide safeners and plant growth regulators in the Netherlands between 1970 and 2005, were investigated for cross-resistance to medical triazoles. Furthermore, CYP51-protein homology modeling and molecule alignment studies were performed to identify similarity in molecule structure and docking modes. Five triazole DMIs, propiconazole, bromuconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and difenoconazole, showed very similar molecule structures to the medical triazoles and adopted similar poses while docking the protein. These DMIs also showed the greatest cross-resistance and, importantly, were authorized for use between 1990 and 1996, directly preceding the recovery of the first clinical TR34/L98H isolate in 1998. Through microsatellite genotyping of TR34/L98H isolates we were able to calculate that the first isolate would have arisen in 1997, confirming the results of the abovementioned experiments. Finally, we performed induction experiments to investigate if TR34/L98H could be induced under laboratory conditions. One isolate evolved from two copies of the tandem repeat to three, indicating that fungicide pressure can indeed result in these genomic changes. Conclusions Our findings support a fungicide-driven route of TR34/L98H development in A. fumigatus. Similar molecule structure characteristics of five triazole DMIs

  12. Inhibition of copper dissolution in water solutions of triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. I.; Agafonkina, M. O.; Andreeva, N. P.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of the chemical structure of certain triazoles on the inhibition of copper dissolution in water solutions at pH 7.40 is studied by electrochemical and ellispometric means. It is established that adsorption of the studied triazoles on copper at potential E = 0.0 V relative to a normal hydrogen electrode is polymolecular, the first layer is described by the Frumkin equation with values of the free adsorption of energy values (-Δ G {a/0}) = 50.5-70.1 kJ/mol. In addition, possible orientations of triazole molecules with respect to a surface of oxidized copper are revealed.

  13. Benzimidazole-triazole ligands with pendent triazole functionality: unexpected formation and effects on copper-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kongkaew, Manisa; Sitthisuwannakul, Kannika; Nakarajouyphon, Vasut; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Sangtrirutnugul, Preeyanuch

    2016-11-14

    A series of benzimidazole-triazole ligands (NN') having a pendent triazole arm with different triazole substituents including CH2Ph (3a), cyclo-C6H11 (3b), and CH2SiMe3 (3c) were obtained in moderate yields from Cu-catalyzed oxidative C-N cyclization of the respective amine-triazole compounds N,N'-bis((1-R-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)benzene-1,2-diamine (2a-2c). Treatment of CuCl2 with one equiv. of the benzimidazole-triazole ligands afforded the corresponding Cu(II) complexes with the empirical formula of Cu(NN')Cl2 (4a-4c). Crystal structures of 4b and 4c reveal mononuclear and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes, respectively. Despite the differences in triazole substituents and their solid state structures, ESR spectra indicate the same molecular structures in CH3CN solution whereas CV data suggest similar redox potentials for 4a-4c. Catalytic activities for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde follow this trend: 4c > 4a > 4b. In addition, the catalytic system 4c/TEMPO/Cu(0)/NMI (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl, NMI = N-methylimidazole) exhibited high activities for oxidation of activated alcohols (i.e., benzyl alcohol derivatives and allylic alcohol) in CH3CN at room temperature.

  14. The stimulatory effect of the TLR4-mediated adjuvant glucopyranosyl lipid A is well preserved in old age.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Birgit; Joos, Clemens; Reed, Steven G; Coler, Rhea; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2016-02-01

    Many subunit vaccines require adjuvants to improve their limited immunogenicity. Various adjuvant candidates targeting toll-like receptors (TLRs) are currently under development including the synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA). GLA has been investigated in the context of influenza vaccine, which is of particular importance for the elderly population. This study investigates the effect of GLA on antigen-presenting cells from young (median age 29 years, range 26-33 years) and older (median age 72 years, range 61-78 years) adults. Treatment with GLA efficiently increases the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) as well as on ex vivo myeloid DC. Expression of co-stimulatory molecules is less pronounced on ex vivo monocytes. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12) as well as of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is induced in monocyte-derived DC. In PBMC cultures myeloid DC and to an even greater extent monocytes produce TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with GLA. Production of IL-12 can also be observed in these cultures. There are no age-related differences in the capacity of GLA to induce expression of co-stimulatory molecules or production of cytokines by human antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, TLR4 agonists like GLA are particularly promising candidates as adjuvants of vaccines designed for elderly individuals.

  15. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  16. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental contaminants was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to categorize chemicals and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated compounds (...

  17. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  18. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  19. 11-Phenoxyundecyl phosphate as a 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranosyl phosphate acceptor in O-antigen repeating unit assembly of Salmonella arizonae O:59.

    PubMed

    Druzhinina, Tatyana N; Danilov, Leonid L; Torgov, Vladimir I; Utkina, Natalya S; Balagurova, Nadezhda M; Veselovsky, Vladimir V; Chizhov, Alexander O

    2010-12-10

    A synthesis of 11-phenoxyundecyl phosphate and its biochemical transformation (using GlcNAc-P transferase from Salmonella arizonae O:59 membranes catalysing transfer of GlcNc-phosphate from UDP-GlcNAc on lipid-phosphate) into P(1)-11-phenoxyundecyl, P(2)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl diphosphate are described. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 2-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin from Coffea L. inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase in isolated mitochondria but is quantitatively degraded during coffee roasting.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Fromme, Tobias; Beusch, Anja; Wahl, Anika; Klingenspor, Martin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Atractyloside (1) and carboxyatractyloside (2) are well-known inhibitors of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in mitochondria, thus effectively blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Structurally related derivatives atractyligenin (3), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-atractyligenin (4), 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-atractyligenin)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin (6) were isolated from raw beans of Coffea L. and the impact of 1-6 on ANT activity was evaluated in isolated mitochondria. Among the coffee components, 6 significantly inhibited ANT activity leading to reduced respiration. Quantitative analysis in commercial coffees, experimental roastings of coffee, and model experiments using purified compound 6 consistently revealed a complete degradation during thermal treatment. In comparison, raw coffee extracts were found to contain high levels of 6, which are therefore expected to be present in food products enriched with raw coffee extracts. This implies the necessity of analytically controlling the levels of 6 in raw coffee extracts when used as additives for food products.

  1. Recent researches in triazole compounds as medicinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C-H; Wang, Y

    2012-01-01

    Triazole compounds containing three nitrogen atoms in the five-membered aromatic azole ring are readily able to bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological system via diverse non-covalent interactions, and thus display versatile biological activities. The related researches in triazole-based derivatives as medicinal drugs have been an extremely active topic, and numerous excellent achievements have been acquired. Noticeably, a large number of triazole compounds as clinical drugs or candidates have been frequently employed for the treatment of various types of diseases, which have shown their large development value and wide potential as medicinal agents. This work systematically reviewed the recent researches and developments of the whole range of triazole compounds as medicinal drugs, including antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticonvulsant, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anti-obesitic, antihistaminic, anti-neuropathic, antihypertensive as well as other biological activities. The perspectives of the foreseeable future in the research and development of triazole-based compounds as medicinal drugs are also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole medicinal drugs.

  2. Azole antifungal agents: emphasis on new triazoles.

    PubMed Central

    Saag, M S; Dismukes, W E

    1988-01-01

    Many advances have been made in antifungal therapy over the last three decades. Itraconazole and fluconazole, two investigational triazole agents, are the most recent additions to the list of antifungal drugs. This review has focused primarily on their mechanisms of action, favorable pharmacologic properties, and spectra of activity against a broad range of systemic pathogens. Itraconazole and fluconazole show much promise as orally active agents, with less potential for toxicity than the currently available azoles. Fluconazole and, to a lesser degree, itraconazole are especially promising therapies for cryptococcal meningitis. In addition, fluconazole may prove to be highly effective in urinary tract infections caused by Candida species and other fungi. Ongoing and future clinical trials will more clearly define the specific roles of itraconazole and fluconazole in the treatment of systemic mycoses. PMID:2831809

  3. Drug-Drug Interaction Associated with Mold-Active Triazoles among Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azie, Nkechi; Yang, Hongbo; Harrington, Rachel; Kelley, Caroline; Tan, Ruo-Ding; Wu, Eric Q.; Franks, Billy; Kristy, Rita; Lee, Edward; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Spalding, James

    2016-01-01

    The majority of hospitalized patients receiving mold-active triazoles are at risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Efforts are needed to increase awareness of DDIs that pose a serious risk of adverse events. Triazoles remain the most commonly utilized antifungals. Recent developments have included the mold-active triazoles (MATs) itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which are first-line agents for the treatment of filamentous fungal infections but have the potential for DDIs. This objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of triazole DDIs. Hospitalized U.S. adults with MAT use were identified in the Cerner HealthFacts database, which contained data from over 150 hospitals (2005 to 2013). The severities of DDIs with MATs were categorized, using drug labels and the drug information from the Drugdex system (Thompson Micromedex), into four groups (contraindicated, major, moderate, and minor severity). DDIs of minor severity were not counted. A DDI event was considered to have occurred if the following two conditions were met: (i) the patient used at least one drug with a classification of at least a moderate interaction with the MAT during the hospitalization and (ii) there was a period of overlap between the administration of the MAT and that of the interacting drug of at least 1 day. A total of 6,962 hospitalizations with MAT use were identified. Among them, 88% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use, 86% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 93% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use included the use of a concomitant interacting drug. A total of 68% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use, 34% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 20% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use included the use of at least one drug with a DDI of contraindicated severity. A total of 83% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use, 61% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 82% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use included the

  4. Drug-Drug Interaction Associated with Mold-Active Triazoles among Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Andes, David; Azie, Nkechi; Yang, Hongbo; Harrington, Rachel; Kelley, Caroline; Tan, Ruo-Ding; Wu, Eric Q; Franks, Billy; Kristy, Rita; Lee, Edward; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Spalding, James

    2016-06-01

    The majority of hospitalized patients receiving mold-active triazoles are at risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Efforts are needed to increase awareness of DDIs that pose a serious risk of adverse events. Triazoles remain the most commonly utilized antifungals. Recent developments have included the mold-active triazoles (MATs) itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which are first-line agents for the treatment of filamentous fungal infections but have the potential for DDIs. This objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of triazole DDIs. Hospitalized U.S. adults with MAT use were identified in the Cerner HealthFacts database, which contained data from over 150 hospitals (2005 to 2013). The severities of DDIs with MATs were categorized, using drug labels and the drug information from the Drugdex system (Thompson Micromedex), into four groups (contraindicated, major, moderate, and minor severity). DDIs of minor severity were not counted. A DDI event was considered to have occurred if the following two conditions were met: (i) the patient used at least one drug with a classification of at least a moderate interaction with the MAT during the hospitalization and (ii) there was a period of overlap between the administration of the MAT and that of the interacting drug of at least 1 day. A total of 6,962 hospitalizations with MAT use were identified. Among them, 88% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use, 86% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 93% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use included the use of a concomitant interacting drug. A total of 68% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use, 34% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 20% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use included the use of at least one drug with a DDI of contraindicated severity. A total of 83% of hospitalizations with posaconazole use, 61% of hospitalizations with itraconazole use, and 82% of hospitalizations with voriconazole use included the

  5. Position 228 in Paenibacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is critical for 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Xiong, Yanjun; Su, Lingqia; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jing

    2017-04-10

    The markedly stable l-ascorbic acid (L-AA) derivative 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) has been widely used in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, and husbandry. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is considered suitable for the large-scale production of AA-2G. In this work, Paenibacillus macerans CGTase was used to produce AA-2G and the production was 13.5g/l. An amino-acid sequence alignment of α-, β-, and α⁄β-CGTase indicated that the Phe at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase was different from the amino acids at this position in other CGTases (Met, Val, or Ile). In addition, the CGTases from Anaerobranca gottschalkii and Bacillus circulans 251, which have Val and Met at position 228, were shown to produce 28.9 and 35.7g/l AA-2G, respectively, which verified the importance of this position for AA-2G synthesis. Subsequently, P. macerans CGTase mutants F228M and F228V were constructed and shown to produce 24.8g/l and 24.0g/l AA-2G, respectively, which are 84% and 78% higher than that of wild-type P. macerans CGTase, respectively. Kinetic analysis of AA-2G synthesis showed that affinities of the two mutants for L-AA and the catalytic efficiencies increased. Meanwhile, the mutants had lower cyclization activity but higher disproportionation activities, which is beneficial for AA-2G synthesis. All these results indicated that amino acid at position 228 of P. macerans CGTase is crucial to AA-2G synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular and cellular response profiles induced by the TLR4 agonist-based adjuvant Glucopyranosyl Lipid A.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Stacie L; Yang, Chin-Fen; Liu, Zheng; Sweetwood, Rosemary; Zhao, Jackie; Cheng, Lily; Jin, Hong; Woo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonists are known potent immunostimulatory compounds. These compounds can be formulated as part of novel adjuvants to enhance vaccine medicated immune responses. However, the contribution of the formulation to the innate in vivo activity of TLR4 agonist compounds is not well understood. We evaluated synthetic TLR4 agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA) for its effects on molecular and cellular innate immune responses in the murine model. Microarray techniques were used to compare the responses to GLA in an aqueous formulation or in an oil-in-water Stable Emulsion formulation (GLA-SE) versus either SE alone or the mineral salt aluminum hydroxide (alum) at the muscle injection site over multiple timepoints. In contrast to the minimal gene upregulation induced by SE and alum, both GLA and GLA-SE triggered MyD88- and TRIF-dependent gene expression. Genes for chemokines, cytokine receptors, signaling molecules, complement, and antigen presentation were also strongly upregulated by GLA and GLA-SE. These included chemokines for T(H)1-type T cells (CXCL9 and CXCL10) and mononuclear leukocytes (CCL2, CCL3) among others. GLA-SE induced stronger and more sustained gene upregulation than GLA in the muscle; GLA-SE induced genes were also detected in local draining lymph nodes and at lower levels in peripheral blood. Both GLA and GLA-SE resulted in increased cellular trafficking to the draining lymph nodes and upregulated MHC molecules and ICAM1 on local dendritic cells. GLA and GLA-SE transiently upregulated circulating MCP-1, TNFα, IFNγ and IP-10 in blood. While GLA and GLA-SE activate a large number of shared innate genes and proteins, GLA-SE induces a quantitatively and qualitatively stronger response than GLA, SE or alum. The genes and proteins upregulated could be used to facilitate selection of appropriate adjuvant doses in vaccine formulations.

  7. Bioavailability of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid as ascorbic acid in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-06-01

    2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA2G) is a stable glycoside, but its conversion to bioavailable ascorbic acid (AsA) in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify that AA2G is hydrolyzed by human intestinal maltase and AA2G by oral ingestion is physiologically utilized the same as AsA in human subjects. The hydrolyzing activities to AA2G by human or rat intestinal homogenates were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a human experiment eight healthy female subjects (23.5 +/- 0.5 y old, body mass index 20.1 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) ingested 3.84 g of AA2G (equivalent to 2 g of AsA) and 2 g of AsA. Blood was collected 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after ingestion. The concentrations of serum AsA were compared with those of rats administered 76.8 mg of AA2G (equivalent to 40 mg of AsA). AA2G was hydrolyzed by maltase using human intestinal homogenate the same as that of rat. When AA2G was orally administered to human subjects, the changed value of the serum concentration of AsA was 1.6 mg/100 mL from baseline at 2 h and then maintained until 4 h after administration. These concentrations were not significantly different from those after ingestion of AsA. In the case of rat, the AsA concentrations in serum were linearly increased to 1.7 mg/100 mL until 3 h after administration. AA2G is hydrolyzed by intestinal maltase and acts as AsA in humans. The present results will contribute to the development of functional food with health claims to supply AsA.

  8. Biosynthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid from maltose by an engineered cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Han, Ruizhi; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-12-15

    In this work, the specificity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) of Paenibacillus macerans towards maltose was improved by the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47, and the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) with l-ascorbic acid and maltose as substrates was optimized. Compared to the AA-2G yield of the wild-type CGTase, that of the mutants K47F (lysine→phenylalanine), K47P (lysine→proline), and K47Y (lysine→tyrosine) was increased by 17.1%, 32.9%, and 21.1%, respectively. Under the optimal transformation conditions (pH 6.5, temperature 36°C, the mass ratio of l-ascorbic acid to maltose 1:1), the highest AA-2G titer by the K47P reached 1.12g/L, which was 1.32-fold of that (0.85g/L) obtained by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltose specificity of the mutants K47F, K47P, and K47Y. It was also found that compared to the wild-type CGTase, the three mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. As revealed by the interaction structure model of CGTase with substrate, the enhancement of maltose specificity may be due to the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. The obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47P, has a great potential in the large-scale production of AA-2G with maltose as a cheap and soluble substrate.

  9. Glucopyranosyl-1,4-dihydropyridine as a new fluorescent chemosensor for selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Pinrat, Oran; Boonkitpatarakul, Kanokthorn; Paisuwan, Waroton; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Ajavakom, Anawat

    2015-03-21

    Glucopyranosyl-1,4-dihydropyridine (Glc-DHP) was synthesized as a new fluorescent chemosensor via cyclotrimerization of the β-amino acrylate in the presence of TiCl4. This DHP derivative is soluble in aqueous medium and the solution gives a blue fluorescence signal with a quantum yield of 29%. The fluorescence signal of Glc-DHP was selectively quenched by 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) with a quenching coefficient (Ksv) of 4.47 × 10(4) and at one of the best reported detection limits of 0.94 μM. The quenching mechanism was confirmed to be of the static type at the low concentration region (less than 50 μM) with the significant quenching effect of competitive absorption starting from the concentration of 50 μM. Even in the real sample (seawater and industrial water), the quenching efficiencies of TNP on the fluorescence emission of Glc-DHP were proven to be at the same level with that of the test in pure water, demonstrating the practicability of the detection. Furthermore, a fluorescent paper sensor could be prepared by immersing the paper into the Glc-DHP solution. The fluorescence of the paper sensor disappeared either by writing with TNP solution or by exposure to TNP vapor. This detection could be observed by the naked eye under black light. The pH effect was proven to be a substantial factor in the quenching mechanism, providing an accurate determination of TNP, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP) in real mixed-samples.

  10. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  11. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-05

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glycogen phosphorylase as a target for type 2 diabetes: synthetic, biochemical, structural and computational evaluation of novel N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Bakalov, Dimitar N; Snelgrove, Laura; Stravodimos, George A; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Panagiotopoulou, Angeliki; Hayes, Joseph M; Komiotis, Dimitri; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a validated target for the development of anti-hyperglycaemic agents, has been targeted for the design of novel glycopyranosylamine inhibitors. Exploiting the two most potent inhibitors from our previous study of N-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamines (Parmenopoulou et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2014, 22, 4810), we have extended the linking group to -NHCONHCO- between the glucose moiety and the aliphatic/aromatic substituent in the GP catalytic site β-cavity. The N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors were synthesized and their efficiency assessed by biochemical methods, revealing inhibition constant values of 4.95 µM and 2.53 µM. Crystal structures of GP in complex with these inhibitors were determined and analyzed, providing data for further structure based design efforts. A novel Linear Response - Molecular Mechanics Coulomb Surface Area (LR-MM-CBSA) method has been developed which relates predicted and experimental binding free energies for a training set of N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea ligands with a correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.89 and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-cv) Q(2) statistic of 0.79. The method has significant applications to direct future lead optimization studies, where ligand entropy loss on binding is revealed as a key factor to be considered. ADMET property predictions revealed that apart from potential permeability issues, the synthesized N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors have drug-like potential without any toxicity warnings.

  13. Synthesis of alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles by copper-catalyzed silyl deprotection/azide cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Palchak, Zachary L; Nguyen, Paula T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Propargylamines are popular substrates for triazole formation, but tetrasubstituted variants have required multistep syntheses involving stoichiometric amounts of metal. A recent cyclohexanone–amine–silylacetylene coupling forms silyl-protected tetrasubstituted propargylamines in a single copper-catalyzed step. The development of the tandem silyl deprotection–triazole formation reported herein offers rapid access to alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles. A streamlined two-step approach to this uncommon class of hindered triazoles will accelerate exploration of their therapeutic potential. The superior activity of copper(II) triflate in the formation of triazoles from sensitive alkyne substrates extends to simple terminal alkynes. PMID:26425198

  14. Nucleosides of 4-methylthio-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shingarova, I.D.; Yartseva, I.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, M.N.

    1987-08-01

    2-..beta..-D-Ribofuranosyl-4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole was obtained by fusing 4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole together with tetraacyl-D-ribofuranose, followed by deacylation, and its amide and hydrazide were prepared. The structures of the new nucleosides were established by converting them into known 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives. By comparing PMR spectra with previously reported PMR spectra for the isomeric 1- and 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives, the synthesized nucleosides could be assigned to 2-substituted triazoles.

  15. Sequential synthesis of amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles and triazole-chromene hybrids and their antimycobacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devi Bala, Balasubramanian; Muthusaravanan, Sivasubramanian; Choon, Tan Soo; Ashraf Ali, Mohamed; Perumal, Subbu

    2014-10-06

    A general method for the synthesis of a library of hitherto unreported amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles was accomplished via a sequential three-component reaction of substituted N-propargylaminonaphthoquinones with variously substituted alkyl bromides/2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione and sodium azide in the presence of Et3N/CuI in water. Aminonaphthoquinone-appended iminochromene-triazole hybrid heterocycles were also synthesized from the amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended-1,2,3-triazolylacetonitriles. All the triazole hybrids were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB). Among the triazoles, 2-(((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (7d) emerged as the most active one with IC50 = 1.87 μM, being more potent than the anti-TB drugs, cycloserine (6 times), pyrimethamine (20 times) and equipotent as the drug ethambutol (IC50 < 1.56 μM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A new synthesis of alpha-arbutin via Lewis acid catalyzed selective glycosylation of tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate with hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Xia; Shi, Xiao-Xin; Chen, Guo-Rong; Ren, Zhi-Hua; Luo, Lei; Yan, Jing

    2006-08-14

    alpha-Arbutin has huge application potentials in the cosmetic industry, as its inhibitory effect on human tyrosinase is stronger than that of its naturally occurring anomer arbutin (4-hydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside). Enzymatic synthesis was preferred for alpha-arbutin previously, and now a new chemical synthesis is reported. The reaction of tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate, as glycosyl donor, with hydroquinone was initiated by catalytic amounts of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf), resulting in 4-hydroxyphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside with high stereoselectivity and yield, and then to alpha-arbutin quantitatively after deprotection.

  17. Transition-state structure for the quintessential SN2 reaction of a carbohydrate: reaction of α-glucopyranosyl fluoride with azide ion in water.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jefferson; Sannikova, Natalia; Tang, Ariel; Bennet, Andrew J

    2014-09-03

    We report that the SN2 reaction of α-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride with azide ion proceeds through a loose (exploded) transition-state (TS) structure. We reached this conclusion by modeling the TS using a suite of five experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) as constraints for the calculations. We also report that the anomeric (13)C-KIE is not abnormally large (k12/k13 = 1.024 ± 0.006), a finding which is at variance with the previous literature value (Zhang et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 7557).

  18. Evidence of robust participation by an equatorial 4-O group in glycosylation on a 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucopyranosyl donor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongming; Liu, Yichu; Yan, Shiqiang; Li, Yingxia; Hu, Chun; Ding, Ning

    2017-03-07

    Although there are numerous claims of remote group participation leading to the synthesis of the expected glycosides with improved anomeric geometry outcome in glycosylation, there is still a lack of enough strong evidence and this has led to a long-term debate, particularly for equatorial 4-O group participation. In this work, we were able to synthesize and isolate a stable seven-membered trichlorooxazepine ring bridging intermediate with a high yield by employing a 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucopyranosyl donor, which provides strong evidence to support the putative participation of the equatorial 4-O group in glycosylation.

  19. [D-Met2,Pro5] enkephalin [N1.5-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] amide: a glycosylpeptide with high antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Torres, J L; Reig, F; Valencia, G; Rodríguez, R E; García-Antón, J M

    1988-05-01

    Different synthetic strategies have been attempted for the synthesis of a glycosylpeptide resulting from the covalent bonding of a sugar residue to the C-terminal carboxyl group of an enkephalin related pentapeptide. The final structure is: Tyr-D-Met-Gly-Phe-Pro [N1.5-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] amide. The in vitro potency on the GPI test of this analogue was IC50 = 64.0 nM. However, its antinociceptive activity by tail immersion tests, after intraperitoneal administration, was 2000 and 200 times higher than morphine in rats and mice, respectively.

  20. Metronidazole-triazole conjugates: activity against Clostridium difficile and parasites.

    PubMed

    Jarrad, Angie M; Karoli, Tomislav; Debnath, Anjan; Tay, Chin Yen; Huang, Johnny X; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Elliott, Alysha G; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela M; Zuegg, Johannes; Eckmann, Lars; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-08-28

    Metronidazole has been used clinically for over 50 years as an antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent effective against anaerobic bacteria. However resistance to metronidazole in parasites and bacteria has been reported, and improved second-generation metronidazole analogues are needed. The copper catalysed Huigsen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition offers a way to efficiently assemble new libraries of metronidazole analogues. Several new metronidazole-triazole conjugates (Mtz-triazoles) have been identified with excellent broad spectrum antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity targeting Clostridium difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Cross resistance to metronidazole was observed against stable metronidazole resistant C. difficile and G. lamblia strains. However for the most potent Mtz-triazoles, the activity remained in a therapeutically relevant window. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Detection of Triazole Antifungal Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus▿

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Dilger, Amanda; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Park, Steven; Mellado, Emilia; Perlin, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an uncommon but rising phenomenon. Susceptibility testing is rarely performed and can take 48 h or longer, which is an impediment to effective therapy. Molecular diagnostic probing of well-defined resistance mechanisms, which serve as surrogate markers, provides an alternative approach to rapidly (within hours) and efficiently identify resistant strains. The mechanisms of triazole resistance in A. fumigatus are limited to amino acid substitutions in the drug target Cyp51A and include amino acid substitutions at the positions Gly 54, Gly 138, Met 220, and Leu 98, coupled with a tandem repetition in the gene promoter. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay utilizing molecular beacons to assess triazole resistance markers in A. fumigatus. When combined in a multiplex platform, the assay provides a comprehensive evaluation of drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:18234874

  2. Metronidazole-triazole conjugates: Activity against Clostridium difficile and parasites

    PubMed Central

    Jarrad, Angie M.; Karoli, Tomislav; Debnath, Anjan; Tay, Chin Yen; Huang, Johnny X.; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Elliott, Alysha G.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela M.; Zuegg, Johannes; Eckmann, Lars; Blaskovich, Mark A.T.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Metronidazole has been used clinically for over 50 years as an antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent effective against anaerobic bacteria. However resistance to metronidazole in parasites and bacteria has been reported, and improved second-generation metronidazole analogues are needed. The copper catalysed Huigsen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition offers a way to efficiently assemble new libraries of metronidazole analogues. Several new metronidazole-triazole conjugates (Mtz-triazoles) have been identified with excellent broad spectrum antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity targeting Clostridium difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Cross resistance to metronidazole was observed against stable metronidazole resistant C. difficile and G. lamblia strains. However for the most potent Mtz-triazoles, the activity remained in a therapeutically relevant window. PMID:26117821

  3. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Drabu, Sushma; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded. PMID:21804864

  4. Highly Potent Triazole-Based Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Youyi; Wang, Xin I.; Keenan, Susan M.; Arora, Sonia; Welsh, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that contain the 1,2,4-triazole ring to retain the bioactive configuration afforded by the cis double bond in combretastatin A-4 (CA-4). Several of the subject compounds exhibited potent tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity as well as cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells including multi-drug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. Attachment of the N-methyl-5-indolyl moiety to the 1,2,4-triazole core, as exemplified by compound 7, conferred optimal properties among this series. Computer docking and molecular simulations of 7 inside the colchicine binding site of tubulin enabled identification of residues most likely to interact strongly with these inhibitors and explain their potent anti-tubulin activity and cytotoxicity. It is hoped that results presented here will stimulate further examination of these substituted 1,2,4-triazoles as potential anti-cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:17249649

  5. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal metal based triazole Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    A new series of four biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands (L(1)-L(4)) and their cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1-16) have been synthesized and characterized. The ligands were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3-amino-5-methylthio-1H-1,2,4-triazole with chloro-, bromo- and nitro-substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde in an equimolar ratio. The antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent antibacterial and antifungal than the parent Schiff bases against one or more bacterial and fungal species.

  7. [Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in zhengtian pills by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Li, Ling-Ling

    2013-07-01

    To simultaneously determine paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in Zhengtian pills. In the test, Insertil ODS-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the column temperature was 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. According to the results of the test, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol showed good linear relations between peak areas and sample sizes in 11.37-170.5, 2.188-32.82, 2.896-43.44, and 3.000-45.00 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9, 0.999 9, 1.000 0, 1.000 0), respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 102.3% (RSD 1.2%), 99.71% (RSD 1.9%), 101.2% (RSD 1.2%), and 99.40% (RSD 2.4%), respectively. The above four components were determined in five batches of samples by using the established method, with satisfactory results. The method was so simple, accurate and highly reproducible that it could be used for quality control of the four components in Zhengtian pills.

  8. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  9. Coumarin incorporated triazoles: a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Mashooq A; Al-Omar, Mohammed A

    2011-01-01

    A series of coumarin incorporated 1,2,4- triazole compounds (1-14) were evaluated for their possible anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties, log P values, pharmacophoric mapping and three dimensional structure analysis. Compound (6) with para-fluoro substitution showed significant anticonvulsant activity.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of new thiodigalactoside-based chemical probes to label galectin-3.

    PubMed

    van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Moret, Ed E; Ballell, Lluis; Liskamp, Rob M J; Nilsson, Ulf J; Leffler, Hakon; Pieters, Roland J

    2009-07-06

    New chemical probes were synthesized to label galectin-3. They are based on the high affinity thiodigalactoside ligand. The probes were synthesized with benzophenone or acetophenone moieties as the photolabel for covalent attachment to the protein. Besides labeling the protein, these aromatic photolabels also greatly enhance the affinity of the probes towards galectin-3, due to the interaction of the photolabel with two arginine guanidinium groups of the protein. The linkage between the sugar and the photolabel was varied as an ester, an amide, and a triazole. For the amide and triazole derivatives, a versatile synthetic route towards a symmetrical 3-azido-3-deoxy-thiodigalactoside was developed. The new probes were evaluated for their binding affinity of human galectin-3. They were subsequently tested for their labeling efficiency, as well as specificity in the presence of a protein mixture and a human cancer cell lysate.

  11. Facile entry into triazole fused heterocycles via sulfamidate derived azido-alkynes.

    PubMed

    Sai Sudhir, V; Phani Kumar, N Y; Nasir Baig, R B; Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2009-10-02

    Direct synthesis of condensed triazoles from diverse sulfamidates by ring opening of sulfamidates with sodium azide followed by one-pot propargylation and cycloaddition furnished title compounds. The methodology in general has been demonstrated on diverse sulfamidates derived from amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and carbohydrates to obtain diverse triazole fused scaffolds. In one example, a condensed triazole containing amino acid has been synthesized by ring opening of a sulfamidate derivative with propargyl amine.

  12. Thermotropic phase properties of 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-3-O-(3-O-methyl- beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Trouard, T P; Mannock, D A; Lindblom, G; Rilfors, L; Akiyama, M; McElhaney, R N

    1994-01-01

    The hydration properties and the phase structure of 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-3-O(3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG) in water have been studied via differential scanning calorimetry, 1H-NMR and 2H-NMR spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Results indicate that this lipid forms a crystalline (Lc) phase up to temperatures of 60-70 degrees C, where a transition through a metastable reversed hexagonal (Hll) phase to a reversed micellar solution (L2) phase occurs. Experiments were carried out at water concentrations in a range from 0 to 35 wt%, which indicate that all phases are poorly hydrated, taking up < 5 mol water/mol lipid. The absence of a lamellar liquid crystalline (L alpha) phase and the low levels of hydration measured in the discernible phases suggest that the methylation of the saccharide moiety alters the hydrogen bonding properties of the headgroup in such a way that the 3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG headgroup cannot achieve the same level of hydration as the unmethylated form. Thus, in spite of the small increase in steric bulk resulting from methylation, there is an increase in the tendency of 3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG to form nonlamellar structures. A similar phase behavior has previously been observed for the Acholeplasma laidlawii A membrane lipid 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(6-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol in water (Lindblom et al. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:16198-16207). The phase behavior of the two lipids suggests that hydrophobic substitution of a hydroxyl group in the sugar ring of the glucopyranosylglycerols has a very strong effect on their physicochemical properties, i.e., headgroup hydration and the formation of different lipid aggregate structures. PMID:7811919

  13. Effect of Preexposure to Triazoles on Susceptibility and Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Albert, Nathaniel D; Lewis, Russell E; Walsh, Thomas J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2015-12-01

    Triazole prophylaxis has become the norm in patients with hematological malignancies. Breakthrough infections caused by Mucorales during triazole prophylaxis remain a challenging problem. We found that preexposure of Rhizopus oryzae to antifungal triazoles (fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole) did not modify the in vitro susceptibility of Rhizopus oryzae to posaconazole. In contrast, preexposure of Rhizopus to triazoles was associated with the enhanced in vitro susceptibility of R. oryzae to amphotericin B. Preexposure to posaconazole did not alter the virulence of R. oryzae in the fly model of mucormycosis.

  14. 1-Benzyl-4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Sánchez, Juan I.; Aguirre, Gerardo; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H15N3, the benzyl group is almost perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 80.64 (8)°], while the napthyl group makes an angle of 30.27 (12)° with the plane of the triazole ring. This conformation is different from the 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogue, which has the benzyl ring system at an angle of 87.94° and the phenyl group at an angle of 3.35° to the plane of the triazole ring. PMID:21837221

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  16. Enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles from carbohydrates: applications of organoselenium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Atanu; Samanta, Supravat; Pathak, Tanmaya

    2014-08-01

    A wide range of stable vinyl selenone-modified furanosides has been synthesized for the first time. These 2π-partners undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with a wide range of organic azides to afford enantiopure trisubstituted triazoles. Furanosyl rings opened up during triazole synthesis to generate polyfunctionalized molecules, ready to undergo further transformations. This strategy is one of the most convenient methods for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles where the chiral components are attached to C-4 or C-5 position of triazole ring. These triazoles are formed in a regioselective manner, and several pairs of regioisomeric triazoles have also been synthesized. The approach affords densely functionalized triazoles, which are amenable to further modifications because of the presence of aldehyde and hydroxyl groups. This powerful and practical route adds to the arsenals of chemists and biologists interested in the synthesis and applications of triazoles.

  17. Molecular hybridization yields triazole bronchodilators for the treatment of COPD.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyn H; Burrows, Jane; Feeder, Neil; Glossop, Paul; James, Kim; Jones, Rhys M; Kenyon, Amy S; Patel, Sheena; Roberts, Dannielle F; Selby, Matthew D; Strang, Ross S; Stuart, Emilio F; Trevethick, Michael A; Watson, Jessica; Wright, Karen N; Clarke, Nick

    2015-11-15

    A 1,2,4-triazole motif was employed as a bioisostere for the ester commonly used in muscarinic antagonists, and subsequent integrative conjugation to a β2 agonist quinolinone furnished a new class of bifunctional MABAs for the treatment of COPD. Medicinal chemistry optimization using the principles of 'inhalation by design' furnished a clinical candidate with desirable pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Itraconazole, a new triazole that is orally active in aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Cutsem, J; Van Gerven, F; Van de Ven, M A; Borgers, M; Janssen, P A

    1984-01-01

    Itraconazole is a new orally active triazole derivative with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. This drug is effective in experimental aspergillosis and possesses in vitro activity against various species and strains of Aspergillus. Morphological destruction of inoculated hyphae and complete inhibition of hyphal outgrowth in culture is obtained from 0.07 micrograms ml-1 (10(-7)M) onward. These properties make itraconazole a likely candidate for clinical evaluation in disseminated aspergillosis. Images PMID:6097167

  19. Discovery of Novel Triazole-Based Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Keenan, Susan M.; Peng, Youyi; Nair, Anil C.; Yu, Seong Jae; Howells, Richard D.; Welsh, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the computer-aided design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel family of δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonists containing a 1,2,4-triazole core structure that are structurally distinct from other known opioid receptor active ligands. Among those δ antagonists sharing this core structure, 8 exhibited strong binding affinity (Ki = 50 nM) for the DOR and appreciable selectivity for δ over μ and opioid receptors (δ/μ = 80; δ/κ > 200). PMID:16821764

  20. In Vitro Activities of Four Novel Triazoles against Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, A. J.; Guarro, J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop new approaches to the treatment of the severe and usually fatal infections caused by Scedosporium spp., the in vitro antifungal activities of four novel triazoles (posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and UR-9825) and some current antifungals (amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and nystatin) were determined. The latter group was clearly ineffective against the two species tested. The four new antifungals showed activity against Scedosporium apiospermum, and UR-9825 and voriconazole were active against S. prolificans. PMID:11408242

  1. In vitro activities of four novel triazoles against Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, A J; Guarro, J

    2001-07-01

    In order to develop new approaches to the treatment of the severe and usually fatal infections caused by Scedosporium spp., the in vitro antifungal activities of four novel triazoles (posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and UR-9825) and some current antifungals (amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and nystatin) were determined. The latter group was clearly ineffective against the two species tested. The four new antifungals showed activity against Scedosporium apiospermum, and UR-9825 and voriconazole were active against S. prolificans.

  2. Synthesis of Deuterated 1,2,3-Triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Hari K.; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is a highly effective method for the selective incorporation of deuterium atom into the C-5 position of the 1,2,3-triazole structure. Reactions of alkynes and azides can be conveniently carried out in a biphasic medium of CH2Cl2/D2O, using the CuSO4/Na ascorbate system. The mildness of the method renders it applicable to substrates of relatively high complexity, such as nucleosides. Good yields and high levels of deuterium incorporation were observed. A reaction conducted in equimolar H2O and D2O showed 2.7 times greater incorporation of hydrogen atom as compared to deuterium. This is consistent with the H+ and D+ ion concentrations in H2O and D2O, respectively. With appropriately deuterated precursors, partially to fully deuterated triazoles were assembled where the final deuterium atom was incorporated in the triazole-forming step. PMID:23016757

  3. N-[4-(Dimethyl-amino)-benzyl-idene]-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2012-05-01

    The title compound, C(11)H(13)N(5), is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(dimethyl-amino)-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the benzene and triazole rings is 43.09 (11)°. The crystal structure displays weak C-H⋯N inter-actions.

  4. Highly potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2 based on a 1,2,4-triazole pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph P; Fisher, Paul W; Hofmann, Glenn A; Kirkpatrick, Robert B; Janson, Cheryl A; Johnson, Randall K; Ma, Chun; Mattern, Michael; Meek, Thomas D; Ryan, M Dominic; Schulz, Christina; Smith, Ward W; Tew, David G; Tomazek, Thaddeus A; Veber, Daniel F; Xiong, Wenfang C; Yamamoto, Yuuichi; Yamashita, Keizo; Yang, Guang; Thompson, Scott K

    2007-08-09

    High-throughput screening for inhibitors of the human metalloprotease, methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2), identified a potent class of 3-anilino-5-benzylthio-1,2,4-triazole compounds. Efficient array and interative synthesis of triazoles led to rapid SAR development around the aniline, benzylthio, and triazole moeities. Evaluation of these analogs in a human MetAP2 enzyme assay led to the identification of several inhibitors with potencies in the 50-100 picomolar range. The deleterious effects on inhibitor potency by methylation of the anilino-triazole nitrogens, as well as the X-ray crystal structure of triazole 102 bound in the active site of MetAP2, confirm the key interactions between the triazole nitrogens, the active site cobalt atoms, and the His-231 side-chain. The structure has also provided a rationale for interpreting SAR within the triazole series. Key aniline (2-isopropylphenyl) and sulfur substituents (furanylmethyl) identified in the SAR studies led to the identification of potent inhibitors (103 and 104) of endothelial cell proliferation. Triazoles 103 and 104 also exhibited dose-dependent activity in an aortic ring tissue model of angiogenesis highlighting the potential utility of MetAP2 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Synthesis of Cyclic Tetrapeptides and their Triazole Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Erinprit K.; Nazarova, Lidia A.; Lapera, Stephanie A.; Alexander, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of nine macrocyclic peptide HDAC inhibitors and three triazole derivatives are described. HDAC inhibitory activity of these compounds against HeLa cell lysate is evaluated. The biological data demonstrates that incorporation of a triazole unit improves the HDAC inhibitory activity. PMID:20865132

  6. Synthesis and SAR evaluation of 1,2,4-triazoles as A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Alanine, Alexander; Anselm, Lilli; Steward, Lucinda; Thomi, Stefan; Vifian, Walter; Groaning, Michael D

    2004-02-09

    The synthesis and in vitro structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of triazoles as A(2A) receptor antagonists is reported. This resulted in the identification of potent, selective and permeable 1,2,4-triazoles such as 42 for further optimization and evaluation in vivo.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of fluconazole analogs with triazole-modified scaffold as potent antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Irannejad, Hamid; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Emami, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    In order to find new azole antifungals, we have recently designed a series of triazole alcohols in which one of the 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl group in fluconazole structure has been replaced with 4-amino-5-aryl-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif. In this paper, we focused on the structural refinement of the primary lead, by removing the amino group from the structure to achieve 5-aryl-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives 10a-i and 11a-i. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of title compounds demonstrated that most compounds had potent inhibitory activity against Candida species. Among them, 5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)triazole analogs 10h and 11h with MIC values of <0.01 to 0.5μg/mL were 4-256 times more potent than fluconazole against Candida species.

