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Sample records for labeling otc yeast

  1. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...” heading. (7) Graphical images (e.g., the UPC symbol) and information not described in paragraphs (c)(1... established and identified in an applicable OTC drug monograph or by regulation. The terms listed in § 330.1(j...) and (j) of this chapter shall not be used to change in any way the specific title, headings, and...

  2. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...” heading. (7) Graphical images (e.g., the UPC symbol) and information not described in paragraphs (c)(1... established and identified in an applicable OTC drug monograph or by regulation. The terms listed in § 330.1(j...) and (j) of this chapter shall not be used to change in any way the specific title, headings, and...

  3. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general pharmacological category(ies) or the principal intended action(s) of the drug or, where the drug... actions of each active ingredient. When an OTC drug monograph contains a statement of identity, the pharmacological action described in the statement of identity shall also be stated as the purpose of the active...

  4. Sulphur tracer experiments in laboratory animals using 34S-labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sierra, J Giner; Moreno Sanz, F; Herrero Espílez, P; Marchante Gayón, J M; Rodríguez Fernández, J; García Alonso, J I

    2013-03-01

    We have evaluated the use of (34)S-labelled yeast to perform sulphur metabolic tracer experiments in laboratory animals. The proof of principle work included the selection of the culture conditions for the preparation of sulphur labelled yeast, the study of the suitability of this labelled yeast as sulphur source for tracer studies using in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and the administration of the (34)S-labelled yeast to laboratory animals to follow the fate and distribution of (34)S in the organism. For in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the combination of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) showed that labelled methionine, cysteine and other low molecular weight sulphur-containing biomolecules were the major components in the digested extracts of the labelled yeast. Next, in vivo kinetic experiments were performed in healthy Wistar rats after the oral administration of (34)S-labelled yeast. The isotopic composition of total sulphur in tissues, urine and faeces was measured by double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. It was observed that measurable isotopic enrichments were detected in all samples. Finally, initial investigations on sulphur isotopic composition of serum and urine samples by HPLC-ICP-MS have been carried out. For serum samples, no conclusive data were obtained. Interestingly, chromatographic analysis of urine samples showed differential isotope enrichment for several sulphur-containing biomolecules.

  5. Use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and perceptions of OTC drug safety among German adults.

    PubMed

    Barrenberg, E; Garbe, E

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, little empirical evidence is available about over-the-counter (OTC) drug consumption and risk perceptions. The objective of this study was to describe consumers' OTC drug use and perceptions of OTC drug safety in Germany. An online survey based on a quota sample with combined strata for age, gender, and education of 300 adult German participants was conducted in June and July 2013. The survey questionnaire covered the participants' OTC and prescription drug use, risk perceptions of OTC and prescription drugs, package leaflet reading habits, and OTC drug off-label use. Seven day prevalences of OTC drug use were higher in women (52.0%) than in men (40.8%). The risk perception of specific OTC drugs was impacted by the route of administration, the indication, and the drugs' ingredients. Products for dermal application or plant-based products were considered 'rather not risky' by 82.7-96.6 of the participants, depending on the product. Products for oral use or chemically synthesized substances were considered less safe. While 48.0% of consumers reported always reading the package leaflet of OTC drugs, 44.5% reported not reading it if they knew the drug or believed the drug was very safe. People, 60 years and older, reported significantly lower levels of OTC drug off-label use (9.3%) than younger people (22.0%). The 7-day prevalence of OTC drug use in Germany is high, especially among women. Consumers generally have balanced perceptions regarding OTC drug safety. Behaviours and knowledge related to OTC drug use should be considered by health care providers and regulators.

  6. Snap-, CLIP- and Halo-Tag Labelling of Budding Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stagge, Franziska; Mitronova, Gyuzel Y.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Wurm, Christian A.; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of the localization and the spatial and temporal dynamics of specifically labelled proteins is an indispensable tool in cell biology. Besides fluorescent proteins as tags, tag-mediated labelling utilizing self-labelling proteins as the SNAP-, CLIP-, or the Halo-tag are widely used, flexible labelling systems relying on exogenously supplied fluorophores. Unfortunately, labelling of live budding yeast cells proved to be challenging with these approaches because of the limited accessibility of the cell interior to the dyes. In this study we developed a fast and reliable electroporation-based labelling protocol for living budding yeast cells expressing SNAP-, CLIP-, or Halo-tagged fusion proteins. For the Halo-tag, we demonstrate that it is crucial to use the 6′-carboxy isomers and not the 5′-carboxy isomers of important dyes to ensure cell viability. We report on a simple rule for the analysis of 1H NMR spectra to discriminate between 6′- and 5′-carboxy isomers of fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives. We demonstrate the usability of the labelling protocol by imaging yeast cells with STED super-resolution microscopy and dual colour live cell microscopy. The large number of available fluorophores for these self-labelling proteins and the simplicity of the protocol described here expands the available toolbox for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24205303

  7. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stefano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11–13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy. PMID:20368463

  8. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; ...

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  9. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens.

  10. Antidiarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of OTC medicines treat diarrhea? You can buy over-the-counter (OTC) medicines without a prescription from your doctor. Some OTC ... short for "over-the-counter." OTC drugs are medicines you can buy without a prescription from your doctor. About Support ...

  11. Production of stable isotope-labeled acyl-coenzyme A thioesters by yeast stable isotope labeling by essential nutrients in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Tombline, Gregory; Worth, Andrew J.; Parry, Robert C.; Silvers, Jacob A.; Gillespie, Kevin P.; Basu, Sankha S.; Millen, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S.; Blair, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters are key metabolites in numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, including fatty acid biosynthesis and β-oxidation, the Krebs cycle, and cholesterol and isoprenoid biosynthesis. Stable isotope dilution-based methodology is the gold standard for quantitative analyses by mass spectrometry. However, chemical synthesis of families of stable isotope labeled metabolites such as acyl-coenzyme A thioesters is impractical. Previously, we biosynthetically generated a library of stable isotope internal standard analogs of acyl-CoA thioesters by exploiting the essential requirement in mammals and insects for pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) as a metabolic precursor for the CoA backbone. By replacing pantothenic acid in the cell media with commercially available [13C3 15N1]-pantothenic acid, mammalian cells exclusively incorporated [13C3 15N1]-pantothenate into the biosynthesis of acyl-CoA and acyl-CoA thioesters. We have now developed a much more efficient method for generating stable isotope labeled CoA and acyl-CoAs from [13C3 15N1]-pantothenate using Stable Isotope Labeling by Essential nutrients in Cell culture (SILEC) in Pan6 deficient yeast cells. Efficiency and consistency of labeling were also increased, likely due to the stringently defined and reproducible conditions used for yeast culture. The yeast SILEC method greatly enhances the ease of use and accessibility of labeled CoA thioesters and also provides proof-of-concept for generating other labeled metabolites in yeast mutants. PMID:25572876

  12. Cough Medicine: Understanding Your OTC Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... and expectorants. A common antitussive is dextromethorphan (some brand names: Triaminic Cold and Cough, Robitussin Cough, Vicks ... expectorant available in OTC products is guaifenesin (2 brand names: Mucinex, Robitussin Chest Congestion). How do OTC ...

  13. Rx for OTC Users: Improved Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shands, Virginia P.; And Others

    A self-administered survey was given to 152 college students to test their knowledge and understanding of some basic health facts and terminology commonly found in printed materials affixed to or accompanying common over-the-counter (OTC) drug preparations. The results indicated that 96% of the sample had used OTC medications as college students.…

  14. 77 FR 68132 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... compliance guide applies to OTC bronchodilator drug products used to treat asthma that are marketed without... Asthma Alert warning), and directions that are required in the labeling of OTC bronchodilator drug...

  15. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related indication...

  16. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related indication...

  17. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related indication...

  18. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related indication...

  19. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related indication...

  20. Effect of Warning Placement on the Information Processing of College Students Reading an OTC Drug Facts Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhansali, Archita H.; Sangani, Darshan S.; Mhatre, Shivani K.; Sansgiry, Sujit S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To compare three over-the-counter (OTC) Drug Facts panel versions for information processing optimization among college students.Participants: University of Houston students (N = 210) participated in a cross-sectional survey from January to May 2010.Methods: A current FDA label was compared to two experimental labels developed using the…

  1. Effect of warning placement on the information processing of college students reading an OTC drug facts panel.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, Archita H; Sangani, Darshan S; Mhatre, Shivani K; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2018-01-01

    To compare three over-the-counter (OTC) Drug Facts panel versions for information processing optimization among college students. University of Houston students (N = 210) participated in a cross-sectional survey from January to May 2010. A current FDA label was compared to two experimental labels developed using the theory of CHREST to test information processing by re-positioning the warning information within the Drug Facts panel. Congruency was defined as placing like information together. Information processing was evaluated using the OTC medication Label Evaluation Process Model (LEPM): label comprehension, ease-of-use, attitude toward the product, product evaluation, and purchase intention. Experimental label with chunked congruent information (uses-directions-other information-warnings) was rated significantly higher than the current FDA label and had the best average scores among the LEPM information processing variables. If replications uphold these findings, the FDA label design might be revised to improve information processing.

  2. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer behavior in OTC medicines market.

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Grajek, Mateusz; Siwozad, Karolina; Mazgaj, Kamila; Czech, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are pharmaceuticals sold without a medical prescription. The goal of the paper was to evaluate the awareness in the studied group of people concerning purchasing and usage of the OTC drugs. The essence of the research was to determine whether factors as: education, income, type and place of work influence purchase and use of OTC drugs. Four equal groups (100 people each) were studied by an anonymous questionnaire. Two occupational groups: nurses and people working outside the medical sector, and also 2 student groups--from medical and non-medical schools living in Silesia. Respondents answered 47 questions. Data received from the questionnaire were statistically analyzed by means of the Chi2 test (p < 0.05). More than half of the respondents use OTC drugs. The respondents mainly buy the medicines in pharmacies. People connected with medical sector more often take pharmacists' advice and opinion than people from non-medical sector. The majority of the respondents are not familiar with chemical composition of the OTC drugs they take. Among them medical staff and medical schools students are to be found.

  4. Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers

    PubMed Central

    Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M.; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be “conspicuous” and “prominent” so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels. PMID:19332798

  5. 21 CFR 352.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. For a combination drug product that... applicable OTC drug monographs. (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Uses... the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this paragraph. Other truthful and...

  6. 21 CFR 352.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. For a combination drug product that... applicable OTC drug monographs. (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Uses... the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this paragraph. Other truthful and...

  7. 21 CFR 333.160 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... combination, as established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. For a... sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under... the “Indications” sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this...

  8. OTC analgesics and drug interactions: clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fendrick, A Mark; Pan, Deborah E; Johnson, Grace E

    2008-01-01

    The risk of drug interactions with concurrent use of multiple medications is a clinically relevant issue. Many patients are unaware that over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics can cause potentially serious adverse effects when used in combination with other common medications such as anticoagulants, corticosteroids, or antihypertensive agents. Of particular significance is the increased risk of upper abdominal gastrointestinal adverse events in patients who take traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This risk is dose dependent and further increased in patients who take more than one NSAID or use NSAIDs in combination with certain other medications. Some NSAIDs may also mitigate the antiplatelet benefits of aspirin and may increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Clinicians should be aware of potential drug interactions with OTC analgesics when prescribing new medications. Additionally, patients should be properly counseled on the appropriate and safe use of OTC analgesics. PMID:18257920

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per...

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per...

  11. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per...

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content per...

  14. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  15. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  16. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium content...

  17. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    MedlinePlus

    ... of OTC medicines sometimes make changes to their products or labeling (new ingredients, dosages, or warnings). Make sure to read the label each time you use the product. Always look for special "flags" or "banners" on ...

  18. CdTe/CdS-MPA quantum dots as fluorescent probes to label yeast cells: synthesis, characterization and conjugation with Concanavalin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ilka T.; Santos, Camila C.; Benetti, Endi; Tenório, Denise P. L. A.; Cabral Filho, Paulo E.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate S.; Prates, Renato A.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2012-03-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent human opportunistic pathogenic fungus and one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. In fact, diagnosis of invasive candidiasis presents unique problems. The aim of this work was to evaluate, by fluorescence image analysis, cellular labeling of C. albicans with CdTe/CdS quantum dots conjugated or not to concanavalin A (ConA). Yeast cells were incubated with CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QD) stabilized with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (emission peak at 530 nm) for 1 hour. In the overall study we observed no morphological alterations. The fluorescence microscopic analysis of the yeast cells showed that the non-functionalized QDs do not label C. albicans cells, while for the QD conjugated to ConA the cells showed a fluorescence profile indicating that the membrane was preferentially marked. This profile was expected since Concanavalin A is a protein that binds specifically to terminal carbohydrate residues at the membrane cell surface. The results suggest that the QD-labeled Candida cells represent a promising tool to open new possibilities for a precise evaluation of fungal infections in pathological conditions.

  19. 12 CFR 217.34 - OTC derivative contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... net present value of the amount of unpaid premiums. Table 1 to § 217.34—Conversion Factor Matrix for... single OTC derivative contract is the greater of the mark-to-fair value of the OTC derivative contract or... with a negative mark-to-fair value, is calculated by multiplying the notional principal amount of the...

  20. 12 CFR 324.34 - OTC derivative contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... calculating PFE. (E) The PFE of the protection provider of a credit derivative is capped at the net present... single OTC derivative contract is the greater of the mark-to-fair value of the OTC derivative contract or... with a negative mark-to-fair value, is calculated by multiplying the notional principal amount of the...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3560 - OTC denture reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC denture reliner. 872.3560 Section 872.3560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... OTC denture reliner is a device consisting of a material such as plastic resin that is intended to be...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3560 - OTC denture reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC denture reliner. 872.3560 Section 872.3560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... OTC denture reliner is a device consisting of a material such as plastic resin that is intended to be...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3560 - OTC denture reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC denture reliner. 872.3560 Section 872.3560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... OTC denture reliner is a device consisting of a material such as plastic resin that is intended to be...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3560 - OTC denture reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC denture reliner. 872.3560 Section 872.3560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... OTC denture reliner is a device consisting of a material such as plastic resin that is intended to be...

  5. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR...

  6. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the effective...

  7. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the effective...

  8. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the effective...

  9. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the effective...

  10. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the effective...

  11. An investigative model evaluating how consumers process pictorial information on nonprescription medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S

    1997-01-01

    Currently, marketed over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels were simulated and tested in a controlled environment to understand consumer evaluation of OTC label information. Two factors, consumers' age (younger and older adults) and label designs (picture-only, verbal-only, congruent picture-verbal, and noncongruent picture-verbal) were controlled and tested to evaluate consumer information processing. The effects exerted by the independent variables, namely, comprehension of label information (understanding) and product evaluations (satisfaction, certainty, and perceived confusion) were evaluated on the dependent variable purchase intention. Intention measured as purchase recommendation was significantly related to product evaluations and affected by the factor label design. Participants' level of perceived confusion was more important than actual understanding of information on OTC medication labels. A Label Evaluation Process Model was developed which could be used for future testing of OTC medication labels.

  12. Species-specific identification of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts by fluorescently labeled DNA probes targeting the 26S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Röder, Christoph; König, Helmut; Fröhlich, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Sequencing of the complete 26S rRNA genes of all Dekkera/Brettanomyces species colonizing different beverages revealed the potential for a specific primer and probe design to support diagnostic PCR approaches and FISH. By analysis of the complete 26S rRNA genes of all five currently known Dekkera/Brettanomyces species (Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Brettanomyces custersianus, B. nanus and B. naardenensis), several regions with high nucleotide sequence variability yet distinct from the D1/D2 domains were identified. FISH species-specific probes targeting the 26S rRNA gene's most variable regions were designed. Accessibility of probe targets for hybridization was facilitated by the construction of partially complementary 'side'-labeled probes, based on secondary structure models of the rRNA sequences. The specificity and routine applicability of the FISH-based method for yeast identification were tested by analyzing different wine isolates. Investigation of the prevalence of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts in the German viticultural regions Wonnegau, Nierstein and Bingen (Rhinehesse, Rhineland-Palatinate) resulted in the isolation of 37 D. bruxellensis strains from 291 wine samples.

  13. OTC Medicines: Know Your Risks, and Reduce Them

    MedlinePlus

    ... something for just a short time. Include any herbal supplements, vitamins, and minerals you take. Once a year, ... you take. This includes OTC medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Your doctor can tell you whether you are ...

  14. Hydrostatic Pressure Enhances Vital Staining with Carboxyfluorescein or Carboxydichlorofluorescein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Efficient Detection of Labeled Yeasts by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Fumiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    The extent of intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein or carboxydichlorofluorescein (CDCF) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be increased 5- to 10-fold under a nonlethal hydrostatic pressure of 30 to 50 MPa. This observation was confirmed by analysis of individual labeled cells by flow cytometry. The pressure-induced enhancement of staining with CDCF required d-glucose and was markedly inhibited by 2-deoxy-d-glucose, suggesting that glucose metabolism has a role in the process. PMID:9501452

  15. Label-free measurement of the yeast short chain TAG lipase activity by ESI-MS after one-step esterification.

    PubMed

    Ham, Hye Jin; Seo, Jongcheol; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Shin, Seung Koo

    2017-03-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in TAG and release diacylglycerol (DAG), monoacylglycerol (MAG), and FA. We present a one-step chemical derivatization method for label-free quantification of a mixture of TAG, DAG, and MAG following lipase assay by ESI-MS. Because the ionization efficiencies of TAG, DAG, and MAG are not identical, lipase reaction products, DAG and MAG, are derivatized to TAG species by esterifying their hydroxyl groups using acyl chloride, whose acyl chain contains one less (or one more) -CH 2 group than that of substrate TAG. This resulted in three TAG species that were separated by 14 Da from one another and exhibited similar ion responses representing their molar amounts in the mass spectra. A good linear correlation was observed between peak intensity ratios and molar ratios in calibration curve. This method enables simultaneous quantification of TAG, DAG, and MAG in lipase assay and, in turn, allows stoichiometric determination of the concentrations of FAs released from TAG and DAG separately. By applying this strategy to measure both TAG and DAG lipolytic activities of the yeast Tgl2 lipase, we demonstrated its usefulness in studying enzymatic catalysis, as lipase enzymes often show dissimilar activities toward these lipids. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0449] SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the... testing requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products containing specified ingredients and... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. SPF Labeling and Testing...

  17. Urticarial vasculitis induced by OTC diet pills: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chérrez Ojeda, Iván; Loayza, Enrique; Greiding, Leonardo; Calderón, Juan Carlos; Cherrez, Annia; Adum, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Urticarial Vasculitis (UV) is in most of the cases idiopathic; however it has been associated with several conditions and drugs. Over the counter (OTC) diet pills are widely available, even on-line, but they are rarely regulated by pharmaceutical control. We present the case of a 35-year-old female patient suffering of pruriginous and painful wheals more than 1 cm in diameter, with a burning sensation. The eruption lasted more than 24 hours and was accompanied by angioedema, headache and myalgia. No remarkable medical history was found, except for previous intake of OTC diet pills. UV diagnosis was confirmed by the skin biopsy of a lesion. OTC diet pills are widely available worldwide, and due to its widespread use, allergologists and dermatologist should be able to recognize symptoms and lesions of cutaneous vasculitis, which may be under reported.

  18. Non-NSAID over-the-counter (OTC) remedies for arthritis: good, bad or indifferent?

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, M W; Butters, D E

    1999-01-01

    This overview looks at some of the issues involved with the ever-increasing availability of marketed non-prescription products, specifically claiming to treat the pain and inflammation of arthritis and other musculoskeletal problems.The question of whether the buyer is getting (any) value for their money cannot be answered without considering several key issues. These include: (a) reliability of claims; (b) placebo effect (but for how long?); (c) reliability of composition, and reproducibility (especially of natural products); (d) general safety; (e) interactions with other medications; (f) honest labelling (in the absence of stricter guidelines).A particularly difficult problem is to know how to recognise a 'drug of choice', particularly for such a multi-faceted disease as chronic arthritis, when there is so little information about the actual pharmacology/potential toxicity of these OTC products in the standard drug compendia and other readily available reference texts.This grey area can only be illuminated by (i) further introduction (and enforcement) of adequate standards/quality controls for products offered OTC; (ii) earliest prosecution of clinical trials to supercede unverified testimonial claims; (iii) appropriate funding to research/establish basic pharmacology of the active principles.In summary, more research, more regulation, and more realistic investment will be required to dispel present uncertainty about which non-NSAID drugs/nutriceuticals are indeed effective against arthritis/other forms of inflammation, and which are not.

  19. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-12 Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. The term OTC...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1 Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers are a special...

  2. Yeast Inner-Subunit PA-NZ-1 Labeling Strategy for Accurate Subunit Identification in a Macromolecular Complex through Cryo-EM Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huping; Han, Wenyu; Takagi, Junichi; Cong, Yao

    2018-05-11

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has been established as one of the central tools in the structural study of macromolecular complexes. Although intermediate- or low-resolution structural information through negative staining or cryo-EM analysis remains highly valuable, we lack general and efficient ways to achieve unambiguous subunit identification in these applications. Here, we took advantage of the extremely high affinity between a dodecapeptide "PA" tag and the NZ-1 antibody Fab fragment to develop an efficient "yeast inner-subunit PA-NZ-1 labeling" strategy that when combined with cryo-EM could precisely identify subunits in macromolecular complexes. Using this strategy combined with cryo-EM 3D reconstruction, we were able to visualize the characteristic NZ-1 Fab density attached to the PA tag inserted into a surface-exposed loop in the middle of the sequence of CCT6 subunit present in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae group II chaperonin TRiC/CCT. This procedure facilitated the unambiguous localization of CCT6 in the TRiC complex. The PA tag was designed to contain only 12 amino acids and a tight turn configuration; when inserted into a loop, it usually has a high chance of maintaining the epitope structure and low likelihood of perturbing the native structure and function of the target protein compared to other tagging systems. We also found that the association between PA and NZ-1 can sustain the cryo freezing conditions, resulting in very high occupancy of the Fab in the final cryo-EM images. Our study demonstrated the robustness of this strategy combined with cryo-EM in efficient and accurate subunit identification in challenging multi-component complexes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 12 CFR 3.34 - OTC derivative contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., notional principal amount is the net receipts to each party falling due on each value date in each currency... calculating PFE. (E) The PFE of the protection provider of a credit derivative is capped at the net present... the greater of the mark-to-fair value of the OTC derivative contract or zero. (ii) PFE. (A) The PFE...

  4. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention.