  8. Protection of free radical-induced cytotoxicity by 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Yukako; Iomori, Atsuko; Ishii, Rie; Gohda, Eiichi; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    The stable ascorbic acid (AA) derivative, 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), exhibits vitamin C activity after enzymatic hydrolysis to AA. The biological activity of AA-2G per se has not been studied in detail, although AA-2G has been noted as a stable source for AA supply. The protective effect of AA-2G against the oxidative cell death of human dermal fibroblasts induced by incubating with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) for 24 h was investigated in this study. AA-2G showed a significant protective effect against the oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner. AA-2G did not exert a protective effect during the initial 12 h of incubation, but had a significant protective effect in the later part of the incubation period. Experiments using a α-glucosidase inhibitor and comparative experiments using a stereoisomer of AA-2G confirmed that AA-2G had a protective effect against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity without being converted to AA. Our results provide an insight into the efficacy of AA-2G as a biologically interesting antioxidant and suggest the practical use of AA-2G even before being converted into AA as a beneficial antioxidant.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant effects of the natural vitamin C analog 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid isolated from Goji berry fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziping; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Junhong; Hao, Yanfang; Yang, Xueyun; Wang, Yujiong

    2011-05-01

    2-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG) is a natural derivative of vitamin C (Lascorbic acid, AA) isolated from Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. We evaluated the antioxidant activities of AA-2βG and AA using in vitro and in vivo model systems. In vitro radical scavenging assays demonstrated that AA-βG was capable of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl peroxide and inhibiting H(2)O(2)-induced hemolysis better than AA. AA-2βG and AA had similar hydroxyl radical scavenging capabilities, but AA-2βG was incapable of scavenging superoxide anion radicals, and its capacity to scavenge nitrite (NO(2) (-)) was lower than that of AA. The overall in vitro reduction capability of AA-2βG was also significantly lower than that of AA. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that AA-2βG was capable of protecting the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. These results suggest that AA-2βG is an important antioxidant component of Goji berry fruit, which may share similar but distinct antioxidant mechanistic properties with AA. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of Goji berry fruit pharmacological activities on antiaging and antitumor properties as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement.

  10. The antioxidant activity of a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the berries of Hedera colchica: 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-hederagenin.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Gepdiremen, Akçahan; Elias, Riad

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of a triterpenoid glycoside [3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-hederagenin; OGH] isolated from the berries of Hedera colchica, an ivy species endemic in Georgia, was investigated. The antioxidant properties of OGH were evaluated using different antioxidant assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical (O2*-)) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging and metal chelating activities. The total antioxidant activity was measured according to the ferric thiocyanate method. alpha-Tocopherol and trolox, a water-soluble analogue of tocopherol, were used as reference antioxidant compounds. At a 30 microg/mL concentration, the inhibitory effects of OGH on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion was found to be 95.3%, whereas alpha-tocopherol and trolox exhibited 88.8% and 86.2% inhibition of peroxidation in the system, respectively. In addition, OGH had effective DPPH. scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, total reducing power and metal chelation of ferrous ions activities. These various antioxidant activities were compared with alpha-tocopherol and trolox.

  11. Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), a Synthetic TLR4 Agonist, Promotes Potent Systemic and Mucosal Responses to Intranasal Immunization with HIVgp140

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Mauricio A.; Van Roey, Griet A.; Tregoning, John S.; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Coler, Rhea N.; Windish, Hillarie P.; Reed, Steven G.; Carter, Darrick; Shattock, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Successful vaccine development against HIV will likely require the induction of strong, long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Based on the known immunological linkage between the upper-respiratory and urogenital tracts, we explored the potential of nasal adjuvants to boost immunization for the induction of vaginal and systemic immune responses to gp140. Mice were immunized intranasally with HIV gp140 together with micellar and emulsion formulations of a synthetic TLR4 agonist, Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA) and responses were compared to R848, a TLR7/8 agonist, or chitosan, a non TLR adjuvant. GLA and chitosan but not R848 greatly enhanced serum immunoglobulin levels when compared to antigen alone. Both GLA and chitosan induced high IgG and IgA titers in nasal and vaginal lavage and feces. The high IgA and IgG titers in vaginal lavage were associated with high numbers of gp140-specific antibody secreting cells in the genital tract. Whilst both GLA and chitosan induced T cell responses to immunization, GLA induced a stronger Th17 response and chitosan induced a more Th2 skewed response. Our results show that GLA is a highly potent intranasal adjuvant greatly enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses, both systemically and mucosally. PMID:22829921

  12. Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), a Synthetic TLR4 agonist, promotes potent systemic and mucosal responses to intranasal immunization with HIVgp140.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio A; Van Roey, Griet A; Tregoning, John S; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Coler, Rhea N; Windish, Hillarie P; Reed, Steven G; Carter, Darrick; Shattock, Robin J

    2012-01-01

    Successful vaccine development against HIV will likely require the induction of strong, long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Based on the known immunological linkage between the upper-respiratory and urogenital tracts, we explored the potential of nasal adjuvants to boost immunization for the induction of vaginal and systemic immune responses to gp140. Mice were immunized intranasally with HIV gp140 together with micellar and emulsion formulations of a synthetic TLR4 agonist, Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA) and responses were compared to R848, a TLR7/8 agonist, or chitosan, a non TLR adjuvant. GLA and chitosan but not R848 greatly enhanced serum immunoglobulin levels when compared to antigen alone. Both GLA and chitosan induced high IgG and IgA titers in nasal and vaginal lavage and feces. The high IgA and IgG titers in vaginal lavage were associated with high numbers of gp140-specific antibody secreting cells in the genital tract. Whilst both GLA and chitosan induced T cell responses to immunization, GLA induced a stronger Th17 response and chitosan induced a more Th2 skewed response. Our results show that GLA is a highly potent intranasal adjuvant greatly enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses, both systemically and mucosally.

  13. An Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine, FILORAB1, Adjuvanted With Glucopyranosyl Lipid A in Stable Emulsion Confers Complete Protection in Nonhuman Primate Challenge Models.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed F; Kurup, Drishya; Hagen, Katie R; Fisher, Christine; Keshwara, Rohan; Papaneri, Amy; Perry, Donna L; Cooper, Kurt; Jahrling, Peter B; Wang, Jonathan T; Ter Meulen, Jan; Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J

    2016-10-15

    The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak was the largest filovirus outbreak to date. Over 28 000 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases have been reported, with a 53% case-fatality rate. The magnitude and international impact of this EBOV outbreak has highlighted the urgent need for a safe and efficient EBOV vaccine. To this end, we demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of FILORAB1, a recombinant, bivalent, inactivated rabies virus-based EBOV vaccine, in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Our results demonstrate that the use of the synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A in stable emulsion (GLA-SE) as an adjuvant increased the efficacy of FILORAB1 to 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge, with no to mild clinical signs of disease. Furthermore, all vaccinated subjects developed protective anti-rabies virus antibody titers. Taken together, these results support further development of FILORAB1/GLA-SE as an effective preexposure EBOV vaccine. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. A water soluble glucopyranosyl conjugate as a selective and reactive probe for cysteine in a buffer and its application to living cells.

    PubMed

    Areti, Sivaiah; Teotia, Rohit; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2015-11-07

    A water soluble and biocompatible glucopyranosyl conjugate (L) has been synthesized and characterized by various techniques. The L has been employed to recognize Cys selectively among the naturally occurring amino acids in HEPES buffer at physiological pH. A minimum detection limit of 2.5 × 10(-7) M was shown by L for Cys in the buffer at pH = 7.4. The reactivity of L towards biological thiols as demonstrated by emission and absorption is supported by the observed increase in the fluorescence intensity; however, Cys shows a maximum increase owing to its better nucleophilicity. The reactivity of Cys on L is demonstrated by (1)H NMR, ESI MS, emission and absorption spectroscopy, and the formation of the binary complex was supported by ESI MS. The control molecular study revealed the necessity of the glyco-moiety to bring water solubility and biological adaptability. The cellular studies support that the conjugate L is biologically adaptable and shows effective intracellular fluorescence emission upon reacting with intracellular thiols.

  15. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition and Cellular Nrf2 Induction of Taraxacum officinale Leaves and Roots and Taraxinic Acid β-d-Glucopyranosyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Obermair, Betina; Dorn, Tabea; Siems, Karsten; Rimbach, Gerald; Birringer, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, is a plant of the Asteraceae family, which is used as a food and medical herb. Various secondary plant metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, and steroids have been described to be present in T. officinale. Dandelion may exhibit various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. We analyzed the leaves and roots of the common dandelion (T. officinale) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine its sesquiterpene lactone composition. The main compound of the leaf extract taraxinic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), a sesquiterpene lactone, was isolated and the structure elucidation was conducted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The leaf extract and its main compound 1 activated the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in human hepatocytes more significantly than the root extract. Furthermore, the leaf extract induced the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase 1. Overall, present data suggest that compound 1 may be one of the active principles of T. officinale.

  16. Chiral separation of some triazole pesticides by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Toribio, L; del Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; Alonso, C

    2004-08-13

    The enantiomeric separation of six triazole pesticides: cyproconazole, propiconazole, diniconazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole and tetraconazole, using supercritical fluid chromatography and the Chiralpak AD column, is presented in this work. The effect of different organic modifiers such as methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol on the retention and resolution was studied as well as the presence of additives in the mobile phase. The results obtained were highly successful, all the compounds were enantiomerically separated and in most of the cases the analysis time was close to 10 min. The type of organic modifier that provided the best results depended on the compound.

  17. Bibliometric analysis of literature on antifungal triazole resistance: 1980 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sweileh, Waleed M.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Triazole antifungal agents play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of fungal infections. Little is known about antifungal triazole drug resistance when compared to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on triazole antifungal drug resistance. Methods Keywords related to triazole drug class and resistance were used in a search query in the Scopus search engine. The time span was set from 1980 to 2015. Data pertaining to growth of publications, the most active countries and institutions, the most cited articles, and mapping of molecular mechanisms of resistance were analyzed. Results A total of 1648 journal articles were retrieved with an average of 20.46 citations per article. Annual growth of triazole resistance showed an increasing pattern during the study period. The United States of America (n=446; 27.06%) ranked first in productivity followed by the United Kingdom (UK) (n=176; 10.68%), and China (n=133; 8.07%). Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (n=69, 4.19%) in the Netherlands ranked first in productivity, while the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ranked first (n=255; 15.47%) in publishing articles on triazole resistance. Mapping mechanisms of resistance showed that efflux pump and mutations in target enzyme are major mechanisms described in resistance to triazoles. Conclusion There was a growth of publications on triazole resistance in the past two decades with the bulk of publications on triazole resistance in Candida species. The data presented here will serve as baseline information for future comparative purposes. PMID:28331838

  18. Synthesis of O-[2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-stearoyl- and -6-O-(2-tetradecylhexadecanoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(1-->4)-N- acetylnormuramoyl-L-alpha-aminobutanoyl-D-isoglutamine, lipophilic disaccharide analogues of MDP.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, M; Jezek, J; Saman, D; Vaisar, T; Hríbalová, V

    1994-01-03

    Silver triflate-promoted condensation of 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2- phthalimido-beta-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (1) with benzyl 2-acetamido-6-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-3-O- (methoxycarbonyl)methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (4) afforded the key compound, benzyl 2-acetamido-6-O-benzyl-2-deoxy-3-O- (methoxy-carbonyl)methyl-4-O-(3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-b eta-D- glucopyranosyl)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (5), which after deprotection was transformed into acid 10. Condensation of 10 with the benzyl ester of L-alpha-aminobutanoyl-D-isoglutamine and deisopropylidenation of the product 11 afforded the benzyl ester of N-(2-O-[benzyl 2-acetamido-4-O-(2-acetamido-3-O-benzyloxymethyl-2- deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-benzyl-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucopyra nosid-3- yl]glycoloyl)-L-alpha-aminobutanoyl-D-isoglutamine (12). Partial O-acylation of 12 and hydrogenolysis of protecting groups gave the 6-O-stearoyl- and 6-O-(2-tetradecylhexadecanoyl)-disaccharide-dipeptides 17 and 18, respectively. Pyrogenicity and adjuvant activity in cell-mediated immunity are reported.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring for triazoles: A needs assessment review and recommendations from a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Laverdiere, Michel; Bow, Eric J; Rotstein, Coleman; Autmizguine, Julie; Broady, Raewyn; Garber, Gary; Haider, Shariq; Hussaini, Trana; Husain, Shahid; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Seki, Jack T; Théorêt, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with concomitant underlying immunosuppressive diseases. The recent addition of new triazoles to the antifungal armamentarium has allowed for extended-spectrum activity and flexibility of administration. Over the years, clinical use has raised concerns about the degree of drug exposure following standard approved drug dosing, questioning the need for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Accordingly, the present guidelines focus on TDM of triazole antifungal agents. A review of the rationale for triazole TDM, the targeted patient populations and available laboratory methods, as well as practical recommendations based on current evidence from an extended literature review are provided in the present document. PMID:25587296

  20. Towards metal-mediated g-quartet analogues: 1,2,4-triazole nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Withers, Jamie M; Telfer, Shane G; Filichev, Vyacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    We proposed that metal-coordinating nucleotides could be used to control the assembly of G-quadruplexes through the formation of an artificial metal-centered quartet. Several guanine-rich DNA sequences containing 1,2,4-triazole-functionalized nucleotides were investigated. These oligonucleotides were designed to form quartets mediated by metal-triazole bonding both on the surface of and within the G-quadruplex core. In contrast to duplex studies in which 1,2,4-triazole nucleosides serve as a mimic of Watson-Crick base-pairs, our results show that these nucleosides are not suitable components of an artificial metal-centered quartet.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structures and spectral characterization of chiral 4-R-1,2,4-triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural'skiy, Il'ya A.; Reshetnikov, Viktor A.; Omelchenko, Irina V.; Szebesczyk, Agnieszka; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2017-01-01

    1,2,4-triazoles attract attention as actively used medications and ligands for constructing coordination architectures. In this paper we describe four optically active 4-substituted 1,2,4-triazoles that have been prepared by Bayer's synthesis from the corresponding aliphatic chiral amines. This approach tends to be universal towards different triazoles and permits to conserve a homochirality of substrates. Novel asymmetric molecules have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques and their structures have been retrieved from the single crystal X-ray analysis. Chiro-optical studies of these heterocycles have been made by means of circular dichroism spectroscopy.

  2. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  3. Evolution of cross-resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus through selection pressure of environmental fungicides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; van den Heuvel, Joost; Debets, Alfons J M; Verweij, Paul E; Melchers, Willem J G; Zwaan, Bas J; Schoustra, Sijmen E

    2017-09-27

    Resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem for patients at risk of aspergillus diseases. There are currently two presumed routes for medical triazole-resistance selection: (i) through selection pressure of medical triazoles when treating patients and (ii) through selection pressure from non-medical sterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting (SI) triazole fungicides which are used in the environment. Previous studies have suggested that SI fungicides can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles. Therefore, to assess the potential of selection of resistance to medical triazoles in the environment, we assessed cross-resistance to three medical triazoles in lineages of A. fumigatus from previous work where we applied an experimental evolution approach with one of five different SI fungicides to select for resistance. In our evolved lines we found widespread cross-resistance indicating that resistance to medical triazoles rapidly arises through selection pressure of SI fungicides. All evolved lineages showed similar evolutionary dynamics to SI fungicides and medical triazoles, which suggests that the mutations inducing resistance to both SI fungicides and medical triazoles are likely to be the same. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that a variety of mutations were putatively involved in the resistance mechanism, some of which are in known target genes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Azides, Triazoles, and Tetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-03-08

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of azides is an extremely valuable method of generating nitrenes and studying their thermal rearrangements. The nitrenes can in many cases be isolated in low-temperature matrices and observed spectroscopically. NH and methyl, alkyl, aralkyl, vinyl, cyano, aryl and N-heteroaryl, acyl, carbamoyl, alkoxycarbonyl, imidoyl, boryl, silyl, phosphonyl, and sulfonyl nitrenes are included. FVP of triazoloazines generates diazomethylazines and azinylcarbenes, which often rearrange to the energetically more stable arylnitrenes. N2 elimination from monocyclic 1,2,3-triazoles can generate iminocarbenes, 1H-azirines, ketenimines, and cyclization products, and 1,2,4-triazoles are precursors of nitrile ylides. Benzotriazoles are preparatively useful precursors of cyanocyclopentadienes, carbazoles, and aza-analogues. FVP of 5-aryltetrazoles can result in double N2 elimination with formation of arylcarbenes or of heteroarylcarbenes, which again rearrange to arylnitrenes. Many 5-substituted and 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles are excellent precursors of nitrile imines (propargylic, allenic, or carbenic), which are isolable at low temperatures in some cases (e.g., aryl- and silylnitrile imines) or rearrange to carbodiimides. 1,5-Disubstituted tetrazoles are precursors of imidoylnitrenes, which also rearrange to carbodiimides or add intramolecularly to aryl substituents to yield indazoles and related compounds. Where relevant for the mechanistic understanding, pyrolysis under flow conditions or in solution or the solid state will be mentioned. Results of photolysis reactions and computational chemistry complementing the FVP results will also be mentioned in several places.

  5. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanida, Mamoru; Horii, Yuko; Fuyuki, Risa; Takumi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Koso; Kometani, Takashi; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-09-11

    Changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system are good indicators of alterations in physiological phenomena such as the body temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. Hesperidin, a flavanone known as vitamin P, has been shown to reduce the levels of serum lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. However, hesperidin is not water-soluble and is not well absorbed from the intestine. G-hesperidin (4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin) is more water-soluble and more rapidly absorbed than hesperidin. In order to clarify the functions of G-hesperidin, we examined the effects of oral administration of G-hesperidin on interscapular brown adipose tissue-sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) and cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) in rats weighing about 300 g. In this study, we found that oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin increased the BAT-SNA but decreased the CASNA in urethane-anesthetized rats. Since an elevation in BAT-SNA increases heat production (i.e. body temperature (BT)) and a decrease in CASNA increases cutaneous perfusion, we examined whether oral administration of G-hesperidin had an effect on the peripheral BT in rats. Consequently, we observed that the subcutaneous BT at the caudal end of the back after oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin was significantly higher than the subcutaneous BT after oral administration of water in conscious rats. These findings suggest that G-hesperidin enhances the BAT-SNA and suppresses the CASNA resulting in an increase in the peripheral BT, probably by an increase in the thermogenesis in the BAT and an elevation in the cutaneous blood flow.

  6. Iterative Saturation Mutagenesis of −6 Subsite Residues in Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans To Improve Maltodextrin Specificity for 2-O-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-Ascorbic Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruizhi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    2-O-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), a stable l-ascorbic acid derivative, is usually synthesized by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase), which contains nine substrate-binding subsites (from +2 to −7). In this study, iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) was performed on the −6 subsite residues (Y167, G179, G180, and N193) in the CGTase from Paenibacillus macerans to improve its specificity for maltodextrin, which is a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for AA-2G synthesis. Site saturation mutagenesis of four sites—Y167, G179, G180, and N193—was first performed and revealed that four mutants—Y167S, G179R, N193R, and G180R—produced AA-2G yields higher than those of other mutant and wild-type CGTases. ISM was then conducted with the best positive mutant as a template. Under optimal conditions, mutant Y167S/G179K/N193R/G180R produced the highest AA-2G titer of 2.12 g/liter, which was 84% higher than that (1.15 g/liter) produced by the wild-type CGTase. Kinetics analysis of AA-2G synthesis using mutant CGTases confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity and showed that compared to the wild-type CGTase, the mutants had no cyclization activity but high hydrolysis and disproportionation activities. A possible mechanism for the enhanced substrate specificity was also analyzed through structure modeling of the mutant and wild-type CGTases. These results indicated that the −6 subsite played crucial roles in the substrate binding and catalytic reactions of CGTase and that the obtained CGTase mutants, especially Y167S/G179K/N193R/G180R, are promising starting points for further development through protein engineering. PMID:24077706

  7. Therapeutic effect of umbelliferon-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2(I)→1(II))-α-D-glucopyranoside on adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Verma, Amita; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2015-06-01

    The aim and objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the antiarthritic and antioxidant effect of umbelliferon-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I→1II)-α-D-glucopyranoside (UFD) in chemically induced arthritic rats. The different doses of the UFD were tested against the turpentine oil (TO), formaldehyde induced acute arthritis and complete fruend's adjuvant (CFA) induced chronic arthritis in Wistar rats. Arthritic assessment and body weight was measured at regular interval till 28 days. On day 28, all the groups animals were anaesthetized, blood were collected from the puncturing the ratro orbital and estimated the hematological parameters. The animals were sacrificed; synovial tissue was extracted and estimated the malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The different doses of the UFD showed the protective effect against turpentine oil, formaldehyde induced acute arthritis and CFA induced chronic arthritis at dose dependent manner. Acute model of arthritis such as TOand formaldehyde induced inflammation due to releasing of the inflammatory mediators; significantly inhibited by the UFD at dose dependent manner. CFA induced arthritic rats treated with the different doses of the UFD showed the inhibitory effect on the delayed increase in joint diameter as seen in arthritic control group rats. UFD significantly improved the arthritic index, body weight and confirmed the antiarthritic effect. UFD showed the effect on the hematological parameter such as improved the level of the RBC, Hb and decline the level of the EBC, ESR and confirmed the immune suppressive effect. UFD significantly improved the level of the endogenous antioxidant and confirmed the antioxidant effect. This present investigation suggests that the UFD has prominent antiarthritic impact which can be endorsed to its antiarthritic and antioxidant effects.

  8. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol] from Agave angustifolia on ear edema in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Valle, Elizabeth; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Salgado, Gabriela Rosas; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Ocampo, Martha Lucia Arenas; Aparicio, Antonio Jiménez; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-09-29

    In Mexico Agave angustifolia has traditionally been used to treat inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract of A. angustifolia, the isolation and identification of active compounds. From the acetone extract two active fractions were obtained, (AsF13 and AaF16). For the characterization of pharmacological activity, the acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema induced with TPA was used. The tissue exposed to TPA and treatments were subjected to two analysis, cytokine quantification (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) and histopathological evaluation. The active fraction (AaF16) consisted principally of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-β-D-glucopyranpsyl] sitosterol. In AaF13 fraction was identified β-sitosteryl glucoside (2) and stigmasterol (3). The three treatments tested showed a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory effect (AaAc Emax = 33.10%, EC50 = 0.126 mg/ear; AaF13 Emax = 54.22%, EC50 = 0.0524 mg/ear; AaF16 Emax = 61.01%, EC50 = 0.050 mg/ear). The application of TPA caused a significant increase on level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα compared with basal condition, which was countered by any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, the experimental treatments induced a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, compared to the level observed when stimulated with TPA. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of Agave angustifolia, is associated with the presence of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] sitosterol.

  10. Iterative saturation mutagenesis of -6 subsite residues in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to improve maltodextrin specificity for 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-12-01

    2-O-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), a stable l-ascorbic acid derivative, is usually synthesized by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase), which contains nine substrate-binding subsites (from +2 to -7). In this study, iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) was performed on the -6 subsite residues (Y167, G179, G180, and N193) in the CGTase from Paenibacillus macerans to improve its specificity for maltodextrin, which is a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for AA-2G synthesis. Site saturation mutagenesis of four sites-Y167, G179, G180, and N193-was first performed and revealed that four mutants-Y167S, G179R, N193R, and G180R-produced AA-2G yields higher than those of other mutant and wild-type CGTases. ISM was then conducted with the best positive mutant as a template. Under optimal conditions, mutant Y167S/G179K/N193R/G180R produced the highest AA-2G titer of 2.12 g/liter, which was 84% higher than that (1.15 g/liter) produced by the wild-type CGTase. Kinetics analysis of AA-2G synthesis using mutant CGTases confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity and showed that compared to the wild-type CGTase, the mutants had no cyclization activity but high hydrolysis and disproportionation activities. A possible mechanism for the enhanced substrate specificity was also analyzed through structure modeling of the mutant and wild-type CGTases. These results indicated that the -6 subsite played crucial roles in the substrate binding and catalytic reactions of CGTase and that the obtained CGTase mutants, especially Y167S/G179K/N193R/G180R, are promising starting points for further development through protein engineering.

  11. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  12. Comparative effects of different triazole compounds on growth, photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate metabolism of Solenostemon rotundifolius.

    PubMed

    Kishorekumar, A; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Sankar, B; Sridharan, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-11-15

    The effects of two triazole compounds, triadimefon and hexaconazole, on the growth and carbohydrate metabolism were studied in Solenostemon rotundifolius Poir., Morton plants under pot culture. Plants were treated with triadimefon at 15mg l(-1) and hexaconazole at 10mg l(-1) separately by soil drenching on 80, 110 and 140 days after planting (DAP). The plants were harvested randomly and growth parameters were studied on 90, 120 and 150 DAP for determining the effect of both the triazole on growth and chlorophyll pigments. These triazole compounds increased the chlorophyll pigments. However, both the treatments decreased the fresh and dry weights of shoot and leaf area. Both these triazole resulted in a marginal increase in starch content and decreased the sugar contents. The carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes alpha- and beta-amylase activities were reduced and invertase activity increased in S. rotundifolius under triadimefon and hexaconazole treatments.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  14. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  15. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN LIVER AND TESTIS OF RATS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  16. USING PHARMACOKINETIC DATA TO INTERPRET METABOLOMIC CHANGES IN CD-1 MICE TREATED WITH TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triazoles are a class of fungicides widely used in both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. These compounds elicit a variety of toxic effects including disruption of normal metabolic processes such as steroidogenesis. Metabolomics is used to measure dynamic changes in e...

  17. Toxicogenomic Effects Common to Triazole Antifungals and Conserved Between Rats and Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple time-points and various study d...

  18. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  19. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives and in vitro antifungal evaluation on Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G; Cavalcante, Nery N M; Srivastava, Rajendra M; Mendonça Junior, Francisco J B; Wanderley, Almir G; Neves, Rejane P; dos Anjos, Janaína V

    2012-05-16

    1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)propan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or click chemistry). Next the in vitro antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different Candida species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-(1,2,3)triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  20. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  1. Rhodium-Catalyzed Transannulation of 1,2,3-Triazoles with Nitriles

    PubMed Central

    Horneff, Tony; Chuprakov, Stepan; Chernyak, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Stable and readily available 1-sulfonyl triazoles are converted to the corresponding imidazoles in good to excellent yields via a rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction with nitriles. Rhodium iminocarbenoids are proposed intermediates. PMID:18855475

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrophosphate mimics of thiamine pyrophosphate based on a triazole scaffold.

    PubMed

    Erixon, Karl M; Dabalos, Chester L; Leeper, Finian J

    2008-10-07

    Novel triazole-based pyrophosphate analogues of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) have been synthesised and tested for inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from Zymomonas mobilis. The thiazolium ring of thiamine was replaced by a triazole in an efficient two-step procedure. Pyrophosphorylation then gave extremely potent triazole inhibitors with K(I) values down to 20 pM, compared to a K(D) value of 0.35 microM for TPP. This triazole scaffold was used for further investigation and six analogues containing mimics of the pyrophosphate group were synthesised and tested for inhibition of PDC. Several effective analogues were found with K(I) values down to around 1 nM.

  3. USING PHARMACOKINETIC DATA TO INTERPRET METABOLOMIC CHANGES IN CD-1 MICE TREATED WITH TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triazoles are a class of fungicides widely used in both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. These compounds elicit a variety of toxic effects including disruption of normal metabolic processes such as steroidogenesis. Metabolomics is used to measure dynamic changes in e...

  4. Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

  5. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  6. ENANTIOSELECTIVE FORMATION OF THE TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDE TRIADIMENOL FROM TRIADIMEFON IN MAMMAL AND FISH HEPATIC MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triazole containing compounds are used extensively in both agriculture and medicine for the control of fungal infections. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the potential adverse effects of these compounds within mammalian systems. Triadimefon is a common agricultural fungici...

  7. Toxicogenomic Effects Common to Triazole Antifungals and Conserved Between Rats and Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple time-points and various study d...

  8. ENANTIOSELECTIVE FORMATION OF THE TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDE TRIADIMENOL FROM TRIADIMEFON IN MAMMAL AND FISH HEPATIC MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triazole containing compounds are used extensively in both agriculture and medicine for the control of fungal infections. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the potential adverse effects of these compounds within mammalian systems. Triadimefon is a common agricultural fungici...

  9. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN LIVER AND TESTIS OF RATS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  10. Solubility Report of 1-Methyl-3,5-Dinitro-1H-1,2,4-Triazole (MDNT) and 2-Methyl-4,5-Dinitro-2H-1,2,3-Triazole 1-Oxide (MDNTO) for Co-Crystallization Screen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    2-METHYL-4,5-DINITRO-2H-1,2,3-TRIAZOLE 1-OXIDE (MDNTO) FOR CO- CRYSTALLIZATION SCREEN Kelley C. Caflin Peggy Sanchez...AND 2-METHYL-4,5-DINITRO-2H-1,2,3- TRIAZOLE 1-OXIDE (MDNTO) FOR CO- CRYSTALLIZATION SCREEN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...triazole 1- oxide (MDNTO) in a range of organic solvents were studied in an Avantium Crystal16™ parallel crystallizer in preparation for co

  11. 4-[4-(Diethyl-amino)benzyl-ideneamino]-4H-1,2,4-triazole.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian Xin; Zhang, Ju Zhou; Chen, Qian Wang

    2008-05-03

    The title compound, C(13)H(17)N(5), is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(diethyl-amino)benzaldehyde. The triazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 5.77 (16)° with the benzene ring. The crystal structure is stabilized by an inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond.

  12. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Douglas B.; Bao Wenjun; Goetz, Amber K.; Blystone, Chad R.; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Strader, Lillian F.; Wood, Carmen R.; Best, Deborah S.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Rockett, John C.; Dix, David J. . E-mail: dix.david@epa.gov

    2006-09-15

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides.

  13. Bifunctional Furfuryl Cations Strategy: Three-Component Synthesis of Enamidyl Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hengtuo; Gou, Jing; Guo, Jiawei; Duan, Dongyu; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Yu, Binxun; Gao, Ziwei

    2016-01-04

    A new multicomponent synthesis of functionalized enamidyl triazoles starting from simple and readily available starting materials is described. A simple treatment of a dichloromethane solution of an azide, amine, and 5-bromo-2-furylcarbinol with a Lewis acid provides the enamidyl triazole in good to high yield. A triple domino sequence, formal [3+2] cycloaddition/ring-opening/amidation, is involved in this new skeleton-generating reaction.

  14. A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin as a cyanide selective allosteric host.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyeong-Im; Yoon, Hongsik; Jang, Woo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin (1) has been synthesized as a host compound for anion binding. Among the various anionic species examined, cyanide was the only one that affected a spectral change of 1. Moreover, 1 exhibited strong homotropic positive allosterism against cyanide binding due to an electronic effect as well as multiple hydrogen bonds formed between cyanide and the triazole groups.

  15. Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Francis Group, LLC. 14. ABSTRACT Conversion of (1H)-1,2,4-triazole to its sodium salt with methanolic sodium methoxide is followed by reaction ...From - To) 04-06-2007 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint...continuous extraction (chloroform/water) with a final short-path distillation under a controlled vacuum to obtain spectroscopically pure 1- methyl -1,2,4

  16. Triazole bridges as versatile linkers in electron donor-acceptor conjugates.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Wielopolski, Mateusz; Schuster, David I; Fazio, Michael A; Lee, Olivia P; Haley, Christopher K; Ortiz, Angy L; Echegoyen, Luis; Clark, Timothy; Guldi, Dirk M

    2011-08-24

    Aromatic triazoles have been frequently used as π-conjugated linkers in intramolecular electron transfer processes. To gain a deeper understanding of the electron-mediating function of triazoles, we have synthesized a family of new triazole-based electron donor-acceptor conjugates. We have connected zinc(II)porphyrins and fullerenes through a central triazole moiety--(ZnP-Tri-C(60))--each with a single change in their connection through the linker. An extensive photophysical and computational investigation reveals that the electron transfer dynamics--charge separation and charge recombination--in the different ZnP-Tri-C(60) conjugates reflect a significant influence of the connectivity at the triazole linker. Except for the m4m-ZnP-Tri-C(60)17, the conjugates exhibit through-bond photoinduced electron transfer with varying rate constants. Since the through-bond distance is nearly the same for all the synthesized ZnP-Tri-C(60) conjugates, the variation in charge separation and charge recombination dynamics is mainly associated with the electronic properties of the conjugates, including orbital energies, electron affinity, and the energies of the excited states. The changes of the electronic couplings are, in turn, a consequence of the different connectivity patterns at the triazole moieties.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and pharmacological studies of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ashanul; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Hassan, Syed Imran; Haque Faizi, Md. Serajul; Saha, Anannya; Dege, Necmi; Rather, Jahangir Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids namely 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-(4,4‧-dinitro-2-biphenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (2), 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (3), 1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (4) and 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (5) were designed and synthesized by copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. All the new hybrids were characterized by microanalyses, NMR (1H and 13C), UV-vis, IR, ESI-MS and electrochemical techniques. Crystal structure of the compound (3) was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The structural (single crystal) and spectroscopic (UV-Vis. and IR) properties of the compound 3 have been analyzed and compared by complementary quantum modeling. Hybrids 1-5 exhibited low toxicity and demonstrated neuroprotective effect.

  18. Triazole bridges as versatile linkers in electron donor-acceptor conjugates

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Wielopolski, Mateusz; Schuster, David I.; Fazio, Michael A; Lee, Olivia P.; Haley, Christopher K.; Ortiz, Angy L.; Echegoyen, Luis; Clark, Timothy; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic triazoles have been frequently used as π-conjugated linkers in intramolecular electron transfer processes. To gain a deeper understanding of the electron mediating function of triazoles, we have synthesized a family of new triazole-based electron donor-acceptor conjugates. We have connected porphyrins and fullerenes through a central triazole moiety – (ZnP-Tri-C60) – each with a single change in their connection through the linker. An extensive photophysical and computational investigation reveals that the electron transfer dynamics – charge separation and charge recombination – in the different ZnP-Tri-C60 conjugates reflect a significant influence of the connectivity at the triazole linker. Except for m4m-ZnP-Tri-C60 17, the conjugates exhibit through-bond electron transfer with varying rate constants. Since the through-bond distance is nearly equal in the ZnP-Tri-C60 conjugates, the variation in charge separation and charge recombination dynamics is mainly associated with the electronic properties of the conjugates, including orbital energies, electron affinity, and the energies of the excited states. The changes of the electronic couplings are, in turn, a consequence of the different connectivity patterns at the triazole moieties. PMID:21702513

  19. Bench-Stable 5-Stannyl Triazoles by a Copper(I)-Catalyzed Interrupted Click Reaction: Bridge to Trifluoromethyltriazoles and Trifluoromethylthiotriazoles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhou, Tong; Ma, Yudao; Tung, Chen-Ho; Xu, Zhenghu

    2017-04-21

    Metalated triazoles are the key reactive intermediate of the current click reaction (CuAAC). Bench-stable 5-stannyl triazoles are obtained by a copper-catalyzed interrupted click reaction of easily available terminal alkynes. Subsequent palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolation and trifluoromethylation, generate diverse 1,4,5-trisubstituted triazoles efficiently, which the traditional click reaction is unable to do.

  20. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  1. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  2. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  3. Synthesis of [18F]-labelled Maltose Derivatives as PET Tracers for Imaging Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Mohammad; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Hoehne, Aileen; Jouannot, Erwan; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents for visualization and therapy monitoring of bacterial infections. Procedures It is known that maltose and maltodextrins are energy sources for bacteria. Hence, 18F-labelled maltose derivatives could be a valuable tool for imaging bacterial infections. We have developed methods to synthesize 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (6-[18F]fluoromaltose) and 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (1-[18F]fluoromaltose) as bacterial infection PET imaging agents. 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was prepared from precursor 1,2,3-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,-di-O-acetyl-4′,6′-benzylidene-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-nosyl-D-glucopranoside (5). The synthesis involved the radio-fluorination of 5 followed by acidic and basic hydrolysis to give 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. In an analogous procedure, 1-[18F]fluoromaltose was synthesized from 2,3, 6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,4′,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-O-triflyl-D-glucopranoside (9). Stability of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human and mouse serum at 37 °C was determined. Escherichia coli uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was examined. Results A reliable synthesis of 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose has been accomplished with 4–6 and 5–8 % radiochemical yields, respectively (decay-corrected with 95 % radiochemical purity). 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was sufficiently stable over the time span needed for PET studies (~96 % intact compound after 1-h and ~65 % after 2-h incubation in serum). Bacterial uptake experiments indicated that E. coli transports 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. Competition assays showed that the uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was completely blocked by co-incubation with 1 mM of the natural substrate maltose. Conclusion We have successfully synthesized 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose via direct fluorination of appropriate protected maltose precursors. Bacterial uptake

  4. Synthesis of methyl 6-(ammonium 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and use of this compound for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Madiyalakan, R; An, S H; Jain, R K; Matta, K L

    1985-12-15

    Methyl 6-(ammonium 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was synthesized and identified by 1H-n.m.r. and 13C-n.m.r. data, acid hydrolysis, and elemental analysis. It was utilized for the determination of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase in an assay procedure that employed methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside as an acceptor. The assay product was identified and characterized by thin-layer chromatography with the title reference compound. The present technique does not require [32P]UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, but effectively uses commercially available UDP-[14C]GlcNAc.

  5. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole. [1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.

    1985-03-05

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Visualization of Active Glucocerebrosidase in Rodent Brain with High Spatial Resolution following In Situ Labeling with Fluorescent Activity Based Probes.

    PubMed

    Herrera Moro Chao, Daniela; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; Marques, Andre R A; Orre, Marie; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy; Foppen, Ewout; Renner, Maria C; Moeton, Martina; van Eijk, Marco; Boot, Rolf G; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly M; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Kalsbeek, Andries; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide due to deficient activity of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA). In cells, glucosylceramide is also degraded outside lysosomes by the enzyme glucosylceramidase 2 (GBA2) of which inherited deficiency is associated with ataxias. The interest in GBA and glucosylceramide metabolism in the brain has grown following the notion that mutations in the GBA gene impose a risk factor for motor disorders such as α-synucleinopathies. We earlier developed a β-glucopyranosyl-configured cyclophellitol-epoxide type activity based probe (ABP) allowing in vivo and in vitro visualization of active molecules of GBA with high spatial resolution. Labeling occurs through covalent linkage of the ABP to the catalytic nucleophile residue in the enzyme pocket. Here, we describe a method to visualize active GBA molecules in rat brain slices using in vivo labeling. Brain areas related to motor control, like the basal ganglia and motor related structures in the brainstem, show a high content of active GBA. We also developed a β-glucopyranosyl cyclophellitol-aziridine ABP allowing in situ labeling of GBA2. Labeled GBA2 in brain areas can be identified and quantified upon gel electrophoresis. The distribution of active GBA2 markedly differs from that of GBA, being highest in the cerebellar cortex. The histological findings with ABP labeling were confirmed by biochemical analysis of isolated brain areas. In conclusion, ABPs offer sensitive tools to visualize active GBA and to study the distribution of GBA2 in the brain and thus may find application to establish the role of these enzymes in neurodegenerative disease conditions such as α-synucleinopathies and cerebellar ataxia.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Stereoselective Metabolism of the 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicide, Triadimefon, in Vertebrate Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Questions Agricultural and pharmaceutical 1,2,4-triazole fungicides are potent cytochrome P450 modulators that can disrupt mammalian steroid biosynthesis. Triadimefon [(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] is unique with respect to tumorige...