  5. Mandatory labeling requirements and over-the-counter cough and cold medication use in early childhood.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Julie; Anderson, Laura N; Chen, Yang; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Mamdani, Muhammad; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-03-16

    Due to rare but severe adverse events, Health Canada in October 2009 required manufacturers to relabel over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medication (CCM) to state that the products should not be used in children <6 years of age. The main objective of this study was to determine whether this labeling standard decreased OTC CCM use among young children with a recent cough, cold or flu. An interrupted time series study was conducted using data from the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. A total of 3,515 healthy children 1-5 years of age were recruited from 2008-2011; of these, 1,072 had a cough, cold or flu in the previous month. Parents completed a standardized survey instrument. For the primary analysis, use of OTC CCMs prior to and after October 1, 2009 was compared using time series analyses. For the secondary analysis, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of recent OTC CCM use. OTC CCM use was reported in 222 of 1,072 (20.7%) children with a cough, cold or flu within the previous month. OTC CCM use declined from 22.2% to 17.8% following the October 2009 Health Canada labeling standard (p = 0.014). Maternal age <35 years (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.05-2.13) and having older siblings (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.16-2.35) were independently associated with OTC CCM use. Labeling legislation against OTC CCM use for children <6 years resulted in a small decrease in OTC CCM use. Stronger measures may be needed to curtail OTC CCM use, particularly for younger parents and those with multiple children.

  6. Women as home caregivers: gender portrayal in OTC drug commercials.

    PubMed

    Craig, R S

    1992-01-01

    Concern has long been expressed over possible adverse effects of television advertising of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. This study investigated a sample of prime time network television ads to determine how gender portrayals differed in drug and non-drug commercials. Findings indicated that women were significantly more likely than men to appear as characters in drug ads than in ads for other products, and that they are frequently portrayed in these commercials as experts on home medical care, often as mothers caring for ill children. This supports the hypothesis that drug advertisers take advantage of stereotypical images of women as home medical caregivers. It also raises the question of whether female consumers are being encouraged by these ads to overuse OTC medications as a way of gaining the family's love and respect.

  7. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    PubMed

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  8. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  9. The Network of Counterparty Risk: Analysing Correlations in OTC Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nanumyan, Vahan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Counterparty risk denotes the risk that a party defaults in a bilateral contract. This risk not only depends on the two parties involved, but also on the risk from various other contracts each of these parties holds. In rather informal markets, such as the OTC (over-the-counter) derivative market, institutions only report their aggregated quarterly risk exposure, but no details about their counterparties. Hence, little is known about the diversification of counterparty risk. In this paper, we reconstruct the weighted and time-dependent network of counterparty risk in the OTC derivatives market of the United States between 1998 and 2012. To proxy unknown bilateral exposures, we first study the co-occurrence patterns of institutions based on their quarterly activity and ranking in the official report. The network obtained this way is further analysed by a weighted k-core decomposition, to reveal a core-periphery structure. This allows us to compare the activity-based ranking with a topology-based ranking, to identify the most important institutions and their mutual dependencies. We also analyse correlations in these activities, to show strong similarities in the behavior of the core institutions. Our analysis clearly demonstrates the clustering of counterparty risk in a small set of about a dozen US banks. This not only increases the default risk of the central institutions, but also the default risk of peripheral institutions which have contracts with the central ones. Hence, all institutions indirectly have to bear (part of) the counterparty risk of all others, which needs to be better reflected in the price of OTC derivatives.

  10. The Network of Counterparty Risk: Analysing Correlations in OTC Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Nanumyan, Vahan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Counterparty risk denotes the risk that a party defaults in a bilateral contract. This risk not only depends on the two parties involved, but also on the risk from various other contracts each of these parties holds. In rather informal markets, such as the OTC (over-the-counter) derivative market, institutions only report their aggregated quarterly risk exposure, but no details about their counterparties. Hence, little is known about the diversification of counterparty risk. In this paper, we reconstruct the weighted and time-dependent network of counterparty risk in the OTC derivatives market of the United States between 1998 and 2012. To proxy unknown bilateral exposures, we first study the co-occurrence patterns of institutions based on their quarterly activity and ranking in the official report. The network obtained this way is further analysed by a weighted k-core decomposition, to reveal a core-periphery structure. This allows us to compare the activity-based ranking with a topology-based ranking, to identify the most important institutions and their mutual dependencies. We also analyse correlations in these activities, to show strong similarities in the behavior of the core institutions. Our analysis clearly demonstrates the clustering of counterparty risk in a small set of about a dozen US banks. This not only increases the default risk of the central institutions, but also the default risk of peripheral institutions which have contracts with the central ones. Hence, all institutions indirectly have to bear (part of) the counterparty risk of all others, which needs to be better reflected in the price of OTC derivatives. PMID:26335223

  11. New OTC drugs and devices 2003: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Newton, Gail D; Pray, W Steven; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2004-01-01

    To present current information about trends development and marketing of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and dietary supplement products and describe new products, delivery systems, home monitoring devices, and home accessories in these markets that are likely generating questions from or posing potential problems for patients. Recently published clinical and pharmaceutical industry literature. By the authors. By the authors. Last year witnessed the first effort of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to remove a dietary supplement from the U.S. market. Ephedra, because of its imminent danger when used for weight reduction and athletic enhancement, was the target of FDA action. FDA has issued a final rule implementing this ban, which prohibits the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (e.g., ephedra). Two newer diet-aid products are being actively promoted with little or no safety and effectiveness data. Thus, pharmacist's vigilance is important along with sensible advice on how to lose weight safely and effectively. Further, two independent organizations have created certification programs for dietary supplements that ensure product purity, active ingredient strength, and compliance with good manufacturing practices. In addition, through recent changes in federal legislation, consumers are now able to obtain reimbursement for their nonprescription purchases through flexible spending accounts. Information is presented in this article about selected products in these OTC, home care, and dietary supplement categories: heartburn (proton pump inhibitors), allergy (second-generation antihistamines), constipation (laxatives), diabetes mellitus (blood glucose monitoring systems), home testing (fertility monitoring), nicotine addiction (smoking cessation products), otic disorders (ear syringes), contraceptives and sexual aids (condoms and lubricants), and dermatology (wart removal). Patients continue to increase their reliance on self-care. To

  12. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  16. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... derivative dealers are subject to special requirements, including limitations on the scope of their...

  17. 1994 OTC spotlights fall on technology, world operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Expanding offshore technical capabilities and growing international cooperation were the key-notes last week at the 26th Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in Houston. Sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, sessions heard many of the 244 technical papers presented this year focus on field-ready technology considered crucial to more efficient, safer, environmentally sound offshore oil and gas operations. Economic development of satellite and marginal fields was the topic at special technical sessions on the conference's first two mornings. Three dimensional seismic technology was thoroughly discussed in a day-long series of papers presented during the gathering's third day. OTC 1994 topical luncheonsmore » included descriptions by Shell Offshore Inc. of its record setting auger field development project in the Gulf of Mexico, offshore turnkey drilling by a panel of drilling contractors, and the international exploration and production alliance formed in 1990 by BP Exploration and Den norske stats oljeselskap AS. Highlights of the melting are discussed.« less

  18. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  19. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  20. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  1. 17 CFR 240.36a1-1 - Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OTC derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-1 Section 240.36a1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Information Filed Under the Act § 240.36a1-1 Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers are a special class of broker-dealers that are exempt from certain broker...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15b9-2 - Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15b9-2 Section 240.15b9-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b9-2 Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers. An OTC derivatives dealer, as...

  3. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to...

  4. Hematology and pathology devices; reclassification; restricted devices; OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-04-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing from class III (premarket approval) into class I (general controls) and exempting them from premarket notification (510(k)) and current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) requirements. FDA is also designating OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing as restricted devices under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) and establishing restrictions intended to assure consumers that: The underlying laboratory test(s) are accurate and reliable; the laboratory performing the test(s) has adequate expertise and competency; and the product has adequate labeling and methods of communicating test results to consumers. Finally, FDA is adding a conforming amendment to the existing classification regulation for specimen transport and storage containers to clarify that it does not apply to specimen transport and storage containers that are part of an OTC test sample collection system for the purpose of testing for the presence of drugs of abuse or their metabolites in a laboratory.

  5. Ibuprofen: from invention to an OTC therapeutic mainstay.

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory activity by Dr (now Professor) Stewart Adams and colleagues (Boots Pure Chemical Company Ltd, Nottingham, UK) 50 years ago represented a milestone in the development of anti-inflammatory analgesics. Subsequent clinical studies were the basis for ibuprofen being widely accepted for treating painful conditions at high anti-rheumatic doses (≤ 2400 mg/d), with lower doses (≤ 1200 mg/d for ≤ 10 days) for mild-moderate acute pain (e.g. dental pain, headache, dysmenorrhoea, respiratory symptoms and acute injury). The early observations have since been verified in studies comparing ibuprofen with newer cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors ('coxibs'), paracetamol and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The use of the low-dose, non-prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) drug was based on marketing approval in 1983 (UK) and 1984 (USA); and it is now available in over 80 countries. The relative safety of OTC ibuprofen has been supported by large-scale controlled studies. It has the same low gastro-intestinal (GI) effects as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and fewer GI effects than aspirin. Ibuprofen is a racemate. Its physicochemical properties and the short plasma-elimination half-life of the R(-) isomer, together with its limited ability to inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, compared with that of S(+)-ibuprofen, are responsible for the relatively low GI toxicity. The R(-) isomer is then converted in the body to the S(+) isomer after absorption in the GI tract. Ex vivo inhibition of COX-1 (thromboxane A(2)) and COX-2 (PGE(2)) at the plasma concentrations of S(+)-ibuprofen corresponding to those found in the plasma following ingestion of 400 mg ibuprofen in dental and other inflammatory pain models provides evidence of the anti-inflammatory mechanism at OTC dosages. R(-)-ibuprofen has effects on leucocytes, suggesting that ibuprofen has anti-leucocyte effects, which

  6. Evaluation of sulfur isotopic enrichment of urine metabolites for the differentiation of healthy and prostate cancer mice after the administration of 34S labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Galilea San Blas, Oscar; Moreno Sanz, Fernando; Herrero Espílez, Pilar; Sainz Menéndez, Rosa María; Mayo Barallo, Juan Carlos; Marchante-Gayón, Juan Manuel; García Alonso, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic enrichment of urine metabolites in healthy and prostate cancer mice using 34 S enriched yeast and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS) has been evaluated. A 30 weeks experiment (since the eleventh to the fortieth week of life) was carried out collecting the urine of three healthy mice and three transgenic mice with prostate cancer during 24h after a single oral administration of a 34 S enriched yeast slurry. The isotopic enrichment of different sulphur metabolites was monitored by coupling a C18 reverse phase HPLC column with a multicollector ICP-MS using a membrane desolvating system. Quantification of sulfur in the chromatographic peaks was carried out by post-column isotope dilution using a 33 S enriched spike. Differences between the 34 S enrichment in the urine metabolites of healthy and prostate cancer mice were found from the beginning of the disease. Both populations could be differentiated using a principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, 7 unknown mice were correctly classified in each population using a linear discriminant analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A bacterial model for expression of mutations in the human ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tuchman, M.; McCann, M.T.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    OTC is a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the formation of citrulline from carbamyl phosphate and ornithine. X-linked deficiency of OTC is the most prevalent genetic defect of ureagenesis. Mutations and polymorphisms in the OTC gene identified in deficient patients have indicated the occurrence of many family-specific, unique alleles. Due to the low frequency of recurrent mutations, distinguishing between deleterious mutations and polymorphisms is difficult. Using a human OTC gene containing plasmid driven by a tac promoter, we have devised a simple and efficient method for expressing mutations in the mature human OTC enzyme. To demonstrate this method, PCR engineered site-directed mutagenesismore » was employed to generated cDNA fragments which contained either the R151Q or R277W known mutations found in patients with neonatal and late-onset OTC deficiency, respectively. The normal allele for each mutation was also generated by an identical PCR procedure. Digestion with Bgl II- and Sty I-generated mutant and normal replacement cassettes containing the respective mutant and wild type sequences. Upon transformation of JM109 E.coli cells, OTC enzymatic activity was measured at log and stationary phases of growth using a radiochromatographic method. The R141Q mutation abolished enzymatic activity (<0.02% of normal), whereas the R277W mutation expressed partial activity (2.3% of normal). In addition, a PCR-generated mutation, A280V, resulted in 73% loss of catalytic activity. This OTC expression system is clinically applicable for distinguishing between mutations and polymorphisms, and it can be used to investigate the effects of mutations on various domains of the OTC gene.« less

  8. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  9. Understanding older adults' medication decision making and behavior: A study on over-the-counter (OTC) anticholinergic medications.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Srinivas, Preethi; Campbell, Noll L; Clark, Daniel O; Bodke, Kunal S; Hong, Youngbok; Boustani, Malaz A; Ferguson, Denisha; Callahan, Christopher M

    2018-03-06

    Older adults purchase and use over-the-counter (OTC) medications with potentially significant adverse effects. Some OTC medications, such as those with anticholinergic effects, are relatively contraindicated for use by older adults due to evidence of impaired cognition and other adverse effects. To inform the design of future OTC medication safety interventions for older adults, this study investigated consumers' decision making and behavior related to OTC medication purchasing and use, with a focus on OTC anticholinergic medications. The study had a cross-sectional design with multiple methods. A total of 84 adults participated in qualitative research interviews (n = 24), in-store shopper observations (n = 39), and laboratory-based simulated OTC shopping tasks (n = 21). Simulated shopping participants also rank-ordered eight factors on their importance for OTC decision making. Findings revealed that many participants had concerns about medication adverse effects, generally, but were not aware of age-related risk associated with the use of anticholinergic medications. Analyses produced a map of the workflow of OTC-related behavior and decision making as well as related barriers such as difficulty locating medications or comparing them to an alternative. Participants reported effectiveness, adverse effects or health risks, and price as most important to their OTC medication purchase and use decisions. A persona analysis identified two types of consumers: the habit follower, who frequently purchased OTC medications and considered them safe; and the deliberator, who was more likely to weigh their options and consider alternatives to OTC medications. A conceptual model of OTC medication purchase and use is presented. Drawing on study findings and behavioral theories, the model depicts dual processes for OTC medication decision making - habit-based and deliberation-based - as well as the antecedents and consequences of decision making. This model suggests

  10. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  11. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... workers, extended family members, or babysitters) knows what medicines your child is taking and when he or she should ... ts Don’t give OTC cough and cold medicines to a child younger than 4 years of age unless your ...

  12. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection (vaginal) Overview A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itchiness ... symptoms Causes The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast, including ...

  13. Yeast Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

  14. Developing alternative over-the-counter medicine label formats: How do they compare when evaluated by consumers?

    PubMed

    Tong, Vivien; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has proposed implementing a standardized over-the-counter (OTC) medicine label. However, there were mixed consumer opinions regarding a label proposed in 2012 and limited evidence demonstrating the usability of the revised (2014) format. To develop and examine the usability of alternative OTC medicine label formats for standardization, and explore consumer perspectives on the labels. Four alternative labels were developed for the exemplar medicine diclofenac. One was based on the Medicine Information label proposed by the TGA ('Medicine Information'), one was based on the U.S. Drug Facts label ('Drug Facts'), and two were based on suggestions proposed by consumers in the earlier needs analysis phase of this research (referred to as the 'Medicine Facts' and 'Consumer Desires' label formats). Five cohorts of 10 participants were recruited. Each cohort was assigned to user test one of the alternative labels or an existing label for a proprietary diclofenac product (which acted as a comparator) for diagnostic purposes. Each participant then provided feedback on all 5 labels. Each interview consisted of the administration of a user testing questionnaire, measuring consumers' ability to find and understand key points of information, and a semi-structured interview exploring consumer perspectives. Overall, all 4 alternative label formats supported consumers' ability to find and understand key points. The existing comparator label was the poorer label with respect to participants' ability to find and understand key points. Factors such as perceived usability, color, design, content, and/or content ordering impacted consumer preferences. The 'Consumer Desires' or 'Drug Facts' label formats were most often preferred by consumers for use as the standardized OTC label over the TGA proposed format. All alternative label formats demonstrated satisfactory usability and could be considered for use in OTC label

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a1-6 - Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts of OTC derivatives dealers. 240.11a1-6 Section 240.11a1-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-6 Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers. A transaction effected by a member of a national securities exchange for the account of an OTC derivatives dealer that is...

  16. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24, 2005, for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13734...

  17. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24, 2005, for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13734...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24. 2005, for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13734...

  19. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13733, Mar. 24...

  20. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13733, Mar. 24...

  1. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24. 2005, for all OTC drug products subject to any OTC drug monograph, not yet the subject of any OTC drug monograph, or subject to drug marketing applications approved before April 23, 2004. [69 FR 13734...

  2. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... promulgation of a monograph. (b) On and after April 20, 1972, a number of notices were published in the Federal... classes of OTC drugs. At such time as an applicable OTC drug monograph becomes effective, the interim...

  3. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... promulgation of a monograph. (b) On and after April 20, 1972, a number of notices were published in the Federal... classes of OTC drugs. At such time as an applicable OTC drug monograph becomes effective, the interim...

  4. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and... in OTC drug products for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. There is a lack of...

  5. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  6. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  7. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unenforceable; (6) Procedures are in place to identify and address any deficiencies in the operating systems and... control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unenforceable; (6) Procedures are in place to identify and address any deficiencies in the operating systems and... control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unenforceable; (6) Procedures are in place to identify and address any deficiencies in the operating systems and... control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An...

  11. 17 CFR 240.11a1-6 - Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers. 240.11a1-6 Section 240.11a1-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... effected by a member of a national securities exchange for the account of an OTC derivatives dealer that is...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An OTC derivatives dealer shall establish, document, and maintain a system of internal risk management...

  13. The influence of need for cognition and principal display panel factors on over-the-counter drug facts label comprehension.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Jesse R; Pechmann, Cornelia; Brass, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all work aimed at optimizing the ability of labeling to communicate over-the-counter (OTC) drug information has focused on back-of-the-package characteristics, such as the Drug Facts label. The effects of front of the package, or principal display panel (PDP) factors, have largely been neglected by researchers. Similarly, heterogeneity in consumers' approach to new information has received scant attention in the context of OTC drugs. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that display of a drug's brand name on the PDP and individuals' need for cognition influence comprehension of Drug Facts label information. University students (n = 212) that had experienced heartburn but not used the drug class being studied constituted the primary analysis cohort. Students were randomly assigned to review one of two PDPs (brand name or generic), followed by a Drug Facts label and a series of questions related to selection and usage of the drug. Participants with low need for cognition were influenced by the brand name PDP, as those exposed to a PDP featuring a brand (vs. generic) spent less time reading the Drug Facts label and demonstrated lower comprehension of the label information on proper drug selection. These findings suggest that further research is needed to understand the impact of PDP contents and cognitive characteristics of consumers on the communication of OTC drug information. Health care providers should consider communication strategies that account for the challenges patients face in using OTC drugs properly.

  14. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially life...

  15. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially life...

  16. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially life...

  17. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially life...

  18. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially life...

  19. Economic impact of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch in six EU countries.

    PubMed

    Millier, Aurelie; Cohen, Joshua; Toumi, Mondher

    2013-01-01

    Triptans have been safely and effectively used in the management of migraine for more than fifteen years, and it seems reasonable to wonder what would be the economic impact of moving a specific triptan to OTC availability. The objective of this study was then to examine the economic impact of payer policies of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch in six EU countries (France, UK, Spain, Italy, Germany and Poland). A decision model was used to model the budgetary impact of a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch from the third-party payer (TPP) and the societal perspectives, using a one-year timeframe. From the TPP perspective, it is estimated that the current overall direct spending on the management of migraine attacks across the 6 EU Member States is €582 million annually, and that the savings would reach €75 million (13% of the overall direct economic burden of migraine). From the societal perspective, €86 million annually would be added. Given evidence of effectiveness and safety, and given the potential savings, a triptan Rx-to-OTC switch is a reasonable public policy decision.

  20. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other rates... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1...

  1. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of OTC derivatives dealer. 240.3b-12 Section 240.3b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other...

  2. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interest in, one or more commodities, securities, currencies, interest or other rates, indices... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  3. 17 CFR 240.3b-13 - Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest in, one or more commodities, securities, currencies, interest or other rates, indices... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of eligible OTC derivative instrument. 240.3b-13 Section 240.3b-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  4. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations...

  5. 17 CFR 240.17a-12 - Reports to be made by certain OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... available for use by any official or employee of the United States or by any other person to whom the... in future engagements; or (ii) The OTC derivatives dealer has notified a certified public accountant...) of this section that the engagement has been terminated; or (iii) A certified public accountant has...

  6. Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Wang, Lin-Lin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-05-22

    Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants.

  7. Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Wang, Lin-Lin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants. PMID:25998558

  8. Novel label-free and high-throughput microchip electrophoresis platform for multiplex antibiotic residues detection based on aptamer probes and target catalyzed hairpin assembly for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Gan, Ning; Zhou, You; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao; Cao, Yuting; Chen, Yinji

    2017-11-15

    Novel label-free and multiplex aptasensors have been developed for simultaneous detection of several antibiotics based on a microchip electrophoresis (MCE) platform and target catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) for signal amplification. Kanamycin (Kana) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were employed as models for testing the system. These aptasensors contained six DNA strands termed as Kana aptamer-catalysis strand (Kana apt-C), Kana inhibit strand (Kana inh), OTC aptamer-catalysis strand (OTC apt-C), OTC inhibit strand (OTC inh), hairpin structures H1 and H2 which were partially complementary. Upon the addition of Kana or OTC, the binding event of aptamer and target triggered the self-assembly between H1 and H2, resulting in the formation of many H1-H2 complexes. They could show strong signals which represented the concentration of Kana or OTC respectively in the MCE system. With the help of the well-designed and high-quality CHA amplification, the assay could yield 300-fold amplified signal comparing that from non-amplified system. Under optimal conditions, this assay exhibited a linear correlation in the ranges from 0.001ngmL -1 to 10ngmL -1 , with the detection limits of 0.7pgmL -1 and 0.9pgmL -1 (S/N=3) toward Kana and OTC, respectively. The platform has the following advantages: firstly, the aptamer probes can be fabricated easily without labeling signal tags for MCE detection; Secondly, the targets can just react with probes and produce the amplified signal in one-pot. Finally, the targets can be simultaneously detected within 10min in different channels, thus high-throughput measurement can be achieved. Based on this work, it is estimated that this detection platform will be universally served as a simple, sensitive and portable platform for antibiotic contaminants detection in biological and environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA interactome capture in yeast.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Benedikt M

    2017-04-15

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. To be able to unbiasedly identify RBPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a yeast RNA interactome capture protocol which employs RNA labeling, covalent UV crosslinking of RNA and proteins at 365nm wavelength (photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking, PAR-CL) and finally purification of the protein-bound mRNA. The method can be easily implemented in common workflows and takes about 3days to complete. Next to a comprehensive explanation of the method, we focus on our findings about the choice of crosslinking in yeast and discuss the rationale of individual steps in the protocol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in broiler chicken's claws by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J; Pokrant, E; Araya, D; Briceño, C; Hidalgo, H; Maddaleno, A; Araya-Jordán, C; San Martin, B

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, residues may remain in products and by-products destined for human consumption or animal feeding. The claws of chickens, which are a by-product of the poultry industry, can directly or indirectly enter the food chain as meals destined to feed other productive animals. Thus, it becomes necessary to determine and quantify antimicrobial residues present in this matrix. The objective of the study was to assess the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-OTC in broiler chicken's claws. Claws of 32 broilers treated with a therapeutic dosage of 10% OTC during 7 days were analysed. Samples were taken at days 3, 9, 15 and 19 post-treatment. As for the control group, eight broiler chickens were raised under the same conditions. Extraction was carried out through EDTA-McIlvaine buffer, and clean-up employed a SPE C-18 Sep-Pak®. Instrumental analysis was performed through LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of both analytes were determined in claw samples until day 19 post-treatment. Average concentrations were within the LOD (20 μg kg - 1 ) and LOQ (22 µg kg - 1 ) for OTC and 84 μg kg - 1 for 4-epi-OTC. Withdrawal times (WDTs) of 39 days for OTC and 54 days for 4-epi-OTC were established in claws based on 95% confidence. These findings demonstrate that claws can be a source of antimicrobial residue entry into the food chain, since the results showed that OTC and its metabolite can be found in chicken's claws for long periods, even exceeding the average lifespan of a broiler chicken.

  11. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other orally administered ingredients for OTC use... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application, such product is also misbranded...

  12. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... safety and effectiveness of these and any other ingredients (e.g., cayenne pepper) for OTC use as a... 505 of the act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved...

  13. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other ingredients for OTC use for ingrown toenail... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application or abbreviated new drug...

  14. Reductive dechlorination of DDT to DDD by yeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallman, Burton J.; Andrews, Austin K.

    1963-01-01

    Labeled DDD [ 1,1-dichlor-o-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] was formed from C14-labeled DDT in the presence of yeast. The formation of DDD from DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene] was not observed, indicating that a reductive dechlorination of DDT occurs.

  15. Advertising of OTC products in a Nigerian urban setting: content analysis for indications, targets, and advertising appeal.

    PubMed

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Yusuf, Akeem

    2009-01-01

    To identify the indications for which treatments were promoted, the segments of population targeted, and the type and extent of advertising appeal used for over-the-counter (OTC) products in a Nigerian urban setting. Using a cross-sectional design, the content of advertisements for OTC products on radio, television, and billboards in a city in southwestern Nigeria were assessed during a 3-month period. Two coders independently assessed 1,492 advertisements for 49 brands of OTC products (interrater reliability [Cohen's kappa] = 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.90]). The most frequent indications for OTC products were aches and pain (42.9%), anemia/malnutrition (34.8%), and malaria (22.2%). Of advertisements, 92% were targeted at the primary end user. Use of appeal related to efficacy (100%), psychosocial enhancement (80%), and ease of use (40%) in visual, written, and audio messages was highest in ads on billboards. Efficacy appeal had the highest frequency across the three advertising media (100%); ease-of-use and safety appeal had the lowest frequency (40% and 7.4%, respectively). Nigerian movie stars were used as brand icons in advertisements of OTC products on radio (59.5%), television (52.9%), and billboards (49.6%). The majority of advertisements for OTC products in a Nigerian urban setting used advertising appeal related to efficacy and psychosocial enhancement. Promotional efforts by pharmaceutical manufacturers appear to focus on positive emotional appeal to influence drug purchase and use decisions.

  16. Experience with oral emergency contraception since the OTC switch in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kiechle, Marion; Neuenfeldt, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    In March 2015, the oral emergency contraceptives levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA) were released from prescription-only status in Germany. The main research question is to analyse whether the OTC status of oral emergency contraceptives has an influence on the patterns of use. All information is based on searches for public domain sources on emergency contraception. Searches were made for scientific publications, statistics, and surveys. Due to additional active ingredient properties, UPA is superior to LNG in terms of ovulation-inhibiting effect. Since the OTC switch, demand for oral emergency contraceptives has risen by almost 50%, especially at weekends when sexual encounters and thus contraceptive failures are most frequent. However, the age distribution of the users has not changed as a result of the OTC switch. Doctors still play an important role in advising on emergency contraception after the removal of the prescription-only requirement. Pregnancies despite emergency contraception are terminated in more than half of the cases. In federal states with higher rates of use of the morning-after pill, fewer terminations of pregnancy were performed. As a result of the OTC switch, more women and girls use the morning-after pill after unprotected intercourse and the time between unprotected intercourse and taking the oral emergency contraceptive decreases. This is of great advantage in terms of the mechanism of action. UPA is used more frequently than LNG. Only half of all people aged between 16 and 39 years in Germany are aware of the morning-after pill and 94% of women who had a pregnancy terminated in 2015 did not use any emergency contraception after the unprotected intercourse. In the population, there is still a great need for information and education on contraception and emergency contraception.

  17. Head Lice Surveillance on a Deregulated OTC-Sales Market: A Study Using Web Query Data

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on “huvudlöss” (head lice) and “hårlöss” (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures. PMID:23144923

  18. Pricing behaviour of pharmacies after market deregulation for OTC drugs: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Stargardt, Tom; Schreyögg, Jonas; Busse, Reinhard

    2007-11-01

    To examine the price reactions of German pharmacies to changes made to OTC drug regulations in 2004. Prior to these changes, regulations guaranteed identical prices in all German pharmacies. Two years after market deregulation, 256 pharmacies were surveyed to determine the retail prices of five selected OTC drugs. A probit regression model was used to identify factors that increased the likelihood of price changes. In addition, 409 pharmacy consumers were interviewed to gather information on their knowledge of the regulatory changes and to better explain consumer behaviour. Data was collected on a total of 1215 prices. Two years after deregulation, 23.1% of the participating pharmacies had modified the price of at least one of the five OTCs included in our study. However, in total, only 7.5% of the prices differed from their pre-deregulation level. The probit model showed that population density and the geographic concentration of pharmacies were significantly associated with price changes. Interestingly, the association with the geographic concentration of pharmacies was negative. The consumer survey revealed that 47.1% of those interviewed were aware of the deregulation. Our findings indicate that, two years after deregulation, very few pharmacies had made use of individual pricing strategies; price competition between pharmacies in Germany is thus taking place only a very small scale.

  19. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  20. Immunoelectron Microscopy of Cryofixed Freeze-Substituted Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Richardson, Christine; Goldberg, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Immunolabeling electron microscopy is a challenging technique with demands for perfect ultrastructural and antigen preservation. High-pressure freezing offers an excellent way to fix cellular structure. However, its use for immunolabeling has remained limited because of the low frequency of labeling due to loss of protein antigenicity or accessibility. Here we present a protocol for immunogold labeling of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that gives specific and multiple labeling while keeping the finest structural details. We use the protocol to reveal the organization of individual nuclear pore complex proteins and the position of transport factors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to actual transport events.

  1. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  2. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  3. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-02-23

    Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not consider head-to-head comparisons of artificial tears with

  4. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  5. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  6. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  7. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  8. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  9. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  10. 76 FR 35619 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this document to address labeling and effectiveness testing for certain over-the counter (OTC) sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. This document addresses labeling and effectiveness testing issues raised by the nearly 2,900 submissions that we received in response to the sunscreen proposed rule of August 27, 2007 (2007 proposed rule). The document also identifies specific claims that render a product that is subject to this rule misbranded or would not be allowed on any OTC sunscreen product marketed without an approved application. The document does not address issues related to sunscreen active ingredients or certain other issues regarding the GRASE determination for sunscreen products. The document requires OTC sunscreen products to comply with the content and format requirements for OTC drug labeling contained in the 1999 Drug Facts final rule (published in the Federal Register of March 17, 1999, by lifting the delay of implementation date for that rule that we published on September 3, 2004).

  11. Yeast for virus research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  12. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  13. Consumer behavior in the setting of over-the-counter statin availability: lessons from the consumer use study of OTC Mevacor.

    PubMed

    Brass, Eric P

    2004-11-04

    Despite the proven benefits of statins, large numbers of patients meeting guideline criteria for therapy are not receiving these drugs. It has been suggested that over-the-counter (OTC) availability of statins would allow more consumers to use statins and achieve cardiovascular risk reduction. However, concerns have been raised as to the consumers' ability to self-manage hyperlipidemia and use statins safely. The Consumer Use Study of OTC Mevacor (CUSTOM) was designed to define consumer behaviors in the setting of OTC statin availability. The study was conducted in a simulated OTC setting and allowed consumers to purchase once-daily lovastatin 20 mg. The CUSTOM dataset includes >3,300 consumers who evaluated OTC lovastatin for potential purchase at study sites and follow-up information on purchasers for up to 6 months of self-managed therapy. These data have been analyzed to address consumers' knowledge of their cholesterol concentrations as well as their ability to make OTC use decisions based on their cardiovascular risk, avoid drug-drug interactions, self-manage their cholesterol treatment after deciding to use the OTC product, and maintain interactions with physicians while using lovastatin OTC. The results showed that most study participants appropriately self-selected OTC statin therapy and managed their treatment. Use of OTC statins by consumers needing more intensive statin therapy or facing the risk of potential drug-drug interactions remains an area of concern but occurred infrequently in CUSTOM. These data are important for making an informed risk-benefit decision concerning OTC statin availability.

  14. Assessing the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches: systematic review and guidelines for future development.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Millier, A; Karray, S; Toumi, M

    2013-01-01

    Switching drugs from prescription to non-prescription status (Rx-to-OTC) presents a unique set of challenges and opportunities to policy-makers and the industry in terms of managing health outcomes, pharmaceutical spending, and steering of consumer choices of therapy. Decision-analytic models are used to address uncertainty and produce reasonable estimates of the economic impact of switches for payers. This article presents a critical literature review of existing models which assess the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches, and provides guidelines in which future economic evaluations of Rx-to-OTC switches could be improved. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in Medline and Embase, to retrieve published economic evaluations on Rx-to-OTC switches from 1995-2010. The research digest of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) was reviewed for potentially relevant abstracts for the past 3 years. Each model used was critically evaluated in terms of structure, relevance of inputs, methodology used, and robustness of results. Worldwide, the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches has only been evaluated in a total of 12 peer-reviewed publications. Ten out of 12 studies were US-based, and two European-based. The models covered various disease categories, including allergy, hypercholesterolemia, gastroenterology, contraception, pulmonology, and virology. Seventy-five per cent of the models predicted cost savings for payers and patients. Limitations of the models mainly included use of strong assumptions and non-inclusion of specific populations due to lack of data. Guidelines were developed to help future model development. They cover structural issues on decision context, health states, and clinical outcomes, and other considerations for model specifications. Although reviewed studies lacked quality, this review of economic evidence of Rx-to-OTC switches suggests that switches may produce cost savings to public and private

  15. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in prepubertal girls and young women: an analysis of parents' and patients' decision-making.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Pyke, Chantae S; Carlson, Claire A; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa R; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the decision-making influences, perceived level of control over decision-making, and mood states of parents and patients who were offered OTC prior to gonadotoxic therapy. Parents and patients, at least 12 years old, who required gonadotoxic therapy and were offered OTC prior to therapy, were asked to complete questionnaires. Two validated instruments were also used: the Decision-Making Control Instrument (DMCI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The factors that influenced decision-making were compared using Student's t test, and the scores of DMCI and POMS were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Thirty-six parents and 16 patients who elected ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) completed questionnaires. Five parents who declined OTC also completed questionnaires. Accepters thought OTC was a good idea and that, in the future, science would enable cryopreserved ovarian tissue to be used to restore fertility (100% parents, 93.8% patients). Among accepters, the desire for genetically related children and prevention of the stress of infertility drove parents' and patients' decisions (90.9 and 100%, respectively). The desire to prevent the stress of infertility was important to parents, but patients were less likely to report that a desire to prevent the stress of infertility factored into their decision-making (66.7 vs. 50.0%; p < 0.001). All respondents felt in control of their decision and displayed low levels of mood disturbance. Though the decision to undergo experimental OTC is difficult and often urgent, this study suggests that families feel in control of their decision-making and report little emotional disturbance.

  16. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect repellent... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs...

  17. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect repellent... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs...

  18. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect repellent... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs...

  19. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect repellent... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs...

  20. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos... mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect repellent... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... charges. An OTC derivatives dealer shall provide a description of all statistical models used for pricing... controls over those models, and a statement regarding whether the firm has developed its own internal VAR models. If the OTC derivatives dealer's VAR model incorporates empirical correlations across risk...

  2. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound healing...

  3. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound healing...

  4. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound healing...

  5. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound healing...

  6. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound healing...

  7. Benefit/risk considerations with respect to OTC-descheduling of loperamide.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, P; Steffen, R; DuPont, H

    1995-05-01

    The main criteria to be considered for releasing an antidiarrhoeal from a prescription to an OTC-drug are guaranteed quality control, established efficacy and safety and the evaluation of the drug experience on major markets. Besides the considerable benefits from a socio-economic point of view, the risk for potential inappropriate use of loperamide (CAS 53179-11-6) as self-medication can be minimized by its use being avoided in children of 5 years of age or less (e.g. by making available a solid formulation only), by limiting the treatment duration to 48 h, and by contraindicating the use of the drug in cases of fever (> 38 degrees C) and/or blood in the stools. On the basis of a broad review loperamide can be considered to be efficacious in acute non-specific, acute functional and traveller's diarrhoea. The agent has a good safety profile if the mentioned restrictions are born in mind. Loperamide thus satisfies the OTC criteria.

  8. Multidisciplinary management of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in pregnancy: essential to prevent hyperammonemic complications

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Stephanie; Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Murphy, Elaine; Mackillop, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error in the metabolism of the urea cycle with an incidence of 1 in 14 000 live births. Pregnancy can trigger potentially fatal hyperammonemic crises. We report a successful pregnancy in a 29-year-old primiparous patient with a known diagnosis of OTC deficiency since infancy. Hyperammonemic complications were avoided due to careful multidisciplinary management which included a detailed antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal plan. Management principles include avoidance of triggers, a low-protein diet and medications which promote the removal of nitrogen by alternative pathways. Triggers include metabolic stress such as febrile illness, particularly gastroenteritis, fasting and any protein loading. In our case the patient, in addition to a restricted protein intake, was prescribed sodium benzoate 4 g four times a day, sodium phenylbutyrate 2 g four times a day and arginine 500 mg four times a day to aid excretion of ammonia and reduce flux through the urea cycle. PMID:23283608

  9. Community pharmacists' perceptions about pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine: a survey in Harbin of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Menghuan; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2015-12-01

    In China, increasingly OTC-western medicine is obtained at the community pharmacy. It is unknown which care the community pharmacists in China provides with such medicines. This study investigated community pharmacists' attitude, practice and perceived barriers about pharmaceutical care of over-the-counter western medicine. Moreover, community pharmacists' suggestions of improvement measures were also collected. Questionnaire survey targeting community pharmacist. Respondents generally showed positive attitude towards pharmaceutical care. About 30 % of the respondents reported that they provided pharmaceutical care "whenever necessary", while about 40 % did it "as frequent as possible" or "to all consumers". Respondents considered "ambiguity of the professional role of pharmacists" (50.7 %), "Lack of scientific evidence of over-the-counter western medicine" (42.9), and "Lack of time" (40.0 %) as the main barriers. The 3 most important improvement measures suggested were "Formulating or refining legislation to clarify the legal professional role of pharmacists with respect to western medicine" (63.2 %), "Promoting public education of pharmacist role" (50.7 %), and "Formulating or refining the standards of pharmacists' practice with respect to western medicine" (50.7 %). Community pharmacists in Harbin of China have a relatively positive attitude and intention to provide pharmaceutical care of OTC western medicine. However, lack of professional role definition, limited pharmaceutical knowledge and lack of human and financial resources limited the provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists.

  10. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum

  11. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market.

    PubMed

    Merger, Eduard; Pistorius, Till

    2011-08-17

    In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum requirement and build a

  12. Comparison of the incipient lesion enamel fluoride uptake from various prescription and OTC fluoride toothpastes and gels.

    PubMed

    Schemehorn, B R; DiMarino, J C; Movahed, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the fluoride uptake into incipient enamel lesions of a novel 970 ppm F- ion SnF2 over-the-counter (OTC) gel (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel) and a novel 1150 ppm F- ion OTC toothpaste (Enamelon), each delivering amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), to the uptake from two different prescription strength, 5000 ppm F- ion dentifrices containing tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and a prescription 900 ppm F- ion paste containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The test procedure followed method #40 in the US-FDA Anticaries Drug Products for OTC Human Use, Final Monograph testing procedures. Eight sets of twelve incisor enamel cores were mounted in Plexiglas rods and the exposed surfaces were polished. The indigenous fluoride levels of each specimen were determined prior to treatment. The treatments were performed using slurries of a negative control (water) and the following products applied to a set of sound enamel cores: 5000 ppm F- ion, sodium fluoride (NaF) prescription (Rx) dentifrice "A" containing TCP; 5000 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx dentifrice "B" containing TCP; 900 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx paste with CPP-ACP; 1150 ppm F- ion, NaF OTC toothpaste; 1150 ppm F- ion, stannous fluoride (SnF2) OTC toothpaste delivering ACP (Enamelon); 1100 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC toothpaste; and 970 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC gel delivering ACP (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel). The twelve specimens of each group were immersed into 25 ml of their assigned slurry with constant stirring (350 rpm) for 30 minutes. Following treatment, one layer of enamel was removed from each specimen and analyzed for fluoride and calcium. The pre-treatment fluoride (indigenous) level of each specimen was subtracted from the post-treatment value to determine the change in enamel fluoride due to the test treatment. The increase in the average fluoride uptake for treated enamel cores was: 10,263 ± 295 ppm for the 970 ppm F- ion, Enamelon Preventive

  13. Prions in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-β aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

  14. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general...

  15. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general...

  16. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general...

  17. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish general...

  18. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hypophosphatemia. 310.541 Section 310.541 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. 310.542 Section 310.542 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific...

  20. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527 Section 310.527 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirement...

  1. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for treating...

  2. 76 FR 25696 - Guidance for Industry on Dosage Delivery Devices for Orally Ingested OTC Liquid Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... are manufacturing, marketing, or distributing orally ingested over-the-counter (OTC) liquid drug... overdoses that can result from the use of dosage delivery devices with markings that are inconsistent or... because of ongoing concerns about potentially serious accidental drug overdoses that can result from the...

  3. 21 CFR 330.14 - Additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions regulated as a cosmetic or dietary supplement in a foreign country that would be regulated as OTC... without the personal involvement of a pharmacist; dietary supplement; or cosmetic). If the condition has... concerns about the condition's toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, the method of its use, or...

  4. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a chemical...

  5. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a chemical...

  6. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for treating...

  7. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for treating...

  8. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... forth the quantities of active ingredients of the drug. III. Animal safety data. A. Individual active... paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section), all clinical testing has been conducted pursuant to a new drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally...

  9. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... setting forth the quantities of active ingredients of the drug. III. Animal safety data. A. Individual... paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section), all clinical testing has been conducted pursuant to a new drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally...

  10. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... forth the quantities of active ingredients of the drug. III. Animal safety data. A. Individual active... paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section), all clinical testing has been conducted pursuant to a new drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally...

  11. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... forth the quantities of active ingredients of the drug. III. Animal safety data. A. Individual active... paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section), all clinical testing has been conducted pursuant to a new drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally...

  12. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... setting forth the quantities of active ingredients of the drug. III. Animal safety data. A. Individual... paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section), all clinical testing has been conducted pursuant to a new drug... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally...

  13. 17 CFR 240.36a1-1 - Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from Section 7 for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-1 Section 240.36a1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15b9-2 - Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from SRO membership for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15b9-2 Section 240.15b9-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  16. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and part...

  17. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and part...

  18. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: “[Bullet] side effects occur. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.” The telephone number... means any component that is intended to furnish pharmacological activity or other direct effect in the... specified activity or effect. (3) Approved drug application means a new drug (NDA) or abbreviated new drug...

  19. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: “[Bullet] side effects occur. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.” The telephone number... means any component that is intended to furnish pharmacological activity or other direct effect in the... specified activity or effect. (3) Approved drug application means a new drug (NDA) or abbreviated new drug...

  20. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and part...

  1. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and part...

  2. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and part...

  3. Removal of oxytetracycline (OTC) in a synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater by a sequential anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR)/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system: biodegradation and inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Çelebi, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR) was effective in removing both molasses-chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). The maximum COD and OTC removals were 99% in sequential AMCBR/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at an OTC concentration of 300 mg L(-1). 51%, 29% and 9% of the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) was composed of acetic, propionic acid and butyric acids, respectively. The OTC loading rates at between 22.22 and 133.33 g OTC m(-3) d(-1) improved the hydrolysis of molasses-COD (k), the maximum specific utilization of molasses-COD (k(mh)) and the maximum specific utilization rate of TVFA (k(TVFA)). The direct effect of high OTC loadings (155.56 and -177.78 g OTC m(-3) d(-1)) on acidogens and methanogens were evaluated with Haldane inhibition kinetic. A significant decrease of the Haldane inhibition constant was indicative of increases in toxicity at increasing loading rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Yeast Infection Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections of the skin and genitals. Serious yeast infections occur more often in hospital patients and in people with weakened immune systems. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health ...

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... for sure if yogurt with Lactobacillus or other probiotics can prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. If ... Chen, H., et al. (2013). Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the ...