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Stereoselective Metabolism of the 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicide, Triadimefon, in Vertebrate Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Questions Agricultural and pharmaceutical 1,2,4-triazole fungicides are potent cytochrome P450 modulators that can disrupt mammalian steroid biosynthesis. Triadimefon [(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] is unique with respect to tumorige...

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of triazol-4-ylphenyl-bearing histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Chen, Yufeng; Chen, Yihua; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Zhang, Jin-San; Savoy, Doris N; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2010-02-11

    Our triazole-based histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), octanedioic acid hydroxyamide[3-(1-phenyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl)phenyl]amide (4a), suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro with the lowest IC(50) value of 20 nM against MiaPaca-2 cell. In this study, we continued our efforts to develop triazol-4-ylphenyl bearing hydroxamate analogues by embellishing the terminal phenyl ring of 4a with different substituents. The isoform inhibitory profile of these hydroxamate analogues was similar to those of 4a. All of these triazol-4-ylphenyl bearing hydroxamates are pan-HDACIs like SAHA. Moreover, compounds 4h and 11a were found to be very effective inhibitors of cancer cell growth in the HupT3 (IC(50) = 50 nM) and MiaPaca-2 (IC(50) = 40 nM) cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 4a was found to reactivate the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins and to suppress pancreatic cancer cell growth in vivo. Taken together, these data further support the value of the triazol-4-ylphenyl bearing hydroxamates in identifying potential pancreatic cancer therapies.

  10. Three 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing substituted benzyl and benzylamino groups.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Veysel T; Kazak, Canan; Ağar, Erbil; Kahveci, Bahittin; Guven, Kutalmis

    2005-02-01

    The title compounds, 4-benzylamino-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C17H18N4O, (I), 3-(4-methylbenzyl)-4-(4-methylbenzylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C18H20N4O, (II), and 3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-(4-methylbenzylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C17H17ClN4O, (III), were obtained from the corresponding Schiff base in the presence of diglyme and NaBH(4). Each compound contains a 1,2,4-triazole ring and two benzene rings, which are essentially planar. The molecules are linked by a combination of intermolecular N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds. Additionally, there is a weak pi-pi stacking interaction in (I), involving the benzene ring of the aminobenzyl group and the partially aromatic 1,2,4-triazole moiety, with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.7397 (10) A.

  11. Antileishmanial activity study and theoretical calculations for 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süleymanoğlu, Nevin; Ünver, Yasemin; Ustabaş, Reşat; Direkel, Şahin; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2017-09-01

    4-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives; 4-amino-1-((5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)methyl)-3-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-one (1) and 4-amino-1-((4-amino-5 mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)methyl)-3-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-one (2) were studied theoretically by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set, structural and some spectroscopic parameters were determined. Significant differences between the experimental and calculated values of vibrational frequencies and chemical shifts were explained by the presence of intermolecular (Ssbnd H⋯O and Ssbnd H⋯N type) hydrogen bonds in structures. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) maps obtained at B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) support the existence of hydrogen bonds. Compounds were tested against to Leishmania infantum promastigots by microdilution broth assay with Alamar Blue Dye. Antileishmanial activity of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivative (2) is remarkable.

  12. Impact of Pendant 1, 2, 3-Triazole on the Synthesis and Properties of Thiophene-Based Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarjuna, G.; Yurt, Serkan; Jadhav, Kedar G.; Venkataraman, D.

    2010-10-12

    π-Conjugated moieties are often attached to conjugated polymers to systematically alter their electronic properties. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of a thiophene polymer bearing a triazole moiety in the third position. Through NMR-based quenching studies, we show that the placement of the triazole moiety alters reaction pathway of the Ni(0)-mediated Grignard metathesis polymerization possibly through chelation. When compared with a triazole on the main chain, the pendant triazole moiety acts as an electron donor and lowers the band gap of the polymer. The triazole moiety also does not hinder the packing of the conjugated backbone. We also show that the fluorescence of this polymer is quenched with PCBM, indicating its potential as a candidate for organic photovoltaic devices.

  13. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  14. Uranyl triazolate formation via an in situ Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Knope, Karah E.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2010-08-27

    A two dimensional UO22+ coordination polymer, (UO2)3(C10H5N3O4)2(OH)2(H2O)2, has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The triazolate ligand, 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid (CPTAZ) has been generated via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 4-azidobenzoic acid and propiolic acid. Reactions of the UO22+ cation with both the in situ generated triazolate ligand and the presynthesized ligand have been explored. The structure, fluorescent and thermal behaviour of this material are presented, as is a discussion of the utility of in situ ligand formation versus direct assembly.

  15. Activity of two different triazoles in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, S; Tabares, A M; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    A new orally absorbable triazole (Schering 39304) with a long serum half-life in man (60 hours), was tried in a murine model of progressive paracoccidioidomycosis and compared with itraconazole, another triazole which has proven effective in this mycosis. Only 15% of the infected, untreated mice survived while 53 to 75% of the animals receiving itraconazole survived. Mice treated with Schering 39304 exhibited higher (86-100%) survival rates. Statistically, the 5 mg/kg Sch 39304 was superior to the 50 mg/kg itraconazole dose. Lung cultures showed that 20 mg/kg/day of Sch achieved sterilization of the infectious foci. These results indicate that the new triazole will have a place in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis.

  16. Allenols versus Allenones: Rhodium-Catalyzed Regiodivergent and Tunable Allene Reactivity with Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Cembellín, Sara; Martínez Del Campo, Teresa; Palop, Guillermo

    2017-10-04

    2-Pyrrolines and 6-oxo-hexa-2,4-dienals have been prepared through the divergent reactions of 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles with functionalized allenes. The rhodium-catalyzed reactions between allenols and 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles yielded 2-pyrrolines. This transformation is compatible with the presence of aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic, amide, and halogen functional groups. Interestingly, a reactivity switch took place when the allene-tethered alcohol substrate was replaced by its ketone counterpart. When the rhodium-catalyzed reaction of 1-benzenesulfonyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole was performed with allenones, acyclic 6-oxo-hexa-2,4-dienals were stereoselectively formed as (2Z,4E) isomers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Design, synthesis, and biological properties of triazole derived compounds and their transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Hanif, Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Triazole derived Schiff bases and their metal complexes (cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II)) have been prepared and characterized using IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, and CHN analysis data. The structure of L(2), N-[(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)methylidene]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine, has also been determined by the X-ray diffraction method. All the metal(II) complexes showed octahedral geometry except the copper(II) complexes, which showed distorted octahedral geometry. The triazole ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity. All the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. It is revealed that all the synthesized complexes showed better activity than the ligands, due to coordination.

  18. The importance of triazole scaffold in the development of anticonvulsant agents.

    PubMed

    Ayati, Adile; Emami, Saeed; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-02-15

    Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders with high prevalence worldwide. Many epileptic patients are not completely treated with available drugs and need multiple therapies. Also, many antiepileptic drugs have shown unwanted side effects and drug interactions. Therefore there are continuing interests to find new anticonvulsant drugs. Triazole ring has been found in the structure of many compounds with diverse biological effects. Due to the success of several triazole-containing drugs that entered the pharmaceutical market as CNS-active drugs, this class of heterocyclic compounds has great importance for discovery and development of new anticonvulsant drugs. In this article, we have tried to summarize the latest efforts which have been made in the design and development of triazole-derived anticonvulsant agents.

  19. Synthesis of sansalvamide A peptidomimetics: triazole, oxazole, thiazole, and pseudoproline containing compounds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melinda R.; Singh, Erinprit K.; Wahyudi, Hendra; Alexander, Leslie D.; Kunicki, Joseph B.; Nazarova, Lidia A.; Fairweather, Kelly A.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; McAlpine, Shelli R.

    2011-01-01

    Peptidomimetic-based macrocycles typically have improved pharmacokinetic properties over those observed with peptide analogs. Described are the syntheses of 13 peptidomimetic derivatives that are based on active Sansalvamide A structures, where these analogs incorporate heterocycles (triazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, or pseudoprolines) along the macrocyclic backbone. The syntheses of these derivatives employ several approaches that can be applied to convert a macrocyclic peptide into its peptidomimetic counterpart. These approaches include peptide modifications to generate the alkyne and azide for click chemistry, a serine conversion into an oxazole, a Hantzsch reaction to generate the thiazole, and protected threonine to generate the pseudoproline derivatives. Furthermore, we show that two different peptidomimetic moieties, triazoles and thiazoles, can be incorporated into the macrocyclic backbone without reducing cytotoxicity: triazole and thiazole. PMID:22287031

  20. Discovery of novel diaryl urea derivatives bearing a triazole moiety as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Yan, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang; Wu, Shasha; Wu, Di; Gong, Ping

    2016-06-10

    Herein, we report a novel series of diaryl urea derivatives bearing a triazole moiety, from which potent antitumor agents have been identified. With a modified triazole, most compounds showed high level activity in both cellular and enzymatic assays, accompanied with a suitable ClogD7.4 value. The most active compound, 13i, effectively suppressed proliferation of HT-29, H460 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.90, 0.85 and 1.54 μM, respectively. Compound 13i also exhibited significant inhibition of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit, RET and FLT3. Furthermore, compound 13i could obviously induce apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The study of structure-activity relationships also revealed that a hydrophilic tail at the 4-position of the triazole was crucial for high activity of the compound.

  1. Pramiconazole, a triazole compound for the treatment of fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2008-09-01

    Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials.

  2. Hydrogelation abilities of nucleobase-modified cytidines possessing substituted triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, David W; Jones, Nathan D

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside-derived hydrogelators have been sought for their potential biomedical applications, such as are found in tissue engineering and drug delivery. By judiciously adding a degree of hydrophobicity certain analogues are able to form micelles, bi-layers and gels in water. Research in this area has yet to lay down solid ground rules for the rational design of novel nucleoside gelators making further studies necessary. The synthesis and examination of a series of aryl-substituted 5-triazolylcytidines yielded an analogue that gelates water. 5-(1-(2,2′-bithiophen-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2′-deoxycytidine was found to form gels in water down to 0.3 wt%. The ribocytidine analogue failed to form gel in aqueous solution; but was able to form a hydrogel in the presence of guanosine. Images obtained by SEM show the different architectures of the gel; varying from cribriform to fibrous to lamellar. The present gelating compound studied may have potential as a component of a controlled-release drug delivery system. PMID:21686244

  3. Toxicogenomic effects common to triazole antifungals and conserved between rats and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Amber K.; Dix, David J.

    2009-07-01

    The triazole antifungals myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon cause varying degrees of hepatic toxicity and disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in rodent in vivo models. To identify biological pathways consistently modulated across multiple timepoints and various study designs, gene expression profiling was conducted on rat livers from three separate studies with triazole treatment groups ranging from 6 h after a single oral gavage exposure, to prenatal to adult exposures via feed. To explore conservation of responses across species, gene expression from the rat liver studies were compared to in vitro data from rat and human primary hepatocytes exposed to the triazoles. Toxicogenomic data on triazoles from 33 different treatment groups and 135 samples (microarrays) identified thousands of probe sets and dozens of pathways differentially expressed across time, dose, and species - many of these were common to all three triazoles, or conserved between rodents and humans. Common and conserved pathways included androgen and estrogen metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism signaling through CAR and PXR, and CYP mediated metabolism. Differentially expressed genes included the Phase I xenobiotic, fatty acid, sterol and steroid metabolism genes Cyp2b2 and CYP2B6, Cyp3a1 and CYP3A4, and Cyp4a22 and CYP4A11; Phase II conjugation enzyme genes Ugt1a1 and UGT1A1; and Phase III ABC transporter genes Abcb1 and ABCB1. Gene expression changes caused by all three triazoles in liver and hepatocytes were concentrated in biological pathways regulating lipid, sterol and steroid homeostasis, identifying a potential common mode of action conserved between rodents and humans. Modulation of hepatic sterol and steroid metabolism is a plausible mode of action for changes in serum testosterone and adverse reproductive outcomes observed in rat studies, and may be relevant to human risk assessment.

  4. Ynamide Click chemistry in development of triazole VEGFR2 TK modulators.

    PubMed

    Vojtičková, Margaréta; Dobiaš, Juraj; Hanquet, Gilles; Addová, Gabriela; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Yildirim, Deniz Cansen; Boháč, Andrej

    2015-10-20

    Structure novelty, chemical stability and synthetic feasibility attracted us to design 1,2,3-triazole compounds as potential inhibitors of VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase. Novel triazoles T1-T7 were proposed by oxazole (AAZ from PDB: 1Y6A)/1,2,3-triazole isosteric replacement, molecular modelling and docking. In order to enable synthesis of T1-T7 we developed a methodology for preparation of ynamide 22. Compound 22 was used for all Click chemistry reactions leading to triazoles T1-T3 and T6-T7. Among the obtained products, T1, T3 and T7 specifically bind VEGFR2 TK and modulate its activity by concentration dependent manner. Moreover predicted binding poses of T1-T7 in VEGFR2 TK were similar to the one known for the oxazole inhibitor AAZ (PDB: 1Y6A). Unfortunately the VEGFR2 inhibition by triazoles e.g. T3 and T7 is lower than that determined for their oxazole bioisosters T3-ox and AAZ, resp. Different electronic properties of 1,2,3-triazole/oxazole heterocyclic rings were proposed to be the main reason for the diminished affinity of T1-T3, T6 and T7 to an oxazole AAZ inhibitor binding site in VEGFR2 TK (PDB: 1Y6A or 1Y6B). Moreover T1-T3 and T6 were screened on cytotoxic activity against two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Selective cytotoxic activity of T2 against aggressive Mahlavu cells has been discovered indicating possible affinity of T2 to Mahlavu constitutionally active PI3K/Akt pathway.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of cationic low molecular weight amphipathic 1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Bakka, Thomas A; Strøm, Morten B; Andersen, Jeanette H; Gautun, Odd R

    2017-03-01

    A library of 28 small cationic 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles was prepared for studies of antimicrobial activity. The structures addressed the pharmacophore model of small antimicrobial peptides and an amphipathic motif found in marine antimicrobials. Eight compounds showed promising antimicrobial activity, of which the most potent compound 10b displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4-8μg/mL against Streptococcus agalacticae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The simple syntheses and low degree of functionalization make these 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles interesting for further optimizations.

  6. Synthesis and biological activities of triazole derivatives as inhibitors of InhA and antituberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Christophe; Gau, Sylvain; Lherbet, Christian; Rodriguez, Frédéric; Inard, Cyril; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Baltas, Michel

    2011-11-01

    InhA, the enoyl reductase from the mycobacterial type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, is a target for the development of novel drugs against tuberculosis. We exploited copper-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition between alkynes and different azides to afford 1,4-disubstituted triazole or α-ketotriazole derivatives. Several compounds bearing a lipophilic chain mimicking the substrate were able to inhibit InhA. Among them, 1-dodecyl-4-phenethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole displayed a minimum inhibitory concentration inferior to 2 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  7. Triazole resistance is still not emerging in A fumigatus isolates causing invasive aspergillosis in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Negri, Clara E; Gonçalves, Sarah S; Sousa, Ana Cristina P; Bergamasco, Maria Daniela; Martino, Marinês D V; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Aquino, Valerio Rodrigues; Castro, Paulo de Tarso O; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2017-09-11

    Aspergillus fumigatus azole resistance has globally emerged as a health problem. We evaluated the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 221 clinical A. fumigatus isolates according to CLSI. Sixty-one isolates exhibiting MIC at the epidemiological cut-off value (ECV) for itraconazole or above ECV for any triazole were checked for CYP51A mutations. No mutations were documented, even for four isolates (1.8%) with high voriconazole MICs, indicating that triazoles may be safely used to treat aspergillosis in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    Okkel, Andreas; Schwach, Lukas; Wagner, Laura; Selig, Anja; Prokop, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Summary An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity. PMID:25161720

  9. 1,4-Bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzene dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Guang; Li, Jian-Hui; Ding, Bin; Du, Gui-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H8N6·2H2O, comprises half the organic species, the mol­ecule being completed by inversion symmetry, and one water mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the 1,2,4-triazole ring and the central benzene ring is 32.2 (2)°. The water mol­ecules form O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with N-atom acceptors of the triazole rings. C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are also observed, giving a three-dimensional framework. PMID:22904851

  10. Selective C(sp(2))-H Halogenation of "Click" 4-Aryl-1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Goitia, Asier; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Correa, Arkaitz

    2017-02-17

    Selective bromination reactions of "click compounds" are described. Electron-neutral and electron-deficient arenes selectively undergo unprecedented Pd-catalyzed C-H ortho-halogenations assisted by simple triazoles as modular directing groups, whereas electron-rich arenes are regioselectively halogenated following an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction pathway. These C-H halogenation procedures exhibit a wide group tolerance, complement existing bromination procedures, and represent versatile synthetic tools of utmost importance for the late-stage diversification of "click compounds". The characterization of a triazole-containing palladacycle and density functional theory studies supported the mechanism proposal.

  11. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Interrupted Click Reaction: Synthesis of Diverse 5-Hetero-Functionalized Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiguo; Peng, Xianglong; Wei, Fang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Xu, Zhenghu

    2016-01-11

    The 5-heterofunctionalized triazoles are important scaffolds in bioactive compounds, but current click reactions (CuAAC) cannot produce these core structures. A copper(I)-catalyzed interrupted click reaction to access diverse 5-functionalized triazoles is reported. Various 5-amino-, thio-, and selenotriazoles were readily assembled in one step in high yields. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions with complete regioselectivity. It also features a broad substrate scope and good functional group compatibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates.

    PubMed

    Haiges, R; Bélanger-Chabot, G; Kaplan, S M; Christe, K O

    2015-02-21

    Salts of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, a building block for energetic materials, have been prepared and fully characterized. Most of the studied salts exhibit high thermal stability and very low shock and friction sensitivities. 3,5-Dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates with the nitrogen-rich ammonium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, and aminotetrazolium cations are energetic and have potential for energetic material applications. Salts containing alkali, alkali earth metal, and silver cations exhibit coloured emissions upon combustion while salts with large organic cations such as PPh4(+) and (Ph3P)2N(+) are highly insensitive and can be easily crystallized.

  14. Synthesis of novel triazole-linked mefloquine derivatives: biological evaluation against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Anton R; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Blackie, Margaret A L

    2014-12-01

    Using 2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline, the pharmacophore of mefloquine, as scaffold, eleven novel triazole-linked compounds have been synthesised by the application of CuAAC chemistry. The in vitro biological activity of the compounds on the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive strain NF54 was then determined. The compounds all showed IC50s in the lower μM range with (1R,3S,5R)-N-{[1-(2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline-4-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methyl}adamantan-2-amine (29) exhibiting the best activity of 1.00 μM.

  15. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of copper in aqueous chloride solution by 1H-1,2,3-triazole and 1,2,4-triazole and their combinations: electrochemical, Raman and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Ofoegbu, Stanley Udochukwu; Galvão, Tiago L P; Gomes, José R B; Tedim, João; Nogueira, Helena I S; Ferreira, M G S; Zheludkevich, M L

    2017-02-22

    Triazoles are well-known organic corrosion inhibitors of copper. 1H-1,2,3-Triazole and 1,2,4-triazole, two very simple molecules with the only difference being the positions of the nitrogen atoms in the triazole ring, were studied in this work as corrosion inhibitors of copper in 50 mM NaCl solution using a set of electrochemical and analytical techniques. The results of electrochemical tests indicate that 1H-1,2,3-triazole exhibited superior inhibitor properties but could not suppress anodic copper dissolution at moderate anodic potentials (>+300 mV SCE), while 1,2,4-triazole, although it exhibited higher anodic currents, suppressed anodic copper dissolution at very anodic potentials. Density functional theory calculations were also performed to interpret the measured data and trends observed in the electrochemical studies. The computational studies considered either the inhibitors isolated in the gaseous phase or adsorbed onto Cu(111) surface models. From the calculations, the mechanisms of the inhibitive effects of both triazoles were established and plausible mechanisms of formation of the protective films on the Cu surface were proposed. The results of this study hold positive implications for research in the areas of catalysis, and copper content control in water purification systems.

  17. Is the emergence of fungal resistance to medical triazoles related to their use in the agroecosystems? A mini review.

    PubMed

    Ribas E Ribas, Aícha Daniela; Spolti, Pierri; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Donato, Katarzyna Zawada; Schrekker, Henri; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello

    Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  19. Interactions between Triazoles and Amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Barchiesi, Francesco; Schimizzi, Anna M.; Caselli, Francesca; Novelli, Andrea; Fallani, Stefania; Giannini, Daniele; Arzeni, Daniela; Di Cesare, Simona; Di Francesco, Luigi Falconi; Fortuna, Moira; Giacometti, Andrea; Carle, Flavia; Mazzei, Teresita; Scalise, Giorgio

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of amphotericin B (AmB) and azole antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infections is still a controversial issue. A checkerboard titration broth microdilution-based method that adhered to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards was applied to study the in vitro interactions of AmB with fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), and the new investigational triazole SCH 56592 (SCH) against 15 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Synergy, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of ≤0.50, was observed for 7% of the isolates in studies of the interactions of both FLC-AmB and ITC-AmB and for 33% of the isolates in studies of the SCH-AmB interactions; additivism (FICs, >0.50 to 1.0) was observed for 67, 73, and 53% of the isolates in studies of the FLC-AmB, ITC-AmB, and SCH-AmB interactions, respectively; indifference (FICs, >1.0 to ≤2.0) was observed for 26, 20, and 14% of the isolates in studies of the FLC-AmB, ITC-AmB, and SCH-AmB interactions, respectively. Antagonism (FIC >2.0) was not observed. When synergy was not achieved, there was still a decrease, although not as dramatic, in the MIC of one or both drugs when they were used in combination. To investigate the effects of FLC-AmB combination therapy in vivo, we established an experimental model of systemic cryptococcosis in BALB/c mice by intravenous injection of cells of C. neoformans 2337, a clinical isolate belonging to serotype D against which the combination of FLC and AmB yielded an additive interaction in vitro. Both survival and tissue burden studies showed that combination therapy was more effective than FLC alone and that combination therapy was at least as effective as AmB given as a single drug. On the other hand, when cells of C. neoformans 2337 were grown in FLC-containing medium, a pronounced increase in resistance to subsequent exposures to AmB was observed. In particular, killing experiments conducted

  20. Last generation triazoles for imported eumycetoma in eleven consecutive adults.

    PubMed

    Crabol, Yoann; Poiree, Sylvain; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Maunoury, Christophe; Barete, Stéphane; Zeller, Valérie; Arvieux, Cédric; Pineau, Samuel; Amazzough, Karima; Lecuit, Marc; Lanternier, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (1→3) ß-D-glucan (BG) and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT) results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3); Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3), and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1). Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement) was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings) in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression) in one, with a 73±39 [6-132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (<65 months since first symptoms), negative serum BG and PET/CT normalization. MRI, PET/CT and serum BG appear as promising tools to assess optimal time of antifungal treatment for eumycetoma.

  1. Last Generation Triazoles for Imported Eumycetoma in Eleven Consecutive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crabol, Yoann; Poiree, Sylvain; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Maunoury, Christophe; Barete, Stéphane; Zeller, Valérie; Arvieux, Cédric; Pineau, Samuel; Amazzough, Karima; Lecuit, Marc; Lanternier, Fanny; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal management of eumycetoma, a severely debilitating chronic progressive fungal infection of skin, disseminating to bone and viscera, remains challenging. Especially, optimal antifungal treatment and duration are ill defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 11 imported cases of eumycetoma treated by voriconazole or posaconazole for at least 6 months. Response to treatment was assessed through evolution of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (1→3) ß-D-glucan (BG) and positron emission tomography using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (PET/CT) results were also assessed. Identified species were Fusarium solani complex (n = 3); Madurella mycetomatis, (n = 3), and Exophiala jeanselmei, (n = 1). Moreover, two coelomycetes and one phaeohyphomycetes strains without species identification were retrieved. Serum BG and PET/CT were abnormal in 7/8 and 6/6 patients tested, respectively. Patients received last generation azoles for a mean duration of 25.9±18 months. Complete response (major clinical and MRI improvement) was observed in 5/11 patients, partial response (minor MRI improvement or stable MRI findings) in 5 and failure (MRI evidence of disease progression) in one, with a 73±39 [6–132] months mean follow-up. Relapse occurred in 2 patients after treatment discontinuation. Optimal outcome was associated with fungal species, initiation of last generation triazole therapy (<65 months since first symptoms), negative serum BG and PET/CT normalization. Conclusions/Significance MRI, PET/CT and serum BG appear as promising tools to assess optimal time of antifungal treatment for eumycetoma. PMID:25299610

  2. Click chemistry for rapid labeling and ligation of RNA.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Eduardo; Das, Subha R

    2011-01-03

    The copper(I)-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) is shown to be compatible with RNA (with free 2'-hydroxyl groups) in spite of the intrinsic lability of RNA. RNA degradation is minimized through stabilization of the Cu(I) in aqueous buffer with acetonitrile as cosolvent and no other ligand; this suggests the general possibility of "ligandless" click chemistry. With the viability of click chemistry validated on synthetic RNA bearing "click"-reactive alkynes, the scope of the reaction is extended to in-vitro-transcribed or, indeed, any RNA, as a click-reactive azide is incorporated enzymatically. Once clickable groups are installed on RNA, they can be rapidly click labeled or conjugated together in click ligations, which may be either templated or nontemplated. In click ligations the resultant unnatural triazole-linked RNA backbone is not detrimental to RNA function, thus suggesting a broad applicability of click chemistry in RNA biological studies.

  3. Design and synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(1,2,3)triazol-1-yl]uridines using click chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel nucleosides bearing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety at the 2'-position of the sugar moiety has been synthesized starting from 2'-azidouridine and using the copper (I)-catalyzed Huisgen-Sharpless-Meldal 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The reactions proceeded in overall yield of 52-82% and gave almost exclusively the 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. The 2'-azidouridine was synthesized from uridine in two steps, and reacted with a variety of differently substituted alkynes to give the desired 2'-triazole-substituted uridine derivatives.

  4. Benzyl-1,2,4-triazoles as CB 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands: Preparation and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Decara, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists. In order to expand the number of cannabinoid ligands with a central 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we have synthesized a novel series of 1-benzyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles, and some of them were evaluated by CB1R radioligand binding assays. Compound 12a showed the most interesting pharmacological properties, possessing a CB1R affinity in the nanomolar range.

  5. Benzyl-1,2,4-triazoles as CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands: Preparation and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Decara, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists. In order to expand the number of cannabinoid ligands with a central 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we have synthesized a novel series of 1-benzyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles, and some of them were evaluated by CB1R radioligand binding assays. Compound 12a showed the most interesting pharmacological properties, possessing a CB1R affinity in the nanomolar range. PMID:27127651

  6. Synergism between Poly-(1-6)-β-d-Glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-βd-Glucopyranose Glucan and Cefazolin in Prophylaxis of Staphylococcal Wound Infection in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Allen B.; Kernodle, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether the infection-preventing capability of the neutrophil-activating agent poly-(1-6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-d-glucopyranose glucan (PGG-glucan) can be enhanced with antibiotic prophylaxis, we administered PGG-glucan and cefazolin, alone and in combination, to guinea pigs inoculated with isolates of staphylococci. Guinea pigs receiving both PGG-glucan and cefazolin had 50% infective doses that were 8- to 20-fold higher than those obtained with cefazolin alone and 100- to 200-fold higher than those obtained with PGG-glucan alone. PGG-glucan and cefazolin are synergistic in their ability to prevent staphylococcal wound infection. PMID:9736583

  7. Invasive infection in an acute myeloblastic leukemia patient due to triazole-resistant Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Leão, Mariele Porto Carneiro; Macario, Michele Chianca; Filho, Gustavo Antônio da Trindade Meira Henriques; de Oliveira, Neiva Tinti; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species are being increasingly reported as causes of nosocomial fungal infections. For example, invasive candidiasis caused by C. tropicalis has been associated with hematologic malignancies. In this study, we report a fatal case of fungemia and a possible urinary and pulmonary infection in a leukemia patient that was due to a strain of C. tropicalis resistant to 2 triazole antifungals.

  8. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  9. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates Obtained in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Feng, Chun-Lai; Chen, Fei; He, Qian; Su, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background: During the past decades, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus has increased dramatically. The aims of this study were to investigate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of A. fumigatus to triazole and the underlying cyp51A mutations in triazole-resistant A. fumigatus. Methods: A total of 126 A. fumigatus clinical isolates from 126 patients with proven or probable IA were obtained from four large tertiary hospitals in Nanjing, China, between August 2012 and July 2015. The determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole was performed by broth microdilution according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing reference method. Results: A total of 4 A. fumigatus isolates (3.17%) were confirmed to be itraconazole resistant, with MICs of ≥8 mg/L, and one isolate (0.8%) was confirmed to be voriconazole resistant and posaconazole resistant, with MICs of 4 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. We found that two of the 4 isolates of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus had the L98H amino acid substitution in combination with a 34-base pair tandem repeat in the promoter region, one isolate had an M220I mutation, and another itraconazole-resistant isolate did not have a substitution in the cyp51A gene. Conclusions: This study shows that triazole-resistant A. fumigatus clinical isolates are present in Nanjing, China, which is a new challenge to the clinical management of IA. PMID:28303848

  10. Pharmacogenomics of triazole antifungal agents: implications for safety, tolerability and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Jarrett R; Gubbins, Paul O

    2017-10-12

    Introduction Triazole antifungal agents are prescribed to treat invasive fungal infections in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. These antifungal agents are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP). Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 can lead to large population-specific variations in drug efficacy and safety, optimal dosing, or contribute to drug interactions associated with this class. Areas covered This manuscript reviews the pharmacogenomics (i.e. the influence of genetics on drug disposition) of triazole antifungal agents related to their CYP-mediated metabolism and summarizes their implications on triazole efficacy, safety, and tolerability. A search of English language original research, and scholarly reviews describing the pharmacogenomics of triazole antifungal agents and their impact on drug efficacy, safety, and tolerability published from 1980 to present was undertaken using PubMed. Expert Opinion Currently studies demonstrating the pharmacogenomic influences on itraconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole are minimal and limited to their inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 in expressors of CYP3A5 variants. Conversely, there are significant pharmacogenomic considerations for voriconazole because it interacts with several polymorphic CYPs, most notably CYP2C19. Pharmacogenomics of CYP2C9 do not appear to effect fluconazole safety and efficacy. However, genetic polymorphisms may influence its drug interactions but this needs further study.

  11. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  12. AN IN SILICO INVESTIGATION OF THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE METABOLISM RATES OF TRIAZOLE FUGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to use in silico methods such as ab initio quantum and classical force-field methods to explore and develop an understanding for the enantioselective metabolism rates experimentally observed in the triazole fungicide bromuconazole. This directed stud...

  13. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1986-01-01

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated.

  14. Drug evaluation: BAL-8557--a novel broad-spectrum triazole antifungal.

    PubMed

    Odds, Frank C

    2006-08-01

    Basilea Pharmaceutica is developing BAL-8557, a water-soluble prodrug of the triazole BAL-4815, for the potential treatment of fungal infections. By August 2005, a phase II study in oral candidiasis was underway. In September 2005, phase III trials were planned for invasive Candida and mold infections, including aspergillus and zygomycetes.

  15. Isavuconazole: Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, and Current Clinical Experience with a New Triazole Antifungal Agent.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Jeffrey M; Marx, Kayleigh R; Nishimoto, Andrew T; Rogers, P David

    2015-11-01

    Coinciding with the continually increasing population of immunocompromised patients worldwide, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has grown over the past 4 decades. Unfortunately, infections caused by both yeasts such as Candida and molds such as Aspergillus or Mucorales remain associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. In addition, the available antifungals with proven efficacy in the treatment of these infections remain severely limited. Although previously available second-generation triazole antifungals have significantly expanded the spectrum of the triazole antifungal class, these agents are laden with shortcomings in their safety profiles as well as formulation and pharmacokinetic challenges. Isavuconazole, administered as the prodrug isavuconazonium, is the latest second-generation triazole antifungal to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Approved for the treatment of both invasive aspergillosis and invasive mucormycosis, and currently under investigation for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis, isavuconazole may have therapeutic advantages over its predecessors. With clinically relevant antifungal potency against a broad range of yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and molds, isavuconazole has a spectrum of activity reminiscent of the polyene amphotericin B. Moreover, clinical experience thus far has revealed isavuconazole to be associated with fewer toxicities than voriconazole, even when administered without therapeutic drug monitoring. These characteristics, in an agent available in both a highly bioavailable oral and a β-cyclodextrin-free intravenous formulation, will likely make isavuconazole a welcome addition to the triazole class of antifungals.

  16. Antimycotic azoles. 6. Synthesis and antifungal properties of terconazole, a novel triazole ketal.

    PubMed

    Heeres, J; Hendrickx, R; Van Cutsem, J

    1983-04-01

    The preparation and antifungal properties of cis-1-[4-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1, 3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]-4-(1-methylethyl)piperazine are reported. Terconazole has a high topical in vivo activity against vaginal candidosis in rats and against dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

  17. AN IN SILICO INVESTIGATION OF THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE METABOLISM RATES OF TRIAZOLE FUGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to use in silico methods such as ab initio quantum and classical force-field methods to explore and develop an understanding for the enantioselective metabolism rates experimentally observed in the triazole fungicide bromuconazole. This directed stud...

  18. Differential triazole sensitivity among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex infecting barley grains in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grains and is caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Barley growers in Brazil rely on fungicides, especially triazoles, to suppress the disease and limit mycotoxin contamination of grain. Information on...

  19. GIAO/DFT studies on 1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones and their propargyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Phalgune, Usha D; Vanka, Kumar; Rajamohanan, P R

    2013-12-01

    Density functional theory (DFT)/Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) calculations were performed on a number of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, and the optimized structural parameters were employed to ascertain the nature of their predominant tautomers. (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shifts of 3-substituted 1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones and their propargylated derivatives were calculated via GIAO/DFT approach at the B3LYP level of theory with geometry optimization using a 6-311++G** basis set. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shifts could be found for the systems investigated. The data generated were useful in predicting (15)N chemical shifts of all the nitrogen atoms of the triazole ring, some of which could not be obtained in solution state (15)N HMBC/HSQC NMR measurements. The energy profile computed for the dipropargylated derivatives was found to follow the product distribution profile of regioisomers formed during propargylation of 1,2,4-triazole thiones. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Synthesis and anticancer activity of bile acid dendrimers with triazole as bridging unit through click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Devaraj; Rajakumar, Perumal

    2017-09-01

    Triazole-based novel dendrimers with bile acid surface groups have been synthesized through click chemistry by divergent approach and characterized by spectral data. All the dendrimers exhibit excellent anticancer activity. Higher-generation dendrimers exhibit better anticancer activity than the lower-generation dendrimers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of 2-aminoimidazole triazoles accessed by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Samuel; Huigens, Robert W; Su, Zhaoming; Simon, Michel L; Melander, Christian

    2011-04-21

    A pilot library of 2-aminoimidazole triazoles (2-AITs) was synthesized and assayed against Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). Results from these studies show that these new derivatives have improved biofilm dispersal activities as well as antibacterial properties against A. baumannii. With MRSA biofilms they are found to possess biofilm inhibition capabilities at low micromolar concentrations.

  2. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of in vivo antioxidant, in vitro antibacterial, MRSA and antifungal activity of novel substituted isatin N-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Dinh; Giang, Nguyen Thi Kim; Quyen, Tran Ha; Huong, Doan Thi; Toan, Vu Ngoc

    2016-11-10

    Some new isatin N-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazones 4a-t with different substituents at 1-, 5- and 7-positions of isatin ring have been synthesized by reaction of N-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazide 2 with corresponding isatins 3a-t. Compounds 4a-t were evaluated in vivo for antioxidant activity and in vitro for anti-microorganism activities. The MIC values were found for Gram positive bacteria (MIC = 1.56-6.25 μM), for Gram negative bacteria (MIC = 12.5 μM), and for fungi Aspergillus niger (MIC = 3.12-12.5 μM), Fusarium oxysporum (MIC = 6.25-12.5 μM) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC = 6.25-12.5 μM). Regarding the antioxidant activity, the SOD, GHS-Px and catalase activities of 4c-i and 4m-r were MIC = 10.57-10.85, 0.27-0.93 and 345.45-399.75 unit/mg protein, respectively. Compounds 4e-h had MIC values of 0.78, 1.56, and 3.12 μM for three clinical MRSA isolates. Compound 4e showed the selective cytotoxic effects against some cancer (LU-1, HepG2, MCF7, P338, SW480, KB) cell lines and normal fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3.

  4. Crystal structures of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var mycoides in complexes with substrate analogs and affinity-labeling reagents.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Takuji; Miyake, Hideo; Kusunoki, Masami; Nitta, Yasunori

    2003-04-01

    The crystal structures of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides in complexes with five inhibitors were solved. The inhibitors used were three substrate analogs, i.e. glucose, maltose (product), and a synthesized compound, O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose (GGX), and two affinity-labeling reagents with an epoxy alkyl group at the reducing end of glucose. For all inhibitors, one molecule was bound at the active site cleft and the non-reducing end glucose of the four inhibitors except GGX was located at subsite 1, accompanied by a large conformational change of the flexible loop (residues 93-97), which covered the bound inhibitor. In addition, another molecule of maltose or GGX was bound about 30 A away from the active site. A large movement of residues 330 and 331 around subsite 3 was also observed upon the binding of GGX at subsites 3 to 5. Two affinity-labeling reagents, alpha-EPG and alpha-EBG, were covalently bound to a catalytic residue (Glu-172). A substrate recognition mechanism for the beta-amylase was discussed based on the modes of binding of these inhibitors in the active site cleft.

  5. Synthesis of Triazole Schiff's Base Derivatives and Their Inhibitory Kinetics on Tyrosinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Jia, Yu-Long; Wang, Hui-Fang; Zheng, Jing; Cui, Yi; Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Min; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, new Schiff's base derivatives: (Z)-4-amino-5-(2-(3- fluorobenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (Y1), (Z)-3-((2-(4-amino-5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y2), (Z)-2-((2-(4-amino-5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y3) and 3-((Z)-(2-(4- (((E)-3-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y4) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by LC-MS, IR and 1H NMR. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on tyrosinase activites were evaluated. Compounds Y1, Y2 and Y3 showed potent inhibitory effects with respective IC50 value of 12.5, 7.0 and 1.5 μM on the diphenolase activities. Moreover, the inhibition mechanisms were determined to be reversible and mixed types. Interactions of the compounds with tyrosinase were further analyzed by fluorescence quenching, copper interaction, and molecular simulation assays. The results together with the anti-tyrosinase activities data indicated that substitution on the second position of benzene ring showed superior ant-ityrosinase activities than that on third position, and that hydroxyl substitutes were better than fluorine substitutes. In addition, two benzene rings connecting to the triazole ring would produce larger steric hindrance, and affect the bonding between tyrosinase and inhibitors to decrease the inhibitory effects. The anti-tyrosinase effects of these compounds were in contrast to their antioxidant activities. In summary, this research will contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents.

  6. Synthesis of Triazole Schiff’s Base Derivatives and Their Inhibitory Kinetics on Tyrosinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Fang; Zheng, Jing; Cui, Yi; Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Min; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, new Schiff’s base derivatives: (Z)-4-amino-5-(2-(3- fluorobenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (Y1), (Z)-3-((2-(4-amino-5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y2), (Z)-2-((2-(4-amino-5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y3) and 3-((Z)-(2-(4- (((E)-3-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (Y4) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by LC-MS, IR and 1H NMR. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on tyrosinase activites were evaluated. Compounds Y1, Y2 and Y3 showed potent inhibitory effects with respective IC50 value of 12.5, 7.0 and 1.5 μM on the diphenolase activities. Moreover, the inhibition mechanisms were determined to be reversible and mixed types. Interactions of the compounds with tyrosinase were further analyzed by fluorescence quenching, copper interaction, and molecular simulation assays. The results together with the anti-tyrosinase activities data indicated that substitution on the second position of benzene ring showed superior ant-ityrosinase activities than that on third position, and that hydroxyl substitutes were better than fluorine substitutes. In addition, two benzene rings connecting to the triazole ring would produce larger steric hindrance, and affect the bonding between tyrosinase and inhibitors to decrease the inhibitory effects. The anti-tyrosinase effects of these compounds were in contrast to their antioxidant activities. In summary, this research will contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. PMID:26422245

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN THE LIVER OF CD-1 MICE TO CHARACTERIZE THE HEPATOTOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and ...

  8. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN THE LIVER OF CD-1 MICE TO CHARACTERIZE THE HEPATOTOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and ...

  9. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  10. TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES AND PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS IN RAT LIVERS ACCURATELY CATEGORIZES CHEMICALS AND IDENTIFIES MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluori...