  6. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  7. The yeast actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Huang, Junqi; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2014-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a complex network of dynamic polymers, which plays an important role in various fundamental cellular processes, including maintenance of cell shape, polarity, cell division, cell migration, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and mechanosensation. Precise spatiotemporal assembly and disassembly of actin structures is regulated by the coordinated activity of about 100 highly conserved accessory proteins, which nucleate, elongate, cross-link, and sever actin filaments. Both in vivo studies in a wide range of organisms from yeast to metazoans and in vitro studies of purified proteins have helped shape the current understanding of actin dynamics and function. Molecular genetics, genome-wide functional analysis, sophisticated real-time imaging, and ultrastructural studies in concert with biochemical analysis have made yeast an attractive model to understand the actin cytoskeleton, its molecular dynamics, and physiological function. Studies of the yeast actin cytoskeleton have contributed substantially in defining the universal mechanism regulating actin assembly and disassembly in eukaryotes. Here, we review some of the important insights generated by the study of actin cytoskeleton in two important yeast models the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Maguire, Terry; Roy, Yvonne M; Tyrrell, Laila

    2015-11-04

    Non-prescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) analgesics (painkillers) are used frequently. They are available in various brands, package sizes, formulations, and dose. They can be used for a range of different types of pain, but this overview reports on how well they work for acute pain (pain of short duration, usually with rapid onset). Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. To examine published Cochrane reviews for information about the efficacy of pain medicines available without prescription using data from acute postoperative pain. We identified OTC analgesics available in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA by examining online pharmacy websites. We also included some analgesics (diclofenac potassium, dexketoprofen, dipyrone) of importance in parts of the world, but not currently available in these jurisdictions.We identified systematic reviews by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. From individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also calculated the success rate to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief. We also examined the number of participants experiencing any adverse event, and whether the incidence was different from placebo. We found information on 21 different OTC analgesic drugs, doses, and formulations, using information from 10 Cochrane reviews, supplemented by information from one non-Cochrane review with additional information on ibuprofen formulations (high quality evidence). The lowest (best) NNT values were for combinations of

  9. European Ethnopharmaceuticals for Self-Medication in Japan: Review Experience of Vitis vinifera L., Folium Extract and Vitex agnus-castus L., Fructus Extract as OTC Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tatsuro; Muto, Nanami; Tsukada, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Maegawa, Hikoichiro

    2018-01-06

    Since the publication of "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" in 2007, only two European ethnopharmaceuticals, Vitis vinifera L., folium extract (Antistax) and Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus extract (Prefemin), have been approved as OTC drugs in Japan. In this review, we describe the current regulation of Western ethnopharmaceuticals in Japan, summarize our regulatory experiences and discuss the scientific and regulatory issues involved.

  10. European Ethnopharmaceuticals for Self-Medication in Japan: Review Experience of Vitis vinifera L., Folium Extract and Vitex agnus-castus L., Fructus Extract as OTC Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tatsuro; Muto, Nanami; Tsukada, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Maegawa, Hikoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of “Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs” in 2007, only two European ethnopharmaceuticals, Vitis vinifera L., folium extract (Antistax) and Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus extract (Prefemin), have been approved as OTC drugs in Japan. In this review, we describe the current regulation of Western ethnopharmaceuticals in Japan, summarize our regulatory experiences and discuss the scientific and regulatory issues involved. PMID:29316611

  11. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water.

    PubMed

    Avisar, D; Lester, Y; Mamane, H

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  13. Adsorption of Soft and Hard Proteins onto OTCEs under the influence of an External Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Benavidez, Tomás E.; Torrente, Daniel; Marucho, Marcelo; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of hard and soft proteins under the effect of an external electric field was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) were used as conductive, sorbent substrates. Lysozyme (LSZ) and ribonuclease A (RNase A) were selected as representative hard proteins whereas myoglobin (Mb), α-lactalbumin (α-LAC), bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were selected to represent soft proteins. In line with recent publications from our group, the experimental results revealed that while the adsorption of all investigated proteins can be enhanced by the potential applied to the electrode, the effect is more pronounced for hard proteins. In contrast with the incomplete monolayers formed at open-circuit potential, the application of +800mV to the sorbent surface induced the formation of multiple layers of protein. These results also suggest that this effect can be related to the intrinsic polarizability of the protein (induction of dipoles), the resulting surface accessible solvent area (SASA), and structural rearrangements induced upon the incorporation on the protein layer. The described experiments are critical to understand the relationship between the structure of proteins and their tendency to form (under electric stimulation) layers with thicknesses that greatly surpass those obtained at open-circuit conditions. PMID:25658387

  14. Adsorption of soft and hard proteins onto OTCEs under the influence of an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Benavidez, Tomás E; Torrente, Daniel; Marucho, Marcelo; Garcia, Carlos D

    2015-03-03

    The adsorption behavior of hard and soft proteins under the effect of an external electric field was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) were used as conductive, sorbent substrates. Lysozyme (LSZ) and ribonuclease A (RNase A) were selected as representative hard proteins, whereas myoglobin (Mb), α-lactalbumin (α-LAC), bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were selected to represent soft proteins. In line with recent publications from our group, the experimental results revealed that while the adsorption of all investigated proteins can be enhanced by the potential applied to the electrode, the effect is more pronounced for hard proteins. In contrast with the incomplete monolayers formed at open-circuit potential, the application of +800 mV to the sorbent surface induced the formation of multiple layers of protein. These results suggest that this effect can be related to the intrinsic polarizability of the protein (induction of dipoles), the resulting surface accessible solvent area (SASA), and structural rearrangements induced upon the incorporation on the protein layer. The described experiments are critical to understand the relationship between the structure of proteins and their tendency to form (under electric stimulation) layers with thicknesses that greatly surpass those obtained at open-circuit conditions.

  15. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  16. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  17. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spices Stores may voluntarily list nutrients for many raw foods. They may also display the nutrition information for the 20 most commonly eaten raw fruits, vegetables, and seafood. Nutrition labeling for single- ...

  18. Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Effectiveness of FDA's new over-the-counter acetaminophen warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R K; Rajan, S S; Essien, E J; Sansgiry, S S

    2012-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new organ-specific warning label requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic products in order to make consumers aware of the risk of liver damage when using acetaminophen. However, awareness of a health risk alone cannot ensure consumers' engagement in safe and preventive behaviour. In this study, we attempted to: (i) measure consumer risk perception of liver damage due to the OTC acetaminophen products and (ii) analyse the effectiveness of the new organ-specific warning label in improving consumer risk perception of liver damage and intention to perform protective behaviours while using OTC acetaminophen products. This within-subject experimental study used a convenience sample of English-speaking adults visiting OTC segments of selected pharmacy stores in Houston. Participants were randomly exposed to the old and new warning labels and their respective risk perception (measured on a visual analogue scale, 0%, no risk, to 100%, extreme risk) and behavioural intention (measured on a 7-point Likert scale) were recorded using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed using sas statistical software (v 9.2) at a priori significance level of 0.05. Majority of participants (74.4%) were not aware of the new warnings; however, majority (67.8%) had prior knowledge of the risk. The mean risk perception score for the new warning label was found to be significantly higher (72.2% vs. 65.9%, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. Similarly, the average intention score for the new warning label was significantly higher (5.06 vs. 4.86, P < 0.0001) than the old warning label. The new warning label mandated by FDA is effective in improving consumer risk perception of potential liver damage and may encourage protective behaviour. However, future studies are essential to assess the impact of the new label on actual changes in consumer behaviour

  20. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  1. Developing consumer-centered, nonprescription drug labeling a study in acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer P; Davis, Terry C; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Jacobson, Kara L; Hedlund, Laurie A; Di Francesco, Lorenzo; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    In the U.S., acetaminophen overdose has surpassed viral hepatitis as the leading cause of acute liver failure, and misuse contributes to more than 30,000 hospitalizations annually. Half to two thirds of acetaminophen overdoses are unintentional, suggesting the root cause is likely poor understanding of medication labeling or failure to recognize the consequences of exceeding the recommended maximum daily dosage. Elicit subject feedback about active ingredient and dosing information on over-the-counter (OTC) acetaminophen and elicit feedback on proposed plain-language text and icons. Six focus groups, preceded by individual interviews, were conducted in April 2010 among 45 adults in two cities from two clinics and an adult basic education center. The individual interviews evaluated knowledge of OTC pain relievers, attention to product label information and literacy level while the group discussion elicited preference for label messages and icons. Analyses were conducted from April to June 2010. Forty-four percent read at or below the 6th-grade level. Individual interviews revealed that <50% of participants routinely examine product label information. Only 31% know acetaminophen is in Tylenol®. The groups achieved consensus on a preferred icon for acetaminophen, desired explicit statement of potential liver damage in the warning against simultaneous use of acetaminophen products, and indicated preference for an icon and wording for maximum dose. With the high prevalence of OTC use, a consumer-centered approach to developing icons and messages to promote awareness and safe use of acetaminophen could benefit consumers. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  3. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  4. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  5. Antibody biosensors for spoilage yeast detection based on impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tubía, I; Paredes, J; Pérez-Lorenzo, E; Arana, S

    2018-04-15

    Brettanomyces is a yeast species responsible for wine and cider spoilage, producing volatile phenols that result in off-odors and loss of fruity sensorial qualities. Current commercial detection methods for these spoilage species are liable to frequent false positives, long culture times and fungal contamination. In this work, an interdigitated (IDE) biosensor was created to detect Brettanomyces using immunological reactions and impedance spectroscopy analysis. To promote efficient antibody immobilization on the electrodes' surface and to decrease non-specific adsorption, a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) was developed. An impedance spectroscopy analysis, over four yeast strains, confirmed our device's increased efficacy. Compared to label-free sensors, antibody biosensors showed a higher relative impedance. The results also suggested that these biosensors could be a promising method to monitor some spoilage yeasts, offering an efficient alternative to the laborious and expensive traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [The knowledge of students and teachers of selected groups about the OTC drugs containing codeine and pseudoephedrine--an alternative to "legal highs"?].

    PubMed

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Marcinkiewicz, Marcin; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Currently the youth to intoxication increasingly used drugs generally available over the counter (OTC, Over-The-Counter drug) containing psychotropic substances. The knowledge on the subject among parents and teachers is inadequate. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students and teachers about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and their consequences on the use and popularity of these drugs. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 of 93 respondents. In conducting the study used research tool in the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questions for the students and teachers of 16 questions, the questions relate knowledge of the studied group persons on the OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and the effects of their use. Among the students participating in the study, the majority of respondents are aware that using drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine can be addicted to them. Higher knowledge on this subject have demonstrated high school students, but less teachers. Most of the respondents had knowledge about the health effects that result from an overdose of these drugs. Among the students most frequently reported sources of knowledge about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine were friends and the Internet. The general knowledge of high school students and teachers on the effects of OTC medications containing codeine or pseudoephedrine is not sufficient. There is a need to conduct preventive and educational action aimed at increasing knowledge among youth and adults on the health effects of these drugs.

  7. From prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Germany 2006-2015: pharmacological perspectives on regulatory decisions.

    PubMed

    Barrenberg, Eva; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the extent of switches from prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Europe and about the pharmacological properties of the switched substances. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the substances that were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany between 2006 and 2015 and to assess their pharmacological properties. Session minutes of the German Expert Advisory Committee for Prescription-Only Issues, changes to the German Ordinance on Prescription-Only Medicines and the Summary of Product Characteristics of the switched substances were analysed. Pharmacological properties were studied in relation to the EU Guideline on Changing the Classification for the Supply of a Medicinal Product for Human Use (the 'EU switch guide'). Between 2006 and 2015, seven substances (almotriptan, omeprazole, benzydamine, ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine, racecadotril, ketotifen and levonorgestrel) were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany. In all cases, the OTC status was restricted to certain indications, doses, pack sizes, or other limitations. Notwithstanding recommendations of the EU switch guide, some of the switched substances might interact with commonly used drugs potentially resulting in serious adverse drug reactions or have contraindications or warnings regarding substantial parts of the population. The stipulations of the EU switch guide were fully met for only some switches, while this was not completely the case for others. Further development of guidance on balancing risks and benefits of OTC availability is recommended.

  8. Sudden unexpected fatal encephalopathy in adults with OTC gene mutations-Clues for early diagnosis and timely treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background X-linked Ornithine Transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is often unrecognized in adults, as clinical manifestations are non-specific, often episodic and unmasked by precipitants, and laboratory findings can be normal outside the acute phase. It may thus be associated with significant mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. The aim of this study was to provide clues for recognition of OTCD in adults and analyze the environmental factors that, interacting with OTC gene mutations, might have triggered acute clinical manifestations. Methods We carried out a clinical, biochemical and molecular study on five unrelated adult patients (one female and four males) with late onset OTCD, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with initial fatal encephalopathy. The molecular study consisted of OTC gene sequencing in the probands and family members and in silico characterization of the newly detected mutations. Results We identified two new, c.119G>T (p.Arg40Leu) and c.314G>A (p.Gly105Glu), and three known OTC mutations. Both new mutations were predicted to cause a structural destabilization, correlating with late onset OTCD. We also identified, among the family members, 8 heterozygous females and 2 hemizygous asymptomatic males. Patients' histories revealed potential environmental triggering factors, including steroid treatment, chemotherapy, diet changes and hormone therapy for in vitro fertilization. Conclusions This report raises awareness of the ED medical staff in considering OTCD in the differential diagnosis of sudden neurological and behavioural disorders associated with hyperammonemia at any age and in both genders. It also widens the knowledge about combined effect of genetic and environmental factors in determining the phenotypic expression of OTCD. PMID:25026867

  9. Assessment of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae component binding to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using bovine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziwei; You, Qiumei; Ossa, Faisury; Mead, Philip; Quinton, Margaret; Karrow, Niel A

    2016-03-01

    Since yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are being used for the prevention and treatment of enteric diseases in different species, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study aimed to identify potential yeast derivatives that may be used to help prevent MAP infection. The adherence of mCherry-labeled MAP to bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T cells) and bovine primary epithelial cells (BECs) co-cultured with yeast cell wall components (CWCs) from four different yeast strains (A, B, C and D) and two forms of dead yeast from strain A was investigated. The CWCs from all four yeast strains and the other two forms of dead yeast from strain A reduced MAP adhesion to MAC-T cells and BECs in a concentration-dependent manner after 6-h of exposure, with the dead yeast having the greatest effect. The following in vitro binding studies suggest that dead yeast and its' CWCs may be useful for reducing risk of MAP infection.

  10. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  11. Zirconia nanocrystals as submicron level biological label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K.; Liepins, J.; Gavare, M.; Patmalnieks, A.; Gruduls, A.; Jankovica, D.

    2012-08-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals are of increasing interest for their usage in biology and pharmacology research. Our interest was to justify ZrO2 nanocrystal usage as submicron level biological label in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia culture. For the first time (to our knowledge) images with sub micro up-conversion luminescent particles in biologic media were made. A set of undoped as well as Er and Yb doped ZrO2 samples at different concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The up-conversion luminescence for free standing and for nanocrystals with baker's yeast cells was studied and the differences in up-conversion luminescence spectra were analyzed. In vivo toxic effects of ZrO2 nanocrystals were tested by co-cultivation with baker's yeast.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  13. Overuse of prescription and OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, L; Caporali, R; Trifiro, G; Arcoraci, V; Rossi, S; Montecucco, C

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been demonstrated to have significant cardiovascular and gastrointestinal toxicity; high dose of intake and concomitant use of multiple compounds or corticosteroids are factors that increase the risk of NSAID toxicity. In this paper we described our experience on NSAIDs misuse (both prescribing and OTC formulations), particularly relevant in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis (39.5 percent of patients) and osteoarthritis (47 percent of patients). We also evaluated causes underlying NSAIDs misuse (e.g. not satisfactory pain control, other painful conditions, etc).

  14. Tapping into yeast diversity.

    PubMed

    Fay, Justin C

    2012-11-01

    Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse.

  15. Wine yeasts for the future.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2008-11-01

    International competition within the wine market, consumer demands for newer styles of wines and increasing concerns about the environmental sustainability of wine production are providing new challenges for innovation in wine fermentation. Within the total production chain, the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice by yeasts is a key process where winemakers can creatively engineer wine character and value through better yeast management and, thereby, strategically tailor wines to a changing market. This review considers the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining wine quality, and then discusses new directions for exploiting yeasts in wine fermentation. It covers criteria for selecting and developing new commercial strains, the possibilities of using yeasts other than those in the genus of Saccharomyces, the prospects for mixed culture fermentations and explores the possibilities for high cell density, continuous fermentations.

  16. Treatment with the cysteine precursor l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) implicates taurine deficiency in severity of dystropathology in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Jessica R; Boyatzis, Amber; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of the lethal skeletal muscle disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and various antioxidants have been investigated as a potential therapy. Recently, treatment of the mdx mouse model for DMD with the antioxidant and cysteine and glutathione (GSH) precursor n-acetylcysteine (NAC) was shown to decrease protein thiol oxidation and improve muscle pathology and ex vivo muscle strength. This study further investigates the mechanism for the benefits of NAC on dystrophic muscle by administering l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) which also upregulates intracellular cysteine and GSH, but does not directly function as an antioxidant. We observed that OTC, like NAC, decreases protein thiol oxidation, decreases pathology and increases strength, suggesting that the both NAC and OTC function via increasing cysteine and GSH content of dystrophic muscle. We demonstrate that mdx muscle is not deficient in either cysteine or GSH and that these are not increased by OTC treatment. However, we show that dystrophic muscle of 12 week old mdx mice is deficient in taurine, a by-product of disposal of excess cysteine, a deficiency that is ameliorated by OTC treatment. These data suggest that in dystrophic muscles, apart from the strong association of increased oxidative stress and protein thiol oxidation with dystropathology, another major issue is an insufficiency in taurine that can be corrected by increasing the availability of cysteine. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the benefits of NAC in muscular dystrophy and supports the use of OTC as an alternative drug for potential clinical applications to DMD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Morais, J. P. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Silva, L. P.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Báo, S. N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall.

  18. Live-Cell Imaging of Mitochondria and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of proper mitochondrial dynamics and functions are necessary for cellular homeostasis. Numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and muscle myopathies, and overall cellular aging are marked by declining mitochondrial function and subsequent loss of multiple other cellular functions. For these reasons, optimized protocols are needed for visualization and quantification of mitochondria and their function and fitness. In budding yeast, mitochondria are intimately associated with the actin cytoskeleton and utilize actin for their movement and inheritance. This chapter describes optimal approaches for labeling mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton in living budding yeast cells, for imaging the labeled cells, and for analyzing the resulting images.

  19. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  20. Paraphyly and (yeast) classification.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Marc-André

    2016-12-01

    Yeast systematics has wholeheartedly embraced the phylogenetic approach. Central to this has been the unspoken convention that taxa at all ranks be strictly monophyletic. This can result in a proliferation of small genera and instances of nomenclatural instability, counter to the expected benefit of phylogenetic systematics. But the literature abounds with examples, at all taxonomic levels, where paraphyly is a reality that can no longer be ignored. The very concepts of Bacteria or Archaea, under the constraint of monophyly, are in peril. It is therefore desirable to effect a shift in practices that will recognize the existence of paraphyletic taxa.

  1. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  2. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  3. The Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure. PMID:20554704

  4. Phage and Yeast Display.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jared; Marasco, Wayne A

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of antimicrobial drugs, the continued development of microbial resistance--established through escape mutations and the emergence of resistant strains--limits their clinical utility. The discovery of novel, therapeutic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers viable clinical alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Human mAb-based therapies are typically nontoxic in patients and demonstrate high specificity for the intended microbial target. This specificity prevents negative impacts on the patient microbiome and avoids driving the resistance of nontarget species. The in vitro selection of human antibody fragment libraries displayed on phage or yeast surfaces represents a group of well-established technologies capable of generating human mAbs. The advantage of these forms of microbial display is the large repertoire of human antibody fragments present during a single selection campaign. Furthermore, the in vitro selection environments of microbial surface display allow for the rapid isolation of antibodies--and their encoding genes--against infectious pathogens and their toxins that are impractical within in vivo systems, such as murine hybridomas. This article focuses on the technologies of phage display and yeast display, as these strategies relate to the discovery of human mAbs for the treatment and vaccine development of infectious diseases.

  5. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with amore » large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.« less

  6. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes.

  7. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an anticholinergic in cough-cold drug products. 310.533... in cough-cold drug products. (a) Atropine sulfate, belladonna alkaloids, and belladonna alkaloids as contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug...

  8. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an anticholinergic in cough-cold drug products. 310.533... in cough-cold drug products. (a) Atropine sulfate, belladonna alkaloids, and belladonna alkaloids as contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug...

  9. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an anticholinergic in cough-cold drug products. 310.533... in cough-cold drug products. (a) Atropine sulfate, belladonna alkaloids, and belladonna alkaloids as contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... would be determined. (iii) Internal risk management control systems. An OTC derivatives dealer shall provide a comprehensive description of its internal risk management control systems and how those systems... internal risk management control systems that meet the requirements set forth in § 240.15c3-4; and (ii) Has...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... would be determined. (iii) Internal risk management control systems. An OTC derivatives dealer shall provide a comprehensive description of its internal risk management control systems and how those systems... internal risk management control systems that meet the requirements set forth in § 240.15c3-4; and (ii) Has...

  12. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the Federal Register of November 19, 1972 (37 FR 25249). (xii) Certain OTC Multiple-Vitamin Preparations for Oral Use containing excessive amounts of vitamin D and/or vitamin A (DESI 97), for which... the products into conformity with current medical knowledge and experience. (d) Manufacturers and...

  13. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the Federal Register of November 19, 1972 (37 FR 25249). (xii) Certain OTC Multiple-Vitamin Preparations for Oral Use containing excessive amounts of vitamin D and/or vitamin A (DESI 97), for which... the products into conformity with current medical knowledge and experience. (d) Manufacturers and...

  14. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the Federal Register of November 19, 1972 (37 FR 25249). (xii) Certain OTC Multiple-Vitamin Preparations for Oral Use containing excessive amounts of vitamin D and/or vitamin A (DESI 97), for which... the products into conformity with current medical knowledge and experience. (d) Manufacturers and...

  15. Variable X-chromosome inactivation and enlargement of pericentral glutamine synthetase zones in the liver of heterozygous females with OTC deficiency.

    PubMed

    Musalkova, Dita; Sticova, Eva; Reboun, Martin; Sokolova, Jitka; Krijt, Jakub; Honzikova, Jitka; Gurka, Jiri; Neroldova, Magdalena; Honzik, Tomas; Zeman, Jiri; Jirsa, Milan; Dvorakova, Lenka; Hrebicek, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked disorder that causes recurrent and life-threatening episodes of hyperammonemia. The clinical picture in heterozygous females is highly diverse and derives from the genotype and the degree of inactivation of the mutated X chromosome in hepatocytes. Here, we describe molecular genetic, biochemical, and histopathological findings in the livers explanted from two female patients with late-onset OTC deficiency. Analysis of X-inactivation ratios by DNA methylation-based assays showed remarkable intra-organ variation ranging from 46:54 to 82:18 (average 70:30, n = 37), in favor of the active X chromosome carrying the mutation c.583G>C (p.G195R), in the first patient and from 75:25 to 90:10 (average 82:18, n = 20) in favor of the active X chromosome carrying the splicing mutation c.663+1G>A in the second patient. The X-inactivation ratios in liver samples correlated highly with the proportions of OTC-positive hepatocytes calculated from high-resolution image analyses of the immunohistochemically detected OTC in frozen sections that was performed on total area > 5 cm 2 . X-inactivation ratios in blood in both female patients corresponded to the lower limit of the liver values. Our data indicate that the proportion of about 20-30% of hepatocytes expressing the functional OTC protein is not sufficient to maintain metabolic stability. X-inactivation ratios assessed in liver biopsies taken from heterozygous females with X-linked disorders should not be considered representative of the whole liver.

  16. Bioprotective Role of Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Muccilli, Serena; Restuccia, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts constitute a large group of microorganisms characterized by the ability to grow and survive in different and stressful conditions and then to colonize a wide range of environmental and human ecosystems. The competitive traits against other microorganisms have attracted increasing attention from scientists, who proposed their successful application as bioprotective agents in the agricultural, food and medical sectors. These antagonistic activities rely on the competition for nutrients, production and tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, as well as the synthesis of a large class of antimicrobial compounds, known as killer toxins, which showed clearly a large spectrum of activity against food spoilage microorganisms, but also against plant, animal and human pathogens. This review describes the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity, their applications in the processed and unprocessed food sectors, as well as the future perspectives in the development of new bio-drugs, which may overcome the limitations connected to conventional antimicrobial and drug resistance. PMID:27682107

  17. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  18. [Thermoresistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kaliuzhin, V A

    2011-01-01

    Under natural conditions, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduce, as a rule, on the surface of solid or liquid medium. Thus, life cycle of yeast populations is substantially influenced by diurnal changes in ambient temperature. The pattern in the response of unrestricted yeast S. cerevisiae culture to changes in the temperature of cultivation is revealed experimentally. Yeast population, in the absence of environmental constraints on the functioning of cell chemosmotic bioenergetic system, demonstrates the ability of thermoresistance when the temperature of cultivation switches from the range of 12-36 degrees C to 37.5-40 degrees C. During the transient period that is associated with the temperature switching and lasts from 1 to 4 turnover cycles, yeast reproduction rate remains 1.5-2 times higher than under stationary conditions. This is due to evolutionary acquired adaptive activity of cell chemosmotic system. After the adaptive resources exhausting, yeast thermoresistance fully recovers at the temperature range of 12-36 degrees C within one generation time under conditions of both restricted and unrestricted nourishment. Adaptive significance of such thermoresistance seems obvious enough--it allows maintaining high reproduction rate in yeast when ambient temperature is reaching a brief maximum shortly after noon.

  19. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  1. Category labels versus feature labels: category labels polarize inferential predictions.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yu, Na-Yung

    2008-04-01

    What makes category labels different from feature labels in predictive inference? This study suggests that category labels tend to make inductive reasoning polarized and homogeneous. In two experiments, participants were shown two schematic pictures of insects side by side and predicted the value of a hidden feature of one insect on the basis of the other insect. Arbitrary verbal labels were shown above the two pictures, and the meanings of the labels were manipulated in the instructions. In one condition, the labels represented the category membership of the insects, and in the other conditions, the same labels represented attributes of the insects. When the labels represented category membership, participants' responses became substantially polarized and homogeneous, indicating that the mere reference to category membership can modify reasoning processes.

  2. BWTG3 hepatoma cells can acquire phenylalanine hydroxylase, cystathionine synthase and CPS-I without genetic manipulation, but activation of the silent OTC gene requires cell fusion with hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A A; Goss, S J

    1991-04-01

    The mouse hepatoma BWTG3 has been tested for its ability to grow in three different media that select for traits normally expressed in adult liver: homocysteine medium to select for cystathionine synthase (CS), tyrosine-free medium for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PH), and ornithine medium for carbamylphosphate synthetase-I (CPS-I) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC). In no case were the cells immediately capable of bulk growth, showing that all these traits were in some degree deficient. However, the cultures in homocysteine medium and in tyrosine-free medium both gave rise, spontaneously, to growing clones with frequencies of approximately 10(-3) and 10(-5), respectively. The deficiencies of CS and PH were accordingly excluded from further study, in view of their inherent instability. In contrast, no colonies ever formed in ornithine medium. Though neither CPS-I nor OTC were detectable in stock BWTG3 cells, it was found that CPS-I was readily inducible by hormones. The deficiency of OTC, however, appeared to be totally stable showing no reversion in response either to hormones or to azacytidine treatment. This deficiency was investigated by fusing the hepatoma to OTC+ liver cells prepared from normal or sparse-fur (spf) mice. Sparse-fur mice were used because their OTC is mutant and has a distinctive pH-dependence. OTC+ hybrids were readily produced, without the need for any specific selection for OTC, and, in one case at least, with only minimal chromosome segregation. In all the OTC+ hybrids made with spf cells, there was clear reactivation of the wild-type, hepatoma-derived OTC gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    PubMed

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  4. Yeasts as distinct life forms of fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review describes all presently recognized genera of the Ascomycete yeasts (Saccharomycotina, budding yeasts, and the Taphrinomycotina, fission yeasts and related) as well as all currently recognized genera of the Basidiomycete yeasts. This update will be the lead chapter for a book entitled “Ye...

  5. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis...

  6. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  8. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  9. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid...

  10. Ubiquitin orchestrates proteasome dynamics between proliferation and quiescence in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhu Chao; Wu, Edwin; Sailer, Carolin; Jando, Julia; Styles, Erin; Eisenkolb, Ina; Kuschel, Maike; Bitschar, Katharina; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Lan; Vissa, Adriano; Yip, Christopher M.; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Friesen, Helena; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteasomes are essential for protein degradation in proliferating cells. Little is known about proteasome functions in quiescent cells. In nondividing yeast, a eukaryotic model of quiescence, proteasomes are depleted from the nucleus and accumulate in motile cytosolic granules termed proteasome storage granules (PSGs). PSGs enhance resistance to genotoxic stress and confer fitness during aging. Upon exit from quiescence PSGs dissolve, and proteasomes are rapidly delivered into the nucleus. To identify key players in PSG organization, we performed high-throughput imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteasomes in the yeast null-mutant collection. Mutants with reduced levels of ubiquitin are impaired in PSG formation. Colocalization studies of PSGs with proteins of the yeast GFP collection, mass spectrometry, and direct stochastic optical reconstitution microscopy of cross-linked PSGs revealed that PSGs are densely packed with proteasomes and contain ubiquitin but no polyubiquitin chains. Our results provide insight into proteasome dynamics between proliferating and quiescent yeast in response to cellular requirements for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. PMID:28768827

  11. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  12. Simple method to detect triacylglycerol biosynthesis in a yeast-based recombinant system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Standard methods to quantify the activity of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesizing enzymes DGAT and PDAT (TAG-SE) require a sensitive but rather arduous laboratory assay based on radio-labeled substrates. Here we describe two straightforward methods to detect TAG production in baker’s yeast Saccharomyc...

  13. Problem-Solving Test: Analysis of DNA Damage Recognizing Proteins in Yeast and Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    The experiment described in this test was aimed at identifying DNA repair proteins in human and yeast cells. Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: DNA repair, germline mutation, somatic mutation, inherited disease, cancer, restriction endonuclease, radioactive labeling, [alpha-[superscript 32]P]ATP, [gamma-[superscript…

  14. Yeast proteome map (last update).

    PubMed

    Perrot, Michel; Moes, Suzette; Massoni, Aurélie; Jenoe, Paul; Boucherie, Hélian

    2009-10-01

    The identification of proteins separated on 2-D gels is essential to exploit the full potential of 2-D gel electrophoresis for proteomic investigations. For this purpose we have undertaken the systematic identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins separated on 2-D gels. We report here the identification by mass spectrometry of 100 novel yeast protein spots that have so far not been tackled due to their scarcity on our standard 2-D gels. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast 2-D proteome map to 716. They correspond to 485 unique proteins. Among these, 154 were resolved into several isoforms. The present data set can now be expanded to report for the first time a map of 363 protein isoforms that significantly deepens our knowledge of the yeast proteome. The reference map and a list of all identified proteins can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM).

  15. Human alpha beta hydrolase domain containing protein 11 and its yeast homolog are lipid hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, Madhuri; Srinivasan, Malathi; Rajasekharan, Ram

    Mammalian alpha/beta hydrolase domain (ABHD) family of proteins have emerged as key regulators of lipid metabolism and are found to be associated with human diseases. Human α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 11 (ABHD11) has recently been predicted as a potential biomarker for human lung adenocarcinoma. In silico analyses of the ABHD11 protein sequence revealed the presence of a conserved lipase motif GXSXG. However, the role of ABHD11 in lipid metabolism is not known. To understand the biological function of ABHD11, we heterologously expressed the human ABHD11 in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo [{sup 14}C]acetate labeling of cellular lipids in yeast cellsmore » overexpressing ABHD11 showed a decrease in triacylglycerol content. Overexpression of ABHD11 also alters the molecular species of triacylglycerol in yeast. Similar activity was observed in its yeast homolog, Ygr031w. The role of the conserved lipase motif in the hydrolase activity was proven by the mutation of all conserved amino acid residues of GXSXG motif. Collectively, our results demonstrate that human ABHD11 and its yeast homolog YGR031W have a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Overexpression of ABHD11 protein and its yeast homolog Ygr031w cause a reduction in triacylglycerol levels in yeast. • The reduction in triacylglycerol is due to the presence of lipase motif GXSXG. • Overexpression of ABHD11 and Ygr031w alters the molecular species of triacylglycerol.« less

  16. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  17. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  18. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  19. Method for automatic determination of soybean actual evapotranspiration under open top chambers (OTC) subjected to effects of water stress and air ozone concentration.

    PubMed

    Rana, Gianfranco; Katerji, Nader; Mastrorilli, Marcello

    2012-10-01

    The present study describes an operational method, based on the Katerji et al. (Eur J Agron 33:218-230, 2010) model, for determining the daily evapotranspiration (ET) for soybean inside open top chambers (OTCs). It includes two functions, calculated day par day, making it possible to separately take into account the effects of concentrations of air ozone and plant water stress. This last function was calibrated in function of the daily values of actual water reserve in the soil. The input variables of the method are (a) the diurnal values of global radiation and temperature, usually measured routinely in a standard weather station; (b) the daily values of the AOT40 index accumulated (accumulated ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb during daylight hours, when global radiation exceeds 50 Wm(-2)) determined inside the OTC; and (c) the actual water reserve in the soil, at the beginning of the trial. The ensemble of these input variables can be automatable; thus, the proposed method could be applied in routine. The ability of the method to take into account contrasting conditions of ozone air concentration and water stress was evaluated over three successive years, for 513 days, in ten crop growth cycles, excluding the days employed to calibrate the method. Tests were carried out in several chambers for each year and take into account the intra- and inter-year variability of ET measured inside the OTCs. On the daily scale, the slope of the linear regression between the ET measured by the soil water balance and that calculated by the proposed method, under different water conditions, are 0.98 and 1.05 for the filtered and unfiltered (or enriched) OTCs with root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 0.77 and 1.07 mm, respectively. On the seasonal scale, the mean difference between measured and calculated ET is equal to +5% and +11% for the filtered and unfiltered OTCs, respectively. The ability of the proposed method to estimate the daily and seasonal ET inside the OTCs is

  20. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  1. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  2. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  3. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  4. Urea Cycle Defects: Early-Onset Disease Associated with A208T Mutation in OTC Gene-Expanding the Clinical Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Rincón, Alejandra; García, Mary; Suárez-Obando, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OMIM: 311250) is the most common disorder of urea cycle disorders, accounting for nearly 50% of all cases. We report a case of a two-month- old male patient, who attends our medical genetics consultation because of low citrulline levels and elevated glutamine to citrulline ratio detected by expanded newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry. He is an asymptomatic male with a normal physical examination and appropriate neurodevelopmental milestones. The patient has a family history of one older brother who died at 18 months old from severe and sudden hyperammonemia and a maternal aunt who suddenly died at two years old. He had high plasma ammonium concentration and a confirmed OTC mutation (p.A208T). Usually, this mutation causes OTC deficiency of late onset in adult males. However, this report raises awareness about mutations previously described as a late-onset causing disease, which can cause severe hyperammonemia and high risk of dying at an early age.

  5. Lipidomics in research on yeast membrane lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry is increasingly used in research on membrane lipid homeostasis, both in analyses of the steady state lipidome at the level of molecular lipid species, and in pulse-chase approaches employing stable isotope-labeled lipid precursors addressing the dynamics of lipid metabolism. Here my experience with, and view on mass spectrometry-based lipid analysis is presented, with emphasis on aspects of quantification of membrane lipid composition of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  7. The yeast replicative aging model.

    PubMed

    He, Chong; Zhou, Chuankai; Kennedy, Brian K

    2018-03-08

    It has been nearly three decades since the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became a significant model organism for aging research and it has emerged as both simple and powerful. The replicative aging assay, which interrogates the number of times a "mother" cell can divide and produce "daughters", has been a stalwart in these studies, and genetic approaches have led to the identification of hundreds of genes impacting lifespan. More recently, cell biological and biochemical approaches have been developed to determine how cellular processes become altered with age. Together, the tools are in place to develop a holistic view of aging in this single-celled organism. Here, we summarize the current state of understanding of yeast replicative aging with a focus on the recent studies that shed new light on how aging pathways interact to modulate lifespan in yeast. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common mycosis, however, the available information about antifungal susceptibilities of these yeasts is limited. To compare the gold standard fungal culture with a new molecular identification method and report the incidence of yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa. The authors studied 370 yeasts isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and identified them by phenotypic and molecular methods. The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species. At present there are no recommendations for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of pathogenic fungal species occurring in vulvovaginal candidiasis and the natural antifungal resistance of the different species is known only. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight identification can be used to differentiate the fluconazole resistant Candida dubliniensis and the sensitive Candida albicans strains.

  9. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.

    PubMed

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-09-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. © 2014 The Authors FEMS Yeast Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  10. Genomic evolution of the ascomycetous yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphr...

  11. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  12. Advances in yeast genome engineering.

    PubMed

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena

    2015-02-01

    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  13. The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Michael P.; Aitchison, John D.; Suprapto, Adisetyantari; Hjertaas, Kelly; Zhao, Yingming; Chait, Brian T.

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:10684247

  14. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  15. Surface enhanced Raman scattering analyses of individual silver nanoaggregates on living single yeast cell wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujith, Athiyanathil; Itoh, Tamitake; Abe, Hiroko; Anas, Abdul Aziz; Yoshida, Kenichi; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    We labeled the living yeast cell surface (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A) by silver nanoparticles which can form nanoaggregates and found to show surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Blinking of SERS and its polarization dependence reveal that SERS signals are from amplified electromagnetic field at nanometric Ag nanoparticles gaps with single or a few molecules sensitivity. We tentatively assigned SERS spectra from a yeast cell wall to mannoproteins. Nanoaggregate-by-nanoaggregate variations and temporal fluctuations of SERS spectra are discussed in terms of inhomogeneous mannoprotein distribution on a cell wall and possible ways of Ag nanoaggregate adsorption, respectively.

  16. Variant forms of mitochondrial translation products in yeast: evidence for location of determinants on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M G; Butow, R A

    1976-04-01

    Products of mitochondrial protein synthesis in yeast have been labeled in vivo with 35SO42-. More than 20 polypeptide species fulfilling the criteria of mitochondrial translation products have been detected by analysis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-exponential polyacrylamide slab gels. A comparison of mitochondrial translation products in two wild-type strains has revealed variant forms of some polypeptide species which show genetic behavior consistent with the location of their structural genes on mtDNA. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of performing genetic analysis on putative gene products of mtDNA in wild-type yeast by direct examination of the segregation and recombination behavior of specific polypeptide species.

  17. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  18. Engineering yeasts for xylose metabolism

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Jeffries

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for the production of alternative fuels are receiving increased attention owing to concerns over the rising cost of petrol and global warming. One such technology under development is the use of yeasts for the commercial fermentation of xylose to ethanol. Several approaches have been employed to engineer xylose metabolism. These involve modeling, flux...

  19. Yeast as factory and factotum.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B

    2000-02-01

    After centuries of vigorous activity in making fine wines, beers and breads, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is now acquiring a rich new portfolio of skills, bestowed by genetic manipulation. As shown in a recent shop-window of research supported by the European Commission, yeasts will soon be benefiting industries as diverse as fish farming, pharmaceuticals and laundering.

  20. Over-the-counter vaginal contraceptive and spermicide drug products containing nonoxynol 9; required labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-12-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing new warning statements and other labeling information for all over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal contraceptive drug products (also known as spermicides, hereinafter referred to as vaginal contraceptives or vaginal contraceptives/spermicides) containing nonoxynol 9 (N9). These warning statements will advise consumers that vaginal contraceptives/spermicides containing N9 do not protect against infection from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or against getting other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The warnings and labeling information will also advise consumers that use of vaginal contraceptives and spermicides containing N9 can irritate the vagina and rectum and may increase the risk of getting the AIDS virus (HIV) from an infected partner. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on its proposed regulation, and all relevant data and information on N9 that have come to our attention.

  1. Brewing characteristics of piezosensitive sake yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuki; Hoshino, Hirofumi; Igoshi, Kazuaki; Onozuka, Haruka; Tanaka, Erika; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Harutake; Takaku, Hiroaki; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2018-04-01

    Application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to food processing is expected as a non-thermal fermentation regulation technology that supresses over fermentation. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for Japanese rice wine (sake) brewing shows high tolerance to HHP. Therefore, we aimed to generate pressure-sensitive (piezosensitive) sake yeast strains by mating sake with piezosensitive yeast strains to establish an HHP fermentation regulation technology and extend the shelf life of fermented foods. The results of phenotypic analyses showed that the generated yeast strains were piezosensitive and exhibited similar fermentation ability compared with the original sake yeast strain. In addition, primary properties of sake brewed using these strains, such as ethanol concentration, sake meter value and sake flavor compounds, were almost equivalent to those obtained using the sake yeast strain. These results suggest that the piezosensitive strains exhibit brewing characteristics essentially equivalent to those of the sake yeast strain.

  2. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  3. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  4. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  5. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  6. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 20

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section focuses on supplemental labeling.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  20. Detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with ionic liquid mediated carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Li; Teng, Ji-Yuan; Jia, Te; Shu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Hydrophobic nitrogen-doped carbon dots are prepared with energetic ionic liquid (1,3-dibutylimidazolium dicyandiamide, BbimDCN) as carbon source. A yield of as high as 58% is obtained for the carbon dots, shortly termed as BbimDCN-OCDs, due to the presence of thermal-instable N(CN) 2 - moiety. BbimDCN-OCDs exhibit favorable biocompability and excellent imaging capacity for fluorescence labelling of yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, chitosan-modified Dy 3+ -doped magnetic nanoparticles (shortly as Chitosan@Fe 2.75 Dy 0.25 O 4 ) with superparamagnetism are prepared. The electrostatic attraction between positively charged magnetic nanoparticles and negatively charged yeast cells facilitates exclusive recognition/isolation of S. cerevisiae. In practice, S. cerevisiae is labelled by BbimDCN-OCDs and adhered onto the Chitosan@Fe 2.75 Dy 0.25 O 4 . The yeast/ BbimDCN-OCDs/Chitosan@Fe 2.75 Dy 0.25 O 4 composite is then isolated with an external magnet and the fluorescence from BbimDCN-OCDs incorporated in S. cerevisiae is monitored. The fluorescence intensity is linearly correlated with the content of yeast cell, showing a calibration graph of F = 3.01log[C]+11.7, offering a detection limit of 5×10 2 CFU/mL. S. cerevisiae content in various real sample matrixes are quantified by using this protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and dried cell walls of the yeast...

  4. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  5. Nutrient supplements boost yeast transformation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Chun; Dawson, Alexander; Henderson, Alyssa C.; Lockyer, Eloise J.; Read, Emily; Sritharan, Gayathri; Ryan, Marjah; Sgroi, Mara; Ngou, Pok M.; Woodruff, Rosie; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ren Teen Chia, Travis; Liu, Yu; Xiang, Yiyu; Spanu, Pietro D.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency of yeast transformation is determined by the rate of yeast endocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of introducing amino acids and other nutrients (inositol, adenine, or p-aminobenzoic acid) in the transformation medium to develop a highly efficient yeast transformation protocol. The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) kinase signalling complex influences the rate of yeast endocytosis. TORC signaling is induced by amino acids in the media. Here, we found that increasing the concentration of amino acids and other nutrients in the growth media lead to an increase yeast transformation efficiency up to 107 CFU per μg plasmid DNA and per 108 cells with a 13.8 kb plasmid DNA. This is over 130 times that of current published methods. This improvement may facilitate more efficient experimentation in which transformation efficiency is critical, such as yeast two-hybrid screening. PMID:27760994

  6. Assessing phagotrophy in the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria using GFP-expressing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takashi; Moriya, Hisao; Iwai, Sosuke

    2017-07-03

    We used cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as fluorescently labelled prey to assess the phagocytic activities of the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria, which harbours symbiotic Chlorella-like algae. Because of different fluorescence spectra of GFP and algal chlorophyll, ingested GFP-expressing yeast cells can be distinguished from endosymbiotic algal cells and directly counted in individual P. bursaria cells using fluorescence microscopy. By using GFP-expressing yeast cells, we found that P. bursaria altered ingestion activities under different physiological conditions, such as different growth phases or the presence/absence of endosymbionts. Use of GFP-expressing yeast cells allowed us to estimate the digestion rates of live prey of the ciliate. In contrast to the ingestion activities, the digestion rate within food vacuoles was not affected by the presence of endosymbionts, consistent with previous findings that food and perialgal vacuoles are spatially and functionally separated in P. bursaria. Thus, GFP-expressing yeast may provide a valuable tool to assess both ingestion and digestion activities of ciliates that feed on eukaryotic organisms. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19879270

  8. Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, María I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm−3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm−3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm−3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm−3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence

  9. Septin Organization and Functions in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Glomb, Oliver; Gronemeyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins present in all eukaryotic cells except plants. They were originally discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that serves until today as an important model organism for septin research. In yeast, the septins assemble into a highly ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck. The septins are regulators of spatial compartmentalization in yeast and act as key players in cytokinesis. This minireview summarizes the recent findings about structural features and cell biology of the yeast septins. PMID:27857941

  10. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  11. Comparison of the Benefit Feeling Rate Based on the Sho of OTC Kakkonto, Cold Remedy and Cold Remedy with Kakkonto Combination Product.