  11. A photolabile linker for the solid-phase synthesis of 4-substituted NH-1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    This communication presents the synthesis of a novel photolabile azidolinker based on the o-nitroveratryl group. The application of this linker for the synthesis and photolytic release of NH-1,2,3-triazoles is described.

  12. Computational study of some triazole derivatives (un- and protonated forms) and their copper complexes in corrosion inhibition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ibrahimi, Brahim; Soumoue, Aziza; Jmiai, Aziz; Bourzi, Hassan; Oukhrib, Rachid; El Mouaden, Khadija; El Issami, Souad; Bazzi, Lahcen

    2016-12-01

    Three triazoles compounds used as corrosion inhibitors for copper in acidic medium, namely: 1,2,4 triazole (TR), 3-amino 1,2,4 triazole (3 ATR) and 3,5-diamino 1,2,4 triazole (3,5 DATR) have been studied theoretically in aim to investigate the correlation between its molecular reactivity indicators and the corresponding inhibition efficiency. All quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method were performed with and without solvent effect. In the present paper, not only the neutral inhibitors has been studied, but also the first and the second protonation forms. A good correlation between theoretical and experimental data has been obtained both in gas and aqueous phases, notably for unprotonated inhibitors. Also, the interaction energy between inhibitors and copper has been calculated.

  13. Antiviral evaluation of N-amino-1,2,3-triazoles against Cantagalo virus replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Alessandro K; Afonso, Priscila P; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria C B V; Almeida, Maria C B; Beltrame, Cristiana O; Paiva, Daniel P; Wardell, Solange M S V; Wardell, James L; Tiekink, Edward R T; Damaso, Clarissa R; Cunha, Anna C

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the antiviral evaluation of new N-amino-1,2,3-triazole derivatives, 1-(substituted-phenylamino)-5-methyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl esters, 3 and 1-(4-substituted-phenylamino)-5-methyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazides, 4, on Cantagalo virus replication. 1-(4-Fluoro-phenylamino)-5-methyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide, 4e, exhibited a significant antiviral effect. Characterization of all compounds was confirmed by IR, (1)H and (13)C spectroscopies and elemental analysis. In addition, molecular structure of 4e was also reported.

  14. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN THE LIVER OF CD-1 MICE TO CHARACTERIZE THE HEPATOTOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and ...

  15. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN THE LIVER OF CD-1 MICE TO CHARACTERIZE THE HEPATOTOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and ...

  16. Tautomeric equilibrium and hydrogen shifts in tetrazole and triazoles: Focal-point analysis and ab initio limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabin, Roman M.

    2009-10-01

    High-level ab initio electronic structure calculations, including extrapolations to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, were performed, and highly precise relative energies of five-member N-heterocycles were determined. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles studied included tautomers of tetrazole (CH2N4) and triazoles (C2H3N3). Valence focal-point analysis of 1H-tetrazole, 2H-tetrazole, 5H-tetrazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, 2H-1,2,3-triazole, 1H-1,2,4-triazole, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole and a number of transition state (TS) calculations were performed, using energy values determined by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, MP3/aug-cc-pVQZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z. An accuracy of 0.10-0.25 kcal mol-1 (35-87 cm-1) was obtained for comparison of tautomer energy differences. Relative CCSD(T)/CBS energies of 2.07, 3.98, and 6.25 kcal mol-1 for 1H-tetrazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole, respectively, were calculated. Use of electron correlation methods resulted in markedly different convergence behaviors for triazole and tetrazole tautomers. Similarly, differences in convergence were observed for TSs with respect to corresponding minima structures. It was confirmed that the MP2 method predicts an acyclic structure for 5H-tetrazole. The same was not observed for the corresponding TS geometry. Comparison with density functional theory (B3LYP) and model chemistry methods (CBS-4M and CBS-QB3) is reported.

  17. POLY-1,2,4-TRIAZOLES AND POLY-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLES FROM PRECURSOR POLY-N-ACYLHYDRAZIDINES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    oxadiazole . Whereas, conversion of the precursor poly-N-acylhydrazidine predominantly to poly-1,2,4-triazole was affected by refluxing in solvents such... oxadiazole depending upon the heating rate. Poly-N-acylhydrazidine was of sufficient molecular weight to cast a clear yellow film which exhibited good...flexibility. The film, upon thermal treatment to temperatures as high as 300C, became brittle. The poly-1,3,4- oxadiazole and poly-1,2,4-triazole

  18. Copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of silver acetylides and azides: incorporation of volatile acetylenes into the triazole core.

    PubMed

    Proietti Silvestri, Ilaria; Andemarian, Fikre; Khairallah, George N; Yap, Su Wan; Quach, Tim; Tsegay, Sammi; Williams, Craig M; O'Hair, Richard A J; Donnelly, Paul S; Williams, Spencer J

    2011-09-07

    Silver acetylides and organic azides react under copper(I) catalysis to afford 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Mechanistic studies implicate a process involving transmetallation to copper acetylides prior to cycloaddition. This work demonstrates that silver acetylides serve as suitable precursors for entry into copper-mediated coupling reactions. This methodology allows the incorporation of volatile and difficult-to-handle acetylenes into the triazole core.

  19. Synthesis of triazole-linked oligonucleotides with high affinity to DNA complements and an analysis of their compatibility with biosystems.

    PubMed

    Varizhuk, Anna M; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Novikov, Roman A; Chizhov, Alexandr O; Smirnov, Igor P; Chuvilin, Andrey N; Tatarinova, Olga N; Fisunov, Gleb Y; Pozmogova, Galina E; Florentiev, Vladimir L

    2013-06-21

    New oligonucleotide analogues with triazole internucleotide linkages were synthesized, and their hybridization properties were studied. The analogues demonstrated DNA binding affinities similar to those of unmodified oligonucleotides. The modification was shown to protect the oligonucleotides from nuclease hydrolysis. The modified oligonucleotides were tested as PCR primers. Modifications remote from the 3'-terminus were tolerated by polymerases. Our results suggest that these new oligonucleotide analogues are among the most promising triazole DNA mimics characterized to date.

  20. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  1. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  2. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  4. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  5. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  6. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  7. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  8. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  9. Triazole resistance mediated by mutations of a conserved active site tyrosine in fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Sagatova, Alia A.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Wilson, Rajni K.; Sabherwal, Manya; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Monk, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of fungal strains showing resistance to triazole drugs can make treatment of fungal disease problematic. Triazole resistance can arise due to single mutations in the drug target lanosterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p/CYP51). We have determined how commonly occurring single site mutations in pathogenic fungi affect triazole binding using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erg11p (ScErg11p) as a target surrogate. The mutations Y140F/H were introduced into full-length hexahistidine-tagged ScErg11p. Phenotypes and high-resolution X-ray crystal structures were determined for the mutant enzymes complexed with short-tailed (fluconazole and voriconazole) or long-tailed (itraconazole and posaconazole) triazoles and wild type enzyme complexed with voriconazole. The mutations disrupted a water-mediated hydrogen bond network involved in binding of short-tailed triazoles, which contain a tertiary hydroxyl not present in long-tailed triazoles. This appears to be the mechanism by which resistance to these short chain azoles occurs. Understanding how these mutations affect drug affinity will aid the design of azoles that overcome resistance. PMID:27188873

  10. Tuning the microstructures of decavanadate-based supramolecular hybrids via regularly changing the spacers of bis(triazole) ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mo; Sun, Wenlong; Pang, Haijun; Ma, Huiyuan; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Zhuanfang; Niu, Ying; Yin, Mingming

    2016-03-01

    With tuning the ligands from bte, btp, btb to bth, four new decavanadate-based metal-organic hybrid compounds, [Zn(bte)(H2O)4][Zn2(bte)(H2O)10](V10O28)·8H2O, [Zn2(btp)4(H2O)6](H2V10O28)·4H2O, [Zn(H2O)6][Zn2(btb)2V10O28(H2O)6]·4H2O, and [Zn2(bth)(H2O)10](H2V10O28)·6H2O (bte=1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethane, btp=1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)propane, btb=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)butane, bth=1,6-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)hexane), have been synthesized under conventional conditions. The four compounds represent the first examples of decavanadate-based metal-organic hybrids constructed by Zn-bis(triazole) complexes. Their structural analyses show that the four compounds possess different Zn-bis(triazole) structural motifs and various finally structures, which verifies that regular changing the spacers of ligands is an effective strategy to tuning the structures of polyoxometalate-based hybrids. Also, the electrochemical studies show that the compounds have good electrocatalytic activities towards oxidation of nitrite molecules ascribed to V-centers.

  11. C-H bonds as ubiquitous functionality: preparation of multiple regioisomers of arylated 1,2,4-triazoles via C-H arylation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jung Min; Guo, Pengfei; Sames, Dalibor

    2013-01-18

    We describe a general approach for the synthesis of complex aryl 1,2,4-triazoles. The electronic character of the C-H bonds and the triazole ring allows for the regioselective C-H arylation of 1-alkyl- and 4-alkyltriazoles under catalytic conditions. We have also developed the SEM and THP switch as well as trans-N-alkylation, which enable sequential arylation of the triazole ring to prepare 3,5-diaryltriazoles. This new strategy provides rapid access to a variety of arylated 1,2,4-triazoles and well complements existing cyclization methods.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  4. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. New thiophene-1,2,4-triazole-5(3)-ones: highly bioactive thiosemicarbazides, structures of Schiff bases and triazole-thiols.

    PubMed

    Ünver, Yasemin; Sancak, Kemal; Çelik, Fatih; Birinci, Emrah; Küçük, Murat; Soylu, Serkan; Burnaz, Nesibe Arslan

    2014-09-12

    Key compound 2-(4-amino-5-oxo-3-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-tiazole-1-yl) acetohydrazide (3) was synthesized by reacting hydrazine hydrate with ethyl-2-(4-amino-5-oxo-3-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-tiazole-1yl)acetate (2), obtained in basic media from 4-amino-5-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-one (1). Compound 3 was converted to thiosemicarbazide derivatives (4a-d) and Schiff base derivatives 6a-e and 7a-e. The treatment of compound 4 with NaOH gave 4-amino-2-((4-(4-aryl)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)methyl)-5-(thiophene-2-ylmethyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-ones (5a-d). All newly compounds, well characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral studies were tested for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Thiosemicarbazide derivatives (4a-d) were highly active in two antioxidant tests with 69.0-88.2% DPPH· scavenging and 503-1257 μM TEAC values, while the others showed lower or no activity. The results of the two antioxidant tests correlated well. Moreover, Thiosemicarbazide derivatives (4a-d) also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Thiosemicarbazide group deserves attention in the synthesis of bioactive compounds.

  6. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  7. Selective labeling of living cells by a photo-triggered click reaction.

    PubMed

    Poloukhtine, Andrei A; Mbua, Ngalle Eric; Wolfert, Margreet A; Boons, Geert-Jan; Popik, Vladimir V

    2009-11-04

    Phototriggering of the metal-free azide to acetylene cycloaddition reaction was achieved by masking the triple bond of dibenzocyclooctynes as cyclopropenone. Such masked cyclooctynes do not react with azides in the dark. Irradiation of cyclopropenones results in the efficient (Phi(355) = 0.33) and clean regeneration of the corresponding dibenzocyclooctynes, which then undergo facile catalyst-free cycloadditions with azides to give corresponding triazoles under ambient conditions. In situ light activation of a cyclopropenone linked to biotin made it possible to label living cells expressing glycoproteins containing N-azidoacetyl-sialic acid. The cyclopropenone-based phototriggered click chemistry offers exciting opportunities to label living organisms in a temporally and spatially controlled manner and may facilitate the preparation of microarrays.

  8. Protein Labelling with Versatile Phosphorescent Metal Complexes for Live Cell Luminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Connell, Timothy U; James, Janine L; White, Anthony R; Donnelly, Paul S

    2015-09-28

    To take advantage of the luminescent properties of d(6) transition metal complexes to label proteins, versatile bifunctional ligands were prepared. Ligands that contain a 1,2,3-triazole heterocycle were synthesised using Cu(I) catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click" chemistry and were used to form phosphorescent Ir(III) and Ru(II) complexes. Their emission properties were readily tuned, by changing either the metal ion or the co-ligands. The complexes were tethered to the metalloprotein transferrin using several conjugation strategies. The Ir(III)/Ru(II)-protein conjugates could be visualised in cancer cells using live cell imaging for extended periods without significant photobleaching. These versatile phosphorescent protein-labelling agents could be widely applied to other proteins and biomolecules and are useful alternatives to conventional organic fluorophores for several applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Geranyl and Neryl Triazole Bisphosphonates as Inhibitors of Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Ferree, Sarah D.; Wills, Veronica S.; Born, Ella J.; Tong, Huaxiang; Holstein, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    When inhibitors of enzymes that utilize isoprenoid pyrophosphates are based on the natural substrates, a significant challenge can be to achieve selective inhibition of a specific enzyme. One element in the design process is the stereochemistry of the isoprenoid olefins. We recently reported preparation of a series of isoprenoid triazoles as potential inhibitors of geranylgeranyl transferase II but these compounds were obtained as a mixture of olefin isomers. We now have accomplished the stereoselective synthesis of these triazoles through the use of epoxy azides for the cycloaddition reaction followed by regeneration of the desired olefin. Both geranyl and neryl derivatives have been prepared as single olefin isomers through parallel reaction sequences. The products were assayed against multiple enzymes as well as in cell culture studies and surprisingly a Z-olefin isomer was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. PMID:24726306

  10. [Triazole antifungal agents: practice guidelines of therapeutic drug monitoring and perspectives in treatment optimization].

    PubMed

    Scodavolpe, Simon; Quaranta, Sylvie; Lacarelle, Bruno; Solas, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal triazole agents (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole) are widely used for the management of invasive fungal infections (IFI). These drugs are indicated both for the prophylaxis and treatment of IFI, particularly in candidiasis and aspergillosis, major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. Due to a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability leading to sub-therapeutic or toxic concentrations and to concentration-efficacy and/or -toxicity relationships, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal triazole is fully justified. This review provides an overview of literature based data that confirm the usefulness of such TDM and its level of evidence as well as the practical guidelines for its implementation. In addition, we discuss the interest of new tools to improve the clinical management of IFI, such as genotyping tests optimizing initial voriconazole dosing regimen or the development of a new solid oral tablet of posaconazole improving its bioavailability and limiting absorption disorders.

  11. Triazole fungicide degradation in peaches in the field and in model systems.

    PubMed

    Angioni, A; Aguilera Del Real, A; Russo, M; Melis, M; Cabitza, F; Cabras, P

    2003-04-01

    The degradation of five triazole fungicides (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole) in peaches was evaluated in field studies to establish whether at the preharvest interval the residue levels were below the legal limit established in Italy. All fungicides, except propiconazole, showed higher residues than the legal limits because of their high stability. In fact, some did not decrease at all (cyproconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole), while others decreased only in part. The increasing weight of the fruit during growth was the main factor leading to an apparent decrease in pesticide levels on a weight for weight basis. The trials on model systems showed that co-distillation and sunlight photodegradation were the main mechanisms leading to a decrease in triazole levels. Although these fungicides are systemic, they did not enter the fruit and all residues were only present in the peel.

  12. Dimeric and trimeric triazole based molecules as a new class of Hsp90 molecular chaperone inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Stefania; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Vassallo, Antonio; Riccio, Raffaele; Bruno, Ines; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    In the last decade Hsp90 inhibitors have emerged as attractive candidates for the development of new potent anticancer therapeutics. In order to identify novel agents able to block the chaperone activity, following a structure-based approach, we used in silico screening to direct the synthesis of potential inhibitors bearing the triazole scaffold, a widespread motif in drug-like molecules. Docking results, performed on a larger collection of dimeric and trimeric triazole derivatives, suggested the synthesis of some molecules showing different calculated binding energies and modes. Surface Plasmon Resonance Binding assay, performed on the synthesized compounds, allow to identify a series of molecules able to potently interact with the target enzyme and to disclose an interesting hit: compound 2b showed to interact with the ATP binding site in the N-terminus domain of Hsp90 and to efficiently inhibit the chaperone activity.

  13. Bis(nitroamino-1,2,4-triazolates): N-bridging strategy toward insensitive energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-11-17

    Modern energetic motifs for military and civilian applications are most often evaluated using various criteria, for example, energetic properties, production costs, and safety issues. Given this background, the design of energetic materials requires a deep understanding of both detonation performance and molecular stability. Here a new family of energetic bis(nitroamino-1,2,4-triazolates), which exhibit good thermal stabilities, excellent detonation properties, and low sensitivities, has been designed. Furthermore, two hydroxylammonium bis(azolates) with pyrazole and tetrazole backbones were synthesized, and they exhibit energetic properties analogous to the triazoles. This work highlights the application potential of N-bridged bis(azolates) as promising energetic materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Syntheses, structures and characterization of novel cobalt(II) mono- and bi-triazole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Quan; Ding, Bin; Gao, Hong-Ling; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Dai-Zheng; Yan, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Zhong-Hui

    2005-05-01

    Using the bi- and mono-triazole ligand, two novel cobalt(II) complexes [Co(L 1) 2(NCS) 2(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O ( 1) and [Co 3(L 2) 6(NCS) 4(H 2O) 2](NCS) 2·H 2O ( 2) (L 1=4-[3-(1,2,4-triazolyl)-1,2,4-triazole] and L 2=4-aminotriazole) have been synthesized. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 has the mononuclear fundamental structure unit while 2 form the linear trinuclear structure unit. 1 and 2 were furthermore assembled into two-dimensional (2D) network and three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular complex via the intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, respectively. The complexes 1 and 2 also have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV/vis spectra.

  15. Synthesis and luminescence properties of iridium(III) azide- and triazole-bisterpyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel C; Peterson, Joshua R; Cheng, Yuen Yap; Clady, Raphael G C; Schmidt, Timothy W; Thordarson, Pall

    2013-07-26

    We describe here the synthesis of azide-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines using the "chemistry on the complex" strategy. The resulting azide-complexes are then used in the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition "click chemistry" reaction to from the corresponding triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines. The photophysical characteristics, including lifetimes, of these compounds were also investigated. Interestingly, oxygen appears to have very little effect on the lifetime of these complexes in aqueous solutions. Unexpectedly, sodium ascorbate acid appears to quench the luminescence of triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines, but this effect can be reversed by the addition of copper(II) sulfate, which is known to oxidize ascorbate under aerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that iridium(III) bisterpyridines can be functionalized for use in "click chemistry" facilitating the use of these photophysically interesting complexes in the modification of polymers or surfaces, to highlight just two possible applications.

  16. New and investigational triazole agents for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    De Sarro, A; La Camera, E; Fera, M T

    2008-12-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by both common and uncommon opportunistic fungi is increasing along with emerging fungal resistance. Since traditional agents (amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole) are limited by an inadequate spectrum of activity, drug resistance or toxicity, there is a great interest in the development of new antifungal agents for treatment of IFIs in high-risk populations. In recent years a number of systemic antifungal drugs have become available and options for treatment of IFIs have expanded. A new generation of triazole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, ravuconazole and albaconazole), with a broad spectrum of activity and sufficient improvements in potency to overcome resistance have emerged and represent an alternative to conventional antifungals for the prevention and treatment of IFIs. This article focuses on the microbiology, pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of the new antifungal triazole generation.

  17. Chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques used in the analysis of triazole antifungal agents-a review.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, R J; Krzek, J; Talik, P

    2010-09-15

    Systematic review of literature coupled with integrative research of published data for triazole antifungal agents was done. The investigated literature covered chromatographic and electrophoretic methods developed in the last 10 years (2000-2009). The aim of this review was to compare different methodologies, assess preferences in the selection of analytical methods and to find still existing analytical problems. Last decade is characterized by dynamic development of instrumental methods, that results in advance and diversity of applied analytical procedures. The main focus was given to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the technique of choice in the analysis of most of pharmaceuticals. The review includes literature on 8 triazole antifungal drugs: fluconazole, itraconazole and terconazole from the first generation and posaconazole, voriconazole, ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole classified in second generation. Investigations of pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples were considered.

  18. Benzimidazole-1,2,3-triazole Hybrid Molecules: Synthesis and Evaluation for Antibacterial/Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ouahrouch, Abdelaaziz; Ighachane, Hana; Taourirte, Moha; Engels, Joachim W; Sedra, My Hassan; Lazrek, Hassan B

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of hybrid molecules 4a–i and 5a–i were prepared by condensation of 4-(trimethylsilylethynyl)benzaldehyde 1 with substituted o-phenylenediamines. These in turn were reacted with 2-(azidomethoxy)ethyl acetate in a Cu alkyne–azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) to generate the 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophore under microwave assistance. The newly synthesized compounds were examined for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. 2-((4-(4-(5-Trifluoromethyl benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methoxy)ethanol 5e showed a moderate inhibition of 30% in the Foa sporulation test. PMID:25088180

  19. Benzimidazole-1,2,3-triazole hybrid molecules: synthesis and evaluation for antibacterial/antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ouahrouch, Abdelaaziz; Ighachane, Hana; Taourirte, Moha; Engels, Joachim W; Sedra, My Hassan; Lazrek, Hassan B

    2014-10-01

    A novel series of hybrid molecules 4a-i and 5a-i were prepared by condensation of 4-(trimethylsilylethynyl)benzaldehyde 1 with substituted o-phenylenediamines. These in turn were reacted with 2-(azidomethoxy)ethyl acetate in a Cu alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) to generate the 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophore under microwave assistance. The newly synthesized compounds were examined for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. 2-((4-(4-(5-Trifluoromethyl benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methoxy)ethanol 5e showed a moderate inhibition of 30% in the Foa sporulation test.

  20. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one: A less sensitive explosive

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, M.D.

    1987-01-30

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro--1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm/sup 3/ and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation. 3 tabs.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of salinomycin triazole analogues as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjian; Deng, Zixin; Tian, Jian; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-02-15

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic used for treatment of coccidial disease in animal husbandry, has demonstrated promising efficacy for treating different cancers. To enrich structure-activity relationship of salinomycin in tumours, we prepared a series of new triazole derivatives in specific site of salinomycin by click cycloaddition reactions, and assessed their antiproliferative activities on breast cancer cell lines. The screening results indicated that most derivatives modified at the C20 hydroxyl group have potent antitumour activity. Notably, salinomycin triazole dimers were 3.27-4.97 times more toxic than the natural substance in ERα-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and had moderately improved toxicity in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).

  2. Computational Studies on Nitro Derivatives of 1-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hariji; Mukherjee, Uttama; Shankar Saini, Ravi

    2012-07-01

    Thermodynamic properties and energetics of the nitro derivatives of 1-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, viz. 1-hydroxy-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (A), 1-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (B), and 1-hydroxy-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (C), are considered for a detailed computational study during the present investigation using a density functional theory B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method as implemented in the Gaussian 03 suite of programs. Heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties for all of the compounds considered were determined. Studies revealed that these compounds possess the requisite properties for use as high-density energetic materials. Detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) of the title compounds were evaluated using the Kamlet-Jacobs method based on the crystal densities calculated at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311G(d,p) level incorporating the electrostatic interaction. Calculation showed that these compounds yielded a detonation pressure and detonation velocity in the range of 27-35 GPa and ∼8 km/s, respectively, at loading densities of 1.60-1.90 g/cm3. The calculated values are comparable to the values determined for powerful commercial explosives such as Research Department Explosive (RDX) (34.10 GPa, 8.75 km/s, 1.80 g/cm3), High Melting Explosive (HMX) (39.00 GPa, 9.11 km/s, 1.89 g/cm3), and Trinitrotoluene (TNT) (21.00 GPa, 6.93 km/s, 1.64 g/cm3).

  3. Free-radical cyclizations onto differently substituted 1,2,3-triazoles installed in sugar templates.

    PubMed

    Marco-Contelles, J; Rodríguez-Fernández, M

    2001-06-01

    The synthesis and manipulation of differently substituted 1,2,3-triazoles (7-11 and 12-16) installed in sugar templates gave compounds 29-34 and 44-50, after reaction with tributyltin hydride or tris(trimethylsilyl)silane. Following standard procedures compound 44 was transformed into piperidinose derivative 54. These compounds are chiral, useful building blocks for the synthesis of glycosidase inhibitors of the fused-azole piperidinose type.

  4. 1,2,4-Triazole Links and N-Azo Bridges Yield Energetic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Gao, Haixiang; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-08-03

    Triazole links and polynitropyrazole rings give rise to compounds with energetic properties. These materials were fully characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, the structures of compounds 5 and 8 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Detonation properties, calculated from heats of formation and experimental densities, thermal stabilities, and impact and friction sensitivities support the potential use of these materials for explosive applications.

  5. New triazoles and echinocandins: mode of action, in vitro activity and mechanisms of resistance.

    PubMed

    Fera, Maria Teresa; La Camera, Erminia; De Sarro, Angelina

    2009-10-01

    Different types of mycoses, especially invasive mycoses caused by yeasts and molds, are a growing problem in healthcare. The most notable explanation for this increase is a rise in the number of immunocompromised patients owing to advances in transplantation, the emergence of AIDS and a rise in the number of invasive surgical procedures. Despite advances in medical practice, some therapeutic problems remain. In addition, intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance may pose a serious problem to antifungal therapy. A new generation of triazole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, ravuconazole and albaconazole) and the recent class of the echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin) have become available, and represent an alternative to conventional antifungals for serious fungal infection management. Currently, only two of the recent triazole generation (voriconazole and posaconazole) and all three echinocandins are available for clinical use. More precisely, voriconazole and posaconazole are indicated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections and the echinocandins for the treatment of specific candidiasis. Voriconazole and posaconazole have a very broad spectrum of antifungal activity that includes Candida species, and filamentous and dimorphic fungi. Their activity extends to both fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant strains of Candida. A major difference between posaconazole and voriconazole is that posaconazole has activity against Zygomycetes including Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Cunninghamella spp., and voriconazole has no activity against this class of fungi. Ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole have shown very potent in vitro activity against species of Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus, and they are currently in various stages of development. All three echinocandin agents, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin, are similar in their spectrum of activity. Echinocandins do not possess in vitro activity

  6. Exploration of cathepsin S inhibitors characterized by a triazole P1-P2 amide replacement.

    PubMed

    Moss, Neil; Xiong, Zhaoming; Burke, Mike; Cogan, Derek; Gao, Donghong A; Haverty, Kathleen; Heim-Riether, Alexander; Hickey, Eugene R; Nagaraja, Raj; Netherton, Matthew; O'Shea, Kathy; Ramsden, Philip; Schwartz, Racheline; Shih, Daw-Tsun; Ward, Yancey; Young, Erick; Zhang, Qing

    2012-12-01

    This paper details exploration of a class of triazole-based cathepsin S inhibitors originally reported by Ellman and co-workers. SAR studies involving modifications across the whole inhibitor provide a perspective on the strengths and weaknesses of this class of inhibitors. In addition, we put the unique characteristics of this class of compounds into perspective with other classes of cathepsin S inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfur Groups Improve the Performance of Triazole- and Triazolium-Based Interaction Units in Anion Binding.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Mónica; Velado, Marina; García-Puentes, Diego; Sáez, Elena; Vicent, Cristina; Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; Viso, Alma; de la Torre, María C; Sierra, Miguel A

    2017-03-17

    An NMR comparative study of 1,2,3-triazole and triazolium anion recognition units containing sulfoxide, sulfone, and sulfoximine groups at C4 unveils an enhancement in binding ability up to ≈1 kcal/mol in acetone-d6 correlated with a theoretical increase of H5 acidity. DFT calculations provide insight into binding modes in line with experimental data for these receptors.

  8. Synthesis of some new 1,2,4-triazoles, their Mannich and Schiff bases and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbas, Ahmet; Karaoglu, Sengül Alpay; Demirbas, Neslihan

    2009-03-01

    4-Phenyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (3) was obtained in basic media via the formation of 2-isonicotinoyl-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (2), and converted to some alkylated derivatives (4a,b) and Mannich base derivatives (5a-c). 2-[(4-Phenyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio]acetohydrazide (7) that was obtained by using compound 3 as precursor in two steps was converted to thiosemicarbazide derivative (8), Schiff base derivatives (9) and 5-{[(4-phenyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio]methyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (10). Moreover, 5-{[(4-phenyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio]methyl}-3-{[(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)amino]methyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione (11) was synthesized via reaction of compound 10 with 2-(4-morpholino)ethylamine. The treatment of compound 8 with NaOH gave 4-(4-methylphenyl)-5-{[(4-phenyl-5-pyridine-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio]methyl}-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (12), while the acidic treatment of compound 8 afforded 5-{[(4-phenyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio]methyl}-2(4-methylphenyl)-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (14). N-Methyl derivative of compound 14 and a Mannich base derivative of compound 12 were synthesized from the reactions of these precursors with methyl iodide and methyl piperazine, respectively. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity study revealed that all the compounds screened showed good or moderate activity except compounds 3, 5c, 7, 9c, 9e, 9g, 9h, 11, and 13.

  9. Gene expression profiling in the liver of CD-1 mice to characterize the hepatotoxicity of triazole fungicides

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Amber K.; Bao, Wenjun; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Tully, Douglas B.; Wood, Carmen; Rockett, John C.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Sun, Guobin; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, S.-F.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Nesnow, Stephen; Dix, David J. . E-mail: dix.david@epa.gov

    2006-09-15

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and hypotheses on potential mechanisms of action for this class of chemicals. Adult male CD-1 mice were exposed daily for 14 days to fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon at three dose levels by oral gavage. Doses were based on previous studies that resulted in liver hypertrophy or hepatotoxicity. All four triazoles caused hepatocyte hypertrophy, and all except triadimefon increased relative liver/body weight ratios at the middle and high dose levels. CYP enzyme activities were also induced by all four triazoles at the middle and high doses as measured by the dealkylations of four alkoxyresorufins, although some differences in substrate specificity were observed. Consistent with this common histopathology and biochemistry, several CYP and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) genes were differentially expressed in response to all four (Cyp2d26 and Cyp3a11), or three of the four (Cyp2c40, Cyp2c55, Ces2, Slco1a4) triazoles. Differential expression of numerous other CYP and XME genes discriminated between the various triazoles, consistent with differences in CYP enzyme activities, and indicative of possible differences in mechanisms of hepatotoxicity or dose response. Multiple isoforms of Cyp1a, 2b, 2c, 3a, and other CYP and XME genes regulated by the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were differentially expressed following triazole exposure. Based on these results, we expanded on our original hypothesis that triazole hepatotoxicity was mediated by CYP induction, to include additional XME genes, many of which are modulated by CAR and PXR.

  10. Antiviral Breadth and Combination Potential of Peptide Triazole HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Karyn; Fletcher, Patricia; Rossi, Fiorella; Kantharaju; Umashankara, Muddagowda; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Srivats; Gopi, Hosahudya; Krebs, Fred C.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Shattock, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    The first stage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection involves the fusion of viral and host cellular membranes mediated by viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Inhibitors that specifically target gp120 are gaining increased attention as therapeutics or preventatives to prevent the spread of HIV-1. One promising new group of inhibitors is the peptide triazoles, which bind to gp120 and simultaneously block its interaction with both CD4 and the coreceptor. In this study, we assessed the most potent peptide triazole, HNG-156, for inhibitory breadth, cytotoxicity, and efficacy, both alone and in combination with other antiviral compounds, against HIV-1. HNG-156 inhibited a panel of 16 subtype B and C isolates of HIV-1 in a single-round infection assay. Inhibition of cell infection by replication-competent clinical isolates of HIV-1 was also observed with HNG-156. We found that HNG-156 had a greater than predicted effect when combined with several other entry inhibitors or the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. Overall, we find that HNG-156 is noncytotoxic, has a broad inhibition profile, and provides a positive combination with several inhibitors of the HIV-1 life cycle. These results support the pursuit of efficacy and toxicity analyses in more advanced cell and animal models to develop peptide triazole family inhibitors of HIV-1 into antagonists of HIV-1 infection. PMID:22083481

  11. Triazole Fungicides Inhibit Zebrafish Hatching by Blocking the Secretory Function of Hatching Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    De la Paz, Javiera F; Beiza, Natalia; Paredes-Zúñiga, Susana; Hoare, Misque S; Allende, Miguel L

    2017-04-04

    In animals, hatching represents the transition point from a developing embryo to a free-living individual, the larva. This process is finely regulated by many endogenous and environmental factors and has been shown to be sensitive to a variety of chemical agents. It is commonly evaluated in bioassays in order to establish the effects of different agents on early development and reproductive capabilities in fish and other aquatic animals. In fish, the breakdown of the chorion is achieved by the secretion of choriolysin by hatching gland cells (HGCs) into the perivitelline space (PVS), coupled with spontaneous movements of the developing larva. In this work, we used zebrafish to assay the effects of a family of widely used agrochemicals-triazoles Triadimefon (FON), Triadimenol (NOL) and free triazole (1,2,4-T)-on hatching success. We found a strong inhibition of hatching by triazole exposure which was correlated with morphological changes and a reduction in the secretory function of the HGCs. As a consequence, the release of choriolytic enzymes by HGCs was reduced. We also found that HGC secretion reduction after exposure to FON can be rescued by co-incubation with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist but not by antagonists of the D1-like receptors. This suggests a specific pathway through which this family of fungicides may be impairing a critical event in the fish life cycle.

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some new 1,2,3-triazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bektaş, Hakan; Karaali, Nesrin; Sahin, Deniz; Demirbaş, Ahmet; Karaoglu, Sengül Alpay; Demirbaş, Neslihan

    2010-04-08

    Some novel 4,5-disubstituted-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (3, 6, 8, 9) derivatives and or 3-(4-methylphenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3]benzoxazole (5) were synthesized from the reaction of various ester ethoxycarbonylhydrazones (1a-e) with several primary amines. The synthesis of 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (13) was performed starting from 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (2) by four steps; then 13 was converted to the corresponding Schiff base (14) by using 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Finally, two Mannich base derivatives of 14 were obtained by using morpholine or methyl piperazine as amine component. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities and some of which were found to possess good or moderate activities against the test microorganisms.

  13. Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Activity of some Triazole Derivatives–New Route to Functionalized Triazolopyridazines

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Kamaleddin Haj Mohammad Ebrahim; Mashayekhi, Vida; Azerang, Parisa; Minaei, Somayeh; Sardari, Soroush; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    A series of cyclic analogues of bioactive thiosemicarbazide derivatives have been synthesized as potential antimycobacterial agents. The 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione analogues (Ia-f) were prepared by heating a mixture of thiocarbohydrzide and appropriate carboxylic acids. Reaction of thiocarbohydrazide with γ-ketoesters in the presence of sodium methoxide furnished triazolopyridazine derivatives IIa-b. Finally, condensation of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione with some aldehydes gave Schiff bases IIIa-e. After characterization by different spectroscopic and analytical methods, the derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Among the derivatives, compound Ib proved to be the most potent derivatives with MIC value of 31.25 µg/mL. Given the fact that 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones Ia-f were the most active derivatives, it could be suggested that this group of derivatives have the potential to be considered as lead compounds for future optimization efforts. PMID:26185506

  14. Synthesis, Antibacterial, and Anticancer Evaluation of Novel Spiramycin-Like Conjugates Containing C(5) Triazole Arm.

    PubMed

    Klich, Katarzyna; Pyta, Krystian; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Ruszkowski, Piotr; Celewicz, Lech; Gajecka, Marzena; Przybylski, Piotr

    2016-09-08

    Huisgen cycloaddition allowed obtaining of novel triazole-bridged antibiotics (6-16) with the reconstructed C(5) arm of spiramycin. (1)H-(1)H NOESY couplings indicated the structure of novel derivatives in solution and demonstrated that the rebuilt C(5) arm is slightly differently oriented relative to the aglycone part if compared to that of spiramycin (1). Combined analysis of biological data together with experimentally determined lipophilicity (clogP) and solubility show the importance of the chemical nature of the newly introduced triazole C(5) arm in the presence of attractive antibacterial and anticancer potency. The most cytotoxic active triazole conjugates having a hydrophobic and bulky C(5) arm showed higher selectivity toward cancer cell lines (HeLa, KB, MCF-7, Hep-G2, and U87) relative to HDF normal cells than that of the parent spiramycin. Our studies have demonstrated that the aldehyde group is not crucial for the presence of interesting antibacterial [MIC(S. pneumoniae) ∼ 1.2 μM] and anticancer [IC50(HepG2) ∼ 6 μM] properties of 16-membered lactone macrolides based on spiramycin's aglycone.

  15. Two trinuclear transition metal(II)-Radical complexes with triple-triazole bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Shi, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Peng-Yun; Tian, Li; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Hua, Feng Zhen

    2017-08-01

    Two new transition complexes were obtained by using triazole nitronyl nitroxide radical as ligand. The complexes with formula [M3(4-Me-3-Nit-trz)6](ClO4)6 [M = Co(II) 1, Ni(II) 2; 4-Me-3-Nit-trz = 2-[3-(4-methyl-l,2,4-triazolyl)]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] were characterized structurally and magnetically. They were both linear trinuclear structures with neighboring metal ions triply bridged by triazole sbnd NNsbnd moieties and the molecules have a three-fold axis. All of the metal ions in 1 and 2 are in octahedral environment and adopt two kinds of coordination modes. The radical oxygen atoms participate in the 6-membered chelation at the terminal nickel(II) or cobalt(II) ions and the central nickel(II) or cobalt(II) ion is coordinated to six nitrogen atoms from six triazole group. The magnetic behaviors for 1 and 2 indicate that the metal ions and the direct coordinated radicals are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. A theoretical model has been developed to interpret the magnetic data for complex 2.

  16. New compounds hybrids 1h-1,2,3-triazole-quinoline against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Ferreira, Maria de Lourdes G; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Jesus, Antônio M L; Leite, Milene M M; Júnior, Carlos C S; Aguiar, Anna C C; de Andrade, Isabel M; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2014-09-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world. The global importance of this disease, current vector control limitations, and the absence of an effective vaccine make the use of therapeutic antimalarial drugs the main strategy to control malaria. Chloroquine is a cost-effective antimalarial drug with a relatively robust safety profile, or therapeutic index. However, chloroquine is no longer used alone to treat patients with Plasmodium falciparum due to the emergence and spread of chloroquine-resistant strains, which have also been reported for Plasmodium vivax. However, the activity of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum has been reported in the literature. To enhance the anti-P. falciparum activity of quinoline derivatives, we synthesized 11 new quinoline-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids with different substituents in the 4-positions of the 1H-1,2,3-triazole ring, which were assayed against the W2-chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum clone. Six compounds exhibited activity against the P. falciparum W2 clone, chloroquine-resistant, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 46 μm. None of these compounds was toxic to a normal monkey kidney cell line, thus exhibiting good selectivity indexes, as high 351 for one compound (11).

  17. Identification of 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles as Potential New Antiretroviral Agents.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Daniel T G; Souza, Thiago M L; Andrade, Viviane M M; Ferreira, Vitor F; da Silva, Fernando de C

    2017-09-06

    Low molecular weight 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles are endowed with various types of biological activity, such as against cancer, HIV and bacteria. Despite the existence of six different classes of antiretroviral drugs in clinical use, HIV/AIDS continue to be an on growing public health problem. In the present study, we synthesized and evaluated thirty 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles against HIV replication. The compounds were prepared by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition protocol catalyzed by Cu(I) between aryl azides and propargylic alcohol followed by further esterification and etherification from a nucleophilic substitution with acid chlorides or alkyl bromides in good yields. The compounds were submitted to inhibition of HIV replication and evaluation of their cytotoxicity. Initially the compounds were screened at 10 µM and the most active were further evaluated in order to obtain the some pharmacological parameters. Thirty molecules were evaluated, six were selected - because they inhibited more than 80% HIV replication. We further showed that two of these compounds are 8-times more potent, and less cytotoxic, than nevirapine, an antiretroviral drug in clinical use. We identified very simple triazoles with promissing antiretroviral activities that led to development of new drugs against AIDS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Antivenom Effects of 1,2,3-Triazoles against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Thaisa F. S.; Moura, Laura de A.; Carvalho, Carla; Campos, Vinícius R.; Jordão, Alessandro K.; Cunha, Anna C.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Sanchez, Eladio F.; Fuly, André L.