    PubMed

    Okita, Mitsuyoshi; Yayoshi, Yuki; Ohara, Kousuke; Negishi, Akio; Akimoto, Hayato; Inoue, Naoko; Numajiri, Sachihiko; Ohshima, Shigeru; Honma, Seiichi; Oshima, Shinji; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    Kakkonto (KK), a traditional Japanese Kampo formulation for cold and flu, is generally sold as an OTC pharmaceuticals used for self-medication. Kampo formulations should be used according to the Sho-symptoms of Kampo medicine. These symptoms refer to the subjective symptoms themselves. Although with OTC pharmaceuticals, this is often not the case. We surveyed the relationship of agreement of Sho with the benefit feeling rate (BFR) of patients who took KK (n=555), cold remedies with KK (CK, n=315), and general cold remedies (GC, n=539) using internet research. BFR of a faster recovery was greater in participants who took the medication early and who had confidence in their physical strength in all treatment groups. BFR was significantly higher in the GC group than in the KK group for patients with headache, runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing, and cough. BFR was also significantly higher in the GC group than in the CK group for headache (males) and cough (females). BFR was the highest in the KK group for stiff shoulders. All cold remedies were more effective when taken early, and the larger the number of Sho that a patient had, the greater the BFR increased. Therefore, a cold remedy is expected to be most effective when there are many cold symptoms and when it is taken at an early stage of the common cold.

  12. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conventional bakers yeast. (c) The additive may be used in yeast-leavened baked goods and baking mixes and yeast-leavened baked snack foods at levels not to exceed 400 International Units of vitamin D2 per 100...

  13. OTC Medicines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management ... Family Health, Over-the-counter Products, Pregnancy and Childbirth, Your Health ResourcesTags: breastfeeding, Drug Safety, female, Obstetrical, ...

  14. Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

  15. Phosphatidic acid synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, N. J.; Lynen, F.

    1965-01-01

    1. The presence of palmitoyl-CoA–l-glycerol 1-phosphate palmitoyltransferase (EC2.3.1.15) has been demonstrated in a particulate fraction of baker's yeast. 2. The enzyme has been characterized, and its activity studied as a function of pH and concentration of substrates. 3. Inhibition by thiol poisons and protection by acyl-CoA have been used to obtain information on the active site. 4. By various methods of supplying acyl radicals, the species `palmitoyl-CoA' has been shown to be the true acyl donor to the transferase. PMID:14342236

  16. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Surface Structure of Yeast Protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Streiblová, Eva

    1968-01-01

    The fine structure of the yeast cell wall during protoplast formation was studied by means of phase-contrast microscopy and the freeze-etching technique. The freeze-etching results indicated that at least in some cases the entire wall substance was not removed from the surface of the protoplasts. After a treatment of 30 min to 3 hr with 2% snail enzymes, an innermost thin wall layer as well as remnants of the fibrillar middle layer sometimes could be demonstrated. Images PMID:4867751

  18. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  19. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  20. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  1. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  2. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  3. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all...

  4. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  5. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  6. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  7. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  8. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in the vast majority of the world’s bioprocesses, and its economic significance is unchallenged. It, however, represents only a small slice of yeast physiological diversity. Many other yeasts, are used in lesser known, but commercially important processes that take ...

  9. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  11. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  12. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  14. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohd Azhar, Siti Hajar; Abdulla, Rahmath; Jambo, Siti Azmah; Marbawi, Hartinie; Gansau, Jualang Azlan; Mohd Faik, Ainol Azifa; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis

    2017-07-01

    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  15. Dynamic map labeling.

    PubMed

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  16. The essence of yeast quiescence.

    PubMed

    De Virgilio, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Like all microorganisms, yeast cells spend most of their natural lifetime in a reversible, quiescent state that is primarily induced by limitation for essential nutrients. Substantial progress has been made in defining the features of quiescent cells and the nutrient-signaling pathways that shape these features. A view that emerges from the wealth of new data is that yeast cells dynamically configure the quiescent state in response to nutritional challenges by using a set of key nutrient-signaling pathways, which (1) regulate pathway-specific effectors, (2) converge on a few regulatory nodes that bundle multiple inputs to communicate unified, graded responses, and (3) mutually modulate their competences to transmit signals. Here, I present an overview of our current understanding of the architecture of these pathways, focusing on how the corresponding core signaling protein kinases (i.e. PKA, TORC1, Snf1, and Pho85) are wired to ensure an adequate response to nutrient starvation, which enables cells to tide over decades, if not centuries, of famine. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteome analysis of yeast response to various nutrient limitations

    PubMed Central

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Fullaondo, Asier; Olsthoorn, Maurien M A; Pronk, Jack T; Slijper, Monique; Heck, Albert J R

    2006-01-01

    We compared the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (ammonia) limitation in chemostat cultivation at the proteome level. Protein levels were differentially quantified using unlabeled and 15N metabolically labeled yeast cultures. A total of 928 proteins covering a wide range of isoelectric points, molecular weights and subcellular localizations were identified. Stringent statistical analysis identified 51 proteins upregulated in response to glucose limitation and 51 upregulated in response to ammonia limitation. Under glucose limitation, typical glucose-repressed genes encoding proteins involved in alternative carbon source utilization, fatty acids β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation displayed an increased protein level. Proteins upregulated in response to nitrogen limitation were mostly involved in scavenging of alternative nitrogen sources and protein degradation. Comparison of transcript and protein levels clearly showed that upregulation in response to glucose limitation was mainly transcriptionally controlled, whereas upregulation in response to nitrogen limitation was essentially controlled at the post-transcriptional level by increased translational efficiency and/or decreased protein degradation. These observations underline the need for multilevel analysis in yeast systems biology. PMID:16738570

  18. Pictorial Prescription Labels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Jeremy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experimental system which uses pictorial representation for labeling prescribed medicines in the United Kingdom. Since the pictorial approach breaks the language barrier, the labels should present no problems either to illiterates or minority groups who have difficulty in understanding English. (JEG)

  19. Electron transport chain in a thermotolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Martínez-Mora, José A; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ ions (Ca 2+ cyt) increased in the SLP1 yeast when exposed to high temperature, compared with the mesophilic yeast OFF1. ATPase activity in the mesophilic yeast diminished 80% when exposed to 40° while the thermotolerant SLP1 showed no change, despite an increase in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The SLP1 thermotolerant yeast exposed to high temperature showed a diminution of 33% of the oxygen consumption in state 4. The uncoupled state 3 of oxygen consumption did not change in the mesophilic yeast when it had an increase of temperature, whereas in the thermotolerant SLP1 yeast resulted in an increase of 2.5 times when yeast were grown at 30 o , while a decrease of 51% was observed when it was exposed to high temperature. The activities of the ETC complexes were diminished in the SLP1 when exposed to high temperature, but also it was distinguished an alternative oxidase activity. Our results suggest that the mitochondria state, particularly ETC state, is an important characteristic of the thermotolerance of the SLP1 yeast strain.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  2. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 358.760 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients for the control of dandruff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. (1) Combinations of... ingredient in the directions sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this... established for any individual ingredient in the applicable OTC drug monograph(s), and may not provide for use...

  4. 21 CFR 358.760 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients for the control of dandruff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. (1) Combinations of... ingredient in the directions sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this... established for any individual ingredient in the applicable OTC drug monograph(s), and may not provide for use...

  5. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  6. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be an educational and research tool for students, academics, and other professionals. Disclaimer: All information contained in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) comes from product labels. Label information has ...

  7. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  8. Automatic prevention of label overlap

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-03-01

    The project comprised a number of simulation exercises : designed to evaluate methods of either preventing or : resolving the problems likely to be caused by label overlap on : Labelled Plan Displays (LPD). The automatic prevention of : label overlap...

  9. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... at a higher risk for medication errors, side effects, and unwanted drug reactions. It’s important that the ...

  10. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rokas, Antonis; Bai, Feng-Yan; Boekhout, Teun; Gonçalves, Paula; Jeffries, Thomas W; Kominek, Jacek; Lachance, Marc-André; Libkind, Diego; Rosa, Carlos A; Sampaio, José Paulo; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-12-01

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the common human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans; and over 1000 other known species (with more continuing to be discovered). Yeasts are found in every biome and continent and are more genetically diverse than angiosperms or chordates. Ease of culture, simple life cycles, and small genomes (∼10-20Mbp) have made yeasts exceptional models for molecular genetics, biotechnology, and evolutionary genomics. Here we discuss recent developments in understanding the genomic underpinnings of the making of yeast biodiversity, comparing and contrasting natural and human-associated evolutionary processes. Only a tiny fraction of yeast biodiversity and metabolic capabilities has been tapped by industry and science. Expanding the taxonomic breadth of deep genomic investigations will further illuminate how genome function evolves to encode their diverse metabolisms and ecologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  12. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  13. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  14. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  15. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  16. Efforts to make and apply humanized yeast

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Jon M.; Young, Jonathan H.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a billion years of divergent evolution, the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long proven to be an invaluable model organism for studying human biology. Given its tractability and ease of genetic manipulation, along with extensive genetic conservation with humans, it is perhaps no surprise that researchers have been able to expand its utility by expressing human proteins in yeast, or by humanizing specific yeast amino acids, proteins or even entire pathways. These methods are increasingly being scaled in throughput, further enabling the detailed investigation of human biology and disease-specific variations of human genes in a simplified model organism. PMID:26462863

  17. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces...

  18. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  20. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  1. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  2. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  3. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  6. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  7. A mitochondria-dependent pathway mediates the apoptosis of GSE-induced yeast.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6'-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency.

  8. A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway Mediates the Apoptosis of GSE-Induced Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase–mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6′-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency. PMID:22403727

  9. Miltefosine is fungicidal to Paracoccidioides spp. yeast cells but subinhibitory concentrations induce melanisation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diego Conrado Pereira; Spadari, Cristina de Castro; Nosanchuk, Joshua Daniel; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Ishida, Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. The duration of antifungal treatment ranges from months to years and relapses may nevertheless occur despite protracted therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for new therapeutic options. Miltefosine (MLT), an analogue of alkylphospholipids, has antifungal activity against species of yeast and filamentous fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of MLT on the yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. MLT demonstrated inhibitory activity from 0.12 to 1 µg/mL, which was similar to amphotericin B or the combination trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but was not more effective than itraconazole. The fungicidal activity of MLT occurred at concentrations ≥1 µg/mL. Ultrastructural alterations were observed following exposure of the fungus to a subinhibitory concentration of MLT, such as cytoplasmic membrane alteration, mitochondrial swelling, electron-lucent vacuole accumulation and increasing melanosome-like structures. Melanin production by yeasts following MLT exposure was confirmed by labelling with antibodies to melanin. In addition, the combination of a subinhibitory concentration of MLT and tricyclazole, an inhibitor of DHN-melanin biosynthesis, drastically reduced yeast viability. In conclusion, MLT had a fungicidal effect against both Paracoccidioides spp., and a subinhibitory concentration impacted melanogenesis. These findings suggest that additional investigations should be pursued to establish a role for MLT in the treatment of PCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables, such as carrots and squash, and in dark green, leafy vegetables. Vitamin C helps the body ... in iron-fortified cereals, tofu, dried beans, and dark green, leafy vegetables. Label Listings for Avoiding Allergies ...

  11. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  12. Food Labels Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... R EPORTS ® N ATIONAL R ESEARCH C ENTER Survey Research Report Food Labels Survey 2016 Nationally-Representative Phone Survey April 6, 2016 Consumer Reports® National Research Center Introduction In February, 2016, the Consumer Reports® ...

  13. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  14. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and amore » tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.« less

  15. [Malassezia yeasts and their significance in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hort, W; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2006-07-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia belong to the normal microflora of the human skin. In addition they are known to cause a variety of skin diseases; the most frequent of which is pityriasis versicolor. Malassezia yeasts are also thought to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and Malassezia folliculitis. Recently the significance of Malassezia yeasts as a trigger factor for atopic dermatitis of the head and neck region has been pointed out. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in these different diseases has been controversial in the past and remains an issue because of difficulties in isolation, culture and differentiation of the organism. Thanks to molecular techniques, 10 species can actually be differentiated. The article presents the different Malassezia-associated diseases, their clinical picture, diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In addition the speciation of Malassezia is reviewed.

  16. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Diagnosis and Tests Fungal Culture Test (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish Yeast Infection Test (National Library of Medicine) Also ...

  17. Experimental Systems to Study Yeast Pexophagy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shun-Ichi; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Fujiki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome abundance is tightly regulated according to the physiological contexts, through regulations of both proliferation and degradation of the organelles. Here, we describe detailed methods to analyze processes for autophagic degradation of peroxisomes, termed pexophagy, in yeast organisms. The assay systems include a method for biochemical detection of pexophagy completion, and one for microscopic visualization of specialized membrane structures acting in pexophagy. As a model yeast organism utilized in studies of pexophagy, the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) is referred to in this chapter and related information on the studies with baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is also included. The described techniques facilitate elucidation of molecular machineries for pexophagy and understanding of peroxisome-selective autophagic pathways.

  18. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  19. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Yeast as a model for Ras signalling.

    PubMed

    Tisi, Renata; Belotti, Fiorella; Martegani, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    For centuries yeast species have been popular hosts for classical biotechnology processes, such as baking, brewing, and wine making, and more recently for recombinant proteins production, thanks to the advantages of unicellular organisms (i.e., ease of genetic manipulation and rapid growth) together with the ability to perform eukaryotic posttranslational modifications. Moreover, yeast cells have been used for few decades as a tool for identifying the genes and pathways involved in basic cellular processes such as the cell cycle, aging, and stress response. In the budding yeast S. cerevisiae the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway is directly involved in the regulation of metabolism, cell growth, stress resistance, and proliferation in response to the availability of nutrients and in the adaptation to glucose, controlling cytosolic cAMP levels and consequently the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Moreover, Ras signalling has been identified in several pathogenic yeasts as a key controller for virulence, due to its involvement in yeast morphogenesis. Nowadays, yeasts are still useful for Ras-like proteins investigation, both as model organisms and as a test tube to study variants of heterologous Ras-like proteins.

  1. Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available.

  2. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  3. The secretory pathway: exploring yeast diversity.

    PubMed

    Delic, Marizela; Valli, Minoska; Graf, Alexandra B; Pfeffer, Martin; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Protein secretion is an essential process for living organisms. In eukaryotes, this encompasses numerous steps mediated by several hundred cellular proteins. The core functions of translocation through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, primary glycosylation, folding and quality control, and vesicle-mediated secretion are similar from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. However, recent research has revealed significant functional differences between yeasts and mammalian cells, and even among diverse yeast species. This review provides a current overview of the canonical protein secretion pathway in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, highlighting differences to mammalian cells as well as currently unresolved questions, and provides a genomic comparison of the S. cerevisiae pathway to seven other yeast species where secretion has been investigated due to their attraction as protein production platforms, or for their relevance as pathogens. The analysis of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveals that many - but not all - secretion steps are more redundant in S. cerevisiae due to duplicated genes, while some processes are even absent in this model yeast. Recent research obviates that even where homologous genes are present, small differences in protein sequence and/or differences in the regulation of gene expression may lead to quite different protein secretion phenotypes. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. History of genome editing in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Marcin G; Naseeb, Samina; Delneri, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    For thousands of years humans have used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of bread and alcohol; however, in the last 30-40 years our understanding of the yeast biology has dramatically increased, enabling us to modify its genome. Although S. cerevisiae has been the main focus of many research groups, other non-conventional yeasts have also been studied and exploited for biotechnological purposes. Our experiments and knowledge have evolved from recombination to high-throughput PCR-based transformations to highly accurate CRISPR methods in order to alter yeast traits for either research or industrial purposes. Since the release of the genome sequence of S. cerevisiae in 1996, the precise and targeted genome editing has increased significantly. In this 'Budding topic' we discuss the significant developments of genome editing in yeast, mainly focusing on Cre-loxP mediated recombination, delitto perfetto and CRISPR/Cas. © 2018 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Tyrone

    1995-01-01

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containers with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.

  6. The growth of solar radiated yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, T.

    This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland; and (2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The procedure used was based on the fact that yeast is most often used in consumable baked goods. Therefore, the yeast was incorporated into a basic Betty Crocker bread recipe. Data was collected by placing measured amounts of dough into sample containersmore » with fifteen minute growth in height measurements collected and recorded. This researcher assumed the viability of yeast to be relative to its ability to produce carbon dioxide gas and cause the dough to rise. As all ingredients and surroundings were equal, this researcher assumed the yeast will produce the only significant difference in data collected. This researcher noted the approximate use date on all sample packages to be prior to arrival and experiment date. All dates equal, it was then assumed each would act in a similar manner of response. This assumption will allow for equally correct data collection.« less

  7. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  8. Making Sense of the Yeast Sphingolipid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Megyeri, Márton; Riezman, Howard; Schuldiner, Maya; Futerman, Anthony H

    2016-12-04

    Sphingolipids (SL) and their metabolites play key roles both as structural components of membranes and as signaling molecules. Many of the key enzymes and regulators of SL metabolism were discovered using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the high degree of conservation, a number of mammalian homologs were identified. Although yeast continues to be an important tool for SL research, the complexity of SL structure and nomenclature often hampers the ability of new researchers to grasp the subtleties of yeast SL biology and discover new modulators of this intricate pathway. Moreover, the emergence of lipidomics by mass spectrometry has enabled the rapid identification of SL species in yeast and rendered the analysis of SL composition under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions readily amenable. However, the complex nomenclature of the identified species renders much of the data inaccessible to non-specialists. In this review, we focus on parsing both the classical SL nomenclature and the nomenclature normally used during mass spectrometry analysis, which should facilitate the understanding of yeast SL data and might shed light on biological processes in which SLs are involved. Finally, we discuss a number of putative roles of various yeast SL species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  10. Yeast prions assembly and propagation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Yeast prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates that are at the origin of heritable and transmissible non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Among these, [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] are the most well documented prions and arise from the assembly of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p, respectively, into insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Fibril assembly depends on the presence of N- or C-terminal prion domains (PrDs) which are not homologous in sequence but share unusual amino-acid compositions, such as enrichment in polar residues (glutamines and asparagines) or the presence of oligopeptide repeats. Purified PrDs form amyloid fibrils that can convert prion-free cells to the prion state upon transformation. Nonetheless, isolated PrDs and full-length prion proteins have different aggregation, structural and infectious properties. In addition, mutations in the “non-prion” domains (non-PrDs) of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p were shown to affect their prion properties in vitro and in vivo. Despite these evidences, the implication of the functional non-PrDs in fibril assembly and prion propagation has been mostly overlooked. In this review, we discuss the contribution of non-PrDs to prion assemblies, and the structure-function relationship in prion infectivity in the light of recent findings on Sup35p and Ure2p assembly into infectious fibrils from our laboratory and others. PMID:22052349

  11. Glycoprotein synthesis in yeast. Identification of Man8GlcNAc2 as an essential intermediate in oligosaccharide processing.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J C; Tarentino, A L; Maley, F; Atkinson, P H; Trimble, R B

    1982-12-25

    Synthesis of the N-linked oligosaccharides of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycoproteins has been studied in vivo by labeling with [2-3H]mannose and gel filtration analysis of the products released by endoglycosidase H. Both small oligosaccharides, Man8-14GlcNAc, and larger products, Man greater than 20GlcNAc, were labeled. The kinetics of continuous and pulse-chase labeling demonstrated that Glc3Man9GlcNAc2, the initial product transferred to protein, was rapidly (t1/2 congruent to 3 min) trimmed to Man8GlcNAc2 and then more slowly (t1/2 = 10-20 min) elongated to larger oligosaccharides. No oligosaccharides smaller than Man8GlcNAc2 were evident with either labeling procedure. In confirmation of the trimming reaction observed in vivo, 3H-labeled Man9-N-acetylglucosaminitol from bovine thyroglobulin and [14C]Man9GlcNAc2 from yeast oligosaccharide-lipid were converted in vitro by broken yeast cells to 3H-labeled Man8-N-acetylglucosaminitol and [14C]Man8GlcNAc2. Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc from yeast invertase and from bovine thyroglobulin were purified by gel filtration and examined by high field 1H-NMR analysis. Invertase Man8GlcNAc (B) and Man9GlcNAc (C) were homogeneous compounds, which differed from the Man9GlcNAc (A) of thyroglobulin by the absence of a specific terminal alpha 1,2-linked mannose residue. The Man9GlcNAc of invertase (C) had an additional terminal alpha 1,6-linked mannose and appeared identical in structure with that isolated from yeast containing the mnn1 and mnn2 mutations (Cohen, R. E., Zhang, W.-j., and Ballou, C. E. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5730-5737). It is concluded that Man8GlcNAc2, formed by removal of glucose and a single mannose from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2, is the ultimate product of trimming and the minimal precursor for elongation of the oligosaccharides on yeast glycoproteins. The results suggest that removal of a particular terminal alpha 1,2-linked mannose from Man9GlcNAc2 by a highly specific alpha-mannosidase exposes the nascent Man-alpha 1

  12. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  13. Effect of wine yeast monoculture practice on the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ganga, M A; Martínez, C

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae monocultures over the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine-producing areas in Chile. Microvinifications were carried out with grape musts of two areas. In one of them, the fermentation is carried out mainly in a spontaneous manner, whereas in the other the musts are inoculated with commercial yeasts. The isolated yeasts were identified by the internal transcribed (ITS)/restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. In the industrial production area less variability of yeast genera was observed as compared with the traditional area, an observation that is greatest at the end of the fermentation. Furthermore, a study of the production of extracellular enzymes was done. The majority of the yeasts showed at least one of the activities assayed with the exception of beta-glycosidase. The results suggest that in the industrialized area the diversity of yeasts is less in the traditional area. Likewise, the potentiality of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts as enzyme producers with industrial interest has been confirmed. This study shows the negative effect of the use of monocultures over the biodiversity of yeasts in wine-producing regions.

  14. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-02

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins.