    2013-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins of both enzymes and nonenzymes, which are responsible for producing several biological effects. Human envenomation by snake bites particularly those of the viperid family induces a complex pathophysiological picture characterized by spectacular changes in hemostasis and frequently hemorrhage is also seen. The present work reports the ability of six of a series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives to inhibit some pharmacological effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta. In vitro assays showed that these compounds were impaired in a concentration-dependent manner, the fibrinogen or plasma clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis produced by both venoms. Moreover, these compounds inhibited biological effects in vivo as well. Mice treated with these compounds were fully protected from hemorrhagic lesions caused by such venoms. But, only the B. jararaca edema-inducing activity was neutralized by the triazoles. So the inhibitory effect of triazoles derivatives against some in vitro and in vivo biological assays of snake venoms points to promising aspects that may indicate them as molecular models to improve the production of effective antivenom or to complement antivenom neutralization, especially the local pathological effects, which are partially neutralized by antivenoms. PMID:23710441

  19. Synthesis and bioactivity of pyrazole and triazole derivatives as potential PDE4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Sheng; Tian, Hao; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Hu, De-Kun; Liu, Xing-Yu; Jin, Hong-Wei; Song, Gao-Peng; Cui, Zi-Ning

    2016-08-01

    A series of pyrazole and triazole derivatives containing 5-phenyl-2-furan functionality were designed and synthesized as phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. The bioassay results showed that title compounds exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against PDE4B and blockade of LPS-induced TNFα release. Meanwhile, the activity of compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole (series II) was higher than that of pyrazole-attached derivatives (series I). The primary structure-activity relationship study and docking results showed that the 1,2,4-triazole moiety of compound IIk played a key role to form integral hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interaction with PDE4B protein while the rest part of the molecule extended into the catalytic domain to block the access of cAMP and formed the foundation for inhibition of PDE4. Compound IIk would be great promise as a hit compound for further study based on the preliminary structure-activity relationship and molecular modeling studies.

  20. Triazole linkages and backbone branches in nucleic acids for biological and extra-biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Eduardo

    The recently increasing evidence of nucleic acids' alternative roles in biology and potential as useful nanomaterials and therapeutic agents has enabled the development of useful probes, elaborate nanostructures and therapeutic effectors based on nucleic acids. The study of alternative nucleic acid structure and function, particularly RNA, hinges on the ability to introduce site-specific modifications that either provide clues to the nucleic acid structure function relationship or alter the nucleic acid's function. Although the available chemistries allow for the conjugation of useful labels and molecules, their limitations lie in their tedious conjugation conditions or the lability of the installed probes. The development and optimization of click chemistry with RNA now provides the access to a robust and orthogonal conjugation methodology while providing stable conjugates. Our ability to introduce click reactive groups enzymatically, rather than only in the solid-phase, allows for the modification of larger, more cell relevant RNAs. Additionally, ligation of modified RNAs with larger RNA constructs through click chemistry represents an improvement over traditional ligation techniques. We determined that the triazole linkage generated through click chemistry is compatible in diverse nucleic acid based biological systems. Click chemistry has also been developed for extra-biological applications, particularly with DNA. We have expanded its use to generate useful polymer-DNA conjugates which can form controllable soft nanoparticles which take advantage of DNA's properties, i.e. DNA hybridization and computing. Additionally, we have generated protein-DNA conjugates and assembled protein-polymer hybrids mediated by DNA hybridization. The use of click chemistry in these reactions allows for the facile synthesis of these unnatural conjugates. We have also developed backbone branched DNA through click chemistry and showed that these branched DNAs are useful in generating

  1. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Tao, Guizhou; Gao, Hang; Li, Keyan; Zhang, Yazhuo; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and precision was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside (QGG) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A Venusil® ASB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d. 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 787.3/301.3 for QGG, and 725.3/293.3 for internal standard. The linear range was 7.32-1830 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the limit of quantification was 7.32 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than ±15%. At low, medium and high quality control concentrations, the recovery and matrix effect of the analyte and IS were in the range of 89.06-92.43 and 88.58-97.62%, respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetic study of QGG in Sprague-Dawley rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Improving maltodextrin specificity for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid by site-saturation engineering of subsite-3 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Xu, Qiaoyan; Han, Ruizhi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-20

    In this work, the subsite-3 of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was engineered to improve maltodextrin specificity for 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) synthesis. Specifically, the site-saturation mutagenesis of tyrosine 89, asparagine 94, aspartic acid 196, and aspartic acid 372 in subsite-3 was separately performed, and three mutants Y89F (tyrosine→phenylalanine), N94P (asparagine→proline), and D196Y (aspartic acid→tyrosine) produced higher AA-2G titer than the wild-type and the other mutants. Previously, we found the mutant K47L (lysine→leucine) also had a higher maltodextrin specificity. Therefore, the four mutants K47L, Y89F, N94P, and D196Y were further used to construct the double, triple, and quadruple mutations. Among the 11 combinational mutants, the quadruple mutant K47L/Y89F/N94P/D196Y produced the highest AA-2G titer of 2.23g/L, which was increased by 85.8% compared to that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics of all the mutants were modeled, and the pH and thermal stabilities of all the mutants were analyzed. The structure modeling indicated that the enhanced maltodextrin specificity may be related with the changes of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue at the four positions (47, 89, 94, and 196) and the substrate sugars.

  3. Antitumor activity of 4-O-(2″-O-acetyl-6″-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-p-coumaric acid against lung cancers via mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Yun-Bin; Liu, Yu-Jie; Sun, Tao; Wu, Na; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2015-05-25

    This study was aimed to investigate antitumor activity of 4-O-(2″-O-acetyl-6″-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-p-coumaric acid (4-ACGC) against lung cancer and its mechanisms. The anti-proliferative effects of 4-ACGC on lung cancer cell lines including A549, NCI-H1299, HCC827 were evaluated by MTT method and the IC50 values were calculated, and subsequently a mice xenograft model of A549 was established to investigate the antitumor effect of 4-ACGC in vivo. Furthermore, the apoptosis of the A549 cells was determined by fluorescence microscope by staining with Hoechst 33324 and flow cytometer by staining with FITC conjugated Annexin V/PI, and the further mechanisms were investigated by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that 4-ACGC possessed notable anti-tumor activity on lung cancer in vivo and in vitro; the mechanisms were involved in inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via up-regulations of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bad and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Collectively, our results indicated that the 4-ACGC could be treated as a new candidate for treatment of lung cancer in the future.

  4. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R(2) between 0.83 and 0.97, p < 0.001). Our results indicated that the risk assessment of triazole pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s.

  5. From 2-methylimidazole to 1,2,3-triazole: a topological transformation of ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 by post-synthetic modification.

    PubMed

    Erkartal, Mustafa; Erkilic, Ufuk; Tam, Benjamin; Usta, Hakan; Yazaydin, Ozgur; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Sen, Unal

    2017-02-07

    Bridging ligand replacement in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, ZIF-8 and ZIF-67, by 1,2,3-triazole was investigated. A complete substitution of 2-methylimidazole by 1,2,3-triazole resulted in a topological transformation of the parent framework from a sodalite (SOD) network to a diamond (DIA) network.

  6. Quantum chemical studies on three novel 1,2,4-triazole N-oxides as potential insensitive high explosives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2014-09-01

    Three novel explosives were designed by introducing N-oxides into 1,2,4-triazole: 1-amino-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-2 N-oxide (ADT2NO), 1-amino-2,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-3 N-oxide (ADT3NO), and 1-amino-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-4 N-oxide (ADT4NO). Their detonation performance and sensitivity were estimated by using density functional theory and compared with some famous explosives like 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) and 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNT). All three designed molecules are more powerful than HMX and less sensitive than TNT, indicating that ADT2NO, ADT3NO, and ADT4NO have high detonation performance as HMX and low sensitivity as TNT, making them being very valuable and may be considered as the potential candidates of insensitive high explosives. Properly introducing N-oxides into the energetic triazole derivatives can generate some superior energetic compounds with both high explosive performance and reduced sensitivity.

  7. Crystal structures of five 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium halide salts.

    PubMed

    Guino-O, Marites A; Talbot, Meghan O; Slitts, Michael M; Pham, Theresa N; Audi, Maya C; Janzen, Daron E

    2015-06-01

    The asymmetric units for the salts 4-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-1-isopropyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H13FN3 (+)·I(-), (1), 1-isopropyl-4-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C12H16N3 (+)·I(-), (2), 1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H14N3 (+)·I(-), (3), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C9H10N3 (+)·I(-), (4), contain one cation and one iodide ion, whereas in 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C15H14N3 (+)·Br(-)·H2O, (5), there is an additional single water mol-ecule. There is a predominant C-H⋯X(halide) inter-action for all salts, resulting in a two-dimensional extended sheet network between the triazolium cation and the halide ions. For salts with para-substitution on the aryl ring, there is an additional π-anion inter-action between a triazolium carbon and iodide displayed by the layers. For salts without the para-substitution on the aryl ring, the π-π inter-actions are between the triazolium and aryl rings. The melting points of these salts agree with the predicted substituent inductive effects.

  8. Probing the molecular interaction of triazole fungicides with human serum albumin by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhuang, Shulin; Tong, Changlun; Liu, Weiping

    2013-07-31

    Triazole fungicides, one category of broad-spectrum fungicides, are widely applied in agriculture and medicine. The extensive use leads to many residues and casts potential detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. After exposure of the human body, triazole fungicides may penetrate into the bloodstream and interact with plasma proteins. Whether they could have an impact on the structure and function of proteins is still poorly understood. By using multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling, the interaction of several typical triazole fungicides with human serum albumin (HSA), the major plasma protein, was investigated. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectra manifested that static type, due to complex formation, was the dominant mechanism for fluorescence quenching. Structurally related binding modes speculated by thermodynamic parameters agreed with the prediction of molecular modeling. For triadimefon, hydrogen bonding with Arg-218 and Arg-222 played an important role, whereas for imazalil, myclobutanil, and penconazole, the binding process was mainly contributed by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Via alterations in three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectral properties, it was concluded that triazoles could induce slight conformational and some microenvironmental changes of HSA. It is anticipated that these data can provide some information for possible toxicity risk of triazole fungicides to human health and be helpful in reinforcing the supervision of food safety.

  9. [The synthesis of P1-[11-(anthracen-9-ylmethoxy)undecyl]-P2(2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and the study of its acceptor properties in the enzymic reaction catalyzed by D-rhamnosyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vinnikova, A N; Torgov, V I; Utkina, N S; Veselovsky, V V; Druzhinina, T N; Wang, S; Brockhausen; Danilov, L L

    2015-01-01

    P1-[11-(Anthracen-9-ylmethoxy)undecyl]-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate, a fluorescent derivative of undecyl diphosphate 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose, was chemically synthesized. The ability of the compound to serve as acceptor substrate of D-rhamnose residue in the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by D-rhamnosyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was demonstrated.

  10. Control of regioselectivity over gold nanocrystals of different surfaces for the synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted triazole through the click reaction.

    PubMed

    Rej, Sourav; Chanda, Kaushik; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H

    2014-11-24

    Gold nanocubes, octahedra, and rhombic dodecahedra were examined for facet-dependent catalytic activity in the formation of triazoles. Rhombic dodecahedra gave 100% regioselective 1,4-triazoles. The product yield was increased by decreasing the particle size. However, a mixture of 1,4- and 1,5-triazoles was obtained in lower yields when cubes and octahedra of similar sizes were used. The lowest Au-atom density on the {110} surface and largest unsaturated coordination number of surface Au atoms may explain their best catalytic efficiency and product regioselectivity. Various spectroscopic techniques were employed to verify the formation of the Au-acetylide intermediate and establish the reaction mechanism, in which phenylacetylene binds to the Au {110} surface through the terminal-binding mode to result in the exclusive formation of 1,4-triazoles. The smallest rhombic dodecahedra can give diverse 1,4-disubstituted triazoles in good yields by coupling a wide variety of alkynes and organic halides.

  11. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    printers in each clinic to print labels .JDI Capt Cutter Research compatible printer, Cost, Time Frame Develop standard training for all clinics...Standardize label content, automate with inkless printers once process is proven c . Place visual reminders for providers and support staff 2. Event

  12. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  13. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  14. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of 5-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one NTO in aqueous suspension of TiO2. Comparison with Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Le Campion, L; Giannotti, C; Ouazzani, J

    1999-03-01

    5-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) is a powerful insensitive explosive, present in industrial waste waters. A remediation method based on photochemical decomposition and Fenton oxidation of NTO has been evaluated by monitoring the mineralization of 14C-labelled NTO. The TiO2-catalyzed photodegradation (lambda > 290 nm, TiO2 0.4 g/l, NTO 150 mg/l)) leads to the complete mineralization of NTO in 3 hours. This degradation involves a simultaneous denitrification and ring scission of NTO leading to nitrites, nitrates and carbon dioxide. No significant photo-degradation of NTO was detected in the absence of the catalyst. Long term irradiation over one week, leads to a complete degradation of concentrated NTO (5 g/l), suggesting that this method could be useful to clean-up NTO wastes. Fenton oxidation offers an efficient cost-effective method for NTO remediation. This reaction is faster that the TiO2 catalyzed photolysis and find application on the mineralization of high concentrations of NTO (15 g/l). Fenton oxidation provokes ring cleavage and subsequent elimination of the two carbon atoms of NTO as CO2. During this reaction, the nitro group is completely transformed into nitrates.

  16. Multicomponent Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives of Dihydropyrimidinones as Acidic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel.

    PubMed

    González-Olvera, Rodrigo; Román-Rodríguez, Viridiana; Negrón-Silva, Guillermo E; Espinoza-Vázquez, Araceli; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Santillan, Rosa

    2016-02-22

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which the aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles reacted with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in the presence of Ce(OTf)₃ as the catalyst. The corrosion inhibition of steel grade API 5 L X52 in 1 M HCl by the synthesized compounds was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The measurements revealed that these heterocycles are promising candidates to inhibit acidic corrosion of steel.

  17. Synthesis, antibacterial, antiurease, and antioxidant activities of some new 1,2,4-triazole schiff base and amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sokmen, Bahar Bilgin; Gumrukcuoglu, Nurhan; Ugras, Serpil; Sahin, Huseyin; Sagkal, Yasemin; Ugras, Halil Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The acylhydrazone compound named ethyl N'-furan-2-carbonylbenzohydrazonate was synthesized by the condensation of ethyl benzimidate hydrochloride with furan-2-carbohydrazide. The treatment of the acylhydrazone with hydrazine hydrate afforded 4-amino-3-furan-2-yl-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole. The usage of this compound with various aromatic aldehydes resulted in the formation of 4-arylidenamino-3-furan-2-yl-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles. Sodium borohydride reduction of 4-arylidenamino derivatives afforded 4-alkylamino-3-furan-2-yl-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoles. The obtained products were identified by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR. A series of compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antiurease, and antioxidant activities. The results showed that the synthesized new compounds had effective antiurease and antioxidant activities.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)coumarin derivatives as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Meng; Wu, Feng; Hou, Xueyan; Luo, Hao; Liu, Hao; Han, Xuan; Yan, Guoyi; Ding, Zhenyu; Li, Rui

    2014-02-01

    In this research, a series of 4-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)coumarin conjugates were synthesized and their anticancer activities were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, including human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell, colon carcinoma SW480 cell and lung carcinoma A549 cell. To increase the biological potency, structural optimization campaign was conducted focusing on the C-4 position of 1,2,3-triazole and the C-6, C-7 positions of coumarin. In addition, to further evaluate the role of 1,2,3-triazole and coumarin for antiproliferative activity, 9 compounds possessing 4-(piperazin-1-yl)coumarin framework and 3 derivatives baring quinoline core were also synthesized. By MTT assay in vitro, most of the compounds display attractive antitumor activities, especially 23. Further flow cytometry assays demonstrate that compound 23 exerts the antiproliferative role through arresting G2/M cell-cycle and inducing apoptosis.

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of bis-appended 1,2,3-triazole probe for the detection of Cu(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Rhodes, Shannon; Winder, Domonique; Atkinson, Austin; Gibson, Jaclyn; Ming, Weihua; Padgett, Clifford; Landge, Shainaz; Aiken, Karelle

    2017-04-01

    A novel bis-1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole chemosensor, accessed with "Click Chemistry", was probed for its recognition of metal ions. The interaction of the sensor with various cation analytes was investigated by 1H-NMR, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The bis-triazole is selective for Cu(II) with a detection limit in the micromolar concentration range and a clear to yellow colorimetric response that is exclusive to that ion is observed. The stoichiometry of probe to Cu(II), 2:1, was determined with Job's plots based on titration studies using UV-absorption and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Computational and spectroscopic investigations revealed that the sensor binds to Cu(II) via its triazole units.

  20. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro activity of thrombin-binding DNA aptamers with triazole internucleotide linkages.

    PubMed

    Varizhuk, Anna M; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Tatarinova, Olga N; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Florentiev, Vladimir L; Timofeev, Edward N; Shchyolkina, Anna K; Borisova, Olga F; Smirnov, Igor P; Grokhovsky, Sergei L; Aseychev, Anton V; Pozmogova, Galina E

    2013-09-01

    A series of DNA aptamers bearing triazole internucleotide linkages that bind to thrombin was synthesized. The novel aptamers are structurally analogous to the well-known thrombin-inhibiting G-quadruplexes TBA15 and TBA31. The secondary structure stability, binding affinity for thrombin and anticoagulant effects of the triazole-modified aptamers were measured. A modification in the central loop of the aptamer quadruplex resulted in increased nuclease resistance and an inhibition efficiency similar to that of TBA15. The likely aptamer-thrombin binding mode was determined by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to their relatively high activity and the increased resistance to nuclease digestion imparted by the triazole internucleotide linkages, the novel aptamers are a promising alternative to known DNA-based anticoagulant agents.

  2. Poly[(μ3-hydrogenphosphato)(4H-1,2,4-triazole-κN 1)zinc

    PubMed Central

    Aitenneite, Hafid; El Bouari, Abdeslam; Sebti, Said; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Adil, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Zn(HPO4)(C2H3N3)]n, contains one Zn2+ cation, one (HPO4)2− anion and a 1,2,4 triazole ligand. The Zn2+ cation is coordinated in a quite regular tetra­hedral geometry by O atoms from three phosphate groups and a tertiary N atom from the triazole ring. Each phosphate anion is connected to three ZnII cations, leading to a series of corrugated organic–inorganic layers parallel to the ac plane. The overall structure involves stacking of complex hybrid organic–inorganic layers along the b axis. Cohesion in the crystal is ensured by an infinite three-dimensional network of N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the phosphate groups and the triazole ligands. PMID:23284388

  3. Copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-triazoles from nitriles and hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Ma, Shuang; Xu, Yuanqing; Bian, Longxiang; Ding, Tao; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenkai; Ren, Yanrong

    2015-02-06

    A simple and efficient copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of substituted 1,2,4-triazoles through reactions of two nitriles with hydroxylamine has been developed. The protocol uses simple and readily available nitriles and hydroxylamine hydrochloride as the starting materials and inexpensive Cu(OAc)2 as the catalyst, and the corresponding 1,2,4-triazole derivatives are obtained in moderate to good yields. The reactions include sequential intermolecular addition of hydroxylamine to one nitrile to provide amidoxime, copper-catalyzed treatment of the amidoxime with another nitrile, and intramolecular dehydration/cyclization. This finding provides a new and useful strategy for synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Triazole Derivatives on Copper-Nickel Alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.; Jiang, S. L.; Liu, X.; Ma, A. L.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the performance of three triazole derivatives with different molecular structures as corrosion inhibitors for the copper-nickel alloy CuNi 90/10 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Inhibition behavior was systematically determined through electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, adsorption behavior and the inhibition mechanism were investigated via quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamic simulation. Experimental results indicate that the three inhibitors with triazole rings and heteroatoms exhibited excellent corrosion inhibition capabilities on the copper-nickel alloy surface through physisorption and chemisorption. In particular, 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole showed the best inhibition capability according to the concentration ranges considered in the experiments. The results of quantum chemical calculation agreed with the experimental findings.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of novel triazoles and mannich bases functionalized 1,4-dihydropyridine as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Ravindra M; Kosurkar, Umesh B; Bagul, Pankaj K; Kanwal, Abhinav; Appalanaidu, K; Dadmal, Tulshiram L; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate embedded triazole and mannich bases were synthesized, and evaluated for their angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Screening of above synthesized compounds for ACE inhibition showed that triazoles functionalized compounds have better ACE inhibitory activity compared to that of mannich bases analogues. Among all triazoles we found 6 h, 6 i and 6 j to have good ACE inhibition activity with IC50 values 0.713 μM, 0.409 μM and 0.653 μM, respectively. Among mannich bases series compounds, only 7c resulted as most active ACE inhibitor with IC50 value of 0.928 μM.

  6. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  9. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of sulfamide and triazole benzodiazepines as novel p53-MDM2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiliang; Zhuang, Chunlin; Wu, Yuelin; Guo, Zizhao; Li, Jin; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Sheng, Chunquan; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian

    2014-09-05

    A series of sulfamide and triazole benzodiazepines were obtained with the principle of bioisosterism. The p53-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) inhibitory activity and in vitro antitumor activity were evaluated. Most of the novel benzodiazepines exhibited moderate protein binding inhibitory activity. Particularly, triazole benzodiazepines showed good inhibitory activity and antitumor potency. Compound 16 had promising antitumor activity against the U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cell line with an IC50 value of 4.17 μM, which was much better than that of nutlin-3. The molecular docking model also successfully predicted that this class of compounds mimicked the three critical residues of p53 binding to MDM2.

  10. 4-Salicylideneamino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione as a sensor for aniline recognition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Saravana; Tamilarasan, R; Sreekanth, A

    2011-07-01

    Tridentate triazole based Schiff base 4-salicylideneamino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione has been found to selectively detect toxic aromatic amines such as aniline and benzene-1,4-diamine by simple titration techniques like UV-visible, fluorescence spectral studies (PL) and 1H NMR titrations. The Schiff base receptor utilizes, thione sulfur, NH-thione and the phenolic hydroxyl group to form hydrogen bonded adduct of aniline and benzene-1,4-diamine with high binding affinity, followed by a slow removal of the corresponding hydrogens thus providing a promising candidate and an unique receptor for toxic aromatic amines.

  11. New 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dyes. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Erfantalab, Malihe

    2012-02-01

    Four new 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dyes were synthesized via condensation of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with azo-coupled o-vanillin precursors. The prepared dyes were characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analyses. Thermal properties of the prepared dyes were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that the framework of the dyes was stable up to 225 °C. Also, the influence of various factors including time and mixed DMSO/EtOH solution on UV-vis spectra of the dyes were investigated.

  12. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1979-11-07

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines, followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable - and indeed is preferred - for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  13. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien Y.; Ott, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  14. Nitramino- and Dinitromethyl-Substituted 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives as High-Performance Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Dharavath, Srinivas; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2017-07-06

    Since highly nitrated nitrogen-rich heterocycles are important motifs in high energy density materials, extensive studies for the development of such novel molecules have been underway. A highly energetic moiety, 3-dinitromethyl-5-nitramino-1,2,4-triazole, which consists of a triazole ring, and nitramino and dinitromethyl groups, has been designed and synthesized. By pairing with nitrogen-rich cations, several ionic derivatives were obtained. Theoretical and experimental studies show that the hydroxylammonium salt (7) is highly dense, and has excellent detonation performance with acceptable thermal stablity and sensitivities, which are superior to those of RDX. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 4-Salicylideneamino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione as a sensor for aniline recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Saravana; Tamilarasan, R.; Sreekanth, A.

    2011-07-01

    Tridentate triazole based Schiff base 4-salicylideneamino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione has been found to selectively detect toxic aromatic amines such as aniline and benzene-1,4-diamine by simple titration techniques like UV-visible, fluorescence spectral studies (PL) and 1H NMR titrations. The Schiff base receptor utilizes, thione sulfur, NH-thione and the phenolic hydroxyl group to form hydrogen bonded adduct of aniline and benzene-1,4-diamine with high binding affinity, followed by a slow removal of the corresponding hydrogens thus providing a promising candidate and an unique receptor for toxic aromatic amines.

  16. Tuning the microstructures of decavanadate-based supramolecular hybrids via regularly changing the spacers of bis(triazole) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Mo; Sun, Wenlong; Pang, Haijun; Ma, Huiyuan; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Zhuanfang; Niu, Ying; Yin, Mingming

    2016-03-15

    With tuning the ligands from bte, btp, btb to bth, four new decavanadate-based metal–organic hybrid compounds, [Zn(bte)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}][Zn{sub 2}(bte)(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}](V{sub 10}O{sub 28})·8H{sub 2}O, [Zn{sub 2}(btp){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28})·4H{sub 2}O, [Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}][Zn{sub 2}(btb){sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·4H{sub 2}O, and [Zn{sub 2}(bth)(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}](H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28})·6H{sub 2}O (bte=1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethane, btp=1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)propane, btb=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)butane, bth=1,6-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)hexane), have been synthesized under conventional conditions. The four compounds represent the first examples of decavanadate-based metal–organic hybrids constructed by Zn–bis(triazole) complexes. Their structural analyses show that the four compounds possess different Zn–bis(triazole) structural motifs and various finally structures, which verifies that regular changing the spacers of ligands is an effective strategy to tuning the structures of polyoxometalate-based hybrids. Also, the electrochemical studies show that the compounds have good electrocatalytic activities towards oxidation of nitrite molecules ascribed to V-centers. - Graphical abstract: Four compounds representing the first examples of V{sub 10}O{sub 28}-based hybrids constructed by Zn–bis(triazole) complexes have been synthesized by changing the spacers of the ligands and their electrocatalytic properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • The first examples of V{sub 10}O{sub 28}-based hybrids constructed by Zn-bis(triazole) complexes. • Verifying that changing the spacers of ligands is a strategy to tuning structures. • Showing good electrocatalytic activities toward oxidation of nitrite molecules.

  17. Quantitative kinetic investigation of triazole-gold(I) complex catalyzed [3,3]-rearrangement of propargyl ester.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yumeng; Wang, Qiaoyi; Su, Yijin; Li, Minyong; Shi, Xiaodong

    2014-02-28

    The triazole-gold(I) complex catalyzed [3,3]-rearrangement of propargyl ester has been quantitatively investigated through in situ IR. First order dependence of the initial rates on [Au] and [propargyl ester] suggested that the turnover-limiting step is the associative ligand substitution. The activation enthalpy was also determined to be 7.8 kcal mol(-1). TA-Au catalysts with different triazole derivatives were also tested, giving a linear free energy relationship with a ρ value of 0.74.

  18. 1-[4-Chloro-3-(trifluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Healy, Peter C; Henderson, Luke C

    2012-11-01

    In the title compound, C(15)H(9)ClF(3)N(3), the phenyl and chloro-trifluoro-methyl benzene rings are twisted with respect to the planar triazole group, making dihedral angles of 21.29 (12) and 32.19 (11)°, respectively. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in a head-to-tail arrangement along the a axis with closest inter-centroid distances between the triazole rings of 3.7372 (12) Å.

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  1. Site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance substrate specificity towards maltodextrin for enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G).

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the site-saturation engineering of lysine 47 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase towards maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the enzymatic synthesis of 2-O-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by CGTase. When using maltodextrin as glycosyl donor, four mutants K47F (lysine→ phenylalanine), K47L (lysine→ leucine), K47V (lysine→ valine) and K47W (lysine→ tryptophan) showed higher AA-2G yield as compared with that produced by the wild-type CGTase. The transformation conditions (temperature, pH and the mass ratio of L-ascorbic acid to maltodextrin) were optimized and the highest titer of AA-2G produced by the mutant K47L could reach 1.97 g/l, which was 64.2% higher than that (1.20 g/l) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The reaction kinetics analysis confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, the four mutants had relatively lower cyclization activities and higher disproportionation activities, which was favorable for AA-2G synthesis. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was further explored by structure modeling and it was indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be due to the short residue chain and the removal of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the sugar at -3 subsite. Here the obtained mutant CGTases, especially the K47L, has a great potential in the production of AA-2G with maltodextrin as a cheap and easily soluble substrate.

  2. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  3. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  5. Mechanism of multivalent nanoparticle encounter with HIV-1 for potency enhancement of peptide triazole virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rosemary Bastian, Arangassery; Nangarlia, Aakansha; Bailey, Lauren D; Holmes, Andrew; Kalyana Sundaram, R Venkat; Ang, Charles; Moreira, Diogo R M; Freedman, Kevin; Duffy, Caitlin; Contarino, Mark; Abrams, Cameron; Root, Michael; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-02

    Entry of HIV-1 into host cells remains a compelling yet elusive target for developing agents to prevent infection. A peptide triazole (PT) class of entry inhibitor has previously been shown to bind to HIV-1 gp120, suppress interactions of the Env protein at host cell receptor binding sites, inhibit cell infection, and cause envelope spike protein breakdown, including gp120 shedding and, for some variants, virus membrane lysis. We found that gold nanoparticle-conjugated forms of peptide triazoles (AuNP-PT) exhibit substantially more potent antiviral effects against HIV-1 than corresponding peptide triazoles alone. Here, we sought to reveal the mechanism of potency enhancement underlying nanoparticle conjugate function. We found that altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle conjugate, by increasing the AuNP diameter and/or the density of PT conjugated on the AuNP surface, enhanced potency of infection inhibition to impressive picomolar levels. Further, compared with unconjugated PT, AuNP-PT was less susceptible to reduction of antiviral potency when the density of PT-competent Env spikes on the virus was reduced by incorporating a peptide-resistant mutant gp120. We conclude that potency enhancement of virolytic activity and corresponding irreversible HIV-1 inactivation of PTs upon AuNP conjugation derives from multivalent contact between the nanoconjugates and metastable Env spikes on the HIV-1 virus. The findings reveal that multispike engagement can exploit the metastability built into virus the envelope to irreversibly inactivate HIV-1 and provide a conceptual platform to design nanoparticle-based antiviral agents for HIV-1 specifically and putatively for metastable enveloped viruses generally.

  6. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-02-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  7. Selective, Tunable O2 Binding in Cobalt(II)-Triazolate/Pyrazolate Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dianne J; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Darago, Lucy E; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Haldoupis, Emmanuel; Gagliardi, Laura; Long, Jeffrey R

    2016-06-08

    The air-free reaction of CoCl2 with 1,3,5-tri(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)benzene (H3BTTri) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and methanol leads to the formation of Co-BTTri (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BTTri)8]2·DMF), a sodalite-type metal-organic framework. Desolvation of this material generates coordinatively unsaturated low-spin cobalt(II) centers that exhibit a strong preference for binding O2 over N2, with isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst) of -34(1) and -12(1) kJ/mol, respectively. The low-spin (S = 1/2) electronic configuration of the metal centers in the desolvated framework is supported by structural, magnetic susceptibility, and computational studies. A single-crystal X-ray structure determination reveals that O2 binds end-on to each framework cobalt center in a 1:1 ratio with a Co-O2 bond distance of 1.973(6) Å. Replacement of one of the triazolate linkers with a more electron-donating pyrazolate group leads to the isostructural framework Co-BDTriP (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BDTriP)8]2·DMF; H3BDTriP = 5,5'-(5-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(1H-1,2,3-triazole)), which demonstrates markedly higher yet still fully reversible O2 affinities (Qst = -47(1) kJ/mol at low loadings). Electronic structure calculations suggest that the O2 adducts in Co-BTTri are best described as cobalt(II)-dioxygen species with partial electron transfer, while the stronger binding sites in Co-BDTriP form cobalt(III)-superoxo moieties. The stability, selectivity, and high O2 adsorption capacity of these materials render them promising new adsorbents for air separation processes.

  8. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity for novel amide derivatives containing a triazole moiety

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant fungi (e.g., Pellicularia sasakii, Gibberella zeae, Fusarium oxysporum, and Cytospora mandshurica and Phytophthora infestans) and bacteria (e.g., Ralstonia solanacearum) are extremely difficult to manage in agricultural production. The high incidence of plant mortality and the lack of effective control methods make P. sasakii and R. solanacearum two of the world’s most destructive plant pathogens. Pathogenic fungi and bacteria are responsible for billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide each year. Thus, we designed an active amide structure and synthesized a series of novel amide derivatives containing a triazole moiety to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides that can act against fungi and bacteria. Results A series of amide derivatives containing a triazole moiety were synthesized. All the obtained compounds were characterized through proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Preliminary antifungal activity test showed that some of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against P. sasakii, G. azeae, F. oxysporum, C. mandshurica, and P. infestans at 50 mg/L. Compound 4u displayed more potent antifungal activity against P. sasakii and G. azeae than hymexazol. Preliminary antibacterial activity results showed that some of the synthesized compounds exhibited high anti-bacterial activity against R. solanacearum at 200 mg/L. Compounds 4m and 4q displayed high antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum, with 71% and 65% inhibitory rates, respectively. Conclusions A series of novel amide derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moiety were synthesized through the reaction of intermediate 3 with different acyl chlorides and anhydrous potassium carbonates in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran at 50°C, using 2,4-dichloroacetophenoneas as a starting material. The title compounds exhibited high inhibitory effects against P. sasakii, R. solanacearum, and G

  9. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  10. In Vitro Antifungal Activities of the New Triazole UR-9825 against Clinically Important Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Javier; Ortoneda, Montserrat; Pastor, Francisco Javier; Guarro, Josep

    2001-01-01

    We used a modified reference microdilution method (the M-38P method) to evaluate the in vitro activities of the new triazole UR-9825 in comparison with those of amphotericin B against 77 strains of opportunistic filamentous fungi. UR-9825 was clearly more active than amphotericin B against all fungi except Fusarium solani and Scytalidium spp. Notably, UR-9825 had low MICs for Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited, 0.125 μg/ml for both species). PMID:11502542

  11. A toxicological study of 1,2,4-triazole-5-one

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.

    1988-12-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50/ values for 1,2,4-triazole-5-one (TO) are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show TO to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated it was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Phenylethynyl Terminated Arylene Ether Oxadiazole and Triazole Oligomers and Their Cured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Several novel phenylethynyl terminated arylene ether oligomers containing oxadiazole and triazole rings were prepared as part of an effort to develop high performance polymers with an attractive combination of properties (e.g. processability and mechanical performance) for future NASA applications. The oligomers displayed low melt viscosities and good solubilities. Thin films cast from solutions of the oligomers and cured for one hour at 350 C in air gave good tensile properties. Titanium to titanium (6Al-4V) tensile shear specimens were readily fabricated and provided moderate strengths. The chemistry and properties of these new materials are discussed.

  13. New Iridium Complex Coordinated with Tetrathiafulvalene Substituted Triazole-pyridine Ligand: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Hui; He, Li-Rong; Li, Kai-Xiu; Xia, Qing; Wu, Dong-Min; Li, Gao-Nan

    2016-01-01

    A new iridium(III) complex based on the triazole-pyridine ligand with tetrathiafulvalene unit, [Ir(ppy)2(L)]PF6 (1), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The absorption spectra, luminescent spectra and electrochemical behaviors of L and 1 have been investigated. Complex 1 is found to be emissive at room temperature with maxima at 481 and 510 nm. The broad and structured emission bands are suggested a mixing of 3LC (3π-π*) and 3CT (3MLCT) excited states. The influence of iridium ion coordination on the redox properties of the TTF has also been investigated by cyclic voltammetry.

  14. Nano-interconnection for microelectronics and polymers with benzo-triazole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.; Noh, Hyunpil; Kuk, Young

    2006-01-01

    Benzo-Triazole (BTA) is considered as an important bridging material that can connect an organic polymer to the metal electrode on silicon wafers as a part of the microelectronics fabrication technology. We report a detailed process of surface induced 3-D polymerization of BTA on the Cu electrode material which was measured with the Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). The electric utilization of shield and chain polymerization of BTA on Cu surface is contemplated in this study.

  15. Syntheses of triazole-modified zanamivir analogues via click chemistry and anti-AIV activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Mingyue; Tang, Wei; He, Pei-Lan; Zhu, Weiliang; Li, Tianxian; Zuo, Jian-Ping; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-10-01

    Sixteen novel 4-triazole-modified zanamivir (1) analogues were synthesized using the click reactions, and their inhibitory activities against avian influenza virus (AIV, H5N1) were determined. Compound 3b exerts promising inhibitory activity with EC(50) of 6.4 microM, which is very close to that of zanamivir (EC(50) = 2.8 microM). Molecular modeling provided the information about the binding model between inhibitors and neuraminidase, which are in good agreement with inhibitory activities.

  16. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  17. Studies on green and efficient catalytic oxidation of a triazole compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Liu, Y. C.; Huang, K. H.; Chai, T.; Wang, J. H.; Yu, Y. W.; Yuan, J. M.; Chang, S. J.; Guo, J. H.; Zhang, J.

    2016-07-01

    1-Methyl-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole is an insensitive energetic compound that can be prepared by oxidizing the nitrate salt of 1-methylguanazole. The influence of the reaction time, reaction temperature, reactant ratio, feeding method and catalytic oxidation method on the yield were discussed. The results show that the optimum reaction conditions are as follows: mass ratio of sodium tungstate to nitrate salt to 1-methylguanazole, 4:4.4; time, 5.5h; and temperature, 65-75°C. The yield of this oxidation reaction reached 51.36%.

  18. Copper-diamine-catalyzed N-arylation of pyrroles, pyrazoles, indazoles, imidazoles, and triazoles.

    PubMed

    Antilla, Jon C; Baskin, Jeremy M; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2004-08-20

    This paper details the copper-catalyzed N-arylation of pi-excessive nitrogen heterocycles. The coupling of either aryl iodides or aryl bromides with common nitrogen heterocycles (pyrroles, pyrazoles, indazoles, imidazoles, and triazoles) was successfully performed in good yield with catalysts derived from diamine ligands and CuI. General conditions were found that tolerate functional groups such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, primary amines, and nitriles on the aryl halide or heterocycle. Hindered aryl halides or heterocycles were also found to be suitable substrates using the conditions reported herein. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  19. In-host adaptation and acquired triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a dilemma for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Paul E; Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, Alfons J M; Meis, Jacques F; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Schoustra, Sijmen E; Zwaan, Bas J; Melchers, Willem J G

    2016-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes a range of diseases in human beings, some of which are characterised by fungal persistence. A fumigatus can persist by adapting to the human lung environment through physiological and genomic changes. The physiological changes are based on the large biochemical versatility of the fungus, and the genomic changes are based on the capacity of the fungus to generate genetic diversity by spontaneous mutations or recombination and subsequent selection of the genotypes that are most adapted to the new environment. In this Review, we explore the adaptation strategies of A fumigatus in relation to azole resistance selection and the clinical implications thereof for management of diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. We hypothesise that the current diagnostic tools and treatment strategies do not take into account the biology of the fungus and might result in an increased likelihood of fungal persistence in patients. Stress factors, such as triazole exposure, cause mutations that render resistance. The process of reproduction-ie, sexual, parasexual, or asexual-is probably crucial for the adaptive potential of Aspergillus spp. As any change in the environment can provoke adaptation, switching between triazoles in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis might result in a high-level pan-triazole-resistant phenotype through the accumulation of resistance mutations. Alternatively, when triazole therapy is stopped, an azole-free environment is created that could prompt selection for compensatory mutations that overcome any fitness costs that are expected to accompany resistance development. As a consequence, starting, switching, and stopping azole therapy has the risk of selecting for highly resistant strains with wildtype fitness. A similar adaptation is expected to occur in response to other stress factors, such as endogenous antimicrobial peptides; over time the fungus will become increasingly adapted to the lung environment, thereby limiting

  20. Covalent Conjugation of a Peptide Triazole to HIV-1 gp120 Enables Intramolecular Binding Site Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein is the main viral surface protein responsible for initiation of the entry process and, as such, can be targeted for the development of entry inhibitors. We previously identified a class of broadly active peptide triazole (PT) dual antagonists that inhibit gp120 interactions at both its target receptor and coreceptor binding sites, induce shedding of gp120 from virus particles prior to host–cell encounter, and consequently can prevent viral entry and infection. However, our understanding of the conformational alterations in gp120 by which PT elicits its dual receptor antagonism and virus inactivation functions is limited. Here, we used a recently developed computational model of the PT–gp120 complex as a blueprint to design a covalently conjugated PT–gp120 recombinant protein. Initially, a single-cysteine gp120 mutant, E275CYU-2, was expressed and characterized. This variant retains excellent binding affinity for peptide triazoles, for sCD4 and other CD4 binding site (CD4bs) ligands, and for a CD4-induced (CD4i) ligand that binds the coreceptor recognition site. In parallel, we synthesized a PEGylated and biotinylated peptide triazole variant that retained gp120 binding activity. An N-terminally maleimido variant of this PEGylated PT, denoted AE21, was conjugated to E275C gp120 to produce the AE21–E275C covalent conjugate. Surface plasmon resonance interaction analysis revealed that the PT–gp120 conjugate exhibited suppressed binding of sCD4 and 17b to gp120, signatures of a PT-bound state of envelope protein. Similar to the noncovalent PT–gp120 complex, the covalent conjugate was able to bind the conformationally dependent mAb 2G12. The results argue that the PT–gp120 conjugate is structurally organized, with an intramolecular interaction between the PT and gp120 domains, and that this structured state embodies a conformationally entrapped gp120 with an altered bridging sheet but intact 2G12 epitope. The similarities of

  1. Direct study of fluorescently-labelled barley β-glucan fate in an in vitro human colon digestion model.

    PubMed

    Beeren, Sophie R; Christensen, Caspar E; Tanaka, Hidenori; Jensen, Morten G; Donaldson, Iain; Hindsgaul, Ole

    2015-01-22

    β-Glucans from cereals are β(1-3)(1-4)-mixed linkage linear homopolysaccharides of D-glucopyranosyl residues, recently recognised as functional components of foods with benefits in maintaining the health of the digestive tract not least through a prebiotic effect. Here we describe the development of methodology to facilitate the study of β-glucans as prebiotics. Relatively short β-glucan fragments (DP 6-50) were produced by partial hydrolysis of β-glucan fibres with Lichenase then functionalised at their reducing end with a tetramethylrhodamine dye. Their enzymatic break down by human colon microbiota in an in vitro fermentation model was examined. Digestion products were isolated by virtue of their fluorescence labels, identified and characterised using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Complete digestion of the labelled substrates was indicated, as fluorescently labelled glucose was obtained as the final product. Furthermore, a pathway of enzymatic breakdown was proposed on the basis of a time course experiment; initial fast hydrolysis with an endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase was followed by slow degradation with an exo-1,4-β-glucanase and finally slow action of an exo-1,3-β-glucanase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  3. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. 4-Aryl-3,5-bis(arylethynyl)aryl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles: multitasking skeleton as a self-assembling unit.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M Jesús; Torres, Iván; Cebrián, Cristina; Carrillo, José Ramón; Díaz-Ortiz, Ángel; Matesanz, Emilio; Buendía, Julia; García, Fátima; Barberá, Joaquín; Prieto, Pilar; Sánchez, Luis

    2015-01-19

    The synthesis of a series of 4-aryl-3,5-bis(arylethynyl)aryl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles derivatives is reported and the influence exerted by peripheral substitution on the morphology of the aggregates generated from these 1,2,4-triazoles is investigated by SEM imaging. The presence of paraffinic side chains results in long fibrillar supramolecular structures, but unsubstituted triazoles self-assemble into thinner ribbons and needle-like aggregates. The crystals obtained from methoxy-substituted triazoles have been utilised to elaborate a model that helps to justify aggregation of the investigated 1,2,4-triazoles, in which the operation of arrays of C-H⋅⋅⋅π non-covalent interactions plays a significant role. The results presented herein demonstrate the ability of simple molecules to behave as multitasking scaffolds with different properties, depending on peripheral substitution. Thus, although 1,2,4-triazoles without long paraffinic side chains exhibit optical waveguiding behaviour, triazoles endowed with peripheral paraffinic side chains exhibit hexagonal columnar mesomorphism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fluorescent labelling of in situ hybridisation probes through the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Susann; Manetto, Antonio; Cassinelli, Valentina; Fuchs, Jörg; Ma, Lu; Raddaoui, Nada; Houben, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    In situ hybridisation is a powerful tool to investigate the genome and chromosome architecture. Nick translation (NT) is widely used to label DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). However, NT is limited to the use of long double-stranded DNA and does not allow the labelling of single-stranded and short DNA, e.g. oligonucleotides. An alternative technique is the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), at which azide and alkyne functional groups react in a multistep process catalysed by copper(I) ions to give 1,4-distributed 1,2,3-triazoles at a high yield (also called 'click reaction'). We successfully applied this technique to label short single-stranded DNA probes as well as long PCR-derived double-stranded probes and tested them by FISH on plant chromosomes and nuclei. The hybridisation efficiency of differently labelled probes was compared to those obtained by conventional labelling techniques. We show that copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition-labelled probes are reliable tools to detect different types of repetitive sequences on chromosomes opening new promising routes for the detection of single copy gene. Moreover, a combination of FISH using such probes with other techniques, e.g. immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell proliferation assays using 5-ethynyl-deoxyuridine, is herein shown to be easily feasible.