  15. SSB-1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nucleolar-specific, silver-binding protein that is associated with the snR10 and snR11 small nuclear RNAs

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    SSB-1, the yeast single-strand RNA-binding protein, is demonstrated to be a yeast nucleolar-specific, silver-binding protein. In double-label immunofluorescence microscopy experiments antibodies to two other nucleolar proteins, RNA Pol I 190-kD and fibrillarin, were used to reveal the site of rRNA transcription; i.e., the fibrillar region of the nucleolus. SSB-1 colocalized with fibrillarin in a double-label immunofluorescence mapping experiment to the yeast nucleolus. SSB-1 is located, though, over a wider region of the nucleolus than the transcription site marker. Immunoprecipitations of yeast cell extracts with the SSB-1 antibody reveal that in 150 mM NaCl SSB-1 is bound to two small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These yeast snRNAs are snR10 and snR11, with snR10 being predominant. Since snR10 has been implicated in pre-rRNA processing, the association of SSB-1 and snR10 into a nucleolar snRNP particle indicates SSB-1 involvement in rRNA processing as well. Also, another yeast protein, SSB-36-kD, isolated by single- strand DNA chromatography, is shown to bind silver under the conditions used for nucleolar-specific staining. It is, most likely, another yeast nucleolar protein. PMID:2121740

  16. Toward improved pregnancy labelling.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Klieger, Chagit; Kazmin, Alex; Osadchy, Alla; Yazdani-Brojeni, Parvaneh; Matok, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Information about the use of a medication in pregnancy is part of overall drug labelling as prepared by the pharmaceutical company and approved by the regulators. It is aimed at assisting clinicians in prescribing, however, very few drugs are labelled for specific indications in pregnancy, since there is rarely information about the use of a drug in this condition. Recently the FDA has drafted new guidelines for the labeling of drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding, to replace the A,B,C,D,X system that was used for more than 30 years. Here we document the use of the new system through 3 different medications; each representing a different clinical situation in pregnancy--acute infection, chronic pain, and drug use during labor. Advantages and challenges in the new system are being highlighted.

  17. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fine Structure of Tibetan Kefir Grains and Their Yeast Distribution, Diversity, and Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  19. Pediatric off-label drug use in China: risk factors and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Li, Youping; Liu, Yi; Zeng, Linan; Hu, Die; Huang, Liang; Chen, Min; Lv, Juan; Yang, Chunsong

    2013-02-01

    .001), which suggested that off-label drug use in the ward may be a key point of the management of medical institutions. (vi) The risk of off-label essential drug use was 1.67 times than that of non-essential drug use. (vii) The risk of off-label Rx drug use was 3.2% higher than that of OTC (Over-The-Counter) drug use, without a significant difference. (i) A management guideline for off-label drug use is urgently needed, with which we can guide medical institutions to establish the management regulations of off-label drug use. (ii) Pediatric clinical research should be promoted actively, and pharmaceutical enterprises should be encouraged to completely provide pediatric drug information. (iv) Academic organizations should be invited to join in for best professional drug use. (v) Pediatric patients and their families should receive the education on rational drug use. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  20. Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Cano, Elena; Colomb, Tristan; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Simanis, Viesturs; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Digital holography microscopy (DHM) is an optical technique which provides phase images yielding quantitative information about cell structure and cellular dynamics. Furthermore, the quantitative phase images allow the derivation of other parameters, including dry mass production, density, and spatial distribution. We have applied DHM to study the dry mass production rate and the dry mass surface density in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells. Our study demonstrates the applicability of DHM as a tool for label-free quantitative analysis of the cell cycle and opens the possibility for its use in high-throughput screening.

  1. Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice: testing the feasibility of an educational intervention among physicians in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice is common in Southern Europe. Recent findings from a research project funded by the European Commission (FP7), the “OTC SOCIOMED”, conducted in seven European countries, indicate that physicians in countries in the Mediterranean Europe region prescribe medicines to a higher degree in comparison to physicians in other participating European countries. In light of these findings, a feasibility study has been designed to explore the acceptance of a pilot educational intervention targeting physicians in general practice in various settings in the Mediterranean Europe region. Methods This feasibility study utilized an educational intervention was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It took place in geographically-defined primary care areas in Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, and Turkey. General Practitioners (GPs) were recruited in each country and randomly assigned into two study groups in each of the participating countries. The intervention included a one-day intensive training programme, a poster presentation, and regular visits of trained professionals to the workplaces of participants. Reminder messages and email messages were, also, sent to participants over a 4-week period. A pre- and post-test evaluation study design with quantitative and qualitative data was employed. The primary outcome of this feasibility pilot intervention was to reduce GPs’ intention to provide medicines following the educational intervention, and its secondary outcomes included a reduction of prescribed medicines following the intervention, as well as an assessment of its practicality and acceptance by the participating GPs. Results Median intention scores in the intervention groups were reduced, following the educational intervention, in comparison to the control group. Descriptive analysis of related questions indicated a high overall acceptance and perceived practicality of

  2. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  3. Freeze-drying of yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A method is described that allows yeast species to be stored using a variation on the standard freeze-drying method, which employs evaporative cooling in a two-stage process. Yeast cultures are placed in glass ampoules after having been mixed with a lyoprotectant. Primary drying is carried out using a centrifuge head connected to a standard freeze-dryer. Once the centrifuge head is running, air is removed and evaporated liquid is captured in the freeze-dryer. Centrifugation continues for 15 min and primary drying for a further 3 h. The ampoules are constricted using a glass blowing torch. They are then placed on the freeze-dryer manifold for secondary drying under vacuum overnight, using phosphorus pentoxide as a desiccant. The ampoules are sealed and removed from the manifold by melting the constricted section. Although the process causes an initial large drop in viability, further losses after storage are minimal. Yeast strains have remained viable for more than 30 yr when stored using this method and sufficient cells are recovered to produce new working stocks. Although survival rates are strain specific, nearly all National Collection of Yeast Cultures strains covering most yeast genera, have been successfully stored with little or no detectable change in strain characteristics.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of food waste using yeast.

    PubMed

    Suwannarat, Jutarat; Ritchie, Raymond J

    2015-08-01

    Fermentative breakdown of food waste seems a plausible alternative to feeding food waste to pigs, incineration or garbage disposal in tourist areas. We determined the optimal conditions for the fermentative breakdown of food waste using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in incubations up to 30days. Yeast efficiently broke down food waste with food waste loadings as high as 700g FW/l. The optimum inoculation was ≈46×10(6)cells/l of culture with a 40°C optimum (25-40°C). COD and BOD were reduced by ≈30-50%. Yeast used practically all the available sugars and reduced proteins and lipids by ≈50%. Yeast was able to metabolize lipids much better than expected. Starch was mobilized after very long term incubations (>20days). Yeast was effective in breaking down the organic components of food waste but CO2 gas and ethanol production (≈1.5%) were only significant during the first 7days of incubations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nectar yeasts: a natural microcosm for ecology.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Callie R; Fukami, Tadashi

    2018-06-01

    The species of yeasts that colonize floral nectar can modify the mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators by changing the chemical properties of nectar. Recent evidence supporting this possibility has led to increased interest among ecologists in studying these fungi as well as the bacteria that interact with them in nectar. Although not fully explored, nectar yeasts also constitute a promising natural microcosm that can be used to facilitate development of general ecological theory. We discuss the methodological and conceptual advantages of using nectar yeasts from this perspective, including simplicity of communities, tractability of dispersal, replicability of community assembly, and the ease with which the mechanisms of species interactions can be studied in complementary experiments conducted in the field and the laboratory. To illustrate the power of nectar yeasts as a study system, we discuss several topics in community ecology, including environmental filtering, priority effects, and metacommunity dynamics. An exciting new direction is to integrate metagenomics and comparative genomics into nectar yeast research to address these fundamental ecological topics. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Is this Label Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene

    1973-01-01

    The hyperkinetic label can impair self-image and create negative expectation. It should be used only with confidence in its accuracy and when its use confers help not otherwise available. Guidelines for appropriate diagnosis include prevalence considerations, teacher reports, extent of home difficulties, psychological testing and clinical…

  7. The Language of Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  8. From Labels to Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  9. Photoaffinity-labeled Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Skoog, Folke

    1976-01-01

    Two new azidopurine derivatives, 2-azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and 2-azido-N6-benzyladenine, have been synthesized as potential photoaffinity labels for probing cytokinin-binding sites. The preparation and the biological activity of these compounds are described. PMID:16659772

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  11. Recurrent somnolence in a 17-month-old infant: late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency due to the novel hemizygous mutation c.535C > T (p.Leu179Phe).

    PubMed

    Fantur, Michaela; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Häberle, Johannes; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Fruehwirth, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case of a now 28-month-old boy who presented at the age of 17 months with four episodes of recurrent vomiting and somnolence during a period of four months with increasing severity. A comprehensive clinical and metabolic evaluation revealed normal blood pH and blood glucose, normal cerebral computed tomography and electroencephalogram but an elevated plasma ammonia concentration, which raised the suspicion of a urea cycle disorder. The combination of elevated urinary orotic acid and plasma glutamine with normal citrulline suggested the diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, which was confirmed by molecular genetic testing revealing the novel hemizygous mutation c.535C > T (p.Leu179Phe) of the OTC gene. After restitution of anabolism by administration of parenteral glucose, substitution of citrulline and detoxification of ammonia with sodium benzoate, the patient recovered rapidly and is in a stable metabolic and neurological state since then. This case underlines that the diagnosis of a urea cycle defect should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent idiopathic vomiting in combination with unexplained neurological symptoms also beyond the neonatal period due to the possibility of mild or atypical late-onset presentation (e.g. OTC deficiency in hemizygous males). Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Urinary infection by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Emerging yeast?].

    PubMed

    Elkhihal, B; Elhalimi, M; Ghfir, B; Mostachi, A; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a commensal yeast of the digestive, respiratory and genito-urinary tract. It is widely used as a probiotic for the treatment of post-antibiotic diarrhea. It most often occurs in immunocompromised patients frequently causing fungemia. We report the case of an adult diabetic patient who had a urinary tract infection due to S. cerevisiae. The disease started with urination associated with urinary frequency burns without fever. The diagnosis was established by the presence of yeasts on direct examination and positivity of culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol three times. The auxanogramme gallery (Auxacolor BioRad(®)) allowed the identification of S. cerevisiae. The patient was put on fluconazole with good outcome. This observation points out that this is an opportunistic yeast in immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome dynamics and evolution in yeasts: A long-term yeast-bacteria competition experiment

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael; Knecht, Wolfgang; Compagno, Concetta; Piškur, Jure

    2018-01-01

    There is an enormous genetic diversity evident in modern yeasts, but our understanding of the ecological basis of such diversifications in nature remains at best fragmented so far. Here we report a long-term experiment mimicking a primordial competitive environment, in which yeast and bacteria co-exist and compete against each other. Eighteen yeasts covering a wide phylogenetic background spanning approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history were used to establish independent evolution lines for at most 130 passages. Our collection of hundreds of modified strains generated through such a rare two-species cross-kingdom competition experiment re-created the appearance of large-scale genomic rearrangements and altered phenotypes important in the diversification history of yeasts. At the same time, the methodology employed in this evolutionary study would also be a non-gene-technological method of reprogramming yeast genomes and then selecting yeast strains with desired traits. Cross-kingdom competition may therefore be a method of significant value to generate industrially useful yeast strains with new metabolic traits. PMID:29624585

  14. New yeasts-new brews: modern approaches to brewing yeast design and development.

    PubMed

    Gibson, B; Geertman, J-M A; Hittinger, C T; Krogerus, K; Libkind, D; Louis, E J; Magalhães, F; Sampaio, J P

    2017-06-01

    The brewing industry is experiencing a period of change and experimentation largely driven by customer demand for product diversity. This has coincided with a greater appreciation of the role of yeast in determining the character of beer and the widespread availability of powerful tools for yeast research. Genome analysis in particular has helped clarify the processes leading to domestication of brewing yeast and has identified domestication signatures that may be exploited for further yeast development. The functional properties of non-conventional yeast (both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces) are being assessed with a view to creating beers with new flavours as well as producing flavoursome non-alcoholic beers. The discovery of the psychrotolerant S. eubayanus has stimulated research on de novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids for low-temperature lager brewing and has led to renewed interest in the functional importance of hybrid organisms and the mechanisms that determine hybrid genome function and stability. The greater diversity of yeast that can be applied in brewing, along with an improved understanding of yeasts' evolutionary history and biology, is expected to have a significant and direct impact on the brewing industry, with potential for improved brewing efficiency, product diversity and, above all, customer satisfaction. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  16. [The yeast biofilm in human medicine].

    PubMed

    Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, the role of Candida yeasts as causative agents of nosocomial infections has increased. One of the important virulence factors contributing to the development of such infections is biofilm production. This virulence factor enables yeast to colonize both native surfaces and artificial implants. The most common sources of infection are patients themselves, in particular the gastrointestinal tract and skin. The vectors of exogenous yeast infections are predominantly the hands of the health personnel and contaminated medical instruments. The adhesion of yeasts to the implant surfaces is determined both by implant surface and yeast characteristics. This is followed by proliferation and production of microcolonies and extracellular matrix. The final biofilm structure is also influenced by the production of hyphae and pseudohyphae. The entire process of biofilm production is controlled by numerous regulatory systems, with the key role being played by the quorum sensing system. Like the adhered bacterial cultures, candidas growing in the form of a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Resistance of yeast biofilms to antifungals is a complex process with multiple contributing factors. These are especially increased gene expression (e.g. genes encoding the so called multidrug efflux pumps), limited penetration of substances through the extracellular matrix, inhibited cell growth and altered microenvironment in deeper biofilm layers. The concentrations of antifungals able to effectively affect the biofilm cells exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the values of conventionally determined MICs. High biofilm resistance results in ineffective antifungal therapy of biofilm infections. Therefore, if possible, the colonized implant should be removed. Conservative therapy should involve antifungals with a proven effect on the biofilm (e.g. caspofungin). The most effective measure in fighting biofilm infections is prevention, especially adhering to

  17. Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yeast strains endowed with robustness towards copper and/or enriched in intracellular Cu might find application in biotechnology processes, among others in the production of functional foods. Moreover, they can contribute to the study of human diseases related to impairments of copper metabolism. In this study, we investigated the molecular and physiological factors that confer copper tolerance to strains of baker's yeasts. Results We characterized the effects elicited in natural strains of Candida humilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the exposure to copper in the culture broth. We observed that, whereas the growth of Saccharomyces cells was inhibited already at low Cu concentration, C. humilis was naturally robust and tolerated up to 1 g · L-1 CuSO4 in the medium. This resistant strain accumulated over 7 mg of Cu per gram of biomass and escaped severe oxidative stress thanks to high constitutive levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Both yeasts were then "evolved" to obtain hyper-resistant cells able to proliferate in high copper medium. While in S. cerevisiae the evolution of robustness towards Cu was paralleled by the increase of antioxidative enzymes, these same activities decreased in evolved hyper-resistant Candida cells. We also characterized in some detail changes in the profile of copper binding proteins, that appeared to be modified by evolution but, again, in a different way in the two yeasts. Conclusions Following evolution, both Candida and Saccharomyces cells were able to proliferate up to 2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4 and to accumulate high amounts of intracellular copper. The comparison of yeasts differing in their robustness, allowed highlighting physiological and molecular determinants of natural and acquired copper tolerance. We observed that different mechanisms contribute to confer metal tolerance: the control of copper uptake, changes in the levels of enzymes involved in oxidative stress response and changes in the copper

  18. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... container of a misleading form or size.\\1\\ FSIS has interpreted these provisions as requiring that the...-evaluating-labeling . Labels submitted as an extraordinary circumstance are given the highest priority for... submissions to FSIS headquarters, thus increasing the availability of FSIS labeling staff. Upon publication of...

  19. Person Perception and Verbal Labeling: The Development of Social Labels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    This study examined the social labels which are first used by infants, social differentiation on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels. Subjects were 81 infants from 9 to 36 months of age. The 9- to 24-month-olds were shown slides of themselves, their mothers, their fathers, and unfamiliar children, babies, and…

  20. [Groups and sources of yeasts in house dust].

    PubMed

    Glushakova, A M; Zheltikova, T M; Chernov, I Iu

    2004-01-01

    House dust contains bacteria, mycelial fungi, microarthropods, and yeasts. The house dust samples collected in 25 apartments in Moscow and the Moscow region were found to contain yeasts belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Trichosporon. The most frequently encountered microorganisms were typical epiphytic yeasts, such as Cryptococcus diffluens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which are capable of long-term preservation in an inactive state. The direct source of epiphytic yeasts occurring in the house dust might be the indoor plants, which were contaminated with these yeasts, albeit to a lesser degree than outdoor plants. Along with the typical epiphytic yeasts, the house dust contained the opportunistic yeast pathogens Candida catenulata, C. guillermondii, C. haemulonii, C. rugosa, and C. tropicalis, which are known as the causal agents of candidiasis. We failed to reveal any correlation between the abundance of particular yeast species in the house dust, residential characteristics, and the atopic dermatitis of the inhabitants.

  1. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  2. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  3. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  4. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... harmful microbial toxin. (d) The ingredient is used in food as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  5. A Proposed Physiopathological Pathway to Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy in a Non-Cirrhotic Patient with Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma without Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Mutation.

    PubMed

    Surjan, Rodrigo C; Dos Santos, Elizabeth S; Basseres, Tiago; Makdissi, Fabio F; Machado, Marcel A

    2017-03-08

    BACKGROUND Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a potentially fatal condition that may progress to irreversible neuronal damage and is usually associated with liver failure or portosystemic shunting. However, other less common conditions can lead to hyperammonemia in adults, such as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical awareness of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in patients with normal liver function is paramount to timely diagnosis, but understanding the underlying physiopathology is decisive to initiate adequate treatment for complete recovery. CASE REPORT A 31-year-old male with fibrolamellar carcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis presented with rapid onset hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Despite usual treatment for hepatic encephalopathy, his hyperammonemia was aggravated. A physiopathological pathway to encephalopathy resulting from hepatocellular dysfunction or portosystemic shunting was suspected and proper treatment was initiated, which resulted in complete remission of encephalopathy. Thus, we propose there is a physiopathology path to hyperammonemic encephalopathy in non-cirrhotic patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma independent of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) mutation. An ornithine metabolism imbalance resulting from overexpression of Aurora Kinase A as a result of a single, recurrent heterozygous deletion on chromosome 19, common to all fibrolamellar carcinomas, can lead to a c-Myc and ornithine decarboxylase overexpression that results in ornithine transcarboxylase dysfunction with urea cycle disorder and subsequent hyperammonemia. CONCLUSIONS The identification of a physiopathological pathway allowed adequate medical treatment and full patient recovery from severe hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

  6. In vitro labeling strategies for in cellulo fluorescence microscopy of single ribonucleoprotein machines.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas C; Walter, Nils G

    2017-07-01

    RNA plays a fundamental, ubiquitous role as either substrate or functional component of many large cellular complexes-"molecular machines"-used to maintain and control the readout of genetic information, a functional landscape that we are only beginning to understand. The cellular mechanisms for the spatiotemporal organization of the plethora of RNAs involved in gene expression are particularly poorly understood. Intracellular single-molecule fluorescence microscopy provides a powerful emerging tool for probing the pertinent mechanistic parameters that govern cellular RNA functions, including those of protein coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Progress has been hampered, however, by the scarcity of efficient high-yield methods to fluorescently label RNA molecules without the need to drastically increase their molecular weight through artificial appendages that may result in altered behavior. Herein, we employ T7 RNA polymerase to body label an RNA with a cyanine dye, as well as yeast poly(A) polymerase to strategically place multiple 2'-azido-modifications for subsequent fluorophore labeling either between the body and tail or randomly throughout the tail. Using a combination of biochemical and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy approaches, we demonstrate that both yeast poly(A) polymerase labeling strategies result in fully functional mRNA, whereas protein coding is severely diminished in the case of body labeling. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  7. Nanoscale domain formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in the plasma and vacuolar membranes of living yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tomioku, Kan-Na; Shigekuni, Mikiko; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akane; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Tanabe, Kenji; Fujita, Akikazu

    2018-05-01

    In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdIns(4)P serves as an essential signalling molecule in the Golgi complex, endosomal system, and plasma membrane, where it is involved in the control of multiple cellular functions via direct interactions with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. To analyse the distribution of PtdIns(4)P in yeast cells at a nanoscale level, we employed an electron microscopy technique that specifically labels PtdIns(4)P on the freeze-fracture replica of the yeast membrane. This method minimizes the possibility of artificial perturbation, because molecules in the membrane are physically immobilised in situ. We observed that PtdIns(4)P is localised on the cytoplasmic leaflet, but not the exoplasmic leaflet, of the plasma membrane, Golgi body, vacuole, and vesicular structure membranes. PtdIns(4)P labelling was not observed in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and in the outer and inner membranes of the nuclear envelope or mitochondria. PtdIns(4)P forms clusters of <100 nm in diameter in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane according to point pattern analysis of immunogold labelling. There are three kinds of compartments in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we showed that PtdIns(4)P is specifically localised in the flat undifferentiated plasma membrane compartment. In the vacuolar membrane, PtdIns(4)P was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient raft-like domains, which are tightly bound to lipid droplets, but not surrounding IMP-rich non-raft domains in geometrical IMP-distributed patterns in the stationary phase. This is the first report showing microdomain formations of PtdIns(4)P in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of budding yeast cells at a nanoscale level, which will illuminate the functionality of PtdIns(4)P in each membrane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeasts of the soil – obscure but precious

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pioneering studies performed in the nineteenth century demonstrated that yeasts are present in below‐ground sources. Soils were regarded more as a reservoir for yeasts that reside in habitats above it. Later studies showed that yeast communities in soils are taxonomically diverse and different from those above‐ground. Soil yeasts possess extraordinary adaptations that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. A few species are promising sources of yeast oils and have been used in agriculture as potential antagonists of soil‐borne plant pathogens or as plant growth promoters. Yeasts have been studied mainly in managed soils such as vineyards, orchards and agricultural fields, and to a lesser extent under forests and grasslands. Our knowledge of soil yeasts is further biased towards temperate and boreal forests, whereas data from Africa, the Americas and Asia are scarce. Although soil yeast communities are often species‐poor in a single sample, they are more diverse on the biotope level. Soil yeasts display pronounced endemism along with a surprisingly high proportion of currently unidentified species. However, like other soil inhabitants, yeasts are threatened by habitat alterations owing to anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, deforestation and urbanization. In view of the rapid decline of many natural habitats, the study of soil yeasts in undisturbed or low‐managed biotopes is extremely valuable. The purpose of this review is to encourage researchers, both biologists and soil scientists, to include soil yeasts in future studies. PMID:29365211

  9. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  10. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  11. CE separation of proteins and yeasts dynamically modified by PEG pyrenebutanoate with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2007-07-01

    The optimized protocols of the bioanalytes separation, proteins and yeasts, dynamically modified by the nonionogenic tenside PEG pyrenebutanoate, were applied in CZE and CIEF with the acidic gradient in pH range 2-5.5, both with fluorescence detection. PEG pyrenebutanoate was used as a buffer additive for a dynamic modification of proteins and/or yeast samples. The narrow peaks of modified analytes were detected. The values of the pI's of the labeled proteins were calculated using new fluorescent pI markers in CIEF and they were found to be comparable with pI's of the native compounds. As an example of the possible use of the suggested CIEF technique, the mixed cultures of yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida zeylanoides, Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Yarrowia lipolytica, were reproducibly focused and separated with high sensitivity. Using UV excitation for the on-column fluorometric detection, the minimum detectable amounts of analytes, femtograms of proteins and down to ten cells injected on the separation capillary, were estimated.