  6. Routing and Label Space Reduction in Label Switching Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Fernando; Caro, Luis Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Dimitri

    This chapter is devoted to the analysis and modeling of some problems related to the optimal usage of the label space in label switching networks. Label space problems concerning three different technologies and architectures - namely Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Ethernet VLAN-Label Switching (ELS) and All-Optical Label Switching (AOLS) - are discussed in this chapter. Each of these cases yields to different constraints of the general label space reduction problem. We propose a generic optimization model and, then, we describe some adaptations aiming at modeling each particular case. Simulation results are briefly discussed at the end of this chapter.

  7. Efficient microwave assisted synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose derivatives by cycloaddition reaction of sucrose azides and terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Potewar, Taterao M; Petrova, Krasimira T; Barros, M Teresa

    2013-09-20

    Novel 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized by microwave assisted copper catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of sucrose derived azides with terminal alkynes in excellent yields and in short reaction times. The compound 1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-azido-6'-deoxy-sucrose was regioselectively synthesized from sucrose by improved procedure and used for the cycloadditions. By combining carbohydrate and 1,2,3-triazole structural motifs, a library of 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose conjugates have been obtained.

  8. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and network...

  9. Stereoselective Metabolism of 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicides in Hepatic Microsomes and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1,2,4-triazole fungicides (i.e., conazoles) are potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) modulators and have been used extensively in agriculture and medicine. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the potential adverse effects of these compounds on mammalian steroid biosynthesis and en...

  10. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  11. Stereoselective Metabolism of 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicides in Hepatic Microsomes and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1,2,4-triazole fungicides (i.e., conazoles) are potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) modulators and have been used extensively in agriculture and medicine. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the potential adverse effects of these compounds on mammalian steroid biosynthesis and en...

  12. Using click chemistry toward novel 1,2,3-triazole-linked dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Keck, Thomas M; Banala, Ashwini K; Slack, Rachel D; Burzynski, Caitlin; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Moore, Martin; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rais, Rana; Slusher, Barbara S; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-07-15

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a target of pharmacotherapeutic interest in a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and drug addiction. A common molecular template used in the development of D3R-selective antagonists and partial agonists incorporates a butylamide linker between two pharmacophores, a phenylpiperazine moiety and an extended aryl ring system. The series of compounds described herein incorporates a change to that chemical template, replacing the amide functional group in the linker chain with a 1,2,3-triazole group. Although the amide linker in the 4-phenylpiperazine class of D3R ligands has been previously deemed critical for high D3R affinity and selectivity, the 1,2,3-triazole moiety serves as a suitable bioisosteric replacement and maintains desired D3R-binding functionality of the compounds. Additionally, using mouse liver microsomes to evaluate CYP450-mediated phase I metabolism, we determined that novel 1,2,3-triazole-containing compounds modestly improves metabolic stability compared to amide-containing analogues. The 1,2,3-triazole moiety allows for the modular attachment of chemical subunit libraries using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry, increasing the range of chemical entities that can be designed, synthesized, and developed toward D3R-selective therapeutic agents.

  13. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  14. New carbazole linked 1,2,3-triazoles as highly potent non-sugar α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shazia; Khan, Maria Aqeel; Javaid, Kulsoom; Sadiq, Rabia; Fazal-Ur-Rehman, Saba; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Basha, Fatima Z

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, a series of new carbazole linked 1H-1,2,3-triazoles (2-27) were synthesized via click reaction of N-propargyl-9H-carbazole (1) and azides of appropriate acetophenones and heterocycles. Synthesized carbazole triazoles including 7, 9, 10, 19, 20, and 23-26 (IC50=0.8±0.01-100.8±3.6μM), exhibited several folds more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory in vitro activity as compared to standard drug, acarbose. Compounds 2-5, 7-13, and 17-27 did not show any cytotoxicity against 3T3 cell lines, except triazoles 6, and 14-16. Among the series, carbazole triazoles 23 (IC50=1.0±0.057μM) and 25 (IC50=0.8±0.01μM) were found to be most active, and could serve as an attractive building block in the search of new non-sugar derivatives as anti-diabetic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent Advancements In 1, 4-Disubstituted 1H-1,2,3-Triazoles As Potential Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Lal, Kashmiri; Yadav, Pinki

    2016-08-11

    Cancer is a class of formidable disease with a high degree of mortality. Although, there has been much progress in chemotherapy still the problem of drug resistance has led to the search for newer leads with superior efficacy. 1,2,3-Triazole are among a vast number of nitrogen containing heterocycles studied extensively as pharmacologically important scaffolds. Recently developed copper (I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between organic azides and terminal alkynes yielding 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles has attracted considerable attention because it allows the construction of vast array of 1,2,3-triazoles with significant potential in pharmaceutical chemistry. In this article, an attempt to summarize the wide range of anticancer agents derived from Copper(I)-Catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reported by the authors worldwide has been made. This review includes articles published from 2010 onwards and summarizes the recent progress on the development of 1,4-disubstituted 1H-1,2,3-triazole as novel anticancer chemotypes with high therapeutic indices.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted urea and thiourea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moiety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of novel thiourea and urea derivatives carrying 1,2,4-triazole moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity. Thiourea (1a-e) and urea derivatives (2a-e) were prepared by reacting 4-(aminophenyl)acetic acid with corresponding isothiocyanates and isocyana...

  17. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and network...

  18. Using click chemistry toward novel 1,2,3-triazole-linked dopamine D3 receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Thomas M.; Banala, Ashwini K.; Slack, Rachel D.; Burzynski, Caitlin; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M.; Moore, Martin; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Rais, Rana; Slusher, Barbara S.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a target of pharmacotherapeutic interest in a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and drug addiction. A common molecular template used in the development of D3R-selective antagonists and partial agonists incorporates a butylamide linker between two pharmacophores, a phenylpiperazine moiety and an extended aryl ring system. The series of compounds described herein incorporates a change to that chemical template, replacing the amide functional group in the linker chain with a 1,2,3-triazole group. Although the amide linker in the 4-phenylpiperazine class of D3R ligands has been previously deemed critical for high D3R affinity and selectivity, the 1,2,3-triazole moiety serves as a suitable bioisosteric replacement and maintains desired D3R-binding functionality of the compounds. Additionally, using mouse liver microsomes to evaluate CYP450-mediated phase I metabolism, we determined that novel 1,2,3-triazole-containing compounds modestly improves metabolic stability compared to amide-containing analogues. The 1,2,3-triazole moiety allows for the modular attachment of chemical subunit libraries using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry, increasing the range of chemical entities that can be designed, synthesized, and developed toward D3R-selective therapeutic agents. PMID:25650314

  19. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  20. Cytotoxic conjugates of betulinic acid and substituted triazoles prepared by Huisgen Cycloaddition from 30-azidoderivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sidova, Veronika; Zoufaly, Pavel; Pokorny, Jan; Dzubak, Petr; Hajduch, Marian; Popa, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we describe synthesis of conjugates of betulinic acid with substituted triazoles prepared via Huisgen 1,3-cycloaddition. All compounds contain free 28-COOH group. Allylic bromination of protected betulinic acid by NBS gave corresponding 30-bromoderivatives, their substitution with sodium azides produced 30-azidoderivatives and these azides were subjected to CuI catalysed Huisgen 1,3-cycloaddition to give the final conjugates. Reactions had moderate to high yields. All new compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activities on eight cancer and two non-cancer cell lines. The most active compounds were conjugates of 3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid and among them, conjugate with triazole substituted by benzaldehyde 9b was the best with IC50 of 3.3 μM and therapeutic index of 9.1. Five compounds in this study had IC50 below 10 μM and inhibited DNA and RNA synthesis and caused block in G0/G1 cell cycle phase which is highly similar to actinomycin D. It is unusual that here prepared 3β-O-acetates were more active than compounds with the free 3-OH group and this suggests that this set may have common mechanism of action that is different from the mechanism of action of previously known 3β-O-acetoxybetulinic acid derivatives. Benzaldehyde type conjugate 9b is the best candidate for further drug development. PMID:28158265

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity.

  2. Sonochemical synthesis of novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioate nanoparticles as antifungals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumber, Khushbu; Sidhu, Anjali; Kaur, Robinpreet

    2017-03-01

    Novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioates were sonochemically synthesized as water-dispersable nanoparticles owing to their water insolubility. The two-step reaction protocol was followed to synthesize the novel triazole ligand system for complexation with magnesium metal due to its low biological toxicity. Different concentrations of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidine were used to stabilize and standardise the size of nanoparticles, which were characterised by TEM analysis. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to analyse the metal ligand interaction, and CHNS analysis was used to propose the structure of the metal complex. The spore germination inhibition technique was used to evaluate the antifungal potential of synthesized nano-complexes against two phytopathogenic test fungi viz. A. alternata and F. moniliforme. The nanoparticles had inflicted moderate in vitro inhibition of fungal growth, which was comparable to standard fungicide Indofil M-45. The in silico toxicity of the compounds was made using the Toxtree analysis software that indicated the compounds belong to class III group of toxicity, which was same as that of commercial standards of DTC.

  3. The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal free and metallophthalocyanines containing triazole/piperazine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Mermer, Arif; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Demirbaş, Neslihan; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetra [1,2,4]-triazole substituted metal-free phthalocyanine and its metal complexes (Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II)) and the investigation of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal-free, Zn(II), Pb(II), Fe(II) phthalocyanines were performed for the first time in this study. Electrochemical characterizations of the complexes were performed with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Voltammetric responses of the complexes supported the proposed structures, since complexes bearing redox inactive Pc ring metal centers just gave Pc based electron transfer reactions, while iron phthalocyanine went to metal based electron transfer reaction in addition to the Pc based ones. Electron withdrawing nature of [1,2,4]-triazole substituents shifted the redox processes toward the positive potentials. All complexes were electropolymerized during the oxidation reactions in dichloromethane (DCM) solvent. Types of the metal center of the complexes altered the electropolymerization reactions of the complexes. Spectra and colors of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements.

  4. Sonochemical synthesis of novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioate nanoparticles as antifungals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumber, Khushbu; Sidhu, Anjali; Kaur, Robinpreet

    2017-04-01

    Novel magnesium 1,2,4-triazole-1-carbodithioates were sonochemically synthesized as water-dispersable nanoparticles owing to their water insolubility. The two-step reaction protocol was followed to synthesize the novel triazole ligand system for complexation with magnesium metal due to its low biological toxicity. Different concentrations of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidine were used to stabilize and standardise the size of nanoparticles, which were characterised by TEM analysis. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to analyse the metal ligand interaction, and CHNS analysis was used to propose the structure of the metal complex. The spore germination inhibition technique was used to evaluate the antifungal potential of synthesized nano-complexes against two phytopathogenic test fungi viz . A. alternata and F. moniliforme. The nanoparticles had inflicted moderate in vitro inhibition of fungal growth, which was comparable to standard fungicide Indofil M-45. The in silico toxicity of the compounds was made using the Toxtree analysis software that indicated the compounds belong to class III group of toxicity, which was same as that of commercial standards of DTC.

  5. C2'-pyrene-functionalized triazole-linked DNA: universal DNA/RNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Sau, Sujay P; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-01-06

    Development of universal hybridization probes, that is, oligonucleotides displaying identical affinity toward matched and mismatched DNA/RNA targets, has been a longstanding goal due to potential applications as degenerate PCR primers and microarray probes. The classic approach toward this end has been the use of "universal bases" that either are based on hydrogen-bonding purine derivatives or aromatic base analogues without hydrogen-bonding capabilities. However, development of probes that result in truly universal hybridization without compromising duplex thermostability has proven challenging. Here we have used the "click reaction" to synthesize four C2'-pyrene-functionalized triazole-linked 2'-deoxyuridine phosphoramidites. We demonstrate that oligodeoxyribonucleotides modified with the corresponding monomers display (a) minimally decreased thermal affinity toward DNA/RNA complements relative to reference strands, (b) highly robust universal hybridization characteristics (average differences in thermal denaturation temperatures of matched vs mismatched duplexes involving monomer W are <1.7 °C), and (c) exceptional affinity toward DNA targets containing abasic sites opposite of the modification site (ΔT(m) up to +25 °C). The latter observation, along with results from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, suggests that the pyrene moiety is intercalating into the duplex whereby the opposing nucleotide is pushed into an extrahelical position. These properties render C2'-pyrene-functionalized triazole-linked DNA as promising universal hybridization probes for applications in nucleic acid chemistry and biotechnology.

  6. Possible environmental origin of resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to medical triazoles.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Eveline; Huis In 't Veld, Robert A G; Rijs, Anthonius J M M; Kema, Gert H J; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2009-06-01

    We reported the emergence of resistance to medical triazoles of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients with invasive aspergillosis. A dominant resistance mechanism was found, and we hypothesized that azole resistance might develop through azole exposure in the environment rather than in azole-treated patients. We investigated if A. fumigatus isolates resistant to medical triazoles are present in our environment by sampling the hospital indoor environment and soil from the outdoor environment. Antifungal susceptibility, resistance mechanisms, and genetic relatedness were compared with those of azole-resistant clinical isolates collected in a previous study. Itraconazole-resistant A. fumigatus (five isolates) was cultured from the indoor hospital environment as well as from soil obtained from flower beds in proximity to the hospital (six isolates) but never from natural soil. Additional samples of commercial compost, leaves, and seeds obtained from a garden center and a plant nursery were also positive (four isolates). Cross-resistance was observed for voriconazole, posaconazole, and the azole fungicides metconazole and tebuconazole. Molecular analysis showed the presence of the dominant resistance mechanism, which was identical to that found in clinical isolates, in 13 of 15 environmental isolates, and it showed that environmental and clinical isolates were genetically clustered apart from nonresistant isolates. Patients with azole-resistant aspergillosis might have been colonized with azole-resistant isolates from the environment.

  7. Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Sushil K.; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Minjia; Johnson, Corey R.; Benjamin, Nicole N.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an important human pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent. This protozoan parasite cannot salvage guanine or guanosine and therefore relies on inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides and hence for survival. Since C. parvum IMPDH is highly divergent from the host counterpart, selective inhibitors could potentially be used to treat cryptosporidiosis with minimal effects on its mammalian host. A series of 1,2,3-triazole containing ether CpIMPDH inhibitors are described. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that a small alkyl group on the alpha-position of the ether was required with the (R)-enantiomer significantly more active than the (S)-enantiomer. Electron-withdrawing groups in the 3- and/or 4-positions of the pendent phenyl ring were best and conversion of the quinoline containing inhibitors to quinoline-N-oxides retained inhibitory activity both in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin. The 1,2,3-triazole CpIMPDH inhibitors provide new tools for elucidating the role of IMPDH in C. parvum and may serve as potential therapeutics for treating cryptosporidiosis. PMID:19624136

  8. Novel Triazole-Quinoline Derivatives as Selective Dual Binding Site Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mantoani, Susimaire P; Chierrito, Talita P C; Vilela, Adriana F L; Cardoso, Carmen L; Martínez, Ana; Carvalho, Ivone

    2016-02-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Currently, the only strategy for palliative treatment of AD is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to increase the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. Evidence indicates that AChE also interacts with the β-amyloid (Aβ) protein, acting as a chaperone and increasing the number and neurotoxicity of Aβ fibrils. It is known that AChE has two binding sites: the peripheral site, responsible for the interactions with Aβ, and the catalytic site, related with acetylcholine hydrolysis. In this work, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a library of new tacrine-donepezil hybrids, as a potential dual binding site AChE inhibitor, containing a triazole-quinoline system. The synthesis of hybrids was performed in four steps using the click chemistry strategy. These compounds were evaluated as hAChE and hBChE inhibitors, and some derivatives showed IC50 values in the micro-molar range and were remarkably selective towards hAChE. Kinetic assays and molecular modeling studies confirm that these compounds block both catalytic and peripheral AChE sites. These results are quite interesting since the triazole-quinoline system is a new structural scaffold for AChE inhibitors. Furthermore, the synthetic approach is very efficient for the preparation of target compounds, allowing a further fruitful new chemical library optimization.

  9. ACTION OF A HISTIDINE ANALOGUE, 1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-ALANINE, IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alfred P.; Hartman, Philip E.

    1963-01-01

    Levin, Alfred P. (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.), and Philip E. Hartman. Action of a histidine analogue, 1,2,4-triazole-3-alanine, in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 86:820–828. 1963.—The effect of the histidine analogue, 1,2,4-triazole-3-alanine (TRA), on growth and enzyme synthesis in histidine auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium has been studied. TRA allows an increase of approximately 50% in the amount of protein in a culture but does not allow concomitant synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. Although the analogue prevents the formation of active bacteriophage and of enzymatically active inosine 5′-phosphate dehydrogenase, it does not prevent the formation of enzymatically active l-histidinol phosphate phosphatase or of imidazoleacetol phosphate transaminase, two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of histidine. Of the three known functions of histidine in the cell, TRA mimics two: it is incorporated into protein, and it acts as a repressor material for synthesis of enzymes involved in the formation of histidine. TRA fails to act as a feedback inhibitor of the first step in the formation of histidine. Images PMID:14066480

  10. Neoglycopolymers based on 4-vinyl-1,2,3-triazole monomers prepared by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Martin; Chen, Gaojian; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Stenzel, Martina H

    2010-02-11

    The synthesis of a new glycomonomer based on mannose, prepared via CuAAC, is reported. The resulting 1,2,3-triazole linkage between mannose and the polymer backbone ensures the formation of highly stable glycopolymers, which will not undergo hydrolysis. The monomer 2'-(4-vinyl-[1,2,3]-triazol-1-yl)ethyl-O-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was polymerized in the presence of a RAFT agent - 3-benzylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanyl propionic acid - to yield well-defined polymers with molecular weights up to 51,500 g mol(-1) and a PDI of 1.16. The resulting polymer was employed as a macroRAFT agent in the polymerization of NIPAAm in order to generate thermo-responsive block copolymers, which undergo reversible micelle formation at elevated temperatures. The rapid interaction between the polymers prepared and ConA confirms the high affinity of these structures to proteins. While the linear glycopolymers already undergo a fast complexation with ConA, the reported rates have found to be exceeded by the micellar glycopolymer structure presented in the current contribution.

  11. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  12. Metal based new triazoles: their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  13. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L(1)-L(3) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  14. Triazole incorporated thiazoles as a new class of anticonvulsants: design, synthesis and in vivo screening.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahsan, Waquar

    2010-04-01

    Various 3-[4-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]-4-(substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones (7a-t) were designed keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity. Thiazole and triazole moieties being anticonvulsants were clubbed together to get the titled compounds and their in vivo anticonvulsant screening were performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Two compounds 7d and 7f showed significant anticonvulsant activity in both the screens with ED(50) values 23.9 mg/kg and 13.4 mg/kg respectively in MES screen and 178.6 mg/kg and 81.6 mg/kg respectively in scPTZ test. They displayed a wide margin of safety with Protective index (PI), median hypnotic dose (HD(50)) and median lethal dose (LD(50)) much higher than the standard drugs.

  15. Nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J; Fortina, Paolo; Park, Jason Y

    2017-03-01

    Important and emerging trends at the interface of luminescence, nucleic acids and nanotechnology are: (i) the conventional luminescence labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. DNA tetrahedron); (ii) the labeling of bulk nucleic acids (e.g. single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. copper nanoclusters); and (iii) the labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. origami DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. silver nanoclusters). This review surveys recent advances in these three different approaches to the generation of nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids, and includes both direct and indirect labeling methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Unpredictable susceptibility of emerging clinical moulds to tri-azoles: review of the literature and upcoming challenges for mould identification.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R; Oliveira, M; Amorim, A; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2015-07-01

    Tri-azoles represent the front-line drugs for the treatment of mould diseases; nevertheless, some emerging moulds, such as Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., Mucorales and others, may be less susceptible or resistant to these antifungals. A review of the literature was conducted on the susceptibility of rare moulds to the tri-azoles itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. Particular attention was paid to isolates identified by molecular analyses. The range of susceptibility values described for the three tri-azoles was frequently large (from 0.06 to >16), and a high variability was found within each species; isolates were rarely reported as entirely susceptible to all tri-azoles. In addition, the susceptibility of 76 emerging moulds from our collection (including Hypocreales, Dothideomycetes, Scedosporium spp., Mucorales and rare Aspergillus spp.) to itraconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Susceptibility discrepancies (of two dilutions) were found comparing CLSI and EUCAST for Dothideomycetes; the values for the remaining moulds were similar. More practical, faster and inexpensive susceptibility tools are welcome for testing emerging moulds, as these tests still represent a critical tool to support clinicians on the selection of proper antifungal treatment. The susceptibility of emerging moulds to tri-azoles cannot be predicted exclusively following mould identification, as the isolates' susceptibilities showed highly variable values. Some emerging moulds still remain very difficult to identity, even following standard molecular analyses which result in complex fungal collections. This fact limits the definition of epidemiological cut-offs and clinical breakpoints that are still imperative for emerging moulds.

  17. Crystal structures of five 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium halide salts

    PubMed Central

    Guino-o, Marites A.; Talbot, Meghan O.; Slitts, Michael M.; Pham, Theresa N.; Audi, Maya C.; Janzen, Daron E.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric units for the salts 4-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-1-isopropyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H13FN3 +·I−, (1), 1-isopropyl-4-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C12H16N3 +·I−, (2), 1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H14N3 +·I−, (3), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C9H10N3 +·I−, (4), contain one cation and one iodide ion, whereas in 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C15H14N3 +·Br−·H2O, (5), there is an additional single water mol­ecule. There is a predominant C—H⋯X(halide) inter­action for all salts, resulting in a two-dimensional extended sheet network between the triazolium cation and the halide ions. For salts with para-substitution on the aryl ring, there is an additional π–anion inter­action between a triazolium carbon and iodide displayed by the layers. For salts without the para-substitution on the aryl ring, the π–π inter­actions are between the triazolium and aryl rings. The melting points of these salts agree with the predicted substituent inductive effects. PMID:26090137

  18. Mixed sulfoisophthalate and 1,2,4-triazole directed d10 metal coordination polymers: Synthesis, property and structural diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Guo, Kai; Feng, Hui-Jun; Miao, Wei-Ni; He, Ting-Ting; Xu, Ling

    2017-10-01

    This work presents six d10-metal coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of 5-sulfoisophthalate (H2SIP-) and 1,2,4-triazoles (1H-1,2,4-triazole (Htr), 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Hatr)), 3D [Zn7(SIP)2(tr)8(H2O)4]·4H2O (1), 3D [Zn4(SIP)(atr)5(H2O)2]·3H2O (2), 2D [Zn2(SIP)(atr)(H2O)3]·2H2O (3), 2D [Ag(H2SIP)(Hatr)] (4 and 5), and 3D [Cd3(SIP)(tr)2(OH)]·H2O (6) under hydrothermal conditions. The structural analysis indicates a ligand directed structural diversity in the metal-(H)SIP-triazole system. The characterizations of 1-6 indicate that the bulk samples are pure phases, the thermal decomposition temperatures are beyond 300 °C, and the fluorescence are blue. The maximum emissions of 1-3 and 6 at around 410 nm are related with the intraligand π→π* transitions of 1,2,4-triazole moieties, and those at ca. 350 nm in 4 and 5 are assigned to intraligand transitions of (H)SIP ligands. The temperature-dependent fluorescence of 1-6 show thermal quenchings with fluorescence quenching rates ranging 22.9-74.2%, and the fluorescence cannot recover fully when it is back to ambient temperature.

  19. Catalytic oxygenation of sp3 "C-H" bonds with Ir(III) complexes of chelating triazoles and mesoionic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Hohloch, Stephan; Kaiser, Selina; Duecker, Fenja Leena; Bolje, Aljoša; Maity, Ramananda; Košmrlj, Janez; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2015-01-14

    Cp*-Ir(III) complexes with additional chelating ligands are known active pre-catalysts for the oxygenation of C-H bonds. We present here eight examples of such complexes where the denticity of the chelating ligands has been varied from the well-known 2,2'-bpy through pyridyl-triazole, bi-triazole to ligands containing pyridyl-triazolylidene, triazolyl-triazolylidene and bi-triazolylidenes. Additionally, we also compare the catalytic results to complexes containing chelating cyclometallated ligands with additional triazole or triazolylidene donors. Single crystal X-ray structural data are presented for all the new complexes that contain one or more triazolylidene donors of the mesoionic carbene type. We present the first example of a metal complex containing a chelating triazole-triazolylidene ligand. The results of the catalytic screening show that complexes containing unsymmetrical donors of the pyridyl-triazole or pyridyl-triazolylidene types are the most potent pre-catalysts for the C-H oxygenation of cyclooctane in the presence of either m-CPBA or NaIO4 as a sacrificial oxidant. These pre-catalysts can also be used to oxygenate C-H bonds in other substrates such as fluorene and ethyl benzene. The most potent pre-catalysts presented here work with a lower catalyst loading and under milder conditions while delivering better product yields in comparison with related literature known Ir(III) pre-catalysts. These results thus point to the potential of ligands with unsymmetrical donors obtained through the click reaction in oxidation catalysis.

  20. Combination Effects of (Tri)Azole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rieke, Svenja; Koehn, Sophie; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen; Pfeil, Rudolf; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (tri)azole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl) were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol) and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP) enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence of this effect. PMID

  1. Glycotriazole-peptides derived from the peptide HSP1: synergistic effect of triazole and saccharide rings on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Junior, Eduardo F C; Guimarães, Carlos F R C; Franco, Lucas L; Alves, Ricardo J; Kato, Kelly C; Martins, Helen R; de Souza Filho, José D; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Munhoz, Victor H O; Resende, Jarbas M; Verly, Rodrigo M

    2017-08-01

    This work proposes a strategy that uses solid-phase peptide synthesis associated with copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reaction to promote the glycosylation of an antimicrobial peptide (HSP1) containing a carboxyamidated C-terminus (HSP1-NH2). Two glycotriazole-peptides, namely [p-Glc-trz-G(1)]HSP1-NH2 and [p-GlcNAc-trz-G(1)]HSP1-NH2, were prepared using per-O-acetylated azide derivatives of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and sodium ascorbate as a reducing agent. In order to investigate the synergistic action of the carbohydrate motif linked to the triazole-peptide structure, a triazole derivative [trz-G(1)]HSP1-NH2 was also prepared. A set of biophysical approaches such as DLS, Zeta Potential, SPR and carboxyfluorescein leakage from phospholipid vesicles confirmed higher membrane disruption and lytic activities as well as stronger peptide-LUVs interactions for the glycotriazole-peptides when compared to HSP1-NH2 and to its triazole derivative, which is in accordance with the performed biological assays: whereas HSP1-NH2 presents relatively low and [trz-G(1)]HSP1-NH2 just moderate fungicidal activity, the glycotriazole-peptides are significantly more effective antifungal agents. In addition, the glycotriazole-peptides and the triazole derivative present strong inhibition effects on ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans, when compared to HSP1-NH2 alone. In conclusion, the increased fungicidal activity of the glycotriazole-peptides seems to be the result of (A) more pronounced membrane-disruptive properties, which is related to the presence of a saccharide ring, together with (B) the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which seems to be related to the presence of both the monosaccharide and the triazole rings.

  2. Combination effects of (tri)azole fungicides on hormone production and xenobiotic metabolism in a human placental cell line.

    PubMed

    Rieke, Svenja; Koehn, Sophie; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen; Pfeil, Rudolf; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip

    2014-09-17

    Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (tri)azole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl) were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol) and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP) enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence this effect.

  3. Boosting with Subtype C CN54rgp140 Protein Adjuvanted with Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant after Priming with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA Is Safe and Enhances Immune Responses: A Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sarah; Geldmacher, Christof; Munseri, Patricia J.; Aboud, Said; Missanga, Marco; Mann, Philipp; Wahren, Britta; Ferrari, Guido; Polonis, Victoria R.; Robb, Merlin L.; Weber, Jonathan; Tatoud, Roger; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Lyamuya, Eligius F.; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sandström, Eric; Kroidl, Arne; Bakari, Muhammad; Nilsson, Charlotta; McCormack, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    Background A vaccine against HIV is widely considered the most effective and sustainable way of reducing new infections. We evaluated the safety and impact of boosting with subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted in glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-AF) in Tanzanian volunteers previously given three immunizations with HIV-DNA followed by two immunizations with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA). Methods Forty volunteers (35 vaccinees and five placebo recipients) were given two CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations 30–71 weeks after the last HIV-MVA vaccination. These immunizations were delivered intramuscularly four weeks apart. Results The vaccine was safe and well tolerated except for one episode of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia that was classified as severe adverse event. Two weeks after the second HIV-MVA vaccination 34 (97%) of the 35 previously vaccinated developed Env-specific binding antibodies, and 79% and 84% displayed IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag and Env, respectively. Binding antibodies to subtype C Env (included in HIV-DNA and protein boost), subtype B Env (included only in HIV-DNA) and CRF01_AE Env (included only in HIV-MVA) were significantly boosted by the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations. Functional antibodies detected using an infectious molecular clone virus/peripheral blood mononuclear cell neutralization assay, a pseudovirus/TZM-bl neutralization assay or by assays for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were not significantly boosted. In contrast, T-cell proliferative responses to subtype B MN antigen and IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Env peptides were significantly enhanced. Four volunteers not primed with HIV-DNA and HIV-MVA before the CN54rgp140/GLA-AF immunizations mounted an antibody response, while cell-mediated responses were rare. After the two Env subtype C protein immunizations, a trend towards higher median subtype C Env binding antibody titers was found in vaccinees who had received HIV-DNA and HIV

  4. Systems engineering of tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260, and glutamine 265 in cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans to enhance maltodextrin specificity for 2-O-(D)-glucopyranosyl-(L)-ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhi; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the site saturation mutagenesis of tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260 and glutamine 265 in the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Paenibacillus macerans was conducted to improve the specificity of CGTase for maltodextrin, which can be used as a cheap and easily soluble glycosyl donor for the synthesis of 2-O-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G). Specifically, the site-saturation mutagenesis of three sites-tyrosine 195, tyrosine 260, and glutamine 265-was performed, and it was found that the resulting mutants (containing the mutations Y195S [tyrosine → serine], Y260R [tyrosine → arginine], and Q265K [glutamine → lysine]) produced higher AA-2G yields than the wild type and the other mutant CGTases when maltodextrin was used as the glycosyl donor. Furthermore, double and triple mutations were introduced, and four mutants (containing Y195S/Y260R, Y195S/Q265K, Y260R/Q265K, and Y260R/Q265K/Y195S) were obtained and evaluated for the capacity to produce AA-2G. The Y260R/Q265K/Y195S triple mutant produced the highest titer of AA-2G at 1.92 g/liter, which was 60% higher than that (1.20 g/liter) produced by the wild-type CGTase. The kinetics analysis of AA-2G synthesis by the mutant CGTases confirmed the enhanced maltodextrin specificity, and it was also found that compared with the wild-type CGTase, all seven mutants had lower cyclization activities and higher hydrolysis and disproportionation activities. Finally, the mechanism responsible for the enhanced substrate specificity was explored by structure modeling, which indicated that the enhancement of maltodextrin specificity may be related to the changes of hydrogen bonding interactions between the side chain of residue at the three positions (195, 260, and 265) and the substrate sugars. This work adds to our understanding of the synthesis of AA-2G and makes the Y260R/Q265K/Y195S mutant a good starting point for further development by protein engineering.

  5. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity. Labels... accuracy including, where applicable, the correct expiration date, control number, storage instructions...

  6. Computational studies on the regioselectivity of metal-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles via click reaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Fattahi, Bahareh; Heravi, Majid M

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the experimental and computational chemists have been attracted widely to the click synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles and their derivatives, mainly due to the fact that they are interesting from structural and mechanistic points of view. Moreover, catalyzed click have been well established as a successful strategy showing high regioselectivity and high yield for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles. In this review, we try to highlight the recently reported computational assessments on the origins and predection of regioselectivity in the catalyzed click synthesis of triazoles from the mechanistic and thermodynamical points of view. In this light, density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the free energy profiles of azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions have been underscored. The stereoelectronic features for the role of copper, ruthenium, and iridium as catalyst on regioselectivity of click reactions have also be discussed. Graphical Abstract Computational origins for the regioselective behavior of 1,2,3 triazoles click synthesis.

  7. Molecular complexes of alprazolam with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols. Evaluation of supramolecular heterosynthons mediated by a triazole ring.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sunil; Azim, Yasser; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2010-09-01

    A series of molecular complexes, both co-crystals and salts, of a triazole drug-alprazolam-with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols have been analyzed with respect to heterosynthons present in the crystal structures. In all cases, the triazole ring behaves as an efficient hydrogen bond acceptor with the acidic coformers. The hydrogen bond patterns exhibited with aromatic carboxylic acids were found to depend on the nature and position of the substituents. Being a strong acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid forms a salt with alprazolam. With aliphatic dicarboxylic acids alprazolam forms hydrates and the water molecules play a central role in synthon formation and crystal packing. The triazole ring makes two distinct heterosynthons in the molecular complex with boric acid. Boronic acids and phenols form consistent hydrogen bond patterns, and these are seemingly independent of the substitutional effects. Boronic acids form noncentrosymmetric cyclic synthons, while phenols form O--H...N hydrogen bonds with the triazole ring.

  8. Automated Synthesis of a Library of Triazolated 1,2,5-Thiadiazepane 1,1-Dioxides via a Double aza-Michael Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Hill, David; Ullah, Farman; Bi, Danse; Porubsky, Patrick; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H.; Santini, Conrad; Organ, Michael G.; Hanson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a 96-member library of triazolated 1,2,5-thiadiazepane 1,1-dioxides was performed on a Chemspeed Accelerator (SLT-100) automated parallel synthesis platform, culminating in the successful preparation of 94 out of 96 possible products. The key step, a one-pot, sequential elimination, double-aza-Michael reaction, and [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition pathway has been automated and utilized in the production of two sets of triazolated sultam products. PMID:22853708

  9. Automated synthesis of a library of triazolated 1,2,5-thiadiazepane 1,1-dioxides via a double aza-Michael strategy.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qin; Javed, Salim; Hill, David; Ullah, Farman; Bi, Danse; Porubsky, Patrick; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H; Santini, Conrad; Organ, Michael G; Hanson, Paul R

    2012-08-13

    The construction of a 96-member library of triazolated 1,2,5-thiadiazepane 1,1-dioxides was performed on a Chemspeed Accelerator (SLT-100) automated parallel synthesis platform, culminating in the successful preparation of 94 out of 96 possible products. The key step, a one-pot, sequential elimination, double-aza-Michael reaction, and [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition pathway has been automated and utilized in the production of two sets of triazolated sultam products.

  10. Rapid discovery of potent α-fucosidase inhibitors by in situ screening of a library of (pyrrolidin-2-yl)triazoles.

    PubMed

    Elías-Rodríguez, Pilar; Moreno-Clavijo, Elena; Carmona, Ana T; Moreno-Vargas, Antonio J; Robina, Inmaculada

    2014-08-21

    The synthesis of a small library of (pyrrolidin-2-yl)triazoles via copper catalysed cycloaddition of an alkynyl iminocyclopentitol and a set of commercial and synthetic azides has been achieved. The in situ screening for the activity towards α-fucosidase of the resulting triazoles has allowed the identification of one of the most potent and selective pyrrolidine derived inhibitors of this enzyme (Ki = 4 nM).

  11. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of (E)-N'-(substituted benzylidene)-2-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-ethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbohydrazides.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P V B; Kamala Prasad, V; Manjunath, G; Venkata Ramana, P

    2016-09-01

    Triazoles and their derivatives are important precursors in the pharmacological field due to their broad diversity of medicinal and biological deed. In this article, the exploration is to put an effort to produce some novel biologically active triazole 4-carbohydrazide derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized and confirmed by spectral data and were screened for anti-bacterial activity. Compounds 5(d-i), 5l and 5m were observed to possess potent anti-microbial activity.

  12. Characterization of non-specific protein adsorption induced by triazole groups on the chromatography media using Cu (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction for ligand immobilization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Ren, Jun; Tian, Kaikai; Jia, Lingyun

    2016-12-09

    As an efficient and facile reaction, click chemistry has been growingly used in the preparation of chromatography media for immobilizing varying types of ligands. For the widely used Cu (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide click reaction, a 1, 2, 3-triazole group will be inevitably introduced in the molecular linkage, which could give rise to unexpected non-specific adsorption especially for the media employing small compound ligands or high ligand density. Triazole-induced non-specific protein adsorption on sepharose resins was evaluated systematically in this work, by considering the effects of triazole content, length of spacer arm, and solution conditions. We found that triazole content of a resin played the key role. Protein adsorption became significant when the media was coupled with triazole at a medium density (about 60μmol/mL gel), and the binding amount further increased with triazole density. The resin with triazole content of about 100μmol/mL gel could adsorb human IgG, bovine serum albumin and lysozyme at the amount of 13.6, 30.0, and 5.1mg/mL respectively. Proteins tended to be adsorbed at higher amount as the pH of solution approached their isoelectric points, and increasing salt concentration could reduce triazole-induced adsorption but only within limited extent. This study can facilitate reasonable application of click chemistry in the synthesis of chromatography media, by providing some basic principles for optimizing structural properties of separation media and choosing suitable solution conditions.

  13. Selective, tunable O2 binding in cobalt(II)–triazolate/pyrazolate metal–organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Dianne J.; Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Darago, Lucy E.; ...

    2016-05-16

    Here, the air-free reaction of CoCl2 with 1,3,5-tri(1H- 1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)benzene (H3BTTri) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and methanol leads to the formation of Co- BTTri (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BTTri)8]2·DMF), a sodalite-type metal-organic framework. Desolvation of this material generates coordinatively unsaturated low-spin cobalt(II) centers that exhibit a strong preference for binding O2 over N2, with isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst) of -34(1) and -12(1) kJ/ mol, respectively. The low-spin (S = 1/2) electronic configuration of the metal centers in the desolvated framework is supported by structural, magnetic susceptibility, and computational studies. A single-crystal X-ray structure determination reveals that O2 binds end-on to each framework cobalt center inmore » a 1:1 ratio with a Co-O2 bond distance of 1.973(6) Å. Replacement of one of the triazolate linkers with a more electron-donating pyrazolate group leads to the isostructural framework Co-BDTriP (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BDTriP)8]2·DMF; H3BDTriP = 5,5'-(5-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(1H-1,2,3-triazole)), which demonstrates markedly higher yet still fully reversible O2 affinities (Qst = -47(1) kJ/mol at low loadings). Electronic structure calculations suggest that the O2 adducts in Co-BTTri are best described as cobalt(II)-dioxygen species with partial electron transfer, while the stronger binding sites in Co-BDTriP form cobalt(III)-superoxo moieties. The stability, selectivity, and high O2 adsorption capacity of these materials render them promising new adsorbents for air separation processes.« less

  14. Selective, Tunable O2 Binding in Cobalt(II)–Triazolate/Pyrazolate Metal–Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The air-free reaction of CoCl2 with 1,3,5-tri(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)benzene (H3BTTri) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and methanol leads to the formation of Co-BTTri (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BTTri)8]2·DMF), a sodalite-type metal–organic framework. Desolvation of this material generates coordinatively unsaturated low-spin cobalt(II) centers that exhibit a strong preference for binding O2 over N2, with isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst) of −34(1) and −12(1) kJ/mol, respectively. The low-spin (S = 1/2) electronic configuration of the metal centers in the desolvated framework is supported by structural, magnetic susceptibility, and computational studies. A single-crystal X-ray structure determination reveals that O2 binds end-on to each framework cobalt center in a 1:1 ratio with a Co–O2 bond distance of 1.973(6) Å. Replacement of one of the triazolate linkers with a more electron-donating pyrazolate group leads to the isostructural framework Co-BDTriP (Co3[(Co4Cl)3(BDTriP)8]2·DMF; H3BDTriP = 5,5′-(5-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(1H-1,2,3-triazole)), which demonstrates markedly higher yet still fully reversible O2 affinities (Qst = −47(1) kJ/mol at low loadings). Electronic structure calculations suggest that the O2 adducts in Co-BTTri are best described as cobalt(II)–dioxygen species with partial electron transfer, while the stronger binding sites in Co-BDTriP form cobalt(III)–superoxo moieties. The stability, selectivity, and high O2 adsorption capacity of these materials render them promising new adsorbents for air separation processes. PMID:27180991

  15. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  16. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  17. From Labels to Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  18. Photoaffinity-labeled Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Skoog, Folke

    1976-01-01

    Two new azidopurine derivatives, 2-azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and 2-azido-N6-benzyladenine, have been synthesized as potential photoaffinity labels for probing cytokinin-binding sites. The preparation and the biological activity of these compounds are described. PMID:16659772

  19. Syntheses, structural characterization and photophysical properties of 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole rhenium(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Obata, Makoto; Kitamura, Asuka; Mori, Akemi; Kameyama, Chiaki; Czaplewska, Justyna A; Tanaka, Rika; Kinoshita, Isamu; Kusumoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Mikata, Yuji; Funabiki, Takuzo; Yano, Shigenobu

    2008-07-07

    Novel chelators, i.e., 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole derivatives, were synthesized by means of Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and used to prepare luminescent Re(I) complexes [ReCl(CO)(3)(Bn-pyta)], [ReCl(CO)(3)(AcGlc-pyta)] and [ReCl(CO)(3)(Glc-pyta)] (Bn-pyta = 1-benzyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole, AcGlc-pyta = 2-(4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)ethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, Glc-pyta = 2-(4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)ethyl beta-d-glucopyranoside). X-Ray crystallography of Bn-pyta and Glc-pyta indicated an azocompound-like structure while the 1,2,4-triazole isomer has an azine character. [ReCl(CO)(3)(Bn-pyta)] crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group P2(1)/n. Bn-pyta ligand coordinates with the nitrogen atoms of the 2-pyridyl group and the 3-position of 1,2,3-triazole ring, which is a very similar coordinating fashion to that of the 2,2'-bipyridine derivative. The glucoconjugated Re(I) complexes [ReCl(CO)(3)(AcGlc-pyta)] and [ReCl(CO)(3)(Glc-pyta)] hardly crystallized, and were analyzed by applying extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The EXAFS analyses suggested that the glucoconjugation at the 1-position of the 1,2,3-triazole makes no influence to the coordinating fashion of 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole. [ReCl(CO)(3)(Bn-pyta)] showed a blue-shifted maximum absorption (333 nm, 3.97 x 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)) compared with [ReCl(CO)(3)(bpy)] (371 nm, 3.35 x 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)). These absorptions were clearly assigned to be the mixed metal-ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLLCT) on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The luminescence spectrum of [ReCl(CO)(3)(Bn-pyta)] also showed this blue-shifted feature when compared with that of [ReCl(CO)(3)(bpy)]. The luminescence lifetime of [ReCl(CO)(3)(Bn-pyta)] was determined to be 8.90 mus in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran at 77 K, which is longer than that of [ReCl(CO)(3)(bpy)] (3.17 micros). The blue-shifted electronic

  20. Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles via Oxidative Heterocyclization: Selective C-N Bond Over C-S Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Anupal; Guin, Srimanta; Rajamanickam, Suresh; Rout, Saroj Kumar; Patel, Bhisma K

    2015-09-18

    The higher propensity of C-N over C-S bond forming ability was demonstrated, through formal C-H functionalization during the construction of 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides catalyzed by Cu(II). However, steric factors imparted by the o-disubstituted substrates tend to change the reaction path giving thiodiazole as the major or an exclusive product. Upon prolonging the reaction time, the in situ generated thiones are transformed to 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles via a desulfurization process. Two classes of heterocycles viz. 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles can be synthesized from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides by simply adjusting the reaction time. Desulfurization of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones is assisted by thiophilic Cu to provide 1,2,4-triazoles with concomitant formation of CuS and polynuclear sulfur anions as confirmed from scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A one-pot synthesis of an antimicrobial compound has been successfully achieved following this strategy.

  1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 1- and 2-substituted-1,2,3-triazole letrozole-based analogues as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Jérémie; Soultan, Al Haliffa; Richard, Ryan; Touré, Mamadou Mansour; Picot, Nadia; Richard, Rémi; Cuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Robichaud, Gilles A; Touaibia, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    A series of bis- and mono-benzonitrile or phenyl analogues of letrozole 1, bearing (1,2,3 and 1,2,5)-triazole or imidazole, were synthesized and screened for their anti-aromatase activities. The unsubstituted 1,2,3-triazole 10a derivative displayed inhibitory activity comparable with that of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole 1. Compound 10a, bearing a 1,2,3-triazole, is also 10000-times more tightly binding than the corresponding analogue 25 bearing a 1,2,5-triazole, which confirms the importance of a nitrogen atom at position 3 or 4 of the 5-membered ring needed for high activity. The effect on human epithelial adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) proliferation was also evaluated. The compound 10j (IC(50) = 4.64 μM), a letrozole 1 analogue bearing para-cyanophenoxymethylene-1,2,3-triazole decreased proliferation rates of H295R cells by 76 and 99% in 24 and 72 h respectively. Computer calculations, using quantum ab initio structures, suggest a possible correlation between anti-aromatase activity and the distance between the nitrogen in position 3 or 4 of triazole nitrogen and the cyano group nitrogen.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  3. Antiprotozoal Activity of Triazole Derivatives of Dehydroabietic Acid and Oleanolic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pertino, Mariano Walter; Vega, Celeste; Rolón, Miriam; Coronel, Cathia; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-02-28

    Tropical parasitic diseases such as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are considered a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As the drugs currently used to treat these diseases have several disadvantages and side effects, there is an urgent need for new drugs with better selectivity and less toxicity. Structural modifications of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds using click chemistry have enabled access to derivatives with promising antiparasitic activity. The antiprotozoal activity of the terpenes dehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietinol, oleanolic acid, and 34 synthetic derivatives were evaluated against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and promastigotes of Leishmaniabraziliensis and Leishmania infantum. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed on NCTC-Clone 929 cells. The activity of the compounds was moderate and the antiparasitic effect was associated with the linker length between the diterpene and the triazole in dehydroabietinol derivatives. For the oleanolic acid derivatives, a free carboxylic acid function led to better antiparasitic activity.

  4. Triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones targeting the quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette R; Jakobsen, Tim H; Bang, Claus G; Cohrt, Anders Emil; Hansen, Casper L; Clausen, Janie W; Le Quement, Sebastian T; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to devise new antimicrobial treatments for biofilm infections, the bacterial cell-cell communication system termed quorum sensing has emerged as an attractive target. It has proven possible to intercept the communication system by synthetic non-native ligands and thereby lower the pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance of a bacterial biofilm. To identify the structural elements important for antagonistic or agonistic activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR protein, we report the synthesis and screening of new triazole-containing mimics of natural N-acyl homoserine lactones. A series of azide- and alkyne-containing homoserine lactone building blocks was used to prepare an expanded set of 123 homoserine lactone analogues through a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis methods. The resulting compounds were subjected to cell-based quorum sensing screening assays, thereby revealing several bioactive compounds, including 13 compounds with antagonistic activity and 9 compounds with agonistic activity.

  5. Synthesis of triazole Schiff bases: novel inhibitors of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Siddiqui, Salman; Saleem, Muhammad; Taha, Muhammad; Saad, Syed Muhammad; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-11-15

    A series of Schiff base triazoles 1–25 was synthesized and evaluated for their nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 inhibitory activities. Among twenty-five compounds, three compounds 10 (IC50 = 132.20 ± 2.89 lM), 13 (IC50 = 152.83 ± 2.39 lM), and 22 (IC50 = 251.0 ± 6.64 lM) were identified as potent inhibitors with superior activities than the standard EDTA (IC50 = 277.69 ± 2.52 lM). The newly identified inhibitors may open a new avenue for the development of treatment of phosphodiesterase-I related disorders. These compounds were also evaluated for carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and were found to be inactive. The compounds showed non-toxic effect towards PC3 cell lines.

  6. Carbon nitride supported copper nanoparticles: light-induced electronic effect of the support for triazole synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Debkumar; Taher, Abu; Ul Islam, Rafique; Siwal, Samarjeet; Choudhary, Meenakshi; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    The composite framework of graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) supported copper nanoparticle can act as a high-performance photoreactor for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives under light irradiation in the absence of alkaline condition. The photoactivity of gCN originates from an electron transition from the valence band to the conduction band, in the presence of photon energy, and the hot electron acts as a scavenger of the terminal proton of the alkyne molecule to facilitate the formation of copper acetanilide complex. In this study, we have performed the experiment under a different photonic environment, including dark condition, and in the presence and absence of base. A comparative study was also executed using Cu-TiO2 system, as a reference material, in the support of our proposed mechanism. The recycling performance and the photocorrosion effect of the catalyst have also been reported in this study.

  7. Carbon nitride supported copper nanoparticles: light-induced electronic effect of the support for triazole synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Debkumar; Taher, Abu; Ul Islam, Rafique; Siwal, Samarjeet; Choudhary, Meenakshi; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    The composite framework of graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) supported copper nanoparticle can act as a high-performance photoreactor for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives under light irradiation in the absence of alkaline condition. The photoactivity of gCN originates from an electron transition from the valence band to the conduction band, in the presence of photon energy, and the hot electron acts as a scavenger of the terminal proton of the alkyne molecule to facilitate the formation of copper acetanilide complex. In this study, we have performed the experiment under a different photonic environment, including dark condition, and in the presence and absence of base. A comparative study was also executed using Cu-TiO2 system, as a reference material, in the support of our proposed mechanism. The recycling performance and the photocorrosion effect of the catalyst have also been reported in this study.

  8. Characterization of Hydrazinium 3,5-Dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kejian; Meng, Zihui; Xu, Zhibin; Xue, Min; Lin, Zhihui; Wang, Bozhou; Ge, Zhongxue; Qin, Guangmin

    2014-05-01

    The structure of hydrazinium 3,5-dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole (HDNAT) was investigated with infrared (IR), mass spectrometry, 13C-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray crystallography. The crystal density of HDNAT was determined as 1.91 g/cm3 using X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to a monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The thermal decomposition process of HDNAT was investigated via thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) at a heating rate of 10 K/min and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nonisothermal conditions. The decomposition kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained by the Kissinger and Ozawa method. HDNAT can be analyzed by using a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with water : acetonitrile : trifluoroacetic acid (97/3/0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and a capacity factor of 1.33.

  9. Association between Virulence and Triazole Tolerance in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Gao, Fangluan; Shang, Liping; Zhan, Jiasui; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Host resistance and synthetic antimicrobials such as fungicides are two of the main approaches used to control plant diseases in conventional agriculture. Although pathogens often evolve to overcome host resistance and antimicrobials, the majority of reports have involved qualitative host – pathogen interactions or antimicrobials targeting a single pathogen protein or metabolic pathway. Studies that consider jointly the evolution of virulence, defined as the degree of damage caused to a host by parasite infection, and antimicrobial resistance are rare. Here we compared virulence and fungicide tolerance in the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola sampled from wheat fields across three continents and found a positive correlation between virulence and tolerance to a triazole fungicide. We also found that quantitative host resistance selected for higher pathogen virulence. The possible mechanisms responsible for these observations and their consequences for sustainable disease management are discussed. PMID:23555044

  10. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of complex unsaturated isosteviol-derived triazole conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Khaybullin, Ravil N; Liang, Xiao; Cisneros, Katherine; Qi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the last two decades, diterpenoid isosteviol and its derivatives have gained significant attention for novel chemical transformation in the drug discovery field. Results: An efficient way towards the synthesis of structurally diverse isosteviol derivatives was described here employing unsaturated functionalities as attractive templates for further transformation such as epoxidation. These structurally diverse compounds exhibited promising cytotoxic activities on different types of cancer cell lines, leading to drug discovery derived from natural products for the treatment of cancer. Conclusion: In this work, novel isosteviol derivatives with Michael acceptors were synthesized to expand the diversity and complexity of a class of isosteviol-derived triazole conjugates to facilitate the development of potential antitumor agents. PMID:26653151

  11. Excitonic Coupling and Femtosecond Relaxation of Zinc Porphyrin Oligomers Linked with Triazole Bridge: Dynamics and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bukreev, Alexey; Mikhailov, Konstantin; Shelaev, Ivan; Gostev, Fedor; Polevaya, Yuliya; Tyurin, Vladimir; Beletskaya, Irina; Umansky, Stanislav; Nadtochenko, Victor

    2016-03-31

    The synthesis of new zinc porphyrin oligomers linked by a triazole bridge was carried out via "click" reaction. A split in the porphyrin oligomer B-band was observed. It was considered as evidence of exciton-excitonic coupling. The relaxation of excited states in Q-band porphyrin oligomers was studied by the femtosecond laser spectroscopy technique with a 20 fs pump pulse. The transient oscillations of two B-band excitonic peaks have a π-radian shift. For explanation of the coherent oscillation, a theoretical model was developed. The model considered the combination of the exciton-excitonic coupling between porphyrin rings in dimer and weak exciton-vibronic coupling in one porphyrin ring. By varying the values of the structural parameters of porphyrins (the strength values of this couplings and measure of symmetry breaking), we obtained correspondence between the experimental data (phase shift and amplitudes of the spectrum oscillations) and the predictions of the model developed here.

  12. Determination of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (amitrole) in environmental waters by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, M; Zapardiel, A; Bermejo, E; Moreno, M

    2003-01-02

    3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (amitrole) is a widely used pesticide, with many difficulties to be analyzed at the regulatory level in drinking water, because its high solubility in water. This paper describes a simple and fast method for the simultaneous determination of amitrole and atrazin-2-hydroxy, principal degradation product of s-triazines, by capillary zone electrophoresis. Separation and determination of these herbicides in water samples was performed in 0.02 mol l(-1) phosphate buffer at pH 3.2. The method allows determination of the amitrole and atrazin-2-hydroxy in water samples in concentration lower than 100 mug l(-1). The detection limits using a previous preconcentration step of amitrole in Alberche River (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) and drinking water spiked samples was of 4 mug l(-1).

  13. Cr(VI) removal via anion exchange on a silver-triazolate MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Feng, Xiao-Quan; Han, Run-Ping; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-05

    Gram-scale synthesis of a silver-triazolato framework - {[Ag8(tz)6](NO3)2·6H2O}n (1-NO3; tz(-)=3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolate) - has been achieved, enabling the systematic investigation of its anion-exchange properties. Our experimental results show that the anion-exchange pattern of 1-NO3 conforms to the so-called Hofmeister bias, which has been correlated to the hydrophobic nature of the MOF pores, and can be understood by considering the difference between the hydration energies of the exchanging anions. Furthermore, 1-NO3 displays a fast, efficient, and reversible adsorption of HCrO4(-) (via anion-exchange) from Cr(VI)-containing aqueous solution (Qmax=37.0 Cr mg/g, 303K), rendering it a promising prototype of a recyclable MOF for Cr(VI) removal.

  14. Synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of novel indoleamide derivatives bearing sulfonamide and triazole pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Devender, N; Gunjan, Sarika; Tripathi, Renu; Tripathi, Rama Pati

    2017-05-05

    Due to the recent reports of growing parasite resistance to artemisinins and other antimalarial drugs, development of new antimalarial chemotypes is an urgent priority. Here in, we report a novel series of adamantyl/cycloheptyl indoleamide derivatives bearing sulfonamide and triazole pharmacophores adopting different chemical modifications and evaluated them for antiplasmodial activity in vitro. Among all the indoleamides, compounds 22, 24, 26 and 30 with sulfonamide pharmacophore showed promising activity with IC50 of 1.87, 1.93, 2.00, 2.17 μM against CQ sensitive Pf3D7 strain and 1.69, 2.12, 1.60, 2.19 μM against CQ resistant PfK1 strain, respectively.

  15. Isavuconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Verweij, Paul E; Mouton, Johan W

    2015-01-01

    The prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate (BAL8557) is an extended-spectrum water-soluble triazole, developed for the treatment of severe invasive and life-threatening fungal diseases. Its active moiety, BAL4815, is a potent inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, resulting in the disruption of fungal membrane structure and function. The active compound shows broad-spectrum of activity and potency against all major opportunistic fungi, such as Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Mucorales, Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives and the true pathogenic fungi, including Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. It is currently in Phase III clinical development for treatment of aspergillosis, candidiasis and mucormycosis, as well as other rare fungi infections. We reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of isavuconazole, and its microbiological and clinical investigation progress in advanced stages of development.

  16. Isavuconazole: a new and promising antifungal triazole for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2008-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Isavuconazole (BAL4815) is a promising novel broad-spectrum triazole in late-stage clinical development that has proven to be active in vitro against Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans, the most common agents of IFIs. Furthermore, isavuconazole has a pharmacokinetic profile that allows oral and intravenous administration with no severe toxicity. In vivo data from animal models are also encouraging. However, very little information on clinical efficacy is available. Four clinical trials are currently in progress to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of isavuconazole for the treatment and prevention of IFIs. In the absence of clinical and cost data, the real possibilities of this agent as a competitor for the treatment and prevention of IFIs in the clinical setting are still unknown.

  17. Carbon nitride supported copper nanoparticles: light-induced electronic effect of the support for triazole synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Abu; Ul Islam, Rafique; Siwal, Samarjeet; Choudhary, Meenakshi; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    The composite framework of graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) supported copper nanoparticle can act as a high-performance photoreactor for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives under light irradiation in the absence of alkaline condition. The photoactivity of gCN originates from an electron transition from the valence band to the conduction band, in the presence of photon energy, and the hot electron acts as a scavenger of the terminal proton of the alkyne molecule to facilitate the formation of copper acetanilide complex. In this study, we have performed the experiment under a different photonic environment, including dark condition, and in the presence and absence of base. A comparative study was also executed using Cu-TiO2 system, as a reference material, in the support of our proposed mechanism. The recycling performance and the photocorrosion effect of the catalyst have also been reported in this study. PMID:28018648

  18. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and spectroscopic characterization of novel imidazolone, triazole and triazinone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Melha, Sraa

    2012-10-01

    The reactions of 2-phenyl-4-arylmethylene-2-oxazolin-5-ones (1a, b) and 2-phenyl-4-arylazo-2-oxazolin-5-ones (8a, b) with p-aminoazobenzene derivatives (2a-c) gave the corresponding imidazolone derivatives (4a-f) and triazole derivatives (10a-f), respectively. Also, the reaction of 1a with o-aminophenol to give the imidazolone derivative 5 was studied. The reaction of 1a with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine gave the corresponding 1,2,4-triazine derivatives 14a-c, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro antifungal potential against Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis fabae fungal strains. The results revealed that the investigated compounds exhibited antibacterial and a significant antifungal activity.

  19. Dsc Orthologs Are Required for Hypoxia Adaptation, Triazole Drug Responses, and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Willger, Sven D.; Cornish, E. Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A.; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ΔdscA and ΔdscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ΔdscA and ΔdscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ΔdscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

  20. Multiple Species of Trichosporon Produce Biofilms Highly Resistant to Triazoles and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Iturrieta-González, Isabel Antonieta; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Bizerra, Fernando César; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon spp. have increased considerably in recent years, especially in neutropenic and critically ill patients using catheters and antibiotics. The genus presents limited sensitivity to different antifungal agents, but triazoles are the first choice for treatment. Here, we investigated the biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility to triazoles and amphotericin B of 54 Trichosporon spp. isolates obtained from blood samples (19), urine (20) and superficial mycosis (15). All isolates and 7 reference strains were identified by sequence analysis and phylogenetic inferences of the IGS1 region of the rDNA. Biofilms were grown on 96-well plates and quantitation was performed using crystal violet staining, complemented with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Susceptibility tests for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B were processed using the microdilution broth method (CLSI) for planktonic cells and XTT reduction assay for biofilm-forming cells. Our results showed that T. asahii was the most frequent species identified (66.7%), followed by T. faecale (11.1%), T. asteroides (9.3%), T. inkin (7.4%), T. dermatis (3.7%) and one T. coremiiforme (1.8%). We identified 4 genotypes within T. asahii isolates (G1, G3, G4 and G5) and 2 genotypes within T. faecale (G1 and G3). All species exhibited high adhesion and biofilm formation capabilities, mainly T. inkin, T. asteroides and T. faecale. Microscopy images of high biofilm-producing isolates showed that T. asahii presented mainly hyphae and arthroconidia, whereas T. asteroides exhibited mainly short arthroconidia and few filaments. Voriconazole exhibited the best in vitro activity against all species tested. Biofilm-forming cells of isolates and reference strains were highly resistant to all antifungals tested. We concluded that levels of biofilm formation by Trichosporon spp. were similar or even greater than those described for the Candida genus. Biofilm

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization and computed optical analysis of potent triazole based compounds.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Mushtaq, Fazila; Khalid, Muhammad; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Ali, Bakhat; Braga, Ataualpa A C

    2017-09-13

    Biologically active triazole Schiff base ligand (L) and metal complexes [Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] are reported herein. The ligand acted as tridentate and coordinated towards metallic ions via azomethine-N, triazolic-N moiety and deprotonated-O of phenyl substituents in an octahedral manner. These compounds were characterized by physical, spectral and analytical analysis. The synthesized ligand and metal complexes were screened for antibacterial pathogens against Chromohalobacter salexigens, Chromohalobacter israelensi, Halomonas halofila and Halomonas salina, antifungal bioassay against Aspergillus niger and Aspergellus flavin, antioxidant (DPPH, phosphomolybdate) and also for enzyme inhibition [butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] studies. The results of these activities indicated the ligand to possess potential activity which significantly increased upon chelation. Moreover, vibrational bands, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and natural bond analysis (NBO) of ligand (1) were carried out through density functional theory (DFT) with B3lYP/6-311++G (d,p) approach. While, UV-Vis analysis was performed by time dependent TD-DFT with B3lYP/6-311++G (d,p) method. NBO analysis revealed that investigated compound (L) contains enormous molecular stability owing to hyper conjugative interactions. Theoretical spectroscopic findings showed good agreement to experimental spectroscopic data. Global reactivity descriptors were calculated using the energies of FMOs which indicated compound (L) might be bioactive. These parameters confirmed the charge transfer phenomenon and reasonable correspondence with experimental bioactivity results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modelling physico-chemical properties of (benzo)triazoles, and screening for environmental partitioning.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, B; Gramatica, P

    2011-01-01

    (Benzo)triazoles are distributed throughout the environment, mainly in water compartments, because of their wide use in industry where they are employed in pharmaceutical, agricultural and deicing products. They are hazardous chemicals that adversely affect humans and other non-target species, and are on the list of substances of very high concern (SVHC) in the new European regulation of chemicals - REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances). Thus there is a vital need for further investigations to understand the behavior of these compounds in biota and the environment. In such a scenario, physico-chemical properties like aqueous solubility, hydrophobicity, vapor pressure and melting point can be useful. However, the limited availability and the high cost of lab testing prevents the acquisition of necessary experimental data that industry must submit for the registration of these chemicals. In such cases a preliminary analysis can be made using Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) models. For such an analysis, we propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori by splitting the available experimental data, which were then used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. These models, after verification of their structural applicability domain (AD), were used to predict the properties of a total of 351 compounds, including those in the REACH preregistration list. Finally, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the predictions to rank the environmental partitioning properties (relevant for leaching and volatility) of new and untested (benzo)triazoles within the AD of each model. Our study using this approach highlighted compounds dangerous for the aquatic compartment. Similar analyses using predictions obtained by the EPI Suite and

  3. A predictive data-driven framework for endocrine prioritization: a triazole fungicide case study

    PubMed Central

    Paul Friedman, Katie; Papineni, Sabitha; Marty, M. Sue; Yi, Kun Don; Goetz, Amber K.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Kwiatkowski, Pat; Wolf, Douglas C.; Blacker, Ann M.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a tiered screening approach to determine the potential for a chemical to interact with estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone systems and/or perturb steroidogenesis. Use of high-throughput screening (HTS) to predict hazard and exposure is shifting the EDSP approach to (1) prioritization of chemicals for further screening; and (2) targeted use of EDSP Tier 1 assays to inform specific data needs. In this work, toxicology data for three triazole fungicides (triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil) were evaluated, including HTS results, EDSP Tier 1 screening (and other scientifically relevant information), and EPA guideline mammalian toxicology study data. The endocrine-related bioactivity predictions from HTS and information that satisfied the EDSP Tier 1 requirements were qualitatively concordant. Current limitations in the available HTS battery for thyroid and steroidogenesis pathways were mitigated by inclusion of guideline toxicology studies in this analysis. Similar margins (3–5 orders of magnitude) were observed between HTS-predicted human bioactivity and exposure values and between in vivo mammalian bioactivity and EPA chronic human exposure estimates for these products’ registered uses. Combined HTS hazard and human exposure predictions suggest low priority for higher-tiered endocrine testing of these triazoles. Comparison with the mammalian toxicology database indicated that this HTS-based prioritization would have been protective for any potential in vivo effects that form the basis of current risk assessment for these chemicals. This example demonstrates an effective, human health protective roadmap for EDSP evaluation of pesticide active ingredients via prioritization using HTS and guideline toxicology information. PMID:27347635

  4. Triazoles inhibit cholesterol export from lysosomes by binding to NPC1.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Michael N; Lu, Feiran; Li, Xiaochun; Das, Akash; Liang, Qiren; De Brabander, Jef K; Brown, Michael S; Goldstein, Joseph L

    2017-01-03

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a membrane protein of lysosomes, is required for the export of cholesterol derived from receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL. Lysosomal cholesterol export is reportedly inhibited by itraconazole, a triazole that is used as an antifungal drug [Xu et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4764-4769]. Here we show that posaconazole, another triazole, also blocks cholesterol export from lysosomes. We prepared P-X, a photoactivatable cross-linking derivative of posaconazole. P-X cross-linked to NPC1 when added to intact cells. Cross-linking was inhibited by itraconazole but not by ketoconazole, an imidazole that does not block cholesterol export. Cross-linking of P-X was also blocked by U18666A, a compound that has been shown to bind to NPC1 and inhibit cholesterol export. P-X also cross-linked to purified NPC1 that was incorporated into lipid bilayer nanodiscs. In this in vitro system, cross-linking of P-X was inhibited by itraconazole, but not by U18666A. P-X cross-linking was not prevented by deletion of the N-terminal domain of NPC1, which contains the initial binding site for cholesterol. In contrast, P-X cross-linking was reduced when NPC1 contained a point mutation (P691S) in its putative sterol-sensing domain. We hypothesize that the sterol-sensing domain has a binding site that can accommodate structurally different ligands.

  5. A predictive data-driven framework for endocrine prioritization: a triazole fungicide case study.

    PubMed

    Paul Friedman, Katie; Papineni, Sabitha; Marty, M Sue; Yi, Kun Don; Goetz, Amber K; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Kwiatkowski, Pat; Wolf, Douglas C; Blacker, Ann M; Peffer, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a tiered screening approach to determine the potential for a chemical to interact with estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone systems and/or perturb steroidogenesis. Use of high-throughput screening (HTS) to predict hazard and exposure is shifting the EDSP approach to (1) prioritization of chemicals for further screening; and (2) targeted use of EDSP Tier 1 assays to inform specific data needs. In this work, toxicology data for three triazole fungicides (triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil) were evaluated, including HTS results, EDSP Tier 1 screening (and other scientifically relevant information), and EPA guideline mammalian toxicology study data. The endocrine-related bioactivity predictions from HTS and information that satisfied the EDSP Tier 1 requirements were qualitatively concordant. Current limitations in the available HTS battery for thyroid and steroidogenesis pathways were mitigated by inclusion of guideline toxicology studies in this analysis. Similar margins (3-5 orders of magnitude) were observed between HTS-predicted human bioactivity and exposure values and between in vivo mammalian bioactivity and EPA chronic human exposure estimates for these products' registered uses. Combined HTS hazard and human exposure predictions suggest low priority for higher-tiered endocrine testing of these triazoles. Comparison with the mammalian toxicology database indicated that this HTS-based prioritization would have been protective for any potential in vivo effects that form the basis of current risk assessment for these chemicals. This example demonstrates an effective, human health protective roadmap for EDSP evaluation of pesticide active ingredients via prioritization using HTS and guideline toxicology information.

  6. Synthesis, Anticlotting and Antiplatelet Effects of 1,2,3-Triazoles Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Moura, Laura de A; de Almeida, Ana C M; da Silva, Andreza V; de Souza, Vivian R; Ferreira, Vitor F; Menezes, Michel V; Kaiser, Carlos R; Ferreira, Sabrina B; Fuly, André L

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and stroke, represent the major cause of disability and death worldwide; and dysfunctions in platelet aggregation and blood coagulation processes are involved. The regular antithrombotic drugs have unsatisfactory results and may produce side effects. Therefore, alternative therapies have been extensively investigated. The anticoagulant and antiplatelet aggregation potential of a series of six synthetic 1,2,3-triazole derivatives were investigated through in vitro models. Coagulation tests included the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) assays, and were performed on a multichannel coagulometer, using human plasma. The platelet aggregation assays were carried out using human platelet-rich-plasma (PRP). Aggregation was initiated by adding ADP or collagen and monitored turbidimetrically on a Whole Blood Aggregometer. Toxicity of derivatives was evaluated on platelets and red blood cells, by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin, respectively. Moreover, theoretical toxicity of derivatives was calculated using the software Osiris® Property Explorer. All the six derivatives tested inhibited, but with different potencies, the plasma coagulation assessed by the PT and TT assays, and also inhibited platelet aggregation of PRP induced by collagen or ADP. The derivatives did not interfere in the aPTT assay and did not affect the viability of platelets or red blood cells. Theoretical studies also revealed that all derivatives will likely to have low toxicity, great pharmacological and oral bioavailability profiles, and a Druglikeness and Drug score similar to some commercial anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. 1,2,3-triazoles are potential candidates for molecular modeling of new antithrombotic drugs.

  7. Atomistic simulation of solid-liquid coexistence for molecular systems: application to triazole and benzene.

    PubMed

    Eike, David M; Maginn, Edward J

    2006-04-28

    A method recently developed to rigorously determine solid-liquid equilibrium using a free-energy-based analysis has been extended to analyze multiatom molecular systems. This method is based on using a pseudosupercritical transformation path to reversibly transform between solid and liquid phases. Integration along this path yields the free energy difference at a single state point, which can then be used to determine the free energy difference as a function of temperature and therefore locate the coexistence temperature at a fixed pressure. The primary extension reported here is the introduction of an external potential field capable of inducing center of mass order along with secondary orientational order for molecules. The method is used to calculate the melting point of 1-H-1,2,4-triazole and benzene. Despite the fact that the triazole model gives accurate bulk densities for the liquid and crystal phases, it is found to do a poor job of reproducing the experimental crystal structure and heat of fusion. Consequently, it yields a melting point that is 100 K lower than the experimental value. On the other hand, the benzene model has been parametrized extensively to match a wide range of properties and yields a melting point that is only 20 K lower than the experimental value. Previous work in which a simple "direct heating" method was used actually found that the melting point of the benzene model was 50 K higher than the experimental value. This demonstrates the importance of using proper free energy methods to compute phase behavior. It also shows that the melting point is a very sensitive measure of force field quality that should be considered in parametrization efforts. The method described here provides a relatively simple approach for computing melting points of molecular systems.

  8. Triazole-containing monophosphate mRNA cap analogs as effective translation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Piecyk, Karolina; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic analogs of the 5' end of mRNA (cap structure) are widely used in molecular studies on mechanisms of cellular processes such as translation, intracellular transport, splicing, and turnover. The best-characterized cap binding protein is translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Recognition of the mRNA cap by eIF4E is a critical, rate-limiting step for efficient translation initiation and is considered a major target for anticancer therapy. Here, we report a facile methodology for the preparation of N2-triazole-containing monophosphate cap analogs and present their biological evaluation as inhibitors of protein synthesis. Five analogs possessing this unique hetero-cyclic ring spaced from the m7-guanine of the cap structure at a distance of one or three carbon atoms and/or additionally substituted by various groups containing the benzene ring were synthesized. All obtained compounds turned out to be effective translation inhibitors with IC50 similar to dinucleotide triphosphate m(7)GpppG. As these compounds possess a reduced number of phosphate groups and, thereby, a negative charge, which may support their cell penetration, this type of cap analog might be promising in terms of designing new potential therapeutic molecules. In addition, an exemplary dinucleotide from a corresponding mononucleotide containing benzyl substituted 1,2,3-triazole was prepared and examined. The superior inhibitory properties of this analog (10-fold vs. m(7)GpppG) suggest the usefulness of such compounds for the preparation of mRNA transcripts with high translational activity. © 2014 Piecyk et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Activities of triazole-echinocandin combinations against Candida species in biofilms and as planktonic cells.

    PubMed

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Katragkou, Aspasia; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2011-05-01

    Biofilm formation complicates the treatment of various infections caused by Candida species. We investigated the effects of simultaneous or sequential combinations of two triazoles, voriconazole (VRC) and posaconazole (PSC), with two echinocandins, anidulafungin (AND) and caspofungin (CAS), against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms in comparison to their planktonic counterparts. Antifungal activity was assessed by the 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) metabolic assay. Antifungal-agent interactions were analyzed by the Bliss independence model in the simultaneous-treatment studies and by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the sequential-treatment studies. Against C. albicans planktonic cells, the simultaneous combination of PSC (32 to 128 mg/liter) and CAS (0.008 to 0.25 mg/liter) was synergistic; the combinations of PSC (128 to 1,024 mg/liter) with AND (0.03 to 0.5 mg/liter) and VRC (32 to 512 mg/liter) with AND (0.008 to 0.03 mg/liter) were antagonistic. Against C. parapsilosis planktonic cells, the interaction between VRC (32 to 1,024 mg/liter) and CAS (1 to 16 mg/liter) was antagonistic. All simultaneous antifungal combinations demonstrated indifferent interactions against biofilms of both Candida species. Damage to biofilms of both species increased (P<0.01) in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of echinocandins (0.008 to 0.064 mg/liter), followed by the addition of PSC (512 mg/liter for C. albicans and 64 to 512 mg/liter for C. parapsilosis) or VRC (256 to 512 mg/liter for C. albicans and 512 mg/liter for C. parapsilosis). Triazole-echinocandin combinations do not appear to produce antagonistic effects against Candida sp. biofilms, while various significant interactions occur with their planktonic counterparts.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of a novel schiff base bearing 1, 2, 4-Triazole scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alphonse, Roshmy; Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2016-06-01

    A novel Schiff base derivative containing 1, 2, 4-triazole nucleus (TMPIMP) was synthesized from 4- [1,2,4] triazol-1-ylmethyl-phenylamine and salicylaldehyde in the presence of glacial acetic acid in an ethanolic medium. The synthesized compound was characterized by 1H-NMR, IR and UV spectral analysis. The excitation and emission spectra of triazolyl methyl phenyl imino methyl phenol (abbreviated as TMPIMP) were recorded in various solvents to investigate their solvatochromic behaviour. Dipole moments of the two electronic states of TMPIMP were calculated from solvatochromic spectral shifts. These were correlated with refractive index (η) and dielectric constant (ε) of various solvents. Theoretical calculations were performed to estimate the excited state dipole moment on the basis of different solvent correlation methods, like the Bilot-Kawski, Bakhshiev, Lippert-Mataga, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. The dipole moment in the excited state was found to be higher than that in the ground state due to a substantial redistribution of electron densities and charges. Using a multiple regression analysis, the solvent-solute interactions were determined by means of Kamlet Taft parameters (α, β, π*). Computational studies were performed by Gaussian 09 W software using a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in order to calculate the atomic charges and frontier molecular orbital energies in the solvent phase. The calculations indicated that the dipole moment of the molecule in an excited state is much higher than that in a ground state. The chemical stability of TMPIMP was determined by means of chemical hardness (η) using HOMO-LUMO energies. The reactive centers in the molecule were also identified by molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) 3D plots as a result of TD-DFT computational analysis.

  11. Thermodynamic studies of the thermochromic phase transition in coordination compound of iron with triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Bessergenev, V.G.; Berezovski, G.A.; Lavrenova, L.G.; Larionov, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work was to investigate the thermodynamic properties of nitrate tris(4-amino-1,2,4-triazole) iron(II) for which a thermochromic effect takes place at T=342 K on heating and at 310 K on cooling. For the measurement of the isobaric heat capacity in the 5--355 K range, a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter was used. Below 300 K, the C{sub p,m}(T) curve has no anomalies; the average deviation of the experimental heat-capacity values from the smoothed C{sub p,m}(T) curve was 0.1 percent. Above 300 K, the C{sub p,m}(T) curve shows a complicated behavior. The abnormal part of the heat capacity first increases smoothly, then from 330 K a sharp rise begins. There is a peak on the C{sub p,m}-curve at T=343.0 K. This fact is in a good agreement with the magnetic measurement data. The transition enthalpy was determined to be 22.8 kJ{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1} (M=432.10 g{center_dot}-mol{sup {minus}1}). Further increase of the heat capacity suggests the existence of a new phase transition above 350 K. This suggestion was confirmed qualitatively by the measurements on a differential scanning calorimeter. It should be noted that on the low-temperature slope of the anomaly, at 320triazole) copper(II) was studied.