  12. Fluorescent Labeling of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Many single-molecule experimental techniques exploit fluorescence as a tool to investigate conformational dynamics, molecular interactions, or track the movement of proteins in order to gain insight into their biological functions. A prerequisite to these experimental approaches is to graft one or more fluorophores on the protein of interest with the desired photophysical properties. Here, we describe procedures for efficient methods used to covalently attach fluorophores to proteins. Alternative direct and indirect labeling strategies are also described.

  13. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  14. ENGINEERING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STYRENE IN YEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy pursued was to insert genes for phenylalanine ammonia lysase (pal) and phenolic acid decarboxylase (pad) into the yeast that would convert phenylalanine to styrene through a cinnamic acid intermediate.

    Yeast metabolic engineering for hemicellulosic ethanol production

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Van Vleet; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Efficient fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars is critical for the bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol. Efficient sugar uptake through the heterologous expression of yeast and fungal xylose/glucose transporters can improve fermentation if other metabolic steps are not rate limiting. Rectification of cofactor imbalances through heterologous expression of...

  15. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions... fish. (2) The quantity of astaxanthin in finished feed, from phaffia yeast when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin color additive sources listed in this part 73, shall not exceed 80...

  16. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions... fish. (2) The quantity of astaxanthin in finished feed, from phaffia yeast when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin color additive sources listed in this part 73, shall not exceed 80...

  17. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions... fish. (2) The quantity of astaxanthin in finished feed, from phaffia yeast when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin color additive sources listed in this part 73, shall not exceed 80...

  18. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions... fish. (2) The quantity of astaxanthin in finished feed, from phaffia yeast when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin color additive sources listed in this part 73, shall not exceed 80...

  19. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), not more than 10 parts per million. Astaxanthin, not less than 0.4 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions... fish. (2) The quantity of astaxanthin in finished feed, from phaffia yeast when used alone or in combination with other astaxanthin color additive sources listed in this part 73, shall not exceed 80...

  1. Visualization and Image Analysis of Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Steve

    2016-01-01

    When converting real-life data via visualization to numbers and then onto statistics the whole system needs to be considered so that conversion from the analogue to the digital is accurate and repeatable. Here we describe the points to consider when approaching yeast cell analysis visualization, processing, and analysis of a population by screening techniques.

  2. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  3. Glucose-Induced Acidification in Yeast Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan; Bourn, Julia; Pool, Brynne

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation (for A-level biology students and equivalent) into the mechanism of glucose-induced extracellular acidification in unbuffered yeast suspensions. The investigation is designed to enhance understanding of aspects of the A-level curriculum that relate to the phenomenon (notably glucose catabolism) and to develop key skills…

  4. Microfermentation Test For Identification Of Yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Molina, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Microfermentation test developed as supplementary method for use in identifying yeasts, especially in clinical and environmental studies. In comparison with traditional fermentation tests, simpler and easier, and requiries less equipment, material, and laboratory space. Results obtained in days instead of weeks.

  5. Antarctic Yeasts: Biodiversity and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaji, S.; Prasad, G. S.

    This review is an attempt in cataloguing the diversity of yeasts in Antarctica, highlight their biotechnological potential and understand the basis of adaptation to low temperature. As of now several psychrophilic and psychrotolerant yeasts from Antarctic soils and marine waters have been characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, ecological distribution and taxonomic significance. Interestingly most of these species belonged to basidiomycetous yeasts which as a group are known for their ability to circumvent and survive under stress conditions. Simultaneously their possible role as work horses in the biotechnological industry was recognized due to their ability to produce novel enzymes and biomolecules such as agents for the breakdown of xenobiotics, and novel pharmaceutical chemi cals. The high activity of psychrophilic enzymes at low and moderate temperatures offers potential economic benefits. As of now lipases from Pseudozyma antarctica have been extensively studied to understand their unique thermal stability at 90°C and also because of its use in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, cosmetics and chemical industry. A few of the other enzymes which have been studied include extracellular alpha-amylase and glucoamylase from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (Candida antarctica), an extra-cellular protease from Cryptococcus humicola, an aspartyl proteinase from Cryptococcus humicola, a novel extracellular subtilase from Leucosporidium antarcticum, and a xylanase from Cryptococcus adeliensis

  6. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  7. Improved microarray methods for profiling the yeast knockout strain collection

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Daniel S.; Pan, Xuewen; Ooi, Siew Loon; Peyser, Brian D.; Spencer, Forrest A.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2005-01-01

    A remarkable feature of the Yeast Knockout strain collection is the presence of two unique 20mer TAG sequences in almost every strain. In principle, the relative abundances of strains in a complex mixture can be profiled swiftly and quantitatively by amplifying these sequences and hybridizing them to microarrays, but TAG microarrays have not been widely used. Here, we introduce a TAG microarray design with sophisticated controls and describe a robust method for hybridizing high concentrations of dye-labeled TAGs in single-stranded form. We also highlight the importance of avoiding PCR contamination and provide procedures for detection and eradication. Validation experiments using these methods yielded false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) rates for individual TAG detection of 3–6% and 15–18%, respectively. Analysis demonstrated that cross-hybridization was the chief source of FPs, while TAG amplification defects were the main cause of FNs. The materials, protocols, data and associated software described here comprise a suite of experimental resources that should facilitate the use of TAG microarrays for a wide variety of genetic screens. PMID:15994458

  8. High-resolution proton NMR studies of intracellular metabolites in yeast using 13C decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillerud, Laurel O.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Shulman, Robert G.

    The resolution and specificity of 1H NMR in studies of yeast cellular metabolism were increased by feeding a 13C-labeled substrate and observing 1H difference spectra in the presence and absence of 13C decoupling fields. [2- 13C]Acetate was utilized as a respiratory substrate in an aerobic suspension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The broad cellular background proton resonances are removed by the technique, leaving only signals from the protons of the substrate, or its metabolites, that are coupled to 13C. Spectra of the yeast suspension after acetate feeding show the disappearance of label from the acetate pool and the subsequent appearance of 13C in glutamate C 3 and C 4 and in aspartate C 3. These results are in accord with the known fluxes of metabolites. Selective single-frequency 13C decoupling was used to provide assignments for the difference signals. The limitations on single-frequency decoupling coming from finite decoupling fields are investigated. The technique shows a potential for application in a wide variety of systems where the resolution of the 13C spectrum may be combined with the sensitivity for proton detection to observe metabolites that have been previously unobservable.

  9. Yeast cell differentiation: Lessons from pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-09-01

    Yeasts, historically considered to be single-cell organisms, are able to activate different differentiation processes. Individual yeast cells can change their life-styles by processes of phenotypic switching such as the switch from yeast-shaped cells to filamentous cells (pseudohyphae or true hyphae) and the transition among opaque, white and gray cell-types. Yeasts can also create organized multicellular structures such as colonies and biofilms, and the latter are often observed as contaminants on surfaces in industry and medical care and are formed during infections of the human body. Multicellular structures are formed mostly of stationary-phase or slow-growing cells that diversify into specific cell subpopulations that have unique metabolic properties and can fulfill specific tasks. In addition to the development of multiple protective mechanisms, processes of metabolic reprogramming that reflect a changed environment help differentiated individual cells and/or community cell constituents to survive harmful environmental attacks and/or to escape the host immune system. This review aims to provide an overview of differentiation processes so far identified in individual yeast cells as well as in multicellular communities of yeast pathogens of the Candida and Cryptococcus spp. and the Candida albicans close relative, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular mechanisms and extracellular signals potentially involved in differentiation processes are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  11. 21 CFR 347.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. For a combination drug product that does not have an... combination, as established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. (b... monographs, unless otherwise stated in this paragraph (b). Other truthful and nonmisleading statements...

  12. 21 CFR 347.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. For a combination drug product that does not have an... combination, as established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. (b... monographs, unless otherwise stated in this paragraph (b). Other truthful and nonmisleading statements...

  13. 21 CFR 341.85 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... combination, as established in the statement of identity sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs. If... drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this paragraph (a). (1) For permitted combinations... established in the indications sections of the applicable OTC drug monographs, unless otherwise stated in this...

  14. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  15. Between science and industry-applied yeast research.

    PubMed

    Korhola, Matti

    2018-03-01

    I was fortunate to enter yeast research at the Alko Research Laboratories with a strong tradition in yeast biochemistry and physiology studies. At the same time in the 1980s there was a fundamental or paradigm change in molecular biology research with discoveries in DNA sequencing and other analytical and physical techniques for studying macromolecules and cells. Since that time biotechnological research has expanded the traditional fermentation industries to efficient production of industrial and other enzymes and specialty chemicals. Our efforts were directed towards improving the industrial production organisms: minerals enriched yeasts (Se, Cr, Zn) and high glutathione content yeast, baker´s, distiller´s, sour dough and wine yeasts, and the fungal Trichoderma reesei platform for enzyme production. I am grateful for the trust of my colleagues in several leadership positions at the Alko Research Laboratories, Yeast Industry Platform and at the international yeast community.

  16. In Silico Labeling: Predicting Fluorescent Labels in Unlabeled Images.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Eric M; Yang, Samuel J; Ando, D Michael; Javaherian, Ashkan; Skibinski, Gaia; Lipnick, Scott; Mount, Elliot; O'Neil, Alison; Shah, Kevan; Lee, Alicia K; Goyal, Piyush; Fedus, William; Poplin, Ryan; Esteva, Andre; Berndl, Marc; Rubin, Lee L; Nelson, Philip; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2018-04-19

    Microscopy is a central method in life sciences. Many popular methods, such as antibody labeling, are used to add physical fluorescent labels to specific cellular constituents. However, these approaches have significant drawbacks, including inconsistency; limitations in the number of simultaneous labels because of spectral overlap; and necessary perturbations of the experiment, such as fixing the cells, to generate the measurement. Here, we show that a computational machine-learning approach, which we call "in silico labeling" (ISL), reliably predicts some fluorescent labels from transmitted-light images of unlabeled fixed or live biological samples. ISL predicts a range of labels, such as those for nuclei, cell type (e.g., neural), and cell state (e.g., cell death). Because prediction happens in silico, the method is consistent, is not limited by spectral overlap, and does not disturb the experiment. ISL generates biological measurements that would otherwise be problematic or impossible to acquire. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  18. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  19. Measuring the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhensen; Zhang, Xingxing; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Xihai; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-05-01

    Optimization and validation of a sequence for measuring the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) perfusion MRI. The proposed sequence consists of a labeling module and a single slice Look-Locker echo planar imaging readout. A model-based algorithm was used to calculate labeling efficiency from the signal acquired from the main brain-feeding arteries. Stability of the labeling efficiency measurement was evaluated with regard to the use of cardiac triggering, flow compensation and vein signal suppression. Accuracy of the measurement was assessed by comparing the measured labeling efficiency to mean brain pCASL signal intensity over a wide range of flip angles as applied in the pCASL labeling. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can effectively calculate labeling efficiency when correcting for T1 relaxation of the blood spins. Use of cardiac triggering and vein signal suppression improved stability of the labeling efficiency measurement, while flow compensation resulted in little improvement. The measured labeling efficiency was found to be linearly (R = 0.973; P < 0.001) related to brain pCASL signal intensity over a wide range of pCASL flip angles. The optimized labeling efficiency sequence provides robust artery-specific labeling efficiency measurement within a short acquisition time (∼30 s), thereby enabling improved accuracy of pCASL CBF quantification. Magn Reson Med 77:1841-1852, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Magn Reson Med 77:1841-1852, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  1. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  2. Label-free imaging of fatty acid content within yeast samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, N.; Moger, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fungi have been found to be an underlying cause of 70% of all plant and animal extinctions caused by infectious diseases. Fungal infections are a growing problem affecting global health, food production and ecosystems. Lipid metabolism is a promising target for antifungal drugs and since effective treatment of fungal infections requires a better understanding of the effects of antifungal agents at the cellular level, new techniques are needed to investigate this problem. Recent advances in nonlinear microscopy allow chemically-specific contrast to be obtained non-invasively from intrinsic chemical bonds within live samples using advanced spectroscopy techniques probing Raman-active resonances. We present preliminary data using Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy as a means to visualise lipid droplets within individual living fungi by probing Raman resonances of the CH stretching region between 2825cm-1 and 3030cm-1.

  3. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-Møller, N; Serup, J

    2013-01-01

    European Council resolutions on tattoo ink introduce sterility and preservation of inks to protect customers. Inks used in Denmark are typically purchased over the internet from international suppliers and manufacturers from the US and the UK. In Denmark tattoo inks are regulated and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Physical inspection and culture of bacteria and fungi. Six of 58 unopened stock bottles (10%) were contaminated with bacteria and one of six samples (17%) of previously used stock bottles was contaminated. The bacterial species represented bacteria considered pathogenic in humans as well as non-pathogenic environmental bacteria. Yeast or moulds were detected in none of the samples. A total of 31% of the manufacturers informed only about the brand name. No information about content, sterility, risks or expiry date was indicated on the label. A total of 42% claimed sterility of their inks. A total of 54% labelled a maximum period of durability of typically 2-3 years. The physical sealing was leaking in 28% of the products. The European Council resolutions regarding safety of tattoo inks are not effective. Stock bottles of tattoo ink may contain bacteria pathogenic to humans and environmental bacteria, and packaging, labelling and preservation of inks are of inadequate quality. Claim of sterility can be erroneous. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  5. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. FORMATION OF AUXIN IN YEAST CULTURES.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T W; Stier, T J

    1941-07-20

    We have found far more auxin in the culture media of bakers' yeast than was obtained by Kögl and Kostermans from the cells themselves. The production of auxin by yeast cells resembles the formation observed in other organisms such as Rhizopus and Rhizobium which also form auxins in their culture media. The auxin yield was found to increase with the concentration of sucrose and to decrease with the concentration of peptone. An inverse relation with the rate of cell multiplication was observed. Enlarged and elongated cells appeared only in those media which contained considerable amounts of auxin. The total auxin yield in the various cultures was found to be directly proportional, below pH 5, to the hydrogen ion concentration. Thus, it was proposed that certain growth conditions favor the breakage of the link between auxin and its protein carrier (Skoog and Thimann) 1940) and consequently accelerate the rate of excretion of auxin into the growth medium.

  7. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  8. Game dynamic model for yeast development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Game theoretic models, along with replicator equations, have been applied successfully to the study of evolution of populations of competing species, including the growth of a population, the reaching of the population to an equilibrium state, and the evolutionary stability of the state. In this paper, we analyze a game model proposed by Gore et al. (Nature 456:253-256, 2009) in their recent study on the co-development of two mixed yeast strains. We examine the mathematical properties of this model with varying experimental parameters. We simulate the growths of the yeast strains and compare them with the experimental results. We also compute and analyze the equilibrium state of the system and prove that it is asymptotically and evolutionarily stable.

  9. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  10. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  11. Engineering yeasts for raw starch conversion.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, W H; Bloom, M; Viktor, M J

    2012-09-01

    Next to cellulose, starch is the most abundant hexose polymer in plants, an import food and feed source and a preferred substrate for the production of many industrial products. Efficient starch hydrolysis requires the activities of both α-1,4 and α-1,6-debranching hydrolases, such as endo-amylases, exo-amylases, debranching enzymes, and transferases. Although amylases are widely distributed in nature, only about 10 % of amylolytic enzymes are able to hydrolyse raw or unmodified starch, with a combination of α-amylases and glucoamylases as minimum requirement for the complete hydrolysis of raw starch. The cost-effective conversion of raw starch for the production of biofuels and other important by-products requires the expression of starch-hydrolysing enzymes in a fermenting yeast strain to achieve liquefaction, hydrolysis, and fermentation (Consolidated Bioprocessing, CBP) by a single organism. The status of engineering amylolytic activities into Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermentative host is highlighted and progress as well as challenges towards a true CBP organism for raw starch is discussed. Conversion of raw starch by yeast secreting or displaying α-amylases and glucoamylases on their surface has been demonstrated, although not at high starch loading or conversion rates that will be economically viable on industrial scale. Once efficient conversion of raw starch can be demonstrated at commercial level, engineering of yeast to utilize alternative substrates and produce alternative chemicals as part of a sustainable biorefinery can be pursued to ensure the rightful place of starch converting yeasts in the envisaged bio-economy of the future.

  12. Proteolysis suppresses spontaneous prion generation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Atsushi; Hosoda, Nao; Tanaka, Anri; Newnam, Gary P; Chernoff, Yury O; Hoshino, Shin-Ichi

    2017-12-08

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal neurodegenerative disorders including Creutzfeldt-Jakob and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow) diseases. The yeast [ PSI + ] prion is formed by the translation-termination factor Sup35, is the best-studied prion, and provides a useful model system for studying such diseases. However, despite recent progress in the understanding of prion diseases, the cellular defense mechanism against prions has not been elucidated. Here, we report that proteolytic cleavage of Sup35 suppresses spontaneous de novo generation of the [ PSI + ] prion. We found that during yeast growth in glucose media, a maximum of 40% of Sup35 is cleaved at its N-terminal prion domain. This cleavage requires the vacuolar proteases PrA-PrB. Cleavage occurs in a manner dependent on translation but independently of autophagy between the glutamine/asparagine-rich (Q/N-rich) stretch critical for prion formation and the oligopeptide-repeat region required for prion maintenance, resulting in the removal of the Q/N-rich stretch from the Sup35 N terminus. The complete inhibition of Sup35 cleavage, by knocking out either PrA ( pep4 Δ) or PrB ( prb1 Δ), increased the rate of de novo formation of [ PSI + ] prion up to ∼5-fold, whereas the activation of Sup35 cleavage, by overproducing PrB, inhibited [ PSI + ] formation. On the other hand, activation of the PrB pathway neither cleaved the amyloid conformers of Sup35 in [ PSI + ] strains nor eliminated preexisting [ PSI + ]. These findings point to a mechanism antagonizing prion generation in yeast. Our results underscore the usefulness of the yeast [ PSI + ] prion as a model system to investigate defense mechanisms against prion diseases and other amyloidoses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Engineering baker's yeast: room for improvement.

    PubMed

    Randez-Gil, F; Sanz, P; Prieto, J A

    1999-06-01

    Bread making is one of the oldest food-manufacturing processes. However, it is only in the past few years that recombinant-DNA technology has led to dramatic changes in formulation, ingredients or processing conditions. New strains of baker's yeast that produce CO2 more rapidly, are more resistant to stress or produce proteins or metabolites that can modify bread flavour, dough rheology or shelf-life are now emerging.

  14. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  15. Synthetic Genetic Arrays: Automation of Yeast Genetics.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Elena; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Genome-sequencing efforts have led to great strides in the annotation of protein-coding genes and other genomic elements. The current challenge is to understand the functional role of each gene and how genes work together to modulate cellular processes. Genetic interactions define phenotypic relationships between genes and reveal the functional organization of a cell. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) methodology automates yeast genetics and enables large-scale and systematic mapping of genetic interaction networks in the budding yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGA facilitates construction of an output array of double mutants from an input array of single mutants through a series of replica pinning steps. Subsequent analysis of genetic interactions from SGA-derived mutants relies on accurate quantification of colony size, which serves as a proxy for fitness. Since its development, SGA has given rise to a variety of other experimental approaches for functional profiling of the yeast genome and has been applied in a multitude of other contexts, such as genome-wide screens for synthetic dosage lethality and integration with high-content screening for systematic assessment of morphology defects. SGA-like strategies can also be implemented similarly in a number of other cell types and organisms, includingSchizosaccharomyces pombe,Escherichia coli, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human cancer cell lines. The genetic networks emerging from these studies not only generate functional wiring diagrams but may also play a key role in our understanding of the complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  17. Yeast as a model to study apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Fleury, Christophe; Pampin, Mathieu; Tarze, Agathe; Mignotte, Bernard

    2002-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) serves as a major mechanism for the precise regulation of cell numbers, and as a defense mechanism to remove unwanted and potentially dangerous cells. Despite the striking heterogeneity of cell death induction pathways, the execution of the death program is often associated with characteristic morphological and biochemical changes termed apoptosis. Although for a long time the absence of mitochondrial changes was considered as a hallmark of apoptosis, mitochondria appear today as the central executioner of programmed cell death. This crucial position of mitochondria in programmed cell death control is not due to a simple loss of function (deficit in energy supplying), but rather to an active process in the regulation of effector mechanisms. The large diversity of regulators of apoptosis in mammals and their numerous interactions complicate the analysis of their individual functions. Yeast, eukaryotic but unicellular organism, lack the main regulators of apoptosis (caspases, Bcl-2 family members, ...) found in mammals. This absence render them a powerful tool for heterologous expression, functional studies, and even cloning of new regulators of apoptosis. Great advances have thus been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Bcl-2 family members interactions with themselves and other cellular proteins, specially thanks to the two hybrid system and the easy manipulation of yeast (molecular biology and genetics). This review will focus on the use of yeast as a tool to identify new regulators and study function of mammalian apoptosis regulators.

  18. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Lopes, Mariana R.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Long, Tanya M.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y.; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P.; Hanson, Sara J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lipzen, Anna M.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert P.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Peng, Yi; Rosa, Carlos A.; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A.; Slot, Jason C.; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  19. Strategies for identifying new prions in yeast

    PubMed Central

    MacLea, Kyle S

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of two prions, [URE3] and [PSI+], in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to questions about how many other proteins could undergo similar prion-based structural conversions. However, [URE3] and [PSI+] were discovered by serendipity in genetic screens. Cataloging the full range of prions in yeast or in other organisms will therefore require more systematic search methods. Taking advantage of some of the unique features of prions, various researchers have developed bioinformatic and experimental methods for identifying novel prion proteins. These methods have generated long lists of prion candidates. The systematic testing of some of these prion candidates has led to notable successes; however, even in yeast, where rapid growth rate and ease of genetic manipulation aid in testing for prion activity, such candidate testing is laborious. Development of better methods to winnow the field of prion candidates will greatly aid in the discovery of new prions, both in yeast and in other organisms, and help us to better understand the role of prions in biology. PMID:22052351

  20. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p < 0.001) and cell morphology was governed by hyphal structures and rounded cells. Using the in situ growth method introduced here, yeast biofilms were determined to be viscoelastic materials with a predominantly solid-like behavior, and neither this nor the G'0 values were significantly affected by the flow conditions or the growth time, and at large deformations their weak structure collapsed beyond a critical strain of about 1.5-5%. The present work could represent a starting point for developing in situ measurements of yeast rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.