  12. Bis(5-amino-3-carb­oxy-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium) dihydrogenphosphate nitrate 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-3-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Berrah, Fadila; Bouchene, Rafika; Bouacida, Sofiane; Daran, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, 2C3H5N4O2 +·H2PO4 −·NO3 −·C3H4N4O2, three independent 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-carb­oxy­lic acid moieties are observed. Two are in the form of cations, while the third is in the zwitterionic form. The triazole rings in the two cations are almost coplanar, making an angle of 4.11 (7)°. Layers parallel to the (20-1) plane, resulting from hydrogen bonding of the organic mol­ecules and the nitrate anions, are linked via H2PO4 − infinite zigzag chains running parallel to the c axis. The crystal studied was an inversion twin, with refined components of 0.33 (7) and 0.67 (7). PMID:22590233

  13. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  14. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  15. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  16. Collective Multi-Label Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    there is one output random variable . We begin by de- scribing this traditional classifier, then we describe its common ex- tension to the multi- label ...dependencies among the output variables . In addition to having feature for each label -term pair, CML main- tains features accounting for label co...over all possible multi- labelings — that is, over all subsets of Y . This method is intuitively appealing: it is easy to explain, and it is informative

  17. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  18. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  19. Synthesis of water soluble chitosan derivatives with halogeno-1,2,3-triazole and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Caili; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-10-01

    Chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, which exhibits attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of chitosan is often performed prior to further utilization. Three novel water soluble chitosan derivatives containing 1,2,3- triazole with or without halogen was designed and synthesized. Their antifungal activity against three kinds of phytopathogens was estimated by hyphal measurement in vitro. The inhibitory property and water solubility of the synthesized chitosan derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over chitosan. It is hypothesized that thiazolyl groups enable the synthesized chitosan to possess obviously better antifungal activity. Moreover, CTCTS and BTCTS, which have halogens at the periphery of polymers, inhibited the growth of tested phytopathogens more effectively with inhibitory indices of 81-93% at 1.0mg/mL. The halogens could have a synergistic effect with triazole as they exhibited antifungal activity and electron-withdrawing capacity, which improve the antifungal activity of chitosan derivatives.

  20. Mechanochemical click reaction as a tool for making carbohydrate-based triazole-linked self-assembling materials (CTSAMs).

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Mohit; Taxak, Nikhil; Bharatam, Prasad V; Nandanwar, Hemraj; Kartha, K P Ravindranathan

    2015-04-30

    Various glycosides in which glycosylated triazole residues are anchored on to a central phenyl ring have been prepared under green reaction conditions by a solvent-free mechanochemical method. Some of the glycosides exhibited the ability to form gels when in contact with long chain hydrocarbons, e.g. hexane, heptane and octane, and this property was phase-selective. Thus, from a mixture of hexane-water, the compounds preferably absorbed the alkane to form a gel. The gelation ability was found to increase with an increasing number of substituents on the phenyl ring but only up to tetra-substitution. The hexa-substituted phenyl derivative did not swell in the hydrocarbon solvents investigated. The spontaneous self-assembling properties of these compounds in hexane have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Molecular modelling was used to optimize the structural geometry of these carbohydrate-based triazole-linked self-assembling materials (CTSAMs) and to rationalize their behaviour.

  1. Photostability and Performance of Polystyrene Films Containing 1,2,4-Triazole-3-thiol Ring System Schiff Bases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gassan Q; El-Hiti, Gamal A; Tomi, Ivan Hameed R; Haddad, Raghad; Al-Qaisi, Alaa J; Yousif, Emad

    2016-12-09

    Series of 4-(4-substituted benzylideneamino)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols were synthesized and their structures were confirmed. The synthesized Schiff bases were used as photostabilizers for polystyrene against photodegradation. Polystyrene polymeric films containing synthesized Schiff bases (0.5% by weight) were irradiated (λmax = 365 nm and light intensity = 6.43 × 10(-9) ein·dm(-3)·s(-1)) at room temperature. The photostabilization effect of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols Schiff bases was determined using various methods. All the additives used enhanced the photostability of polystyrene films against irradiation compared with the result obtained in the absence of Schiff base. The Schiff bases can act as photostabilizers for polystyrene through the direct absorption of UV radiation and/or radical scavengers.

  2. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of some triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-12-01

    The condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with methoxy-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo- and nitro-substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes formed triazole Schiff bases (L(1))-(L(6)). The synthesized ligands have been characterized through physical, spectral and analytical data. Furthermore, the reaction of synthesized Schiff bases with the oxovanadium(IV) sulphate in (1:2) (metal:ligand) molar ratio afforded the oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(6). All the complexes were non-electrolytic and showed a square-pyramidal geometry. The synthesized compounds have been screened for in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and brine shrimp bioassay. The bioactivity data showed the complexes to be more active than the original Schiff bases.

  3. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Sulfamide and Triazole Benzodiazepines as Novel p53-MDM2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiliang; Zhuang, Chunlin; Wu, Yuelin; Guo, Zizhao; Li, Jin; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Sheng, Chunquan; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian

    2014-01-01

    A series of sulfamide and triazole benzodiazepines were obtained with the principle of bioisosterism. The p53-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) inhibitory activity and in vitro antitumor activity were evaluated. Most of the novel benzodiazepines exhibited moderate protein binding inhibitory activity. Particularly, triazole benzodiazepines showed good inhibitory activity and antitumor potency. Compound 16 had promising antitumor activity against the U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cell line with an IC50 value of 4.17 μM, which was much better than that of nutlin-3. The molecular docking model also successfully predicted that this class of compounds mimicked the three critical residues of p53 binding to MDM2. PMID:25198897

  4. Click Chemistry Route to the Synthesis of Unusual Amino Acids, Peptides, Triazole-Fused Heterocycles and Pseudodisaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan; Ramapanicker, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation of different molecular species using copper(I)-catalyzed click reaction between azides and terminal alkynes is among the best available methods to prepare multifunctional compounds. The effectiveness of this method has provided wider acceptance to the concept of click chemistry, which is now widely employed to synthesize densely functionalized organic molecules. This article summarizes the contributions from our group in the development of new methods for the synthesis of functional molecules using copper(I)-catalyzed click reactions. We have developed very efficient methods for the synthesis of peptides and amino acids conjugated with carbohydrates, thymidine and ferrocene. We have also developed an efficient strategy to synthesize triazole-fused heterocycles from primary amines, amino alochols and diols. Finally, an interesting method for the synthesis of pseudodisaccharides linked through triazoles, starting from carbohydrate-derived donor-acceptor cyclopropanes is discussed.

  5. A triazole Schiff base-based selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for Zn2 +: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Caixia; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Yanbo; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli

    2016-02-01

    A triazole-Schiff base, 4-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HL), exhibits the high selectivity and sensitivity for Zn2 + in the fluorescence spectrometry over other common metal ions, especially Cd2 + in DMSO:H2O (1:9, v/v) solution. A 1:1 binding ratio of Zn2 +/L for the complex has been obtained by Uv-Vis titration experiments and Job's plot with the detection limit of 51 nmol/L. The coordination mode of the complex in solution was further confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations indicate that a chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect occurs in the process of detecting Zn ion.

  6. Triazole-linked DNA as a primer surrogate in the synthesis of first-strand cDNA.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomoko; Yasumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamazaki, Naomi; Hasome, Ai; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-04

    A phosphate-eliminated nonnatural oligonucleotide serves as a primer surrogate in reverse transcription reaction of mRNA. Despite of the nonnatural triazole linkages in the surrogate, the reverse transcriptase effectively elongated cDNA sequences on the 3'-downstream of the primer by transcription of the complementary sequence of mRNA. A structure-activity comparison with the reference natural oligonucleotides shows the superior priming activity of the surrogate containing triazole-linkages. The nonnatural linkages also protect the transcribed cDNA from digestion reactions with 5'-exonuclease and enable us to remove noise transcripts of unknown origins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solution and solid-supported synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-based peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Boeglin, Damien; Cantel, Sonia; Heitz, Annie; Martinez, Jean; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain

    2003-11-13

    [reaction: see text] 3,4,5-Trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles were synthesized in solution from various thioamides and hydrazides in smooth experimental conditions leading to peptidomimetic scaffolds. This strategy was found to be compatible with the usual peptide synthesis protecting groups. This methodology was then applied on solid support by anchoring alpha-amino acids through their amino function to an activated carbonate resin.

  8. Crystal-to-Crystal Synthesis of Triazole-Linked Pseudo-proteins via Topochemical Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Baiju P; Rai, Rishika; Asokan, Aromal; Sureshan, Kana M

    2016-11-16

    Isosteric replacement of amide bond(s) of peptides with surrogate groups is an important strategy for the synthesis of peptidomimetics (pseudo-peptides). Triazole is a well-recognized bio-isostere for peptide bonds, and peptides with one or more triazole units are of great interest for different applications. We have used a catalyst-free and solvent-free method, viz., topochemical azide-alkyne cycloaddition (TAAC) reaction, to synthesize pseudo-proteins with repeating sequences. A designed β-sheet-forming l-Ala-l-Val dipeptide containing azide and alkyne at its termini (N3-Ala-Val-NHCH2C≡CH, 1) was synthesized. Single-crystal XRD analysis of the dipeptide 1 showed parallel β-sheet arrangement along the b-direction and head-to-tail arrangement of such β-sheets along the c-direction. This head-to-tail arrangement along the c-direction places the complementary reacting motifs, viz., azide and alkyne, of adjacent molecules in proximity. The crystals of dipeptide 1, upon heating at 85 °C, underwent crystal-to-crystal polymerization, giving 1,4-triazole-linked pseudo-proteins. This TAAC polymerization was investigated by various time-dependent techniques, such as NMR, IR, DSC, and PXRD. The crystal-to-crystal nature of this transformation was revealed from polarizing microscopy and PXRD experiments, and the regiospecificity of triazole formation was evidenced from various NMR techniques. The MALDI-TOF spectrum showed the presence of pseudo-proteins >7 kDa.

  9. 2-[(E)-(2-Phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl-eneamino]ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yan-Qiu; Tian, Lai-Jin

    2009-03-11

    In the title Schiff base compound, C(11)H(12)N(4)O, the mol-ecule adopts a trans configuration about the central C=N bond. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the triazole ring is 14.3 (3)°. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked into a one-dimensional supra-molecular chain by inter-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group and the imino N atom.

  10. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Bismuth(III) Acetylides with Organic Azides: Synthesis of Stable Triazole Anion Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, Brady T.; Ellery, Shelby P.

    2014-01-01

    Readily accessible and shelf-stable 1-bismuth(III) acetylides react rapidly and regiospecifically with organic azides in the presence of a copper(I) catalyst. The reaction tolerates many functional groups and gives excellent yields of the previously unreported, bench-stable 5-bismuth triazolides. This uniquely reactive intermediates can be further functionalized under extremely mild conditions to give fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles. PMID:24130150

  11. Copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of bismuth(III) acetylides with organic azides: synthesis of stable triazole anion equivalents.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Brady T; Ellery, Shelby P; Fokin, Valery V

    2013-12-02

    Fully loaded: Readily accessible and shelf-stable 1-bismuth(III) acetylides react rapidly and regiospecifically with organic azides in the presence of a copper(I) catalyst. The reaction tolerates many functional groups and gives excellent yields of the previously unreported 5-bismuth triazolides. This uniquely reactive intermediate is functionalized under mild reaction conditions to give fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Interrupted Click Reaction with TMSCF3: Synthesis of 5-Trifluoromethyl 1,2,3-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kelvin Pak Shing; Tsui, Gavin Chit

    2017-06-02

    We herein describe a Cu(I)-catalyzed interrupted click reaction, using (trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane (TMSCF3) as a nucleophilic CF3 source, to synthesize 5-trifluoromethyl 1,2,3-triazoles in one step from readily available terminal alkynes and azides. The reaction shows complete regioselectivity, broad substrate scope, and good functional group tolerability. The application of the reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of a trifluoromethylated analog of antiepileptic drug rufinamide.

  13. Glycopolymers Prepared by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Followed by Glycoconjugation Using a Triazole-Forming "Click" Reaction.

    PubMed

    Okoth, Ronald; Basu, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a protocol for the preparation of glycopolymers derived from the ring-opening polymerization of a norbornene carboxylic acid derivative. Polymerization is followed by attachment of a linker and subsequent glycoconjugation via a triazole-forming azide-alkyne click reaction. The use of a protected amine-terminating agent allows for the attachment of a probe molecule such as a fluorescein dye. The syntheses of a neutral galactopolymer as well a polyanionic poly-3-O-sulfo-galactopolymer are described.

  14. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Malassezia Species to a New Triazole, Albaconazole (UR-9825), and Other Antifungal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Garau, Margarita; Pereiro, Jr., Manolo; del Palacio, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the new triazole albaconazole (UR-9825) in comparison with those of flucytosine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 70 strains of Malassezia spp. was determined by a microdilution method using a colorimetric indicator for metabolic activity. Albaconazole showed an in vitro profile similar to those of the different antifungals tested (MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/ml for all the strains). PMID:12821494

  15. Novel hexanuclear copper(II) complex built from a simple tetrachelating triazole ligand: synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gil, J; Ovèjak, N; Ferrer, S; Lloret, F; Castiñeiras, A

    2013-03-04

    A new easy symmetric 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole ligand (H3diV) by reaction with an excess of copper(II) salt has afforded a novel hexanuclear compound (Cu/HdiV ratio of 6:2) through a bis(trans-cis-cis-trans) binding mode, exhibiting two types of Cu(II) centers and two clearly distinguishable antiferromagnetic J1 (-234 cm(-1)) and J2 (-35 cm(-1)) coupling constants.

  16. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure".

  17. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Triazole-Containing N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones as Quorum Sensing Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Hansen, Casper L.; Clausen, Janie W.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brummond, Jacob W.; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial species are capable of assessing their local population densities through a cell-cell signaling mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). This intercellular communication process is mediated by small molecule or peptide ligands and their cognate protein receptors. Numerous pathogens use QS to initiate virulence once they achieve a threshold cell number on a host. Consequently, approaches to intercept QS have attracted considerable attention as potential anti-infective therapies. Our interest in the development of small molecule tools to modulate QS pathways motivated us to evaluate triazole-containing analogs of natural N-acyl L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals as non-native QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. We synthesized 72 triazole derivatives of five broad structure types in high yields and purities using efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne couplings. These compounds were evaluated for their ability to activate or inhibit two QS receptors from two prevalent pathogens – LasR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and AbaR from Acinetobacter baumannii – using bacterial reporter strains. Several triazole derivatives were identified that were capable of strongly modulating the activity of LasR and AbaR. These compounds represent a new and synthetically accessible class of AHL analogs, and could find utility as chemical tools to study QS and its role in bacterial virulence. PMID:23258305

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and theoretical analysis of intermolecular interactions in two biologically active derivatives of 1,2,4-triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rahul; Mohan, T. P.; Vishalakshi, B.; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized and structurally characterized two biologically active derivatives of 1,2,4 triazoles, namely 3-(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)-1-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (TR) and 1-((3-(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)-5-(methylthio)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)piperidine (TR1) via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both the structures show the presence of various intermolecular interactions in the crystalline solid such as Csbnd H…F, Csbnd H…S, Csbnd H…N, Csbnd H…O, Csbnd H … π, and π … π intermolecular interactions. The role of these interactions in molecular packing was analyzed, and the nature of these interactions was evaluated through computational procedures using PIXEL. Hirshfeld analysis further reveals that the contribution of H…F interactions was more prominent towards packing as compared to H…N/O intermolecular interactions.

  20. Synthesis of new 1,2,4-triazole compounds containing Schiff and Mannich bases (morpholine) with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ünver, Yasemin; Deniz, Sadik; Çelik, Fatih; Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Sancak, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Compound 2 was synthesized by reacting CS2/KOH with compound 1. The treatment of compound 2 with hydrazine hydrate produced compound 3. Then, compound 3 was converted to Schiff bases (4a-d) by the handling with several aromatic aldehydes. The treatment of triazole compounds 4a-d containing Schiff base with morpholine gave compounds 5a-d. All compounds were tested for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant test results of DPPH• radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power methods showed good antioxidant activity. The triazole-thiol (3) was the most active, and the effect of the substituent type of the thiophene ring on the activity was same for both Schiff bases (4a-d) and Mannich bases (5a-d). Among the newly synthesized triazole derivatives, the Schiff base 4d and the Mannich base 5d carrying nitro substituent on the thiophene ring showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity, with lower MIC values than the standard antibacterial ampicillin.

  1. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  2. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Results KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. Conclusions The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion. PMID:24330857

  3. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Arangassery Rosemary; Contarino, Mark; Bailey, Lauren D; Aneja, Rachna; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Freedman, Kevin; McFadden, Karyn; Duffy, Caitlin; Emileh, Ali; Leslie, George; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Hoxie, James A; Chaiken, Irwin

    2013-12-13

    We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion.

  4. Novel sesquiterpenes from Schisandra grandiflora: isolation, cytotoxic activity and synthesis of their triazole derivatives using "click" reaction.

    PubMed

    Poornima, B; Siva, Bandi; Shankaraiah, G; Venkanna, A; Nayak, V Lakshma; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Venkat Rao, C; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-03-06

    Phytochemical investigation of hexane extract from the fruits of Schisandra grandiflora afforded three novel sesquiterpenes (1-3) along with the three known compounds (4-6). The structures of these isolates were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR). Further, a series of triazole analogues of 3 and 4 were prepared using "Click" reaction protocol. The reaction scheme involving one-carbon homologation of 3 and 4 using the Bestmann-Ohira reagent followed by regioselective Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of various azides leading to the formation of triazole analogues (20a-20k &21a-21c) which is being reported for the first time. All the triazole products were characterized using spectral data analysis. The anti-proliferative activity of the isolates and the synthetic analogues were studied against Hela (Cervical cancer), A549 (Lung cancer), DU-145 (Prostate cancer), MCF-7 (Breast cancer) and B-16 (Mouse melanoma) cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woo; Yong, Yeonjoong; Shin, Soon Young; Jung, Hyeryoung; Park, Kwan Ha; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Jung, Kang-Yeoun

    2015-04-01

    Rapid and efficient synthesis of a phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole library enabled cost-effective biological testing of a range of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with potential for improved drug efficacy and toxicity profiles. Anti-inflammatory activities of the phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogs synthesized in this report were assessed using the xylene-induced ear edema model in mice. At least four analogs, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 4a, showed more potent effects than the reference anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac at the same dose of 25 mg/kg. To explore relationships between the structural properties of phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogs and their anti-inflammatory activities in xylene-induced ear edema, comparative molecular field analysis was performed, and pharmacophores showing good anti-inflammatory activities were identified based on an analysis of contour maps obtained from comparative molecular field analysis. The anti-inflammatory effect on the molecular level was tested by the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced COX-2 using Western blots. Because the addition of the analog 2c caused the expression change of TNF-α induced COX-2, the molecular binding mode between 2c and COX-2 was elucidated using in silico docking.

  6. 3-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Karczmarzyk, Zbigniew; Pitucha, Monika; Wysocki, Waldemar; Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Stańczuk, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C11H13N3S, exists in the 5-thioxo tautomeric form. The benzene ring exhibits disorder with a refined ratio of 0.77 (2):0.23 (2) for components A and B with a common bridgehead C atom. The 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (3) Å for the benzyl-substituted C atom, and forms dihedral angles of 88.94 (18) and 86.56 (49)° with the benzene rings of components A and B, respectively. The angle between the plane of the ethyl chain and the mean plane of 1,2,4-triazole ring is 88.55 (15)° and this conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯S contact. In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into inversion dimers. π–π inter­actions are observed between the triazole and benzene rings, with centroid–centroid separations of 3.547 (4) and 3.544 (12) Å for components A and B, and slippages of 0.49 (6) and 0.58 (15) Å, respectively. PMID:23424446

  7. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  8. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  9. Efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using strain-promoted copper-free click reaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jongho; Kang, Jung Ae; Shim, Ha Eun; Nam, You Ree; Yoon, Seonhye; Kim, Hye Rim; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Sang Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Herein we report an efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using copper-free click reaction. For this study, radioiodination using the tin precursor 2 was carried out at room temperature to give (125)I-labeled azide ([(125)I]1) with high radiochemical yield (85%) and excellent radiochemical purity. Dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) containing cRGD peptide and gold nanoparticle were labeled with [(125)I]1 at 37°C for 30min to give triazoles with good radiochemical yields (67-95%). We next carried out tissue biodistribution study of [(125)I]1 in normal ICR mice to investigate the level of organ accumulation which needs to be considered for pre-targeted in vivo imaging. Large amount of [(125)I]1 distributed rapidly in liver and kidney from bloodstream and underwent rapid renal and hepatobiliary clearance. Moreover [(125)I]1 was found to be highly stable (>92%) in mouse serum for 24h. Therefore [(125)I]1 could be used as a potentially useful radiotracer for pre-targeted imaging. Those results clearly indicated that the present radiolabeling method using copper free click reaction would be quite useful for both in vitro and in vivo labeling of DBCO group containing molecules with iodine radioisotopes.

  10. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  11. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the fuel economy label required by 15 U.S.C. 2006, or a separate label. A separate label may... case of a label that is included as part of the Monroney price information label or fuel economy label... motor vehicle equipment and that, to the best of the requester's knowledge, the outside supplier is...

  12. Food labels: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Fraser, Joy

    2014-03-01

    Foods sold in packages have both front-of-package (FOP) labels and back-of-package (BOP) labels. The aim of this review is to determine the role they play in informing consumers as to the composition of foods in order to help select a healthy diet. Recent literature was evaluated and findings combined with assessments made by the authors of food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research shows that most consumers have difficulty understanding the information provided by both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research has evaluated the merits of alternative designs. FOP labels should be based on a clear and simple design. They should present information on key nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium or salt) and also energy value. They should have color and words that indicate "high," "medium," and "low" levels. Labels can also state quantity per serving. The traffic light system is the best example of this design. An extra traffic light indicating the overall health value of the food should be added. A clearer BOP label also is needed. Implementation of a new food labeling system will probably be opposed by the food industry. More research is needed into which food label designs are most effective, especially for persuading consumers to select healthier food. Both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada need to be redesigned using a traffic light system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, X-ray diffraction structures, spectroscopic properties, and in vitro antitumor activity of isomeric (1H-1,2,4-triazole)Ru(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Arion, Vladimir B; Reisner, Erwin; Fremuth, Madeleine; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2003-09-22

    Three ruthenium(III) complexes containing 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Htrz), viz., (H(2)trz)[cis-RuCl(4)(Htrz)(2)], 1, (H(2)trz)[trans-RuCl(4)(Htrz)(2)], 2, and (Ph(3)PCH(2)Ph)[trans-RuCl(4)(Htrz)(2)], 3, have been synthesized by reaction between RuCl(3) and excess of the triazole in 2.38 M HCl (1 and 2), while 3 was obtained by metathesis of 2 and [Ph(3)PCH(2)Ph]Cl in water. The products were characterized by IR, UV-vis, electrospray mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography (1 and 3). X-ray diffraction study revealed cis and trans arrangements of the triazole ligands in 1 and 3, correspondingly, and unprecedented monodentate coordination of the triazole through N2 and stabilization of its 4H tautomeric form, which is the disfavored one for the free triazole. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 has been assayed in three human carcinoma cell lines SW480, HT29 (colon carcinoma), and SK-BR-3 (mammary carcinoma). Both compounds exhibit antiproliferative activity in vitro. Time-dependent response of all three lines to 1 and 2 and a structure-activity relationship, i.e., higher activity of the trans-isomer 2 than that of cis-species 1, have been observed.

  14. A study on the condensation reaction of aryl substituted 4-amine-1,2,4-triazole with benzaldehydes: Structures and spectroscopic properties of schiff bases and stable hemiaminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajda-Hermanowicz, Katarzyna; Pieniążczak, Damian; Wróbel, Robert; Zatajska, Aleksandra; Ciunik, Zbigniew; Berski, Sławomir

    2016-06-01

    A series of stable hemiaminals and Schiff bases containing 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized. The structure of the prepared compounds was confirmed by means of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. The steric and electronic effects of the triazole ring substituents on the hemiaminal formation was also discussed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of hemiaminals obtained from 4-amino-3,5-dipyridyn-2-yl-1,2,4- triazole (4, 5) revealed the formation of centrosymmetric dimers linked by strong O-H … .N1Tr hydrogen bonds. The Schiff bases obtained from the unsymmetrical 3-methyl,5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole was found to be a different E-conformer which was determined through solution NMR and crystallographic diffraction analysis (13). The molecular geometry of the unsymmetrical triazole derivatives: hemiaminal (12) and Schiff base (13) were also optimized using density functional theory (DFT/M062x) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set in ground state and compared with the experimental data.

  15. Reply to the comment of S. Rayne on "QSAR model reproducibility and applicability: A case study of rate constants of hydroxyl radical reaction models applied to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and (benzo-)triazoles".

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Kovarich, Simona; Roy, Partha Pratim

    2013-07-30

    We appreciate the interest of Dr. Rayne on our article and we completely agree that the dataset of (benzo-)triazoles, which were screened by the hydroxyl radical reaction quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model, was not only composed of benzo-triazoles but also included some simpler triazoles (without the condensed benzene ring), such as the chemicals listed by Dr. Rayne, as well as some related heterocycles (also few not aromatic). We want to clarify that in this article (as well as in other articles in which the same dataset was screened), for conciseness, the abbreviations (B)TAZs and BTAZs were used as general (and certainly too simplified) notations meaning an extended dataset of benzo-triazoles, triazoles, and related compounds. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Homo-C-nucleoside analogs III. Studies on the base-catalyzed dehydrative cyclization of 4-(d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Mohammed A E

    2010-10-13

    Treatment of 4-(d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole with one molar equivalent of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TIBSCl) in pyridine solution afforded the homo-C-nucleoside analog; 4-(2,5-anhydro-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole in 54% yield and 4-(α-d-arabinopyranosyl)-2-phenyl-2H1,2,3-triazole analog in 3% yield. The 4-(5-O-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl)-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole analog was isolated as an intermediate and identified as its tetra-O-acetyl derivative. The 4-(5-chloro-5-deoxy-d-manno-pentitol-1-yl)-2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole analog was isolated as a byproduct. The structure and anomeric configuration of the products were determined by acylation, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry.

  17. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-01-16

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 {approx} 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  18. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  19. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  20. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    variable as a mass-like quantity. The specific model for the dynamics of life and death processes of a population of cells labeled with CFSE is proposed in... variables = + where < 0 is label degradation velocity. Because we really don’t understand completely the degradation process (there appears to be...little agreement as to what variables on which this velocity might depend) and to allow for generality (other labels that might be used may well

  1. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  2. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  3. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  4. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  5. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  6. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition To Access 1,5-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazoles in Air and Water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Gyum; Kang, Mi Eun; Lee, Jae Bin; Jeon, Min Ho; Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Jungha; Choi, Bongseo; Cal, Pedro M S D; Kang, Sebyung; Kee, Jung-Min; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Rohde, Jan-Uwe; Choe, Wonyoung; Hong, Sung You

    2017-09-06

    Transition-metal-catalyzed or metal-free azide-alkyne cycloadditions are methods to access 1,4- or 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Although the copper-catalyzed cycloaddition to access 1,4-disubstituted products has been applied to biomolecular reaction systems, the azide-alkyne cycloaddition to access the complementary 1,5-regioisomers under aqueous and ambient conditions remains a challenge due to limited substrate scope or moisture-/air-sensitive catalysts. Herein, we report a method to access 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using a Cp2Ni/Xantphos catalytic system. The reaction proceeds both in water and organic solvents at room temperature. This protocol is simple and scalable with a broad substrate scope including both aliphatic and aromatic substrates. Moreover, triazoles attached with carbohydrates or amino acids are prepared via this cycloaddition.

  8. 4-[(E)-(4-Hy­droxy­benzyl­idene)amino]-3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Sarojini, Balladka K.; Manjula, Padmanabha S.; Narayana, B.; Jasinski, Jerry P.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C10H10N4OS, is nearly planar with the mean planes of the hy­droxy­benzyl and triazole rings inclined at an angle of only 3.2 (7)°. In the crystal, O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the hy­droxy group and the triazole ring in concert with weak N—H⋯S inter­molecular inter­actions between the triazole ring and thione group form chains along [-210] enclosing R 2 2(8) graph-set motifs. A weak intra­molecular C—H⋯S inter­action and inter­molecular π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5990 (15) Å] are also observed. PMID:24940299

  9. Triazole-containing Isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide Library Synthesis: One-Pot, Multi-Component Protocols for Small Molecular Probe Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, Alan; Painter, Thomas O.; Asad, Naeem; Hur, Moon Young; Jeon, Kyu Ok; Brzozowski, Marek; Klimberg, Sarra V.; Porubsky, Patrick; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H.; Santini, Conrad; Hanson, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of two libraries of triazole-containing isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxides is reported utilizing either a one-pot click/aza-Michael or click/OACC esterification protocol. One core dihydroisothiazole 1,1-dioxide scaffold was prepared rapidly on multi-gram scale via RCM and was subjected to a one-pot multi-component click/aza-Michael protocol with an array of amines and azides for the generation of a 180-member triazole-containing isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide library. Alternatively, three daughter scaffolds were generated via the aza-Michael of three amino alcohols, followed by a one-pot, multi-component click/esterification protocol utilizing a ROMP-derived coupling reagent, oligomeric alkyl carbodiimide (OACC) to generate a 41-member library of triazole-containing isothiazole 1,1-dioxides. PMID:21866904

  10. Triazole-containing isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide library synthesis: one-pot, multi-component protocols for small molecular probe discovery.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Alan; Painter, Thomas O; Asad, Naeem; Hur, Moon Young; Jeon, Kyu Ok; Brzozowski, Marek; Klimberg, Sarra V; Porubsky, Patrick; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H; Santini, Conrad; Hanson, Paul R

    2011-09-12

    The construction of two libraries of triazole-containing isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxides is reported utilizing either a one-pot click/aza-Michael or click/OACC esterification protocol. One core dihydroisothiazole 1,1-dioxide scaffold was prepared rapidly on multigram scale via ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and was subjected to a one-pot multicomponent click/aza-Michael protocol with an array of amines and azides for the generation of a 180-member triazole-containing isothiazolidine 1,1-dioxide library. Alternatively, three daughter scaffolds were generated via the aza-Michael of three amino alcohols, followed by a one-pot, multicomponent click/esterification protocol utilizing a ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-derived coupling reagent, oligomeric alkyl carbodiimide (OACC) to generate a 41-member library of triazole-containing isothiazole 1,1-dioxides.

  11. Covalently linked plasticizers: triazole analogues of phthalate plasticizers prepared by mild copper-free “click” reactions with azide-functionalized PVC.

    PubMed

    Earla, Aruna; Braslau, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Copper-free azide-alkyne click chemistry is utilized to covalently modify polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Phthalate plasticizer mimics di(2-ethylhexyl)-1H-triazole-4,5 dicarboxylate (DEHT), di(nbutyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate (DBT), and dimethyl-1H-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate(DMT) are covalently attached to PVC. DEHT, DBT, and DMT have similar chemical structures to traditional plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), but pose no danger of leaching from the polymer matrix and forming small endocrine disrupting chemicals. The synthesis of these covalent plasticizers is expected to be scalable, providing a viable alternative to the use of phthalates, thus mitigating dangers to human health and the environment.

  12. Stabilization of the cysteine-rich conotoxin MrIA by using a 1,2,3-triazole as a disulfide bond mimetic.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Wang, Ching-I A; Harvey, Peta J; Rosengren, K Johan; Bhola, Rebecca F; Gelmi, Maria L; Longhi, Renato; Christie, Macdonald J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Brust, Andreas

    2015-01-19

    The design of disulfide bond mimetics is an important strategy for optimising cysteine-rich peptides in drug development. Mimetics of the drug lead conotoxin MrIA, in which one disulfide bond is selectively replaced of by a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole bridge, are described. Sequential copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click reaction) followed by disulfide formation resulted in the regioselective syntheses of triazole-disulfide hybrid MrIA analogues. Mimetics with a triazole replacing the Cys4-Cys13 disulfide bond retained tertiary structure and full in vitro and in vivo activity as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Importantly, these mimetics are resistant to reduction in the presence of glutathione, thus resulting in improved plasma stability and increased suitability for drug development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimization of a Series of Triazole Containing Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Kinase Inhibitors and the Discovery of CC-115.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie M; Shevlin, Graziella; Elsner, Jan; Zhao, Jingjing; Whitefield, Brandon; Tehrani, Lida; Sapienza, John; Riggs, Jennifer R; Parnes, Jason S; Papa, Patrick; Packard, Garrick; Lee, Branden G S; Harris, Roy; Correa, Matthew; Bahmanyar, Sogole; Richardson, Samantha J; Peng, Sophie X; Leisten, Jim; Khambatta, Godrej; Hickman, Matt; Gamez, James C; Bisonette, René R; Apuy, Julius; Cathers, Brian E; Canan, Stacie S; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Raymon, Heather K; Worland, Peter; Narla, Rama Krishna; Fultz, Kimberly E; Sankar, Sabita

    2015-07-23

    We report here the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a novel series of triazole containing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitors. SAR studies examining the potency, selectivity, and PK parameters for a series of triazole containing 4,6- or 1,7-disubstituted-3,4-dihydropyrazino[2,3-b]pyrazine-2(1H)-ones resulted in the identification of triazole containing mTOR kinase inhibitors with improved PK properties. Potent compounds from this series were found to block both mTORC1(pS6) and mTORC2(pAktS473) signaling in PC-3 cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. When assessed in efficacy models, analogs exhibited dose-dependent efficacy in tumor xenograft models. This work resulted in the selection of CC-115 for clinical development.

  14. Synthesis of 5-halogenated 1,2,3-triazoles under stoichiometric Cu(I)-mediated azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC or 'Click Chemistry').

    PubMed

    Goyard, David; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Vidal, Sébastien

    2012-11-15

    Glucosylated heterocycles have been identified as potent inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a biomolecular target for the treatment of hyperglycemia and therefore type 2 diabetes. Several glucosylated triazoles have been evaluated as GP inhibitors and additional structures are being considered in the present study with the introduction of a substituent at the 5-position of the triazole ring. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azide and alkyne using stoichiometric amounts of Cu(I) halides favored the formation of the 5-halogenated 1,2,3-triazoles. The influence of the copper halide introduced (CuI, CuBr, or CuCl) provided different results and more specifically for the CuCl system which afforded a dimeric 5,5'-bistriazole in good yield (56%) as evidenced by crystallographic data.

  15. Design, synthesis and evaluation of the antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities of triazole-containing quinolinones.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xian-Qing; Song, Ming-Xia; Zheng, Yan; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2014-02-12

    A series of 1-substituted-6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones were designed, synthesized, and screened for their antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities. Interestingly, compounds 5i, 5j, 5m, and 5n led to significant reductions in the immobility time in the forced swimming test at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and exhibited higher levels of efficacy than the reference standard fluoxetine. In addition, compound 5i exhibited greater efficacy than fluoxetine in the tail suspension test. The results of an open field test further confirmed that compound 5i provided a good antidepressant effect. In the maximal electroshock seizure screen, compounds 5c and 5d showed moderate levels of anticonvulsant activity and protected 100% of the animals at a dose of 100 mg/kg. None of the synthesized compounds showed any neurotoxicity in the rotarod test at a dose of 100 mg/kg.

  16. Quantification of Lipophilicity of 1,2,4-Triazoles Using Micellar Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Stępnik, Katarzyna; Pachuta-Stec, Anna

    2012-05-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), over-pressured-layer chromatography (OPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) techniques with micellar mobile phases were proposed to evaluate the lipophilicity of 21 newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazoles, compounds of potential importance in medicine or agriculture as fungicides. Micellar parameters log k(m) were compared with extrapolated R(M0) values determined from reversed-phase (RP) TLC experimental data obtained on RP-8 stationary phases as well as with log P values (Alog Ps, AClog P, Alog P, Mlog P, KowWin, xlog P2 and xlog P3) calculated from molecular structures of solutes tested. The results obtained by applying principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression showed considerable similarity between partition and retention parameters as alternative lipophilicity descriptors, and indicated micellar chromatography as a suitable technique to study lipophilic properties of organic substances. In micellar HPLC, RP-8e column (Purospher) was applied, whereas in OPLC and TLC, RP-CN plates were applied, which was the novelty of this study and allowed the use of micellar effluents in planar chromatography measurements.

  17. Nanostructured Samarium Doped Fluorapatites and Their Catalytic Activity towards Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Gangu, Kranthi Kumar; Maddila, Suresh; Maddila, Surya Narayana; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-09-24

    An investigation was conducted into the influence of the amino acids as organic modifiers in the facile synthesis of metal incorporated fluorapatites (FAp) and their properties. The nanostructured Sm doped fluorapatites (Sm-FAp) were prepared by a co-precipitation method using four different amino acids, namely glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and histidine. The materials were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), N₂-adsorption/desorption isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Under similar conditions, Sm-FAp prepared using different amino acids exhibited distinctly different morphological structures, surface area and pore properties. Their activity as catalysts was assessed and Sm-FAp/Glycine displayed excellent efficiency in the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole catalyzing the reaction between 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide with exceptional selectivity and 98% yield in a short time interval (10 min). The study provides an insight into the role of organic modifiers as controllers of nucleation, growth and aggregation which significantly influence the nature and activity of the catalytic sites on Sm-FAp. Sm-FAp could also have potential as photoactive material.

  18. Antioxidant, tautomerism and antibacterial studies of Fe(III)-1,2,4-triazole based complexes.

    PubMed

    Kharadi, G J

    2013-06-01

    New Fe(III) complexes have been synthesized by the reactions of ferric nitrate with Schiff base derived from 3-substituted phenyl-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole and indoline-2,3-dione. All these complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO; low molar conductance values indicate that they are non-electrolytes. Elemental analyses suggest that the complexes have 1:1 stoichiometry of the type [FeLn(H2O)(OH)]·xH2O. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been studied on the basis of elemental analyses, infrared spectra, (1)H and (13)H NMR spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic measurements and FAB mass spectra. FT-IR, (1)H and (13)H NMR studies reveal that the ligand (Ln) exists in the tautomeric enol form in both the states with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Magnetic moment and reflectance spectral studies reveal that an octahedral geometry has been assigned to all the prepared complexes. FRAP values indicate that all the compounds have a ferric reducing antioxidant power. The compounds 2 and 3 showed relatively high antioxidant activity while compound 1 and 4 shows poor antioxidant power. Also good antimicrobial activities of the complexes against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli have been found compared to its free ligands.

  19. New Thiazolyl-triazole Schiff Bases: Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Candida Potential.

    PubMed

    Stana, Anca; Enache, Alexandra; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Nastasă, Cristina; Benedec, Daniela; Ionuț, Ioana; Login, Cezar; Marc, Gabriel; Oniga, Ovidiu; Tiperciuc, Brîndușa

    2016-11-22

    In the context of the dangerous phenomenon of fungal resistance to the available therapies, we present here the chemical synthesis of a new series of thiazolyl-triazole Schiff bases B1-B15, which were in vitro assessed for their anti-Candida potential. Compound B10 was found to be more potent against Candida spp. when compared with the reference drugs Fluconazole and Ketoconazole. A docking study of the newly synthesized Schiff bases was performed, and results showed good binding affinity in the active site of co-crystallized Itraconazole-lanosterol 14α-demethylase isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) study was done in order to predict some pharmacokinetic and pharmacotoxicological properties. The Schiff bases showed good drug-like properties. The results of in vitro anti-Candida activity, a docking study and ADMET prediction revealed that the newly synthesized compounds have potential anti-Candida activity and evidenced the most active derivative, B10, which can be further optimized as a lead compound.

  20. HPLC-MS/MS enantioseparation of triazole fungicides using polysaccharide-based stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Qian, Mingrong; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    The enantiomeric separation of 21 triazole fungicides was carried out on four polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases in the reversed phase separation mode using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. All fungicides were detected in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Complete enantioseparation was achieved for 21 fungicides except for difenoconazole based on cellulose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) and cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methylphenyl carbamate) columns by optimizing experimental conditions including mobile phase and column temperature. Mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution mixed with methanol or acetonitrile in different proportions. Among all the fungicides, 15 with two enantiomers and three with four stereoisomers (bitertanol, bromuconazole, and cyproconazole) were successfully separated at 25°C. Enantioseparation for the other three fungicides (propiconazole, triadimenol, and difenoconazole) with four stereoisomers could be achieved by changing the column temperature from 10 to 40°C. Propiconazole and triadimenol were enantioseparated on baseline at 40 and at 35°C, respectively, and difenoconazole was enantioseparated partially with the R(s) > 1.1 at 25°C. Moreover, linearities and limits of detection (LODs) of 21 fungicides except for difenoconazole were studied, showing coefficients of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.99 and LODs lower than 2.5 μg/L. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.